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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Karlsson, Bo O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Tema miljörisker: miljörisker och trafikanters beteenden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles the results from the project Theme Environmental risks. More specifically, the project concerned how different transport related environmental risks influence different road users and how their behaviour influence the environment. The project aimed at preparing for interdisciplinary research about environmental risks at VTI. The project was divided into three parts. The first subproject aimed at compiling literature about transport related environmental risks from psychological and economic perspectives, and in the second subproject a willingness to pay study was outlined where both economic and psychological principles were considered. In the third subproject, a simulator study was outlined. The focus was to study environmental effects of driving under controlled circumstances in the driving simulator. The report is divided into two parts. In part 1, the results from the literature review and the proposal for a willingness to pay study are described (subproject 1 and 2). This part is written in English. Part 2 contains a project outline for a simulator study in the form of an research project application (project 3). This part is written in Swedish.

  • 2.
    Hansen, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Svenska flygplatser och marginalkostnadsprissättning2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is commissioned by the Swedish Civil Aviation Authority. The aim is to update the knowledge regarding the price relevant costs of aviation. We distinguish between marginal costs caused by airport activities and those caused by the external effects of pollution and noise. The review shows that vital data is missing regarding the activities and effects of aviation in order to perform solid marginal cost calculations. In the report we have calculated approximative values for two types of airplanes. Marginal costs related to airport services are divided into those related to passenger services and those related to congestion services. We conclude that the Swedish charges are at least twice as high as marginal costs. We do, however, lack any estimation of the congestion-related marginal costs. Regarding the external effects, today's charges concerning the landing and take-off cycle are sufficient although partly mischarged since they only reflect NOx-emissions. Moreover it should be examined if emissions during flying should be charged or not. The conclusion of this report is that more research is needed in this area. This concerns studies dealing with Swedish airports as well as making cost data publicly available.

  • 3.
    Hansson, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Regulatory measurements in policy coordinated practices: The case of promoting renewable energy and cleaner transport in Sweden2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 1687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International organisations, such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the European Union (EU), are seeking to implement a cohesive Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) system in order to achieve better regulation and increased unity and transparency. Central to these evaluations is the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and related tools. A comprehensive analysis of the use of impact assessment in the EU shows that many assessments lack important economic components. This paper draws on an extensive document study of the Swedish policy making process related to the EU Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. The aim of the paper is to examine how CBA is presented, negotiated and accounted for by central actors within a policy setting influenced by negotiation and policy coordination. The paper departs from a theoretical perspective on policy coordination and shows how this factor must be considered when explaining the low use of CBA. It concludes that the Swedish policy tradition, wherein the national government relies on consensus-based coordination between agencies, might counteract a more explicit assessment of different policy options. The paper also proposes a model that can be used for further studies on CBA and policy coordination.

  • 4.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Congdon Fors, Heather
    Göteborgs universitet.
    The influence of individual characteristics and institutional norms on bureaucrats’ use of CBA in environmental policy: a model and a choice experiment2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social scientists regularly criticize the use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA), which has led to much focus being placed on investigating the possible biases related to its results. Recent research shows that CBA is not routinely done prior to environmental, energy, and climate policymaking in Sweden, and in countries where a CBA is made, the results have little influence on political decisions. This paper investigates obstacles to using CBA information with a focus on bureaucrats. We use empirical data from Sweden, where the ministries are small by international standards and hence government agencies have a sizeable influence on policymaking. We construct a theoretical model and then test the theoretical predictions with empirical data collected from five Swedish government agencies. The empirical results lend support both for the assertion that risk aversion concerning the environmental outcome, the bureaucrats’ environmental attitudes, and the cost of taking CBA information into account have a considerable impact on the probability of using information from a CBA. Hence risk averse and bureaucrats with strong environmental preferences are less likely and bureaucrats with low cost of doing a CBA more likely than other bureaucrats to use CBA information. Finally, a binding governmental budget constraint may positively influence a bureaucrat’s choice of undertaking a CBA. A tentative conclusion is therefore that it may be possible to increase the use of CBA by making the budgetary consequences of policies much clearer and demanding due consideration of costs.

