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  • 1.
    Möller Staffan,
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Winter road maintenance in urban areas: Road safety and trafficability. Overview1991Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Möller, Staffan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Konsekvenser av beläggningsytans tillstånd för vinterväghållningen2002Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 3.
    Möller, Staffan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tema Vintermodell2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje år drabbas trafikanterna av olägenheter på grund av is och snö på våra

    vägar, gator och gång- och cykelbanor. Problemen är främst ökad olycksrisk

    och försämrad framkomlighet. För att förebygga eller i varje fall minska

    problemen, vidtar väghållarna driftåtgärder av olika slag, som till exempel

    snöröjning och halkbekämpning. Åtgärderna är till nytta för trafikanterna,

    men innebär kostnader för väghållarna och negativa effekter för miljön. Det

    är därför angeläget att utveckla system för konsekvensbeskrivning av olika

    driftstrategier och -metoder för att göra det möjligt att minimera de

    samhällsekonomiska kostnaderna. För investeringsplanering av vägar och gator

    har man sedan länge haft kalkylmodeller för beräkning av olika effekter:

    förutom kostnader för planerings- och byggnadsprocesserna även förändringar

    av trafikalstring, restider, olycksrisker och mycket annat. Drift- och

    underhållssidan är i detta avseende mycket eftersatt, och det är naturligtvis

    en svaghet, när det gäller att konkurrera om begränsade medel med ekonomiska

    argument. Bristerna gäller inte minst vinterväghållningen

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Möller, Staffan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vinterväghållning i tätort: Trafiksäkerhet och framkomlighet. Bilaga1991Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Möller, Staffan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vinterväghållning i tätort: Trafiksäkerhet och framkomlighet. Huvudrapport1991Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Möller, Staffan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vinterväghållning i tätort: Trafiksäkerhet och framkomlighet. Sammandrag1991Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Nordström, Olle
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wretling, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tunga fordons däckanvändning: effekter vid vinterväglag1999Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Schmeling, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Inventering av simuleringsmodeller för trafik i tätort1996Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Törnros, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Inverkan av spår i beläggningen på förarbeteendet: en förstudie i VTI:s körsimulator2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the pilot study was twofold. Firstly, to examine if the VTI driving simulator with its restraints is suited for this kind of studies. Secondly, to describe to what extent the condition of the road surface influence the driver behaviour.

    The study was confined to studying driver behaviour on rutted roads, where the ruts were on a level with the surrounding road surface, but where noise and vibrations increased obviously.

    The study shows small but often significant differences in driving behaviour as well as subjectively assessed effects.

    No difference in mean speed can be established; however, the speed variance is greater for the rutted road.

    The mean values of lateral position differ very little between rutted and smooth road; however, subjects tended to avoid driving in the ruts. On the smooth road they drove a long stretch with a lateral position corresponding to the position of the ruts.

    Neither for self-reported work load nor for self-reported effort is there any significant difference between rutted or smooth road. The assessment of how difficult the driving task was, however, showed significant differences: rutted road was generally considered as more difficult.  

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Driver behaviour on winter roads: A driving simulator study1997Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Driver behaviour on winter roads: A driving simulator study1998Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 12.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effektberäkningar till "Lathunden": hastighetsreduktioner och bränsleförbrukning vid olika väglag1996Report (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 13.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effektmodell vinterväghållning: en översiktlig beräkningsmodell för vinterväghållningens effekter2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Effektmodell vinterväghållning innebär att en översiktlig

    beräkningsmodell skapas för den långsiktiga planeringen av

    vinterväghållningen. Modellen

    skall användas på strategisk nivå, dvs. för vägnät i geografiska regioner och

    inte

    på objektnivå. Modellen skall baseras på befintlig kunskap.

    I modellen beräknas de trafikanteffekter som blir konsekvensen av ändrad

    driftstandard. De olika driftstandardklasserna beskrivs i Drift 96. De

    effekter som omfattas av modellen är restid, fordonskostnad

    (bränsleförbrukning) och trafiksäkerhet (antal olyckor).

