Publications
Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 59
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Simulatorbaserad utbildning i ERTMS: utvärdering av utbildning och träning för lokförare i VTI:s tågsimulator2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the VTI train simulator with regard to simulator-based training and education in the ERTMS (European Rail Traffic Management System) system for train drivers, compared to the ERSA simulator. The purpose was also to study two different ways of combining theoretical education with practical training in a simulator. In the future, the major railway routes in Sweden will be equipped with ERTMS. This will require considerable training for Sweden’s approximately 3,500 train drivers in future need of ERTMS education. It is unrealistic to think that these should be trained on real tracks. Therefore, there is a need for a more realistic ERTMS simulator compared to the European Rail Software Applications (ERSA) simulator that Trafikverket provides. The study was conducted as a between group design with two measurements. Three different groups were compared under different conditions. Theoretical education in ERTMS combined with training in the ERSA simulator (group 0), theoretical education in ERTMS ending with training in the VTI-simulator (group 1) and theoretical education in ERTMS partly alternated with training in the VTI-simulator (group 2).

  • 2.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lidström, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lokförarutbildning i Sverige: simulatoranvändning och ERTMS2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report, which provides an overview of the compulsory basic training for train drivers in Sweden, highlights the occurrence of simulator-based training in education, along with the training efforts being made with regards to the future introduction of ERTMS/ETCS. The report also shows the possibilities and limitations of increased use of simulators in driver training and describes the most important governing documents for train drivers and train driver training. Furthermore, the Swedish Transport Agency curriculum for train driver licenses is presented along with the institutions engaged in basic education, training and examination of train driver’s. Also, the Swedish Transport Administration’s E-learning tool for ERTMS, the ERSA-simulator and company specific ERTMS education at SJ and Green Cargo are described. Moreover, Swedish train companies’ and educators’ current use and future needs of simulators for train driver training were examined. Examples from other domains where simulators are used in a training context are also presented.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Lidström, Mats
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Allowing higher speeds for freight trains would provide opportunities for a higher prioritization in the traffic flow by rail traffic management, which in itself is a capacity gain and should generate better flows and higher capacity on the Swedish rail network, especially on the major railways. Simulators are an effective and safe way to investigate the effects of changes in both driver behavior and capacity.

    The purpose of this project was to create capacity-enhancing opportunities and actions by developing a freight train simulator and investigating its possible application areas. The aim of the project was to provide a freight train simulator, consisting of a locomotive and a number of wagons, which can be used in studies to increase capacity through, for example, optimized speed, and thus changing braking profiles, for long trains. The project has delivered knowledge of new test methods, a freight train simulator and a software platform for further testing.

    The project was conducted in three successive stages. In the first phase, a pilot study was carried out with drivers, operators and problem owners, who gave the researchers an understanding of the driving environment. In addition, some of the data needed for the development of the freight train simulator was collected. In the second phase, a freight train (software and hardware) model was developed. Stage three was a validation study together with drivers.

    A Traxx model driver console was purchased from a German manufacturer. The vehicle model was developed from a single unit, Regina type (motorcar train), into a combination of several units. The train in the simulator consists of one or more locomotives and a number of wagons with a total length of up to 750 meters. A locomotive of Traxx model is used. For each device, locomotive and wagon, data is required: length, weight, load, brake, roll and air resistance. In addition, information about noise, driving, braking (re-electrical braking and conventional pneumatic brake) (P-brake), cab equipment and more are added. Currently, the track between Falköping - Jönköping - Forserum is modelled and will be used for ATC trains. The model is configurable using combinations of a locomotive (Traxx) and, currently, four different types of wagons. These can be linked in different combinations.

    Some applications that were discussed at the start of the project were, on the one side, those that could naturally be linked to longer and heavier trains, and, on the other, the ideas that arose because of the equipment purchased. At the Transport Administration winter meeting, a workshop was conducted where further uses were discussed. Among these are applications within education, energy efficient driving or design. Education and certain types of studies could be performed with the existing locomotive model, while others require either validation of parameters or some further development of the model.

    The project has provided knowledge of new test methods, this research report and a product in the form of a freight train simulator and software platform for further testing. The project has also delivered a national resource of simulator software. The software provides for cost-effective testing activities in the freight train domain. A freight train simulator has been developed, which will be valuable as a demonstration tool as well as a platform for training,

  • 4.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Simulatorbaserad testmetod: bedömning av körförmåga hos individer med synfältsbortfall2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project was to develop a method to assess if individuals with visual field loss can drive in a safe manner. The starting point for the project was that the method should be a simulator based method because essentially two criteria were desirable. First, it was important that several events occurred systematically and that events were possible to evaluate, i.e., that it was possible to discriminate between good and bad performances. Second, these events should be the same events for all individuals that was to be tested. The aim was to develop a method that optimizes the validity and reliability with respect to testing of each and one of unique individuals. The testing procedure of the individual level was important because the method would not be used for research purposes but primarily to determine whether a unique individual with visual field loss can drive in a safe manner. Several details that can go wrong during an ordinary experiment, when running subjects, have a minimal impact concerning the experiment because it is most often possible to complement the experimental data collection with another subject. This is not an option for this project.

    These criteria and points raised above collectively resulted in the method developed. When an individual completed the scenario developed, a test protocol was generated (after a lot of work). This protocol reveals how the individual performed during the 37 (+2) events (and related measures) based on a safety margin perspective. To support the rater with the assessment of a subject a) data from a reference group (over 100 individuals) and b) a developed test protocol (with critical thresholds for different measurements) were used. The assessment was carried out by two independent raters. If the raters agreed no further judgments were performed. If the raters disagreed a third rater assessed the subjects’ performance. The purpose of the test protocol is that those individuals who want to use the test protocol results as a basis for an exemption application, can do so. It is still the Transport Agency, which decides on an exemption cases.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Visual reaction time abilities relation to driving performance: a simulator based driving performance experiment with visually impaired individuals2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature suggests that ocular diseases are negatively related to driving performance. The factors associated with safe driving is discussed and perceptual abilities are suggested to be related to crash involvement. The present study will focus on i) perceptual tasks or reaction time tasks and ii) attentional and cognitive tasks. All tasks will be visual and cognitive demanding and the objective is to understand how different visual cognitive tasks are related to driving performance. The motive is to be able to discriminate between safe versus unsafe drivers with visual deficits but also understand how different mental mechanisms are related to safe, or unsafe, driving.