  • 5.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    The impact of education on environmental policy decision-making2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Civil servants in governmental agencies regularly both propose environmental policies for the elected politicians and make own decisions. In making these decisions they may be influenced by legal norms, agency policy and culture, professional norms acquired through education as well as personal political preferences. This study tests how students in late stages of professional training in economics, biology and social sciences handle information in order to make a stylized choice of a national nutrient limit for lake water, or choose a program at a municipal level to lower the nutrient level in a local lake. The purpose is to test whether professional norms acquired during academic education and/or the presence of an international standard influences decision-making. We examine three hypotheses. Firstly, students’ political attitudes affect their choice of major, i.e. biology, economics or social sciences, and thereby indirectly their decisions. We find that the distribution of the political values among disciplines is compatible with the hypothesis, which therefore is not rejected. Secondly, a student’s major influences the kind of information they use and consequently the policy choice they will recommend. In plain words we expected biology students to go for environmentally more ambitious (lower) nutrient limits and economics students to prefer economically efficient (higher) levels. The central result is that while economics majors are more likely than biology or social science majors to choose a cost-efficient nutrient limit, the mean and median values of the nutrient levels chosen by the three groups do not differ from one another in a statistically significant way. Economists thus have a higher standard deviation in their answers than the other majors. The third hypothesis is that the presence of an internationally approved standard level for the nutrient content will significantly influence the choice of national nutrient limit. We find that biology students are influenced to set a lower nutrient limit when presented with the standard than otherwise, thereby rejecting the null hypothesis for this group. For students in economics and social sciences, no significant effect is found. Our results have implications for the feasibility of micromanagement in government agencies as recruiting economists to environmental agencies may not be sufficient to ensure economically efficient decisions. The findings also should sound a warning about the skills learned by economics majors at the two largest universities in Sweden: while some students seem familiar with the concepts of optimality and cost efficiency and able to use them, this applies to far from all of them.

  • 6.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Transportstyrelsens arbete med konsekvensutredningar: metodik för samhällsekonomisk analys med beräkningshandledning i bilaga2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport is an area where the public sector plays an important role for the design and the functioning of the system. In Sweden the overriding goal for transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and businesses throughout the country. When making changes to the system there is a need for information on the advantages and disadvantages of different policy options so that the decisions are based on balanced evidence. To meet these ends, the methodology of cost-benefit analysis is applied as a decision support tool, especially regarding decision related to infrastructure investment. The Swedish Transport Administration and the Swedish Transport Agency have the main responsibility for the design and functioning of the transport system in Sweden. The former is responsible for the infrastructure while the latter is more concerned with the management of traffic and the design of rules and regulations. The Swedish Transport Agency also exercises supervision. In 2012 the Swedish Transport Agency commissioned VTI to develop a first version of a calculation handbook to be used in the impact assessments performed by the Agency, together with a plan for education on how to perform this type of assessment. Our proposition is presented in this report. Based on a number of case studies of impact assessment recently performed at the Agency we have assessed what kind of information that needs to be included in their impact assessments. We have also investigated which methods are used internationally, and by the Swedish Transport Administration, to perform this type of analysis. Using this information we present a draft for a calculation handbook based on the experience and material used at the Swedish Transport Administration. We also present an education plan. However, since there is a difference between issues related to investments in infrastructure and management issues, we also suggest a plan for development of the calculation handbook and its use within the Agency.

  • 7.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Health effects of transport emissions: a review of the state of the art of methods and data used for external costs calculations2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose is to provide a background for a discussion concerning the methods and values used in cost-benefit analysis in Sweden for air pollutions', from traffic, impact on human health and the research needs in this area. We provide an overview of the current state of the art of models used for and input needed for external cost calculations of the health impacts. The calculations are not straightforward and depend on the collaboration between several research disciplines. In the ExternE projects, which have been used as a reference point in this study, there are still uncertainties concerning which pollutants to take into consideration. Regarding the health impacts, we have recapitulated some of the main conclusions in a review by the American Heart Association (2010). They state that e.g. the following issues need further research: the importance of ultrafine particles, what constituent parts make traffic related air pollution more harmful than PM2.5 in general and the importance of coarse particles.

  • 8.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar: kunskapsläget avseende påverkan på ekosystemet i Sverige, betydelsen av var utsläppen sker samt kostnader för utsläpp från svensk sjöfart2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the basis and calculations for the subproject air pollution carried out within the framework of VTI’s second government commission on traffic economic costs (Samkost2). In this study, we have estimated marginal external costs of air pollution with the method developed and used in the EU for this purpose, the so-called “Impact Pathway Approach”, focusing on the importance and the impact on the ecosystem and emissions from shipping.

    In the earlier study of air pollution in Samkost was concluded that a largely unexplored question was how much the transport sector contributes to secondary pollution and the impact these have on population exposure and impact on the ecosystem. It was found that this is an important issue because it is these pollutants that are the focus of the EU’s air quality policy. To carry out impact assessments of the proposals at EU level in this field, and to compare the results of different studies, it is important to clarify the pollution that has been the basis for the analysis.

    For this reason, the focus of Samkost2 on air pollution became how to perform calculations for the secondary pollutants. There was also a desire to gain more knowledge about the marginal costs of emissions from Swedish shipping, and on how impacts on ecosystems can be included in these calculations. To carry out these calculations required information in the form of dispersion modelling. Therefore, SMHI was commissioned to provide data on emissions at sea and their dispersion. Due to time constraints, since this VTI’s commission had a deadline and dispersion modelling involves complex calculation that requires time, the calculations got adapted to the restrictions of the commission. Only emissions from Swedish shipping and not from the other modes were included. To get some information about geographical differences in the impact of emissions that occur in different places separate calculations for three different areas was conducted; Skagerrak and Kattegat, the Baltic Sea south of Åland and the Baltic Sea north of the Åland Islands. Specific effects, i.e. exposure, were only modelled for the population and not for different types of ecosystems.