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 14.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Framkomlighet under vintern på vägar med årsdygnstrafik mindre än tusen fordon: norska mätningar2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Norwegian Public Roads Administration has expressed a wish that the expertise of VTI in infrastructure maintenance should be utilised to improve the decision base for the best possible operation and maintenance of the Norwegian road network. VTI was therefore commissioned to estimate the effects for road users of a number of operation and maintenance measures and strategies. This report gives an account of one of the projects. At VTI, within the project Tema Vintermodell, a methodology has been developed to study the accessibility of vehicular traffic in different road conditions. Vehicle speeds are continually measured during the winter season with simultaneous observations of the prevailing weather and road conditions. The reductions in speed in different road conditions, in relation to speeds on dry bare roads, can thus be calculated. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration considers that, for Norwegian conditions, it is most important to study the road network carrying low volumes of traffic, with an average annual daily traffic (AADT) less than ca 1,000 vehicles.

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  • 15.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hastighetsförlopp i TU-punkter1998Report (Other academic)
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  • 16.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mätning av fordonshastighet och flöde vid olika väglag2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The relation between accessibility and different winter road conditions was

    studied in the present project. The fundamental hypothesis was that drivers

    adapt their behaviour to prevailing weather and road conditions in the

    winter. The objective of this project was threefold:

    Firstly, to record and develop methods for capturing and preparing field

    data.

    Secondly, field measures were to be carried out, and measurement data

    processed and analysed. The intention was to include different types of

    roads.

    Thirdly, the hypothesis was tested.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 17.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Olycksrisker vid olika väglag vintern 1996/971999Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 18.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tema Vintermodell: hastighetsmätningar på 13-metersväg och 2+1-väg2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    "The Winter Model" ("Vintermodellen") - is a computer-based system for assessing the most important socio-economic consequences of different strategies for winter road maintenance. A basic part of the model is measurement and analysis of vehicle speed reduction in different winter road conditions, compared with speeds in dry, bare road conditions. The model is developed for roads with a maximum width of 9.5 metres, however, it is important to include larger and more trafficked roads in a further development. In this study, measurements have been performed on two wider roads: a 13 metre road, i.e. the roadway is 7.5 m wide, and the shoulders are each 2.75 m wide; and a 2+1-road, i.e. "collision-free road" with a cable barrier separating the traffic directions, and alternately two lanes in each direction. The vehicles were divided into three categories: passenger cars, trucks with no trailers (incl. buses), and trucks with trailers.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 19.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tema Vintermodell: olycksrisker vid olika vinterväglag2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta projekt är att ta fram genomsnittliga olyckskvoter (antal

    olyckor

    per miljon fordonskilometer) vid olika väglag, fördelade på olika

    driftstandardklasser

    samt dessutom med Sverige indelat i fyra klimatzoner. Olyckskvoterna

    beräknas dels i absoluta mått, dels relativt risken vid torr barmark

    vintertid.

    Dessutom beräknas olyckskvoterna som funktion av hur ofta respektive väglag

    förekommer under vintersäsongen, även detta såväl absolut som relativt.

    Väglagen begränsas till de fem som förekommer vid polisens olycksrapportering

    (torr resp. fuktig/våt barmark, packad snö/tjock is, tunn is/rimfrost samt

    lös

    snö/snömodd). Olycksmaterialet omfattar samtliga olyckor på det statliga

    vägnätet

    exklusive viltolyckor. I en fortsättning kommer olyckor med skadeföljden svår

    personskada eller dödsfall att studeras.

    Under de fyra vintersäsongerna 1993/94-1996/97 företogs väglagsobservationer

    i cirka 2 000 punkter på det statliga vägnätet i de olika klimatzonerna.

    Observationerna skedde i representativa punkter för vägar i de olika

    driftstandardklasserna.

    Ur Vägdatabanken har hämtats uppgifter för de fyra vintersäsongerna om

    trafikarbetet i varje driftstandardklass och län samt polisrapporterade

    olyckor per

    väglag och län. Data summerades därefter till klimatzonsnivå.

    Resultaten kan sammanfattas sålunda:

    Is-/snöväglag har generellt sett cirka 3-30 gånger högre olyckskvot än den

    för torr barmark, med väglaget tunn is som det farligaste

    Olyckskvoterna vid olika is-/snöväglag har ett exponentiellt samband med

    den andel av det totala trafikarbetet under vintersäsongen, som utförs på

    det aktuella väglaget.