    The reaction time tasks are interesting since the reaction time of participants in the study can be measured when performing the driving task. The participants’ reaction time when an object is possible to detect can be measured i) within the complex driving scenario as well as in tasks ii) mimicking driving and iii) “regular” computerized reaction time tasks such as the Simon task. Hence, the objective is two-folded to develop a simulator based method able to discriminate between safe versus unsafe drivers (among the visual deficit population). Second, to pinpoint the importance of visual reaction time and different cognitive tasks on driving performance.

    The cognitive, attentional demanding tasks are not as analyzed at this point but will be elaborated on in the presentation. The tasks are presented in the method section.

    The summarised data on patients with Glaucoma, Cataract, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and diabetic retinopathy reveal, on a general level, is that ocular diseases impair driver performance.  The literature also suggests, for instance, that not all Glaucoma patients fail on-road driving tests. In summary, the majority of the research literature results indicate, a) general decline in driving performance due to a visual impairment, but b) this is not true for all patients with the same visual deficit.

  • 6.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Min trötta resa2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    In order to reduce the number of fatigue related accidents and to identify

    countermeasures that will be widely accepted by the drivers, it is necessary

    to consider the drivers' point of view. Understanding the drivers'

    experiences and conception of the dangers due to driver fatigue is necessary

    when trying to find effective actions that stand a good chance of being

    accepted by the drivers. The main objective of this study was to increase

    knowledge about what information drivers need to: - recognise the feeling of

    being fatigued; - realise the danger of driving while fatigued; - encourage

    fatigued drivers to take a break. A questionnaire was constructed on the

    basis of three discussions with focus groups; one with young drivers, one

    with professional drivers and one with commuters, and sent out to a random

    sample of 3,000 car owners in Sweden. The questionnaires were distributed

    during the winter 2002/2003. The response rate was approximately 62 percent.

    The results indicated that the drivers were aware of the sensation of

    fatigue. Furthermore, the results indicated that drivers underestimated the

    risk of driving fatigue and overestimated their own ability to manage the

    situation. The use of countermeasures differed between the driver groups.

    Young drivers seem to have a lack of knowledge concerning lasting

    countermeasures. They turned on the radio or increased the volume of the

    radio or asked passengers to talk with them. Older drivers seem to be more in

    favour of taking a break for a nap. Among the respondents, 55 drivers

    reported that they had been involved in at least one fatigue related accident

    during the last ten years. The difference between drivers who had been

    involved in a fatigue related accident and those who had not, indicated e.g.

    that those involved in accidents rated their capability of fighting fatigue

    while driving lower than the others.

  • 7.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utvärdering av Mobilitetscenter.se2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har i flera sammanhang påtalats att processen från körkortsansökan till

    anpassad bil och körkort för personer med funktionshinder är alldeles för

    komplex och svår att ta sig igenom. Det har under en längre tid funnits ett

    behov av oberoende stöd och rådgivning. Som ett svar på detta behov ansökte

    rörelsehinder-förbunden (NHR, RTP, RBU, RF och DHR) om medel från Allmänna

    arvsfonden för att starta ett mobilitetscenter i Göteborg. Projektet som

    kallas Mobilitetscenter.se (MC.se) kom igång med sin verksamhet så att de

    kunde ta emot personer som sökt och beviljats bilstöd under 2004. Syftet med

    föreliggande studie har varit att utvärdera verksamheten vid MC.se

  • 8.
    Dols, Juan F.
    et al.
    University Polytechnic of Valencia, Spain.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Usefulness and acceptance of assessments of drivers with disabilities in simulation test rigs2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The legal reference in the field of driving license in the EU is currently the 2006/126/EC Directive, which stipulates that driving licenses shall be granted only to those who meet medical requirements and pass a driving test. This Directive has recently been updated with the Directive EU 2015/653. Actually, there is a lack of knowledge in the application of validated procedures for assessing (potential) drivers of adapted vehicles. The objective of this paper it is to present experimental results of driving assessment procedures developed for assessing drivers with impairments –both motor and sensory-. This assessment is based on performing a series of practical tests in a static test rig and a low-cost driving simulator.

  • 9.
    Dukic, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Elderly transportation and society: design, mobility and education2009In: Proceedings of the 4th Japanese-Nordic Symposium of Traffic Psychology, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustavsson, Lars
    Nielsen, Benny
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Teaching learner drivers with disabilities: An operation manual for driving instructors2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present manual is one of the outcomes of an EU-project with the title ODIGO. It was carried out within the Horizon initiative. As part of the ODIGO/HORIZON project Körkort Handikapp, Lernia in Kävlinge (formerly AmuGruppen, Kävlinge) in Sweden were requested to produce an operation manual for driving instructors, to be used in driver education for persons with special needs (PSN).

    The present manual is aiming at providing knowledge about PSN and to support driving instructors that educate PSN. In the introduction of the manual, the require-ments demanded of a driving school facility and some general aspects of teaching are considered. In the following driver education exercises are presented. In those, references to Appendix 1 are inserted, in which specific aspects of the driver education with respect to PSN are discussed. This appendix also includes an introduction to the area of education and PSN. In addition, a section called “Disabilities and vehicle adaptation” is enclosed, in order to provide an orientation within the field of PSN and vehicle adaptation. In the last section a suggestion for a lay out of logbook sheets for driver education is enclosed.  