  • 9.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hälsoeffekter, påverkar de acceptansen för prissättning av vägtrafik?2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Road traffic makes important contributions to the pollution levels in urban areas. Of the pollutants, particulate matter, makes the greatest contribution to the external cost due to their detrimental impact on human health. Economic policy measures such as road pricing can be used for the regulation of traffic, thereby improving local air quality, but there is often a large resistance towards these types of measures. The purpose of this study has been to investigate if it is likely that the health impact of traffic emissions influences the acceptance for road pricing. In this study we have done a literature survey to explore this issue. The conclusion is that it is unlikely that the health impact influences the acceptance. An important reason is that the public knowledge about this health impact is low and therefore the health risks are underestimated. We have also found that there is a need for deeper investigation into people´s knowledge about traffic emissions and their health impact and how this in turn influences their decisions regarding policy measures, such as road pricing that aims at reducing the health impact. The conclusion is that the best method for this would be a so-called Stated Preference study.

  • 10.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys i arbetet med nationell risk- och förmågebedömning: vägledning och förslag på metodik2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012 the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) was commissioned by the government to develop and establish a procedure and methodology for national risk assessment in Sweden. In 2013 MSB continued this work and also initiated work to develop a more coherent and reliable process for producing national risk and capability assessments. An assignment was therefore given to VTI where the questions was how economics can be implemented in practice in this more comprehensive work. To provide a basis for discussion, the current system for national risk- and capability assessments undertaken by the public sector is described in the beginning of the report. Next, based on findings in the scientific literature, the report contains a discussion of how economics can be of use in risk assessment and management. Since cost-benefit analysis is the analytical tool used, this overview also contains a short summary on how to perform this type of analysis. Based on this background information a method is proposed on how to analyze a decision problem in this kind of risk context. The method comprises the following logical steps: - Scenario analysis to develop an analytical model of the risk context focusing on a description of the capabilities needed to reduce the probability of and the consequences of a certain hazard. - Capability assessment to quantify the current level of the relevant capabilities. - GAP-analysis to identify if there is a lack of important capabilities and if so, what measures that can address these insufficiencies. - Cost-benefit analysis to evaluate different policy measures to improve the capability. - Stress test and evaluation to test the functioning of the risk management system and the effect of the policy changes made. The analytical model developed in the first step can be used for this purpose.

  • 11.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Emissioner från flyg inom svenskt luftrum och externa kostnader för dessa: en delrapport i Samkost 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the basis and calculations for the subproject air pollution carried out within the framework of VTI’s third government commission on traffic economic costs (Samkost 3). We have in this study estimated marginal external costs of air pollution with the method developed and used in the EU for this purpose, the so-called “Impact Pathway Approach”, focusing on the importance and the impact of air traffic in Sweden. These calculations require dispersion- and exposure modelling and SMHI was therefore commissioned to provide data from this type of calculations based on the MATCH model.

    Due to time constraints, since this VTI’s commission had a deadline and this work involves complex calculation that requires time, the calculations got adapted to the restrictions of the commission. Separate calculations were done for flight at different heights (LTO, low and high cruise) and only for traffic in the Swedish air space. Separate modelling was done with total reduction of all emissions from this traffic, but also when only NOx from air traffic was reduced. Finally, we tested the influence of the geographical area used in the modelling.

  • 12.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Bergström, Robert
    SMHI.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå Universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB analys.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    SLB analys.
    Measuring the external health cost of particulate matter from road traffic and other sources in Stockholm, Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This paper measures the external health cost due to emissions from different sources in the Stockholm area using the Impact pathway approach. The estimated health impact is the result of detailed dispersion modelling with high spatial resolution. We make separate calculations for the impact that occur within the Stockholm area, the surrounding region and the rest of Europe. The pollutants considered are combustion and secondary particulate matter (PM) from the burning of fuels and also road wear (non-exhaust PM) that makes a large contribution to measured concentrations of PM locally in Stockholm. We also investigate the influence of assumptions made regarding the exposure-response functions used in these calculations since PM of different origin are expected to have different health impacts. According to the results road traffic makes important contributions to the external health cost both on a local and a regional scale compared to other sources. This is in part due to emissions being released in close proximity to where people live but also because of the amount of pollutants emitted. Although non-exhaust PM makes a large contribution to local population exposure within Stockholm the external health cost is relatively small which is due to other health impact being relevant for this emission source. Residential heating also makes an important contribution to exposure and external health cost on a local scale while power plants have a large influence regionally.