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  • 20.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The Winter Model: A Winter Maintenance Management System2004In: Transportation Research Circular E-C063: Sixth International Symposium on Snow Removal and Ice Control Technology, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council , 2004, p. 83-94Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Road users are concerned by ice and snow on roads and streets. The main problems are increased accident risk and impaired accessibility. To prevent - or at least decrease - the difficulties, road administrators perform various maintenance actions. The actions are advantageous for the road users, but involve costs for the road administrators and negative effects for the environment. To optimize maintenance efforts the use of management systems should be applied. The Winter Model project will result in a model for assessing the most important effects and their monetary value of alterations of winter maintenance strategies and operations in Sweden. The effects are assessed for road users, road administrators, and environment. For the road users, the main effects comprise accessibility (in terms of vehicle speed and flow) and safety. By using simultaneous monitoring of road surface condition and traffic, the relationship between speed and different roadway conditions have been established. The speed reductions owing to 7 specified roadway conditions (moist, wet, ice or snow) relative to the speed at dry, bare conditions are generally significant. The reduction can be as large as 20 per cent. No relationship for traffic flow could be established. The average accident rate (accidents per million vehicle kilometers) during a winter season can be 16 times larger in black ice conditions than in dry road conditions. The accident rate in ice and snow conditions has an exponential relation to the duration of the condition, i.e. the shorter the duration, the higher the accident rate.

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    fulltext
  • 21.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The Winter Model: a winter maintenance management system2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Road users are concerned by ice and snow on roads and streets. The main problems are increased accident risk and impaired accessibility. To prevent - or at least decrease - the difficulties, road administrators perform various maintenance actions. The actions are advantageous for the road users, but involve costs for the road administrators and negative effects for the environment. To optimize maintenance efforts the use of management systems should be applied. The Winter Model project will result in a model for assessing the most important effects and their monetary value of alterations of winter maintenance strategies and operations in Sweden. The effects are assessed for road users, road administrators, and environment. For road users, the main effects concern accessibility (in terms of vehicle speed and flow) and safety. By using simultaneous monitoring of road surface conditions and traffic, the relationship between speed and different roadway conditions has been established. The speed reductions due to seven specified roadway conditions (moist, wet, ice or snow) relative to the speed at dry, bare conditions are generally significant. The reduction can be as great as 20 %. No relationship for traffic flow could be established. The average accident rate (accidents per million vehicle kilometers) during a winter season can be 16 times larger in black ice conditions than in dry road conditions. The accident rate in ice and snow conditions has an exponential relation to the duration of the condition, which means the shorter the duration, the higher the accident rate.

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  • 22.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafikanteffekter av väder, väglag och vinterväghållningsåtgärder: State-of-the art-utländska undersökningar1997Report (Other academic)
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  • 23.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Viltfångare: en litteraturstudie2000Report (Other academic)
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  • 24.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Björckebaum, Fredrik
    Yngveson, Tora
    System för beläggningsunderhåll (PMS): en litteratursammanställning1995Report (Other academic)
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  • 25.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Möller, Staffan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bergström, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gaunt, Hanna
    Tema Vintermodell: Etapp 12005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ice and snow on roads and streets cause problems for road-users, requiring maintenance actions such as snow-ploughing, salting and sanding. Such actions influence road safety, accessibility, vehicle costs and the environment, involving heavy expenses for the road administrators. Consequently, it is important to develop effective strategies and methods for maintenance actions and to produce knowledge of the effects of different winter standards for road users and road administrators, as well as society in general. The aim of this project is to create a Winter Model (Winter Maintenance Management System, WMMS). The project began in 2001 and has financial support up to 2005. This report is a summary of the achievements in stage 1, during 2 001 to 2003. Stage 2 will be carried out in 2004 to 2005.

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  • 26.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Möller, Staffan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Berglund, Carl Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Bo O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tema Vintermodell: etapp 2, huvudrapport2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the Winter Model is to estimate and put a value on the most important impacts of the strategies and measures in winter road management for road users, road management authorities and society at large. The main report itself is a summary of the reports that describe the submodels in the Winter Model. The hub of the model is the Road Condition Model which, on the basis of weather data, undertaken road management measures and traffic, calculates road conditions hour by hour during the winter season. The Road Condition Model controls calculations in the effect models: Accident Model, Accessibility Model, Vehicle Cost Model, Environment Model and Model for Road Management Costs. The Accident Model calculates accident rates, accident types and consequences, all coupled with different road conditions and their duration. The Accessibility Model calculates the effect of different road conditions on mean speeds and trip times. The Vehicle Cost Model calculates the costs of fuel consumption and corrosion due to road salt. The Environment Model calculates the impacts on roadside vegetation due to road salt. The Model for Road Management Costs calculates both the direct costs of the measures and the costs of damage to, and wear of, road surfacing, road markings etc as a result of road management measures.