  • 11. Fulland, John
    et al.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Regler och rutiner för godkännande av handikappanpassade förarplatser i personbilar: med en internationell utblick1999Report (Other academic)
  • 12. Fulland, John
    et al.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Regulations and routines for approval of passenger cars adapted to drivers with disabilities: including an international survey1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents an overview of present routines and regulations concerning driving licensing and vehicle adaptation for people with physical impairments. The aim of the report is twofold: firstly, to present deficiencies in the current routines and secondly, compare Swedish conditions with those in other countries in order to provide a basis for improving the situation in Sweden. Thus, both national and international conditions are described in the report. In an earlier report, VTI Report 426, it was concluded that the present routines used to ensure that drivers with physical impairments are provided with the right adaptation are not satisfactory e.g. some form of adaptation evaluation is lacking. The report begins with a short description of the background and a description of how some central concepts such as impairment, disability, and handicap are used in the report. This is followed by a somewhat simplified and idealised description of what is called the mediating process i.e. from the initial assessment of fitness to drive to adaptation of the car and driving licensing. After this follows a presentation of how this process is implemented and works in Sweden of today. The following sections are devoted to the conditions in the other Nordic countries. This is followed by sections dealing with some European countries and what the EU member states have in common. The next sections are devoted to some countries outside Europe. Standards and competence centres have been considered so important in this context that these subjects are dealt with in separate sections. The report ends with some conclusions and recommendations concerning test/assessment of fitness to drive, driving test and vehicle inspection, adaptation evaluation, standards and directives, and competence centres. The authors' intention is that the report will be used as a bank of ideas for future work involving improvements of the mediating process in Sweden, in particular with respect to adaptation evaluation.

  • 13.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Höye, Alena
    Transportøkonomiskt Instittut (TØI).
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sagberg, Fridulv
    Transportøkonomiskt Instittut (TØI).
    Åtgärder för äldre bilförare: effekter på trafiksäkerhet och mobilitet2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes and evaluates traffic safety measures for older drivers in Norway. Firstly, a literature review with a focus on current resarch since the year 2000 gives an overall picture of existing measures. Secondly, a review of existing and possible self-evaluation tests is made. Thirdly, the literature review and the review of self-evalution tests forms the basis for evaluating the effects of measures on traffic safety, mobility, safe mobility and viability. Seven measures of action which could be implemented in Norway are presented.

    • The current Norwegian driving licence policy of mandatory medical certificates for car drivers 70 years old and older should be evaluated
    • The current Norwegian policy with restricted driving licences should be evaluated
    • Education and training for older drivers should continue and develop to increase the effects on safe mobility
    • Self-evaluation tests should be implemented step-by-step and their use should be evaluated
    • Dissemination of checklists and advice to older drivers to facilitate choosing a car beneficial to safe mobility should be stimulated
    • A separate signal phase for left turning vehicles in intersections regulated by traffic lights, possibly complemented by a separate lane should when possible be introduced
    • Complex intersections without traffic lights should when possible be turned into roundabouts
  • 14.
    Henriksson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Challenging situations, self-reported driving habits and capacity among older drivers (70+) in Sweden: a questionnaire study2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the survey study in Sweden was to investigate health issues, driving habits and use of a car. The researchers were also interested in which traffic situations were judged as difficult or dangerous, avoidance strategies adopted for such situations, type of car used, equipment (ADAS systems) and its frequency of use. Respondents were asked to report any accidents in the previous two years, and to self-estimate their cognitive functioning and driving ability. Target population: Persons born in 1941 or earlier (aged 70 years or more in the year 2011), living in the county of Västra Götaland in Sweden, holder of a driving licence for category B, passenger car and still driving. This resulted in a target group comprising 1,362 active drivers. The overall picture of an older driver emerging from this study is one who enjoys car driving, uses the car often and is not particularly occupied by thoughts about stopping driving. Possible bias in this picture of older drivers may be due to the fact that those most interested in car driving were also those most interested in the study and thus in answering the questionnaire. There are several “truths” about older drivers reported in the literature that are questionable in the light of the present study. It is sometimes said that older people drive old cars, but this phenomenon is not supported by the questionnaire data in our study. The changes in driving behaviour often attributed to ageing drivers, e.g. driving more slowly, less frequently and over shorter distances, are applicable in the case of about one-third of the drivers in the present study. Analyses of this study confirm that health status is not the only reason someone stops driving; being less confident/apprehensive in the context of car driving may result in driving cessation. Findings indicate that preventive action, such as retraining sessions or developing driver assistance systems, will have to be taken into account if the risk associated with certain situations is to be reduced.

  • 15.
    Henriksson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Safety and mobility of people with disabilities driving adapted cars2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was carried out to increase knowledge about the safety of drivers with disabilities. A questionnaire that focused on the driver's disability, the adaptive equipment, the use of the car, safety, and accident involvement was sent to a random sample of persons with disabilities driving adapted cars. Spinal cord injuries was the most frequent diagnosis (30% of 793 answers) and lower limb disabilities was the most common functional restriction (over 75%). The drivers felt very safe and they had a high level of confidence in the adapted car. They used the car for almost the entire distance travelled (90%), which illustrates how dependent this group is on the car for their mobility. About 1 out of 10 drivers had been involved in an accident during the last 3.5 years, most of them with only material damage. The accident and injury risks of the target group did not differ significantly from the risks of drivers in general. A small number of accidents were attributed to problems with the special equipment in the car. The causes could be unfamiliarity with the controls, an adaptation that did not fully meet the needs of the individual or equipment that broke down. © 2004 Taylor & Francis.

  • 16.
    Levin, Lena (red.)
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nielsen, Benny
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Äldre i transportsystemet: mobilitet, design och träningsproblematik2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Generally, more elderly will be travelling and be out on the roads as active road-users in the future. Research exists on the travelling habits of the elderly; but more in-depth knowledge on the elderly's preferences as license-holders, drivers, road-users and actors in public transport is required. The aim of this report is to give an overview of previous research as well as to indicate a number of directions for future research on the mobility of the elderly as actors within the transport system. The work has a clear multidisciplinary approach, with knowledge from social science, behavioural science and technical research on transport and the elderly. However, the main weight lays on social science and behavioural science issues. The report is divided into eleven chapters: 1) contains a short background, purpose and method questions; 2) discusses the project's scientific and social relevance; 3) provides theoretical background and theoretical concepts; 4) mentions previous research on the elderly as car drivers; 5) is a chapter on license-less vehicles; 6) discusses traffic and road design for the elderly; 7) discusses the elderly as pedestrians and bicycle road-users; 8) is about the elderly in public transport and 9) is about the training of elderly drivers. Chapter 10) consists of a final discussion and chapter 11) summarises point by point the need for research on issues which have come to light in the report

