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  • 1. Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Litteraturöversikt Skadehändelser relaterade till busstrafik: Buss-OLA - en trafiksäker bussfärd2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this literature review was to describe the pattern of injuries and fatalities related to bus traffic. Furthermore, the aim was to identify possible future measurements for improvement of passive safety in buses. Bus crashes were presented in international literature virtually in as many ways as there were articles on the topic. Hence, the authors used the term bus incidents, in order to cover all types of injuries related to bus traffic. In this review only M2 and M3 buses, i.e. buses over 3.5 tonnes were included. In the vast majority of OECD countries, less than 1 % of the vehicle fleet was constituted of buses. Bus passenger's average person kilometres represented 10 % of the total road vehicle person kilometres annually.

    The number of fatalities and injured in bus incidents have been stable recent years in EU. The fatality risk is ten times lower for bus passengers compared with car occupants. Of all traffic fatalities, bus fatalities represented 0.3-0.5 %. The most frequent injury localisations from all types of bus crashes were lower limb (35 %), upper limb (33 %) and head/face (28 %). Rollovers occurred in almost all cases of severe crashes. Projection, total ejection, partial ejection, intrusion and smoke inhalation were the main injury mechanism. Three major injury groups in severe bus crashes were thoracic injuries, massive injuries and pelvic fractures.

    Heavy wind seemed to be capable of affecting the bus dynamics, particularly on highly built buses (e.g. as high as 4.3 meters). Unprotected road users were hit by buses in about 1/3 of all cases in Sweden. Side impact was most common for local buses (38 %). Boarding and alighting were contributing to injuries in about 1/3 of all cases. If the coach has more than one section it seems that the upper section is more exposed to risk for injuries than the lower section.

    Safety belts can improve the passive safety in buses. The 2-point belt prevents passenger ejection but in frontal crashes the jack knife effect could cause head and thoracic injuries. However, the 3- point belt provides the best restraint in rollovers and frontal crashes, as it keeps the passenger remained seated.

  • 2.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Matstoms, Ylva
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Child safety in cars: Literature review2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study child safety in cars, international literature was reviewed with respect to road vehicle transportation for children, with the focus being on the age up to 12 years. The review included literature in English and Swedish. Furthermore, the review was limited to focus on results from Australia, the U.K., the USA and Sweden. To ensure that all children are protected as passengers in cars, several aspects needed to be considered.

    Within this study, the focus was, hence, on legal aspects and recommendations, traffic fatalities and serious injuries, the safety consequences for children due to the car development (airbags (SRS) and installation systems), use and misuse of child restraint systems (CRS) regarding medical, technical and user aspects, measurements for improvements, e.g. campaigns and, finally, children with disabilities. The review focused mainly on literature from 1990 until today. The main conclusions were that:

    • Available statistics show that rearward facing CRS is a good preventive measure to take for enhancement of traffic safety.
    • Impacts from the in-safety development of cars on choosing and mounting safety devices for children were found to be a crucial issue.
    • Children exposed to an airbag deployment can be fatally injured, despite being seated in an approved child restraint system.
    • In Sweden and the U.K. the level of child restraint usage among infants and small children was found to be at least 95% in the front seat and approximately at the same level in the rear seat. Even though the levels of usage in several countries were high, the level of misuse was alarmingly high (90%).
    • The road transportation of children with disabilities was found to be complex and insufficiently described in the literature.
  • 3.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hellsten, Helena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Skyltning av hållplats som används vid skolskjutsning: pilotförsök2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot study was conducted with the aim to find a solution that would increase the safety for children waiting for, entering or exiting the school bus. The concept is based on the idea to design a system for children that guarantee that the children are able to wait for the school transportation in a safe way and, at the same time, that the children will be visible for the school bus driver and other road users, which in turn, hopefully will make them adapt their driving behaviour (e.g. speed and lateral position) according to the situation.

    The experiment consisted of several different activities:

    - A market analyses of possible existing related systems.

    - Construction of a bus stop including a dynamic sign with flashing/running lights.

    - Exchange of experience with the help of discussions with a reference group (drivers, parents, children)

    - Measures of drivers' behaviour by;

    Speed measurements

    Lateral position

    Telephone interviews with passing drivers in order to find out what they have observed.