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  • 27.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wretling, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effects of winter road maintenance: state-of-the-art1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study constitutes the basis for the model to be used as a guideline for determining winter road standards within the framework of the public economy. Driving speeds vary widely on winter roads. However, it is estimated that passenger cars travel at 75-–90 % of the speeds they normally travel at on bare roads. In order to maintain a consistent stopping distance, speeds should virtually be halved. The appearance of the road has a greater affect on the reduction in speed than friction/road traction. Precipitation entails a much greater reduction than slippery road surfaces alone. Accident rates on winter roads vary greatly. However, studies based on the observation of road conditions and traffic measurements show an increased risk on icy/snowy roads. The more unusual these conditions, the greater the risk. Aggregated studies do not support the presumption of increased risk in winter. Statistics from the Swedish Motor Vehicle Inspection Co. were analysed as a result of notations of rust defects that caused cars to fail inspection. In Västervik, where roads are salted, cars fail inspection 2–4times more often than on Gotland, where salt is not used. Experts estimate that the life expectancy of cars would increase by 25 % if roads were not salted. Corrosion costs will continue to be high since new corrosion problems occur in conjunction with the effects on electronic equipment. Many breaches of knowledge are identified.

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  • 28.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wretling, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effekter av vinterväghållning: State-of-the-Art1997Report (Other academic)
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  • 29.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Åström, Henrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Friction measurement methods and the correlation between road friction and traffic safety: A literature review2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Doubtless, there is a strong correlation between road friction and accident risk. The problems arise when we demand a more detailed view of that correlation. The aim of the project behind this report was to gather information about the different friction methods in use and about published quantitative relations between road friction and accident risk. Regarding friction measurements, every country has instruments and methods of its own, and the friction values reported from different international investigations are therefore not directly comparable. Work on harmonisation of friction measurements is in progress. Road friction is very important for traffic safety, but it is difficult to single out the effect of poor friction on the accident risk. Drivers adjust their driving behaviour depending on many factors, e.g. the appearance of the road environment, the weather, the sound from the tyres, and the sliding and skidding movements of the vehicle. For dry or wet bare roadway, however, the conditions are comparably homogeneous, and several studies show a dramatic increase in accident risk when the friction numbers decrease below certain threshold values. For winter circumstances there are few and unreliable estimations of the correlation between accident risk and friction.

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  • 30.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nordström, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wretling, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tunga fordons däckanvändning: effekter vid is/snöväglag2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The following subprojects were included in the investigation into whether the use of winter tyres on heavy vehicles should be a legal requirement in Sweden: • A literary study. • A survey of heavy vehicle tyres, their quality and use. • Gripping power on ice. • Driving properties. • An accident survey. • Economic consequences of a legal requirement. The literary study showed the importance of having good quality tyres of the right type. The project then went on to examine the gripping power on ice of a range of tyres. Studded tyres had the best gripping power. Sipes (transverse cuts in the tyre tread) contribute to good sliding friction properties in unstudded tyres. There were considerable differences in friction properties of the best and worst quality unstudded tyres. Stability, steering and braking properties were studied in test drives on an ice-covered airfield. Studded winter tyres on all wheels delivered far greater braking capacity than unstudded tyres on all wheels. New winter tyres provided much greater braking capacity than half worn summer tyres. There was no significant difference between the alternatives as regards lateral evasion maneuver capacity during optimal steering. When vehicles were undergoing inspection at the test station, questionnaires were distributed to all heavy vehicle drivers at selected locations across the country. The questionnaires indicate that winter tyres are primarily used on the wheels on the driving axel (approximately 60%). Summer tyres are most frequently used on the wheels on the front axles and trailers. The use of studded tyres is low. Accident data from the National Swedish Road Administration has been supplemented by sending out questionnaires to heavy vehicle owners involved in accidents during the winter of 1998-99. The results do not make it possible to draw any conclusions regarding improved levels of road safety should winter tyres be used in icy and snowy road conditions. Studies of gripping power on ice and driving properties show that if driver behaviour did not change with tyre selection, the change from summer to winter tyres would enhance road safety on icy and snowy roads. This means that after this investigation there can be no argument for introducing a legal requirement regarding the use of winter tyres for heavy vehicles. Heavy vehicle tyres should however be improved so that they have the same gripping power as the tyres of light vehicles.

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