  • 17. Nicolle, Colette
    et al.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Linköpings Universitet.
    Elderly and Disabled Travelers: Intelligent Transport Systems Designed for the 3rd Millennium1999In: Transportation Human Factors, ISSN 1093-9741, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 121-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The TELematic Standards and Coordination of Advanced Transport Telematics systems in relation to elderly and disabled travelers (TELSCAN) project in the Transport Sector of the Telematics Applications Programme of the European Union has developed a Handbook of Design Guidelines (Nicolle & Burnett, 1999) to support designers of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) to include the needs of people who are elderly or disabled. This article describes the methods of the Handbook's development, including an overview of the methodology for capturing the requirements of elderly and disabled travelers, a survey of existing guidelines, and empirical results and lessons learned from simulator testing. The authors conclude that although general guidelines are necessary, the most specific and useful guidelines emerge only when carefully chosen research questions can be investigated. The development of such guidelines should help us come closer to achieving usability of ITS not only for elderly and disabled people, but for everybody as we enter the 3rd millennium.

  • 18. Nicolle, Colette
    et al.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Campbell, John L
    Elderly and Disabled Travelers: Intelligent Transport Systems Designed for the 3rd Millennium, + commentary1999Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vidareutbildning för äldre bilförare: en översikt2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In the future the number of the older people, and older car drivers, will increase markedly. It is of great importance that older people have the possibility to retain their idenpendent mobility for as long as possible. However, old people have an increased risk to get severely injured or killed in a traffic accident because they are frailer due to their age. Getting older may also mean for example impaired hearing, eyesight and ability to react, something that might create problems for older car drivers in complex traffic situations. Degrading ablities often develop slowly and changes can be diffcult to embrace. Thus, mobility demands could be in conflict with traffic safety. Extensive experience can to some extent compensate high performance and refresher courses might be the way to both sustained mobility and traffic safety. The aim of this study was to make a survey of existing refresher courses for older car drivers in Sweden: Which further education possibilities do exist and which teaching material is used? Are the needs recognized? How is the education managed? What does it include and how is it organized? Who are the teachers? Who are the participants? How do the experiences look like and how is the education evaluated? How extensive is the education? What are the plans for the future? Telephone interviews have been performed with eleven experts, active in motor organizations and organizations of retired people. Furthermore, a survey of the course material, used according to the interviewees, has been performed. The most frequent refresher course according to the interviewees is called "65+". The purpose of the course 65+ is to give a better insight into which impact getting older has on car driving and by which means it is possible to continue to drive safely for as long as possible. The refresher course materials used are based on research results, accident statistics and the knowledge of traffic expertise. 65+ is designed in cooperation with a motor club, a traffic safety association and retired people's associations. The results of this study show that the design and performance of the refresher course is made locally, often in cooperation with an educational association. The course content and execution often depend on the individual leader's commitment, knowledge and interest, locally within an organization. Despite the course 65+, the organizations have mentioned a course called 'Older and wiser', which has its focus on influencing the public opinion concerning the elderly, their mobility and traffic safety. 'Correct and sensible in traffic' is another refresher course that includes advice and regulations to avoid traffic accidents. This latter material is, however, directed towards all road user groups and not only for older car drivers. There is, further, the book 'Confident Senior' (Swedish Road Administration), but this material has not been mentioned by the interviewees.

  • 20.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    A summary of data available on DSN (drivers with special needs) in the Nordic countries (Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland and Iceland): Second printing 19991992Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    A summary of statistics available on drivers with special needs in Sweden: Second printing 19991992Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Adaptation Evaluation: An Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) System Used by Drivers with Lower Limb Disabilities2001In: IATSS Research, ISSN 0386-1112, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty subjects with lower limb disabilities participated in a simulator study. The purpose of the study was to investigate how an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system together with two different hand controls for accelerator and brake influenced workload, comfort and driving behaviour and to further develop a method to evaluate vehicle adaptations for drivers with disabilities. The installed ACC system could maintain a constant speed selected and set by the driver and it also adapted speed in order to keep a safe distance to a leading vehicle. Furthermore, it included a stop-and-go function. Two common types of hand controls for accelerator and brake were used. The hand controls were different both with respect to function, single or dual levers, and position, on the steering column or between the front seats. The subjects were all experienced drivers of adapted cars equipped with hand controls. All subjects drove 100km at two occasions, with and without the ACC system available but with the same hand control. Subjective workload was found to be significantly lower and performance better for the ACC condition. The difference in speed variation between manual and ACC supported driving increased with the distance driven which seems to support the previous finding. The subjects thought they could control both speed and distance to leading vehicles better while the ACC was available. ACC driving did not influence reaction time, speed level, lateral position or variation in lateral position. Headway during car following situations was shorter for the ACC condition compared to manual driving. The ACC was well received, trusted and wanted. It was concluded that the ACC system substantially decreased workload, increased comfort and did not influence safety negatively. The only difference found between the two types of hand controls was that drivers using the dual lever system had less variation in lateral position. The applied evaluation method proved to be useful but needs to be further developed.

  • 23.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bilförare med traumatiska ryggmärgsskador: en kunskapsöversikt1999Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Car drivers with traumatic spinal cord injury: A survey of current knowledge1998Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Linköpings Universitet.
    Driving performance and workload assessment of drivers with tetraplegia: an adaptation evaluation framework.2001In: Journal of rehabilitation research and development, ISSN 0748-7711, E-ISSN 1938-1352, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 215-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to establish a baseline for further research on adaptation evaluation for drivers with disabilities. Driving performance and workload for 26 drivers with spinal cord injuries (tetraplegia) was studied and compared to a matched group of able-bodied drivers in a driving simulator. Drivers with tetraplegia used two types of hand-operated controls for accelerating and braking. Able- bodied drivers drove with standard pedals. The drivers with tetraplegia performed the driving task equally as well as the control group but had a slightly longer reaction time (10%). Workload assessment revealed that drivers with tetraplegia experienced a significantly greater time pressure and spent more effort than did the able-bodied drivers. They were also more tired from braking and accelerating. The drivers with tetraplegia using separate levers had greater standard deviation in lateral lane position (7 cm), while those using a combined lever were more tired from braking and accelerating. Observed differences could be interpreted as indicators of insufficient adaptation.