  • 4.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kronqvist, Linda
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Är kraven på utmärkning av skolskjutsfordon utmärkta?2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This study aimed to test whether the present law about school transportation traffic sign leads to enhanced traffic safety, measured as adjustment of traffic behaviour from fellow road users. The fellow road users' behaviour on roads with 50 km/h and 70 km/h was compared in meetings with school buses at stand still in real traffic. Three different types of signing were tested: - without any sign, - with the school transportation traffic sign only, - with the school transportation traffic sign equipped with blinking lights. The fellow road users' behaviour was measured by their speed, lateral position and fixation patterns on the buses. In order to further explore the observed driver behaviour, self reported behaviour data and experiences from the study were gathered. The study was semi experimental and involved data from 24 randomly selected drivers. The study showed that the present school transportation traffic sign does not affect road user behaviour. Only when it is combined with blinking lights it affected the drivers' behaviour. On 70 km/h roads, the average speed decreased by approximately 9 km/h as an effect of the blinking lights. On 50 km/h roads the corresponding decrease was significantly lower and only found in the nearby areas of the busses. Lateral position was not affected by any of the school transportation traffic sign conditions. The blinking lights made the drivers visually, foveally aware and at the same time these fixations on the blinking lights did not prevent fixations on other important objects, such as the bus driver. The study recommended that future school transportation signs should have blinking lights, a finding also confirmed by the drivers' self reported acceptance for such a system. The sign should be in another format and with another type of icon than the present, which in turn requires more research.

  • 5.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Skolskjutsbarns inblandning i olyckor 1994-20012003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanlagt har polisen rapporterat 256 olyckor med totalt 361 skadade eller dödade barn i samband med förmodade skolskjutsresor under åren 1994–2001. Majoriteten av barnen har drabbats när de befunnit sig utanför bussen. Den vanligaste händelsen vid olyckorna är att barnen har sprungit ut bakom eller framför bussen (51 %).

    Ytterligare 13 procent av olyckorna har inträffat då barn har klämts eller blivit påkörda av bussen vid hållplatsen. En majoritet av olyckorna i vilka barn har skadats har således inträffat i samband med på- och avstigning.

    Föreliggande rapport baseras på en studie med syfte att skapa en samlad bild av orsaken till att barn skadas och dödas vid resor med skolskjuts. I befintliga olycksregister finns tyvärr ingen notering om en skolskjuts varit inblandad i inträffad olycka. Analysen har därför skett i tre steg.

    1. Alla personskadeolyckor med barn i åldern 0–18.

    2. Alla personskadeolyckor med barn 6–16 år, skoldagar klockan 600–1659 i vilka buss, taxi eller gående varit inblandade.

    3. Personskadeolyckor i steg 2 som bedömts vara anknutna till skolskjuts (eller skolresa med vanlig linjetrafik).

  • 6.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Driving instruction for persons with cerebral palsy: A restrospective study of educational problems1998Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Eye movement recording as a tool for accident in-depth investigations: a pilot study2001In: Proceedings of the conference Road Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Pretoria, South Africa, 20-22 September 2000 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 15A, p. 216-226Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase traffic safety for unprotected road users in Sweden, aproject based on accident in-depth investigations was carried out. Theproject focused on accidents between unprotected road users and motorvehicles. The accident in-depth investigations studied the pre crash phase.As part of the investigations, eye movement recordings and analyses were donein order to identify possible "mechanical filters", i.e. obstacles of allsorts that prevent adequate visual information to reach the driver at theroad accident site. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether ornot eye movement analyses could be a useful tool for better understanding ofthe accident causation and, furthermore, for identification of possible"mechanical filters" in the traffic environment. The results from this pilotstudy showed that in 75 % of the investigated accidents, in which eyemovement recording were part of the investigation, the eye movement analysesplayed a major or conclusive role. Furthermore, eye movement analyses couldbe used in the reconstruction of accidents. It was suggested that investmentin an eye tracker and in employing medically educated professionals may be agood investment, if it can lead to a decrease in traffic accidents bypointing out "mechanical filters" leading to accidents.

  • 8.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kartläggning av transportsituationen för barn med funktionshinder1999Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Gerland, Gunilla
    Kartläggning av transportsituationen för barn med autismspektrumstörning2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport situation for children with autism-spectrum disorders is unknown in an international, as well as in a Swedish context. In order to investigate it, questionnaires from 1,631 parents with children suffering from autism-spectrum disorders, such as Asperger syndrome and autism, were analysed. The results showed that almost three out of four parents were worried when their child was transported by school transportation or by the Special Transport System (STS). Transports in the family vehicle caused worry among almost half of the parents. Transport adaptation to this particular group of children with disabilities refers merely to implementation of knowledge and a specific, well structured, approach among the drivers towards the children during the ride, rather than to a physical/mechanical adaptation of the vehicles. The parents’ worries were justified by the fact that the children were not transported according to general safety recommendations. Moreover, it was common that the children were transported with unfamiliar drivers, as well as with unknown passengers. These examples show that lack of adaptations for children with autism-spectrum disorders cause unnecessary problems among them and cause worries among their parents. Furthermore, these examples constitute unnecessary obstacles for the children’s transport mobility.