  • 13.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bergström, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå Universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB analys.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    SLB analys.
    The mortality cost of particulate matter due to emissions in the Stockholm area: an investigation into harmfulness, sources and the geographical dimension of their impact2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been recognized that emissions from traffic have a negative impact on human health. In recent years there has been emerging consensus that the main influence is due to particulate matter. From an economic point of view these negative effects are external costs caused by traffic that, if not accounted for in decision making regarding transport, will result in a non-optimal allocation of resources leading to welfare losses. To be able to implement road pricing measures, but also for the evaluation of other control measures through benefit-cost analysis, information on the external cost of traffic emissions is needed. In the Impact pathway approach (IPA), that has been developed in the ExternE projects, the external cost is calculated as the product of exposure, effect and value. In this study the effect we focus on is health impacts (mortality). Regarding particulate matter (PM) there is recognition among the research community that there are different types of PM and that it is likely that their impact on human health differs. Still the current practice is to treat fine PM (which are considered to be most detrimental to health) as equally harmful irrespective of origin. In the TESS project the purpose has been to investigate how important the external health cost of road traffic generated PM is in relation to the cost of other sources of PM. To do this we have both investigated how the exposure varies between sources but also assessed if it is reasonable to assume that the impact differs between PM from different sources. Whether or not to assume that PM of different origin is equally harmful is of particular interest in Sweden where non-exhaust PM makes a large contribution to the concentrations of PM in urban areas. In the project we have used Stockholm as a case study and we have focused on mortality since this is the health impact that has been found to have the largest impact on health cost in other studies.

  • 14.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar och buller från trafiken på det statliga vägnätet: kunskapsläget och tillgången på beräkningsunderlag i Sverige samt några beräkningsexempel2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2012, the Swedish government commissioned VTI to update the social marginal cost for using infrastructure for all modes of transport based on state-of-the-art knowledge in the research community. The task only involved state roads. In this report we present the data used and the results for the external costs of air pollution (exhaust emissions) and noise. We have used the Impact Pathway Approach to perform the calculations using Swedish data focusing on health. In these calculations we have placed particular emphasis on how the influence of population density in the vicinity of roads influence the results from these calculations. For noise we developed an exposure function based on the new EU-CNOSSOS model which accounted for the location of buildings close to a road while for air pollution we used results based on detailed calculations in the Stockholm area. The results, using updated input data from 2012 on kilometers driven, emissions factors from HBEFA etc., are in line with those presented in the EU handbook from 2014 “Update of the Handbook on External Costs of Transport” but lower than those currently used in analysis of transport investments in Sweden (the so called ASEK-values). An important reason for this is that we have used more detailed information on population exposure. We have also concluded that there are geographical differences in the external cost for air pollution between the north and the south of Sweden. For both air and noise emissions there is also a difference between urban and rural areas. Based on the results we conclude that there are a number of issues where further research is needed, for example the possible interaction of air pollution and noise on human health. There are also still questions regarding the dispersion of emissions and population exposure and how this varies between cities and within cities in Sweden, depending on for example meteorological conditions. For air pollution there is also the question of the formation of secondary pollutants and their dispersion pattern and if they contribute to an external environmental cost in addition to health. One particular source of emissions in Sweden is the used of studded tyres which contribute to very high concentration levels of particulate matter close to roads in springtime. Since the focus in this study was on state roads we have not addressed this pollutant in this report.

  • 15.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Fors, Heather Congdon
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Högskolen i Molde, Norge.
    Hammes, Johanna Jussila
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Politiska krav och tjänstemäns roll för analys av och beslut om styrmedel: Sammanfattande slutrapport2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development implies that society’s limited resources should be used efficiently, taking into account the various impacts on society – social, economic and environmental. To achieve established societal goals efficiently, various aspects have to be accounted for in the design of policy measures. Within the EU a Regulatory Impact Assessment, where a cost-benefit analysis is included, needs to accompany all major regulatory initiatives. According to research and different policy assessment, Sweden lacks an established praxis regarding this type of analysis in the area of environmental policy but also in the field of energy and transport. The purpose of this project is to investigate how Sweden uses this type of information in the negotiations that take place within the EU regarding policy proposals but also investigate the reasons for use or non-use. The focus is on what role the organization and the bureaucrats play for the collection of this type of information.

    The overall conclusion that can be drawn from the three sub-studies included in the project, as well as the discussion at the closing seminar, is that this is not an established way of working in the Swedish government system. This can be explained by lack of competence, an established mistrust, management by objectives and lack of an institutional framework for when and how this type of broader impact assessment is to be conducted. At the closing seminar, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency presented that it is now working on a guide to help officials to analyze at an early stage whether there is a need for regulation by society, to initiate the work by asking the question “What is the problem?”. We think that this is a step in the right direction, but we also see that the economists working out in government are often alone or very few and may therefore need different forms of support to develop the work on this kind of, often complex, analysis.