  • 26.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Evaluation of Adapted Passenger Cars for Drivers with Physical Disabilities2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving can provide independent and efficient mobility. However, according to the driving license directive (91/439/EEC) are persons with locomotor impairments are only allowed drive if their disabilities can be compensated. Compensation can be realised by vehicle adaptations. The directive provides meagre guidance on how vehicles should be adapted or how to verify that the compensatory requirements are fulfilled. This is a gap in the current process for licensing drivers with physical disabilities. Furthermore, the Swedish process from driver assessment to driver licensing and adaptation approval is complex, fragmented, and suffer from lack of communication between involved authorities. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the development of a method to evaluate vehicle adaptations for driver with physical disabilities. The focus was on the evaluation of adaptations for steering, accelerating and braking. Three driving simulator experiments and one manoeuvre test with adapted vehicles were conducted. A group of drivers with tetraplegia driving with hand controls were compared to able-bodied drivers in the first experiment. Even if the drivers with tetraplegia had a longer brake reaction time they performed comparable to the able-bodied drivers. However, they spent more effort and were more tired in order to perform as well as the able-bodied drivers. It was concluded that the adaptation was not sufficient. An Adaptive Cruise Controller (ACC) was tested in the second experiment in order to find out if it could alleviate the load on drivers using hand controls. It was found that the ACC decreased the workload on the drivers. However, ACC systems need to be adjustable and better integrated. The results from the first two experiments were used to provide some guidelines for ACCsystems to be used by drivers with disabilities. The third experiment was preceded by a manoeuvre test with joystick controlled cars. The test revealed some problems, which were attributed to time lags, control interference, and lack of feedback. Four joystick designs were tested with a group of drivers with tetraplegia in the third experiment. It was concluded that time lags should be made similar to what is found in standard cars. Lateral and longitudinal control should be separated. Active feedback can improve vehicle control but should be individually adjusted. The experiments revealed that drivers with the same diagnose can be functionally very diverse. Thus, an adaptation evaluation should be made individually. Furthermore, the evaluation should include a manoeuvre test. Finally, it was concluded that the evaluation approach applied in the experiments was relevant but needs to be further developed.

    List of papers
    1. Driving performance and workload assessment of drivers with tetraplegia: an adaptation evaluation framework.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving performance and workload assessment of drivers with tetraplegia: an adaptation evaluation framework.
    2001 (English)In: Journal of rehabilitation research and development, ISSN 0748-7711, E-ISSN 1938-1352, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 215-24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to establish a baseline for further research on adaptation evaluation for drivers with disabilities. Driving performance and workload for 26 drivers with spinal cord injuries (tetraplegia) was studied and compared to a matched group of able-bodied drivers in a driving simulator. Drivers with tetraplegia used two types of hand-operated controls for accelerating and braking. Able- bodied drivers drove with standard pedals. The drivers with tetraplegia performed the driving task equally as well as the control group but had a slightly longer reaction time (10%). Workload assessment revealed that drivers with tetraplegia experienced a significantly greater time pressure and spent more effort than did the able-bodied drivers. They were also more tired from braking and accelerating. The drivers with tetraplegia using separate levers had greater standard deviation in lateral lane position (7 cm), while those using a combined lever were more tired from braking and accelerating. Observed differences could be interpreted as indicators of insufficient adaptation.

    Keywords
    Disabled person, Driver, Spinal column, Illness, Behaviour, Reaction time, Simulator, Test
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Research subject
    80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7832 (URN)000168804300007 ()11392654 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Adaptation Evaluation: An Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) System Used by Drivers with Lower Limb Disabilities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptation Evaluation: An Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) System Used by Drivers with Lower Limb Disabilities
    2001 (English)In: IATSS Research, ISSN 0386-1112, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty subjects with lower limb disabilities participated in a simulator study. The purpose of the study was to investigate how an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system together with two different hand controls for accelerator and brake influenced workload, comfort and driving behaviour and to further develop a method to evaluate vehicle adaptations for drivers with disabilities. The installed ACC system could maintain a constant speed selected and set by the driver and it also adapted speed in order to keep a safe distance to a leading vehicle. Furthermore, it included a stop-and-go function. Two common types of hand controls for accelerator and brake were used. The hand controls were different both with respect to function, single or dual levers, and position, on the steering column or between the front seats. The subjects were all experienced drivers of adapted cars equipped with hand controls. All subjects drove 100km at two occasions, with and without the ACC system available but with the same hand control. Subjective workload was found to be significantly lower and performance better for the ACC condition. The difference in speed variation between manual and ACC supported driving increased with the distance driven which seems to support the previous finding. The subjects thought they could control both speed and distance to leading vehicles better while the ACC was available. ACC driving did not influence reaction time, speed level, lateral position or variation in lateral position. Headway during car following situations was shorter for the ACC condition compared to manual driving. The ACC was well received, trusted and wanted. It was concluded that the ACC system substantially decreased workload, increased comfort and did not influence safety negatively. The only difference found between the two types of hand controls was that drivers using the dual lever system had less variation in lateral position. The applied evaluation method proved to be useful but needs to be further developed.

    Keywords
    Disabled person, Driver, Adaptive cruise control, Car, Adaptation, Driving controls, Mental load, Fatigue, Attitude, Simulator, Test
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Research subject
    80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7834 (URN)10.1016/S0386-1112(14)60006-6 (DOI)
    Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Elderly and Disabled Travelers: Intelligent Transport Systems Designed for the 3rd Millennium
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elderly and Disabled Travelers: Intelligent Transport Systems Designed for the 3rd Millennium
    1999 (English)In: Transportation Human Factors, ISSN 1093-9741, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 121-134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The TELematic Standards and Coordination of Advanced Transport Telematics systems in relation to elderly and disabled travelers (TELSCAN) project in the Transport Sector of the Telematics Applications Programme of the European Union has developed a Handbook of Design Guidelines (Nicolle & Burnett, 1999) to support designers of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) to include the needs of people who are elderly or disabled. This article describes the methods of the Handbook's development, including an overview of the methodology for capturing the requirements of elderly and disabled travelers, a survey of existing guidelines, and empirical results and lessons learned from simulator testing. The authors conclude that although general guidelines are necessary, the most specific and useful guidelines emerge only when carefully chosen research questions can be investigated. The development of such guidelines should help us come closer to achieving usability of ITS not only for elderly and disabled people, but for everybody as we enter the 3rd millennium.