  • 10.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Fasth, Åsa
    Kartläggning av transportsituationen för barn med funktionshinder: en pilotstudie om vardagsresor för barn med omfattande rörelsehinder1999Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The TRAINER project: development of a new cost-effective Pan-European driver training methodology and how to evaluate it2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:2, p. 12-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the TRAINER project is to develop a new cost-effective Pan-European driver training methodology, based on computer based interactive multimedia and simulator technology, which will pay significant attention not only to gain experience of driving and handling the car, but also to the enhancement of risk awareness of learner drivers. For this purpose three different simulation tools will be developed. Each set will consist of a multimedia info-box and a low-cost-medium-cost driving simulator. A number of scenarios for application in the different simulation environments will be developed, which address the most important needs of learner drivers. They have been structured in accordance with the four hierarchical levels of the GADGET-matrix: Level 4 - Goals for life and skills for living, Level 3 - Goals and context of driving, Level 2 - Mastering traffic situations, Level 1 - Vehicle maneuvering. In order to be able to assess the TRAINER tools impact on traffic safety, not only a set of driver performance pilots needs to be performed but also another set of pilots. In these pilots driver behavior in a critical scenario should be measured. However, the drivers' behavior is not only influenced by his/her driving performance skills, but also on the hazard perceptual abilities of the driver. Hence, based on the assumption that driving skills is controlled for by the driver performance pilots, the results from the traffic safety impact pilots will address the question on whether or not increased hazard perception has been achieved by use of the TRAINER tools.

  • 12.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustavsson, Lars
    Nielsen, Benny
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Teaching learner drivers with disabilities: An operation manual for driving instructors2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present manual is one of the outcomes of an EU-project with the title ODIGO. It was carried out within the Horizon initiative. As part of the ODIGO/HORIZON project Körkort Handikapp, Lernia in Kävlinge (formerly AmuGruppen, Kävlinge) in Sweden were requested to produce an operation manual for driving instructors, to be used in driver education for persons with special needs (PSN).

    The present manual is aiming at providing knowledge about PSN and to support driving instructors that educate PSN. In the introduction of the manual, the require-ments demanded of a driving school facility and some general aspects of teaching are considered. In the following driver education exercises are presented. In those, references to Appendix 1 are inserted, in which specific aspects of the driver education with respect to PSN are discussed. This appendix also includes an introduction to the area of education and PSN. In addition, a section called “Disabilities and vehicle adaptation” is enclosed, in order to provide an orientation within the field of PSN and vehicle adaptation. In the last section a suggestion for a lay out of logbook sheets for driver education is enclosed.  

  • 13.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lövgren, Anna
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Elkehag, Kerstin
    Elm, Charlotta
    Gustafson, Pamela
    Åkerberg, Pia
    Säkerhet och trygghet i samband med skolskjuts: ur barnens perspektiv2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    School transportation should be safe, secure and accessible for all children entitled to such transportation, regardless of any disability. On a daily basis, 440,000 children utilise school transportation, several thousands of them having some sort of disability. Laws, rules and regulations concerning school transportation do not take the children's perspective into account. Moreover, they do not explicitly define where and when a school transport actually starts and ends. For these reasons, more knowledge was needed in order to fully understand why school transportation incidents take place. The aim of the project was thus to describe and understand children's (with and without disabilities) thoughts and experiences concerning safety and security in school transportation, from a "door-to-door" perspective. The number of individuals affected by school transportation incidents is, luckily, limited in relative terms, and quantitative methods do not fully catch the reasons behind children's involvement in these incidents. Instead, qualitative approaches have been applied, gaining a rich and deeper insight into the problems studied. In order to get as broad and full picture as possible, the project was divided into four subprojects: 1. Focus groups with children, drivers, staff and parents. 2. Interviews with children suffering from neuropsychiatric disabilities. 3. Interviews with children involved in school transportation incidents. 4. Field observations and interviews with children who are in extensive need for technical aids.

  • 14.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Törnros, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Detection and identification of information presented peripherally inside the car: effects of driving task demands, stimulus position and direction of motion of the stimulus2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study the performance of an in-car information system relying exclusively on information presented peripherally by “running light” stimuli. The information was presented on displays placed in four different positions; upper, lower, to the right, and to the left. Four different directions of the “running light” were used; upwards, downwards, to the right, and to the left. Two levels regarding driving task demands were used.