  • 16.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Johansson, Christer
    Lövenheim, Boel
    Luftföroreningarnas externa kostnader: förslag på beräkningsmetod för trafiken utifrån granskning av ExternE-beräkningar för Stockholm och Sverige2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In 2002 the external costs of air pollution from the Swedish transport sector were calculated using the methodology developed within the EU-funded ExternE-projects. A comparison of these estimates with those presently in use in Swedish transport analysis revealed important differences, especially for particulate matter. The main purpose of this project was to examine the calculations for Stockholm in the Swedish ExternE-study and based on the findings from this examination propose a method to be used for the cost calculation for pollutants with local impacts. In addition, the methods used for the cost calculation for pollutants with regional impact should be described. In the report, the results are presented in two parts. In the first part, the method we propose for the cost calculation for pollutants with local impact is presented. We suggest that the calculation is based on three components; exposure estimates, effects estimates and values. The product of these three gives the final cost. In this part of the report we also present the approaches currently used to calculate the cost for pollutants with a regional impact. In part two of the report we present in greater detail the findings from the examination of the calculations for Stockholm in the Swedish ExternE-study.

  • 17.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Forsstedt, Sara
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Regulating transport: The possible role of regulatory impact assessment in Swedish transport planningManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By performing RIA, the risk of imposing a proposal that is inefficient or leads to sub-optimization is reduced. In the EU this approach to regulatory policy making was introduced in 2002 and it is a crucial component of the Better Regulation Agenda. However the practical implementation of this approach in Member States is varied; Sweden has not implemented the full RIA process. Currently there is a focus on the reduction of administrative burdens for businesses. This paper describes the present use of RIA and CBA in the Swedish planning context and discusses the reasons for and the consequences of current practices. Using the Swedish transport regulator as a case study, the paper considers the following aspects; i) the Swedish planning context and existing requirements regarding the use of RIA, ii) current focus of research regarding CBA for infrastructure investments in the Swedish transport sector and the need for greater focus on issues concerning regulation, iii) the difficulty to quantify and place monetary values on effects, which also increases when unique, complex and uncertain situations are assessed and iv) the need for the alignment of incentives at all levels and across agencies.

  • 18.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar från transporter i olika delar av Sverige: sammanfattning och slutsatser från arbetet med luftkvalitet i SAMKOST2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att genom några beräkningsexempel klargöra hur de externa kostnaderna för luftföroreningar varierar mellan transportslag och geografi i Sverige, samt att tydliggöra vilka faktorer som ligger bakom dessa skillnader. Syftet är också att sätta in dessa resultat i en internationell kontext för att beskriva hur den svenska situationen förhåller sig till den som råder i andra länder både när det gäller miljöproblemen som orsakas av utsläpp till luft men också arbetet med att utforma miljöarbetet baserat på denna kunskap. Det senare är viktigt för att kunna föra en diskussion om hur Sverige påverkas av och kan bidra till internationellt luftvårdsarbete, framförallt inom EU eftersom den största påverkan av utsläpp från transportsektorn i Sverige sker inom Europa. Vi har i arbetet med SAMKOST studerat effekter på såväl lokal som regional nivå utifrån den metodik som tillämpas inom EU där hälsoeffekter utvärderas baserat på marginella haltförändringar i det som kallas urban eller regional bakgrund. De underlag som tagits fram i SAMKOST-projekten skiljer sig därför från flertalet svenska studier som oftast bedömer effekterna av den totala halten utan hänsyn till källa eller åtgärd. De modelleringar som är grunden för beräkningarna har genomförts av SMHI vilket säkerställer att resultaten är jämförbara mellan de olika transportslagen.

  • 19.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro universitet.
    Samhällsekonomiska analyser av åtgärder i krisberedskapsarbetet: teori, metodik och tillämpning2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Disaster risk management is an example of a public good where political decisions determine the content and extent of the services provided. For the policy maker the question is how much to spend on these services since resources are limited. The question addressed in this report is how economic analysis, including cost-benefit analysis, can be used in order to achieve an efficient level of these services The report is commissioned by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency. It is a contribution to their work with development of a methodology for National Risk Assessments and Disaster Risk Management. The former is prepared in response to an EU directive. According to the EU commission: Risk assessment and mapping are carried out within the broader context of disaster risk management. Risk assessment and mapping are the central components of a more general process which furthermore identifies the capacities and resources available to reduce the identified levels of risk, or the possible effects of a disaster (capacity analysis), and considers the planning of appropriate risk mitigation measures (capability planning), the monitoring and review of hazards, risks, and vulnerabilities, as well as consultation and communication of findings and results.” This report starts with a description of the current work with disaster risk management in Sweden and changes in the organization that has taken place in recent years. It also describes the evolution and use of economic analysis, including cost-benefit analysis, in policy making in different contexts. Based on these overviews it is concluded that economic analysis is rarely used in practical policy making regarding public goods in Sweden, and it has not previously been used in decisions concerning disaster risk management. Therefore, based on a literature review, we present a basic economic model that can be used in this context to define what a policy measure is and the aspects that needs to be considered in an economic evaluation of such measures. Furthermore we provide an example of how a method developed for economic analysis proposed by OECD, Regulatory Impact Assessment, can be applied to this kind of decision making. In the example we use information collected in a risk assessment made regarding the impact of climate change for one of the largest rivers in Sweden, Göta Älv. It is concluded that economic analysis can provide important information to this type of decision making, not the least through providing structure to the collection of information. However, further work is needed before this type of analysis can be used in practical policy making and the report ends with suggestions for further development work.