    Keywords
    Old people, Disabled person, Intelligent transport system, Recommendations, Method, Data acquisition, Driving simulator
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Research subject
    90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7835 (URN)10.1207/sthf0102_1 (DOI)
    Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    4. Human factors aspects on joystick control of adapted vehicles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human factors aspects on joystick control of adapted vehicles
    2002 (English)In: Human factors in transportation, communication, health and the workplace / [ed] Dick de Waard, Karel Brookhuis, Jan Moraal, & Antonella Toffetti, Maastricht, 2002, p. 81-97Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment was set-up to investigate different joystick designs based on steer-by-wire technology. The experiment was carried out in a driving simulator. Both driving behaviour and perceived control of the car was registered and analysed. All participants had a SCI (Spinal Cord Injury) at cervical level, i.e. drivers with tetraplegia. Two types of joysticks were tested, one conventional (similar to what is used with computer games) and one modified with which the driver could control speed and steering independently. Both joysticks were tested with and without active feedback. The driving task consisted of rural road driving and a manoeuvre test with a double lane-change. The results presented here should be considered as preliminary and the study as a pilot study, which will be completed with a lager set of participants. So far 8 subjects have completed the experiment. The preliminary results cannot be used to draw any definite conclusion on which system design should be preferred. There was some evidence that active feedback provided a better lateral control and the drivers drove with larger safety margins with the modified joystick. However, the drivers’ opinion seemed to be more in favour of the conventional passive joystick.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Maastricht: , 2002
    Keywords
    Electronic driving aid, Disabled person, Vehicle handling, Simulator, Steering, Braking, Speed, Performance, Attitude
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Research subject
    90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7836 (URN)
    Conference
    Human Factors in Transportation, Communication, Health, and the Workplace. The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter Annual Meeting, Turin, Italy, November 2001.
    Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved
    5. Safety and mobility of people with disabilities driving adapted cars
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety and mobility of people with disabilities driving adapted cars
    2004 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A study was carried out to increase knowledge about the safety of drivers with disabilities. A questionnaire that focused on the driver's disability, the adaptive equipment, the use of the car, safety, and accident involvement was sent to a random sample of persons with disabilities driving adapted cars. Spinal cord injuries was the most frequent diagnosis (30% of 793 answers) and lower limb disabilities was the most common functional restriction (over 75%). The drivers felt very safe and they had a high level of confidence in the adapted car. They used the car for almost the entire distance travelled (90%), which illustrates how dependent this group is on the car for their mobility. About 1 out of 10 drivers had been involved in an accident during the last 3.5 years, most of them with only material damage. The accident and injury risks of the target group did not differ significantly from the risks of drivers in general. A small number of accidents were attributed to problems with the special equipment in the car. The causes could be unfamiliarity with the controls, an adaptation that did not fully meet the needs of the individual or equipment that broke down. © 2004 Taylor & Francis.

    Keywords
    Car, Adaptation, Risk, Accident, Severity
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Research subject
    80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 81 Road: Accidents; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 811 Road: Accident statistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7833 (URN)10.1080/11038120410020511 (DOI)
    Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    6. Joystick versus conventional driving controls
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Joystick versus conventional driving controls
    2002 (English)In: Human factors in transportation, communication, health, and the workplace. / [ed] Dick de Waard, Karel Brookhuis, Jan Moraal, & Antonella Toffetti, Maastricht, Maastricht, 2002, p. 77-80Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Joystick controlled vehicles for disabled drivers are not common. Since a joystick differs fundamentally from conventional primary controls, studying joystick control can reveal several critical issues concerning alternative primary controls and drive-by-wire technology. A joystick combines steering and speed control in one single lever. In a manoeuvre test with joystick-controlled cars, interference between steering and speed control and difficulties in performing fast and accurate steering were observed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Maastricht: , 2002
    Keywords
    Electronic driving aid, Steering, Speed control, Disabled person, Design, Training ground, Test
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Research subject
    90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7837 (URN)
    Conference
    Human Factors in Transportation, Communication, Health, and the Workplace. The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter Annual Meeting, Turin, Italy, November 2001.
    Available from: 2015-05-04 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved
    7. Joystick controlled driving for drivers with disabilities: A driving simulator experiment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Joystick controlled driving for drivers with disabilities: A driving simulator experiment
    2005 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    A driving simulator experiment was conducted to investigate two design features of four-way joystick systems used for vehicle control (accelerator, brake and steering). Effects of active force feedback and decoupled speed and steering control were investigated. These were features expected to