    Thirty-two subjects participated in the study. A repeated-measures design was used. The study was performed in an advanced driving simulator. The subjects’ task was to report the direction of motion of the peripheral stimuli as quickly as possible.

    A traffic situation with high demands on the driver caused the subjects to fixate the peripheral stimulus to a lesser extent than when the driving task was less demanding. The upper display was fixated to a smaller extent than the left or the right one. However, differences in number of fixations between the displays appeared only when the demands of the driving task were high, not when they were low. No effects of the direction of motion of the stimulus on the number of fixations appeared.

    There were very few errors regarding the identification of the direction of the stimulus, regardless of whether the stimulus was fixated or not.

    The response times were short. There were differences between display positions. The response time was shortest for the right display and for the lower display, but somewhat longer for the other two displays. It was somewhat shorter when the stimulus was fixated than when it was not. Driving task demands had no effect on response time. Regarding effects of the direction of motion of the stimulus, there was only a very weak interaction with driving task demands and display position.

  • 15.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Paulsson, Karin
    Ba etminan ranandegi kardan: amniyatdar terafik baraye koodakan ba natavani jesmi2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Paulsson, Karin
    Sigurnost putovanja: o prometnoj sigurnosti za djecu s funkcijskim preprekama2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [hr]

    Prometna sigurnost djece i omladine s funkcijskim preprekama je kompleksno pitanje. Radi se o medicinskim, tehničkim, ergonomskim, pravnim, organizacijskim i psihološkim pogledima. Mnoga tijela vlasti i instance trebaju surađivati. Podjela odgovornosti između tih raznih instanca je komplicirana. Tijekom mnogo godina su roditelji tražili jednostavan i lako shvatljiv priručnik koji opisuje ta pitanja u perspektivi djece i obitelji. To je razlog zbog kojeg smo sastavili ovaj priručnik.

  • 17.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Paulsson, Karin
    Äl-safarbi aman: An Salamat Harakat Al-muroor lil Atfal Al-mouaquin2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vogel, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The Test of Visual Perceptual Skills (non-motor) Upper Level is Not a Valid Predictor for the Outcome of Driver Education2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 72-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce the monetary and personal costs of driver training for persons with cerebral palsy, it is of interest to find a predictor that is able to select potential license holders. Previous research has shown that such a predictor could be one that assesses visual perception. In the present study, the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills (non-motor) Upper Level, was validated for predicting the outcome of driver education. It was found that using the test for this purpose could not be recommended. The findings of the present study were not in accordance with the results of other studies on the predictive value of perceptual tests regarding the ability to drive, owing to the use of different methods. Future studies should focus on cross-validation of perceptual tests for different types of independent variables, such as driving license or not, accident involvement and driving ability.

  • 19.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hellsten, Helena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Krockkuddar i bilen: konflikt mellan barns och vuxnas säkerhet?2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parents who transport their children in passenger vehicles have to face several questions of how to restrain the child properly and where to place the child. It is difficult to give unambiguous answers to these questions since a number of factors must be considered. The safest place for a child, given that a crash occurs, may not be suitable for other reasons. If you as a driver are alone in the car with a small child, you may want to place the child in the front passenger seat so you will be able to watch over it. The safety equipment of the vehicle is another important factor. The centre rear seat position can be a good place for a somewhat older child on a booster, but this requires that the position is equipped with a lap/shoulder belt and a head restraint. Since children should not be placed in front of an airbag that aims at protecting adults, the issue of transporting children have become even more complicated with the recent introduction of passenger side airbags. If you, nevertheless, want to place the child in the front passenger seat, the airbag must somehow be deactivated. A study of how the conflict between children and airbags are treated by different participants is presented in this report

  • 20.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The traffic safety situation among foreign born in Sweden: based on eight road user population zones2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Road traffic crashes are identified as a world wide public health problem. Prognoses by WHO suggest these crashes to constitute the third most common reason for fatalities and disabilities in 2020. However, the crash risk varies from country to country. Previous research concerning foreign born within the Swedish road transport system shows an overrepresentation of crash involvement for this group. In order to identify the nature of the problem and to be able to compare crash involvement among foreign born with native born, the aim of the study was to cluster countries world wide into road user population zones, depending on Gross National Income (GNI), motorization, the traffic safety situation and geographical position for each country. Based on the eight identified clustered zones, comparisons of the zones and possible correlations between the different parameters were made, using Sweden (native born) as reference country. Data from several registers showed that an increase in GNI correlated with more cars and fewer traffic fatalities. For a number of zones, nearly all of them less wealthy, an increase in GNI correlated with more cars, and the more cars, the lower the number of killed road users per car. Furthermore, among foreign born, the average relative crash risk was 50% higher for males and about 10 % for females compared to native born in the Swedish road transport system. If the subgroup of crash involved car drivers 18 years and older was selected for analyses, data revealed that male foreign born ran double the risk of being involved in a crash, while for female foreign born the relative risk was increased by 70%.