  • 20.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Exhaust emissions and environmental classifications of cars: what indicators are relevant according to external cost calculations?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on the questions raised by Folksam on how well the criteria currently used reflect the total environmental impact of exhaust emissions. One of the questions is whether diesel cars, being more fuel efficient, are preferable to gasoline cars given the differences in for example particle and NO2 emissions. In this paper we give an overview of the method used to calculate the external costs related to the exhaust emissions of cars, the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA). This type of assessment has previously been used to compare the environmental performance of gasoline versus diesel cars in a report by the former Swedish national road administration and in a recent paper on the taxation of cars in Belgium. We also provide an overview of recent research on the inputs used in these calculations. Based on information on emission tests of VW cars and information from the Swedish Transport Administration, we illustrate how different aspects influence the outcome of these calculations regarding exhaust emissions from cars. Regarding the specific question raised in this study about indicators for sustainable cars, we find that the indicators currently used, CO2 emissions, do not reflect the full environmental impact. Different types of vehicle technologies result in different combinations of emissions. With the large variety of car models, and with important differences between type approval and ”real driving” emissions, we conclude that apart from CO2 emissions, vehicle technology should be accounted for in the classification of cars. Concerning the difference between gasoline and diesel vehicles, important aspects to consider are: • differences in emissions of particulates where particle size or number and composition may be important to consider in addition to, or maybe even rather than, mass, • the difference in the ratio between NOx and NO2, as it affects local NO2 and ozone concentrations.

  • 21.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Variations in the external cost of transport air pollution: The case of Sweden2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In recent years large efforts have been devoted in EU-funded research

    projects,

    i.e. the ExternE-projects, to the development of an approach that can be used

    to

    estimate the external costs of air pollution. The calculation in these

    projects is

    based on the so called Impact pathway approach where the impacts from air

    pollution are assessed and valued. This approach has now been used to

    estimate

    the cost of air pollution of transport in Sweden for the year 2000. In

    addition, we

    have used abatement cost estimates to include the costs due to acidification

    and

    eutrophication. This is a joint project between VTI, TFK and IER at the

    University of Stuttgart. This report presents and discusses the results from

    this

    project, "the all-modes study", regarding air pollutants with a local and

    regional

    dispersion. It also relates the results from this project to cost estimates

    in other

    studies.

    Cost estimates have been calculated for all transport modes. For road

    transport,

    estimates were calculated for extra urban and urban traffic and also for two

    cases,

    Skellefteå and Stockholm. The purpose was to obtain information on the

    variation

    in costs between different traffic situations. Such information is an input

    in the

    evaluation of infrastructure investments and is also a basis for marginal

    cost

    pricing. The costs vary since there is a large number of variables that

    influence the

    estimates. Costs will depend upon which pollutant we consider and where the

    emissions occur. Costs will also depend upon other relationships such as the

    number of people being asthmatics in a population and the value placed on an

    asthma attack. For the latter, the assumptions used in the all-modes study

    are the

    same as those used in the EU-funded UNITE-project.

  • 22.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Andelius, Camilla
    Marginalkostnadsberäkning av luftburna föroreningar från fordon: problem med differentiering, interdependens och variabilitet2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie är en del i ett forskningsprojekt vid VTI kallat "Implementering

    av marginalkostnadsprissättning i transportsektorn - problem med

    variabilitet, differentiering, interdependens och osäkerhet". Denna studie

    ingår i delprojektet luftföroreningar som ska behandla miljöproblem i form av

    utsläpp som sprids via luften och som är kopplade till användningen av

    transportsystemet Meningen med denna förstudie är att ge en översikt över de

    problem med luftburna föroreningar från fordon som finns idag och vilka

    metoder som idag används för att beräkna marginalkostnaderna av dessa, samt

    diskutera vad som ytterligare behöver utforskas utifrån perspektivet av en

    framtida marginalkostnadsprissättning av transporter. Vi behandlar dock inte

    klimatpåverkande gaser i detta arbete av två skäl; dels för att dessa

    effekter är så vittomspännande vilket gör kostnadsberäkningen oerhört osäker,

    dels för att de kostnader som de ger upphov till inte varierar beroende på

    var utsläppen sker eftersom påverkan är global. Vi har i studien delvis

    fokuserat på en modell för beräkning av transportsektors marginalkostnader

    som tagits fram i ett europeiskt projekt, ExternE Core/Transport Detta

    eftersom denna modell baserar sig på aktuell kunskap och även används för att

    beräkna kostnaderna för transporter på europeisk nivå. I vissa delar har vi

    jämfört beräkningarna i den modellen med de beräkningar som de nu aktuella

    svenska värdena baserar sig på.