    facilitate driving with joystick systems. Time lags were made similar to what is found in conventional primary car controls, as those found in existing joystick systems seems to complicate usage and prolong learning. The joystick was designed for drivers with severe locomotor disabilities. Sixteen drivers with spinal cord injuries at a cervical level participated, all inexperienced with joystick driving. All participants drove on a rural road and performed a double lane change manoeuvre task. It was found that the decoupling provided better control and less workload, especially for those eight drivers with better hand and arm function. Active force feedback together with decoupled control was found positive for the same subgroup and provided better control in the lane change manoeuvre. However, drivers with less arm and hand function preferred passive feedback, and active feedback was even found disturbing. In general, the tested joystick was found to be very easy to learn which was attributed to the short in time lags.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2005
    Series
    VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 506A
    Keywords
    English, Sweden, Disabled person, Driver, Adaptation, Car, Equipment, Steering, Simulator, Test
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Research subject
    Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, Road: Components of the vehicle
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6374 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2015-05-04Bibliographically approved
  • 27.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Evaluation of an adaptive cruise control (ACC) system used by drivers with lower limb impairments1997Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Körkortets betydelse för upplevd livskvalite: avrapportering av delprojektet fyra inom projektet "Körkortsutbildning för bilförare med perceptuella och kognitiva funktionshinder"2000Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Monitoring and assessement by drivers with special needs, simulator experiences1999Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Refresher courses for older drivers: a literature study2012In: TRANSED 2012: 13th international conference on mobility and transport for elderly and disabled persons, New Delhi: Svayam , 2012, , p. 12p. 1-12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a literature survey on refresher courses for older drivers, which was conducted in a project commissioned by the Norwegian Road Administration. The aim was to determine if there is any scientific evidence that refresher courses are an effective intervention for older drivers in terms of sustained safe mobility. The current literature study covering the period 1999 to 2009 provides some evidence that refresher courses can be an effective means to promote both mobility and safety for older drivers. Most studies were conducted in the US and Canada. Courses were grouped in to general and traffic specific education (theoretical) and training (practical). General education can include e.g. knowledge about aging and performance while general training can be e.g. cognitive training programs. Traffic specific education includes e.g. knowledge of new traffic rules while traffic specific training can be closed track driving with an instructor. Most courses were theoretical and consisted of a mix of general knowledge on aging and traffic specific knowledge on handling critical situations and often promoting a cautious driving style. A wide range of methods were used ranging from traditional classroom teaching to coaching by driving instructors. Simulator based training was seldom used even if a general interest is often expressed by participants. Both learning theories and evaluation methods should be further developed, not the least with respect recent neuropsychological research on aging and cognition.

  • 31.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Spinal cord injuries and driving1998Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utvärdering av en ny förarplats i låggolvbuss, Uppsala1994Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Berlin, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hur ser bussföraren på sin arbetsmiljö?1994Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Fulland, John
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nielsen, Benny
    Testmetoder för handikappanpassade förarplatser i personbil: ett preliminärt förslag till leveranskontroll2000Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustavsson, Eva
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Moren, Bertil
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Förarplats i buss: Etapp 21992Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustavsson, Eva
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Moren, Bertil
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Förarplats i buss, etapp 3: Kravspecifikation1992Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Moren, Bertil
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustavsson, Eva
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utvärdering av en ny förarplats i låggolvbuss, Linköping1994Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Driving performance of DSN (Drivers with Special Needs) using hand controls for braking and accelerating1994Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Professional drivers1997Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Selander, Helena
    Mobilitetscenter.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Jansson, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Evaluation of driving simulator based training for older drivers in Sweden: Deliverable 2.4.32016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to assess your own performance can be vital to maintain safe mobility for older drivers. Overestimation can lead to increased risk of being involved in a crash and underestimation to unjustifiable restrictions in mobility. A pre/post intervention study was conducted with the aim to improve older drivers’ ability to assess their own driving performance. The aim was not to improve performance per se but the ability to assess, i.e. to calibrate themselves. Thus, a driving simulator program was developed and evaluated with a group of 36 older drivers. However, due to simulator sickness only 21 driver completed the study. Drivers repeatedly assessed their driving performance by answering the question “How well do you think you performed on the driving task? (1 = very bad to 5 = very well)”. As a reference of correctly assessed driving performance we used an experienced occupational therapist (specialised in driver assessment) who assessed the drive with the same scale (expert assessment).

    Feedback can be an effective tool for change, which we wanted to evaluate. Thus, feedback to the drivers were given as a specification of errors made (e.g. forgot to use direction indicators, driving too fast, etc.). Feedback could also include information on correct behaviour (e.g. give way to pedestrians, keeping the right speed etc.). Thus, the drivers were divided into two groups: one (n=11) who were told of their misses and one (n=10) who were also informed about their correct behaviour. Training was done at three different occasions.

  • 41.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Developing a unified model of driving behaviour for cars and trains2012In: Human factors of Systems and Technology / [ed] D. de Waard, N. Merat, A.H. Jamson, Y. Barnard and O.M.J. Carsten, Maastricht: Shaker Publishing , 2012, p. 343-357Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Östlund, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Joystick controlled driving for drivers with disabilities: A driving simulator experiment2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    A driving simulator experiment was conducted to investigate two design features of four-way joystick systems used for vehicle control (accelerator, brake and steering). Effects of active force feedback and decoupled speed and steering control were investigated. These were features expected to

    facilitate driving with joystick systems. Time lags were made similar to what is found in conventional primary car controls, as those found in existing joystick systems seems to complicate usage and prolong learning. The joystick was designed for drivers with severe locomotor disabilities. Sixteen drivers with spinal cord injuries at a cervical level participated, all inexperienced with joystick driving. All participants drove on a rural road and performed a double lane change manoeuvre task. It was found that the decoupling provided better control and less workload, especially for those eight drivers with better hand and arm function. Active force feedback together with decoupled control was found positive for the same subgroup and provided better control in the lane change manoeuvre. However, drivers with less arm and hand function preferred passive feedback, and active feedback was even found disturbing. In general, the tested joystick was found to be very easy to learn which was attributed to the short in time lags.

  • 43.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Östlund, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Personbilar med handikappanpassade förarplatser: en kartläggning av arbetsrutiner för handläggare av bilstödsärenden vid försäkringskassan1999Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Östlund, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Personbilar med handikappanpassade förarplatser: en kartläggning av trafikinspektörernas arbetsrutiner1999Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Östlund, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Alm, Håkan
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Human factors aspects on joystick control of adapted vehicles2002In: Human factors in transportation, communication, health and the workplace / [ed] Dick de Waard, Karel Brookhuis, Jan Moraal, & Antonella Toffetti, Maastricht, 2002, p. 81-97Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment was set-up to investigate different joystick designs based on steer-by-wire technology. The experiment was carried out in a driving simulator. Both driving behaviour and perceived control of the car was registered and analysed. All participants had a SCI (Spinal Cord Injury) at cervical level, i.e. drivers with tetraplegia. Two types of joysticks were tested, one conventional (similar to what is used with computer games) and one modified with which the driver could control speed and steering independently. Both joysticks were tested with and without active feedback. The driving task consisted of rural road driving and a manoeuvre test with a double lane-change. The results presented here should be considered as preliminary and the study as a pilot study, which will be completed with a lager set of participants. So far 8 subjects have completed the experiment. The preliminary results cannot be used to draw any definite conclusion on which system design should be preferred. There was some evidence that active feedback provided a better lateral control and the drivers drove with larger safety margins with the modified joystick. However, the drivers’ opinion seemed to be more in favour of the conventional passive joystick.