  • 21.
    Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Role of the medical profession in Finland and in Sweden regarding aging and driving1998Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundberg, Catarina
    Trafikmedicinskt centrum, Huddinge sjukhus.
    Braekhus, Anne
    Norskt centrum för demensforskning, Ullevål sjukhus, Oslo .
    Körkortsdiagnostik i allmänläkares dagliga patientarbete med äldre: en jämförelse av svenska och finska allmänläkares aktiviteter, kunskaper och attityder1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden and Finland, different methods are used for identifying elderly drivers who should not continue to drive a car for medical reasons. Although Swedish doctors are obliged to report unsuitable drivers, no medical examinations are required for extending a driving licence. In Finland, however, a driver aged 70 or over must produce a medical certificate together with a certificate of continued driving ability when renewing his licence. The main purpose of the survey was to investigate whether the Finnish system had led to doctors having greater knowledge of traffic medicine and a more active approach compared with doctors in the Swedish system, since all Finnish doctors come into contact with mandatory medical examinations for driving licences during the course of their training as well as in clinical work. A random sample of 3,000 Swedish and Finnish general practitioners was given a postal questionnaire concerning their activities, knowledge and attitudes in regard to car drivers aged 65 and over. The results showed that the differences in activity and attitudes between Swedish and Finnish doctors regarding elderly people and car driving were small. The Swedish doctors were somewhat more active, and knew more about dementia as a risk factor. The Finnish doctors, however, had greater confidence in their own capability to assess the driving ability of elderly patients. The Finnish system thus does not lead to more knowledgeable or active doctors, but can create a somewhat illusory self-confidence among doctors.

  • 23.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Passering av buss i 30 km/h: utvärdering av säkerhetseffekter i samband med hastighetsgräns 30 km/h vid passering av buss - en simulatorstudie2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    A simulator study was conducted to investigate the implementation of a new law which prescribes a speed limit of 30 km/h when passing buses equipped with a 30-sign and flashing lights. It was shown that the drivers follow the rule better when they pass a bus on their own side than when the bus was standing on the opposite side of the road. The slowest mean speeds were found when passing a bus on a road with a speed limit of 70 km/h. The highest speed reduction, however, was found when the posted speed limit was 90 km/h. A bus without signage did not induce the same speed reduction as a bus with signage, which means that the drivers were aware of the meaning of the signage. Driving behaviour showed that the flashing lights are of importance, because the drivers in the study started braking before the 30-sign was readable.

  • 24.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Drivers ability to acquire in-car information presented in peripheral field of view without fixating: A simulator study2000Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Möjligheterna att under bilkörning inhämta information med det perifera seendet: en simulatorstudie1998Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Fulland, John
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nielsen, Benny
    Testmetoder för handikappanpassade förarplatser i personbil: ett preliminärt förslag till leveranskontroll2000Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wretling, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Törnström, EvaMarie
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Matstoms, Ylva
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhet vid skolskjutsning: slutrapport2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish school transport system has been investigated from a traffic safety point of view. In order to achieve a better ground for decisions and for measures to be taken, several studies have been carried out, such as literature studies, observations, group discussions and questionnaire based studies. The aim is to find ways to improve traffic safety without increasing the total costs for the society.

    Each local authority has the possibility to set up demands when purchasing school transport. The studies have shown that the traffic safety demands in the contracts are few and the control of the compliance of these demands is insufficient, if at all existing. For example one out of ten authorities does not control the contractors at all and only three out of ten demand that the vehicles are equipped with safety belts. However, the authorities receive few reports about incongruities, incidents and accidents. The explanation is probably not that problems do not exist, but that the report system is insufficient.

    The drivers are in several ways the key persons to achieve increased safety. They are experts on the real-life conditions. If the drivers are given opportunities to take part in the planning of the school transport, attend special courses and take part in the training of the children, much will be gained. At present the children have different rules to follow, depending on who the current driver is. This can be a confusing situation for the child. Moreover, the drivers do not always use their safety belts, although this is mandatory. They also have to make sure that all the children are using existing safety belts. How this should be done is not obvious.

1 - 27 of 27
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