  • 23.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Jonsson, Mats
    Sportfiske och fisketurism för landsbygdens utveckling: Om intäktspotential, framgångsfaktorer och förvaltning av gemensamma naturresurser2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jordbruksverket och Havs- och vattenmyndigheten har gemensamt tagit fram en strategi för utvecklingen av svenskt fritidsfiske och fisketurism fram till 2020. Där anges ett antal mål varav i första hand två är anledningen till att denna studie initierats. Dessa två mål är:

    • Kunskapen är stor om fritidsfiskets och fisketurismens samhällsnytta och betydelse för stadsbefolkningen och för möjligheterna att bo, leva och verka på landsbygden.
    • Kunskapsförsörjning om fritidsfiske och fisketurism utvecklas och samordnas av ansvariga myndigheter i syfte att förse berörda intressenter med kunskapsunderlag.

    Denna studie har genomförts på Jordbruksverkets uppdrag. Syftet har varit att beskriva den forskning som pågår och de kompletterande forskningsbehov som finns med utgångspunkt från det uppdrag Jordbruksverket har att främja utvecklingen av fritidsfisket och fisketurismen. Det har också ingått att kartlägga och presentera goda exempel på fisketuristisk verksamhet och att utifrån dessa exempel beskriva vilket värde olika typer av sportfiske och fisketurism kan generera i olika typer av vatten. Det övergripande syftet är att identifiera och kommunicera framgångsfaktorer bakom lönsam fisketuristisk verksamhet och därigenom bidra till en utveckling av branschen och förutsättningarna att bo, leva och verka på landsbygden. För att uppfylla detta syfte har också förutsättningarna för att bedriva sådan verksamhet undersökts. I studien har sex goda exempel på fisketuristisk verksamhet i olika delar av landet fått beskriva sin verksamhet, dess förutsättningar och hinder.

  • 24.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Uppsala universitet.
    Cost-effective analysis of local policy measure to improve air quality in Stockholm: an exploratory study2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a result of the research undertaken in the project TESS - Traffic Emissions, Socioeconomic valuation and Socioeconomic measures. In this report, we have studied the cost-effectiveness of particulate matter (PM) reductions from local emission sources in the Stockholm area. The input in the analysis is cost and effectiveness data collected from other studies and reports on reductions in emissions from traffic and residential heating. Contrary to other cost-effectiveness studies we have also included abatement measures where the effect is mainly due to adaptations in behavior. One example is congestion charging that we have assumed have a zero cost. We have also investigated the effect of different targeting strategies. Either the focus is on achieving air quality limit values for PM10 or the focus is on improvement in human health. In the first case we have assumed that the aim is to reduce emissions of PM10. In the second case the aim has been formulated as a reduction of the number of years of life lost (YOLL) in the population that would result if we reduce the concentrations of particulate matter in the city. The cost-effective analysis is done with a simple linear programming model. According to our results, congestion charging, a change to low-emission vehicles and installation of accumulator tanks are the least cost abatement measures irrespective of the target used in the analysis. For congestion charging and low-emission vehicles this is due to the assumption made that the abatement cost is zero. Thereafter however, the choice of measures depends on the choice of target. While less use of studded tires is efficient in order to reduce PM10 emissions, this is not a measure that has a large impact on the reduction of YOLL. This result relies on the assumptions made regarding the mortality impact of non-exhaust PM versus combustion PM.

  • 25.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Uppsala universitet.
    Cost-effective analysis of traffic emission control: targeting strategies under uncertainty2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Emissions from traffic impose negative effects on human health, and recent evidence indicates that particulate matters (PM) are the detrimental air pollutant that causes most life years lost. To improve the efficiency of resource allocation, various mitigation measures have been proposed for reducing these emissions. However, whether or not the policy instruments are welfare improving, and if yes, how much more efficient they can be remain to be studied. To answer the questions, we need to both assess the economic cost of emission control and the health benefit due to the reduced PM emission by all proposed control instruments. This paper focuses on the cost efficiency for reaching pre-determined emission targets. We are concerned with reducing the concentrations of PM in Stockholm by local policy measures. Contrary to other cost-efficiency studies we have in this study included adaptations in behaviour in addition to the conventional technical measures alone. Since there are different emissions of PM, targeting PM10 may not be a good indicator of the health benefits. We therefore compare the performance of targeting PM and of targeting years of life lost (YOLL) and found interesting differences. We find that if the ultimate objective is to save lives or say life-years, it should be more appropriate to target YOLL, provided that YOLL can be properly predicted. Moreover, since the collected data on the effectiveness and cost of the policy instruments involve large uncertainty, we have employed a stochastic control model to explore the implications of the degree of uncertainty. We find that the higher fulfilment probability, the larger the marginal cost as expected. Also, for a given fulfilment probability, the more uncertain we are about the true effectiveness parameters, the larger the marginal costs.

  • 26.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Li, Chuan-Zhong
    Uppsala universitet.
    Valuing statistical lives or life years?: a choice experimental study2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Although the value of reducing mortality risks and that of reducing life year losses are closely related to each other, the valuation literature seems to treat them rather separately resulting in conflicting value estimates. While the former is more concerned with saved statistical lives from accidents, the latter is more directed to the lost life years due to air pollution etc. In this paper, we attempt to conduct an integrated valuation study for both types of values in the same choice experimental design. We formulate an econometric model which simultaneously takes into account both mortality risk reduction and life year loss. The results indicates that conditional on given remaining life years upon survival, the marginal willingness to pay is constant for each statistical life saved, which indicates strong scope effect. The marginal value per extra life year, however, is a diminishing function of the number of life years. We have also examined the effect of other covariates such as the respondents’ characteristics (e.g. gender and age), their self-confidence in making choices, and possible categorical behavior on the final value estimates.

  • 27.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Response to a social dilemma: an analysis of the choice between an economic and an environmental optimum in a policy making context2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries have begun to require benefit-cost analysis as a way of informing key regulatory decisions. However, its actual use seem to be limited, especially in the area of environmental, health, and safety regulation. Reasons for this seem to be lack of knowledge and experience among decision makers and that established quality objectives prevent the use of this type of analysis and deliberation. We present the results from an experiment designed to investigate choice behavior in a public sector context. Students with different academic majors were asked to act as decision makers. There were two choice situations: one in a municipality deciding on an action plan and one in a government agency having to propose a national limit value. In both settings, the outcome that would pass a benefit-cost test would not achieve a natural state of the environment, hence a social dilemma choice situation. We find that a majority of the respondents prefer outcomes that can be considered environmental “optimum” but that there is a difference depending on academic major. The choice context also influences the response behavior and so does the information about an international standard. The latter increases the likelihood to accept alternatives that imply higher costs.

  • 28.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hansen, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Infrastrukturpolitik på samhällsekonomisk grund2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A government committee, Trafikverksutredningen, has commissioned VTI to review the national infrastructure policy regarding construction and maintenance of roads and railways as well as concerning policies to ascertain its appropriate use. Based on our review, recommendations are given relative to the appropriate organisation of a future infrastructure agency and the ways in which responsibilities for different types of decisions can be split between the political and administrative/agency level in order to enhance efficiency in the use of scarce resources. The report has also been published as Appendix 2 to the official committee report (SOU 2009:31).

  • 29.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Miljöpolitik på samhällsekonomisk grund: en fallstudie om styrmedlet miljökvalitetsnormer för partiklar och kvävedioxid2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present project is to examine whether or not economic analysis and quantified assessments have been part of the information used when designing and implementing these environmental quality standards for nitrodioxid and particles in air. Such assessments arc regularly used in the transport sector in Sweden but several studies in Sweden and abroad have found that this is not the case for environmental policies. Most of these studies argue that this type of information is important for an efficient design of policy instruments and abatement measures. Efficient policy design was also considered an important part in the new environmental policy and the Swedish EPA was commissioned to develop methods of integrating costs of environmental impacts into economic and social decision- making models but also to investigate the possibility to use economic policy instruments. A finding in this study is that the Environmental quality standards have resulted in a number of activities at different levels of society. At the municipality level measurements of air quality are undertaken and information on these levels is provided to the public, while the Swedish EPA develops regulations and also makes assessments and decides on research programmes. The impact of the standards on air quality and societal costs however has so far been limited since few of the abatement measures presented in the action programmes have been implemented and these are to some extent introduced for other reasons than air quality. There is however a risk that the Environmental quality standards have resulted in abatement measures which have had a minor impact on human health. The conclusion is that socioeconomic analysis and quantified assessments are and have been lacking in the decision making regarding environmental policies for improved air quality in Sweden. Therefore policy makers are not notified about possible conflicts between improvements in air quality and other objectives in society and neither are they notified about possible synergies between different abatement measures. Quantified economic analysis is used in the transport sector partly for the reason of assessing trade-offs and possible conflicts between different policy objectives. This is also likely to be an important aspect to consider in the design of environmental policies and it is therefore troublesome that this kind of a systematic approach to evaluation is not used on a regular basis.

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