  • 46.
    Selander, Helena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Sweco .
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Driving simulator-based training to improve self-rating ability of driving performance in older adults: a pilot study2019In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The aim was to investigate the potential of using simulator-based training (SBT) to improve older drivers' self-rating ability and to compare two forms of feedback; corrective versus corrective and rewarding feedback.

    Method The study was designed to study the possibility of training for self-rated driving ability in a simulator, and the impact of corrective (errors made) feedback versus corrective (errors made) and rewarding (correct behaviour) feedback during training. In total, 21 older drivers (mean age 78.5, SD=3.9 years) were trained and assessed in the driving simulator. Driving performance was assessed by penalty scores as well as self and expert ratings.

    Results The average deviation from correctly rated ability (own vs. expert) changed from -0.7 (under-rating) to 0.1 at the final training and assessment occasion; i.e., drivers ratings became more like the expert's rating or, in other terms, better calibrated. The individuals with the largest deviations from the expert's rating initially improved their self-rating ability the most. There were no differences between the two feedback groups in terms of their ability to self-rate, but rewarding feedback had a positive effect on penalty scores. The SBT showed positive training effects on the ability to self-rate one's driving ability, and rewarding feedback contributed to lower penalty scores. However, simulator sickness was a shortcoming that needs to be adressed, and the optimal form of feedback should be further investigated.

  • 47.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Broberg, Thomas
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Older drivers’ needs for safety and comfort systems in their cars: a focus group study in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A focus group study with a total of 63 older drivers (70 years or older) in two rounds was conducted to identify needs and means for transportation as a passenger car driver. The aim was to understand attitudes to and use of advanced driver assistance technologies. Furthermore, the aim was to identify possible differences between drivers in terms of correct assessment of own driving performance. All 63 participants had previously participated in an on-road driving assessment followed by an interview. The on-road assessment was done using a standardized protocol (expert assessment). The result was then compared to the driver’s subjective assessment of driving performance. It was found that experience of assistive technology was highly variable, from low technology systems to advanced automatic systems. However, there was a general interest in assistance systems among the participants. Most of them found the systems positive if they could improve safety. Those who were skeptical pointed to expected necessity to learn to use them, cost and need for repair.

  • 48.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Kagawa University.
    Suzuki, Keisuke
    Kagawa University.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Development of a safe driving guidance system that targets 30 km/h zones2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic accidents between vehicles and vulnerable road users, and the senior part of the population particularly, is a traffic safety problem that must be addressed continuously. A safe driving guidance system such as an intelligent speed adaptation system that suppress the speed to prevent and mitigate accidents is an important measure that can address this traffic safety problem. In specific, the accidents targeted in this paper are those that appear in intersections. An intelligent speed adaptation system with acoustic and graphical information that is adapted to the driver’s characteristics to increase the compliance with the guidance provided by the system is developed. Two driving simulator studies were conducted as part of the development procedure. The results of these experiments indicated that a speed restraining effect could be determined of the system and different human-machine-interfaces were compared. The safe driving guidance system was also optimized to driver characteristics and a target value was presented with an optimal value. Implications for system design and human-machine-interaction is discussed.

  • 49.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linnaeus Centre Head.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linnaeus Centre Head.
    Cognitive workload and visual behavior in elderly drivers with hearing loss2014In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 377-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to examine eye tracking data and compare visual behavior in individuals with normal hearing (NH) and with moderate hearing loss (HL) during two types of driving conditions: normal driving and driving while performing a secondary task.

    Methods

    24 participants with HL and 24 with NH were exposed to normal driving and to driving with a secondary task (observation and recall of 4 visually displayed letters). Eye movement behavior was assessed during normal driving by the following performance indicators: number of glances away from the road; mean duration of glances away from the road; maximum duration of glances away from the road; and percentage of time looking at the road. During driving with the secondary task, eye movement data were assessed in terms of number of glances to the secondary task display, mean duration of glances to the secondary task display, and maximum duration of glances to the secondary task display. The secondary task performance was assessed as well, counting the number of correct letters, the number of skipped letters, and the number of correct letters ignoring order.

    Results

    While driving with the secondary task, drivers with HL looked twice as often in the rear-view mirror than during normal driving and twice as often as drivers with NH regardless of condition. During secondary task, the HL group looked away from the road more frequently but for shorter durations than the NH group. Drivers with HL had fewer correct letters and more skipped letters than drivers with NH.

  • 50.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Principle Other Vehicle Warning2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The only possibility for a driver to avoid a collision may sometimes be to issue a warning to another driver. Connecting the horn and the headlight to an already existing sensor system could be a cost effective solution. This report covers the implementation and evaluation of such an automated warning system in a driving simulator at VTI. In this test 24 drivers with normal hearing and 24 with moderate hearing loss experienced five critical events in which four different warning signals were evaluated; sound, light, and a combination of sound and light, and no warning (as reference). A visual distraction task was used to distract the drivers and create critical situations. The results were consistent. A combined sound and light warning significantly increased cautious driving behaviour and also lead to the highest perceived criticality of the situations. With the combined warning the driver’s attention was effectively drawn from the visual distraction task. Drivers were generally positive towards the warning system, and most positive towards the combined warning presenting light and sound signals. Drivers were able to distinguish between warnings (at critical events) and greetings (at non-critical events) suggesting that the tested additional use of horn and headlight would not affect reactions to non-critical warnings or greetings. Hearing loss was associated with worse performance on the visual distraction task and less perceived realism of the driving simulator. But it was not associated with effects on any driving behaviour measures or of warning modalities. This result suggests that the evaluated system should work also for drivers with moderate hearing loss.

12 1 - 50 of 59
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf