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  • 1.
    Gyergyay, Bernard
    et al.
    Rupprecht Consult Forschung & Beratung GmbH.
    Gomari, Syrus
    Rupprecht Consult Forschung & Beratung GmbH.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Friedrich, Markus
    University of Stuttgart.
    Sonnleitner, Jörg
    University of Stuttgart.
    Rupprecht, Siegfried
    Rupprecht Consult Forschung & Beratung GmbH.
    Backhaus, Wolfgang
    Rupprecht Consult Forschung & Beratung GmbH.
    Automation-ready framework for urban transport planning2018In: Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA 2018, April 16-19, 2018, Vienna, Austria, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mission of the H2020 CoEXist project is to enable mobility stakeholders to get “Automation-ready” – which CoEXist currently defines as conducting transport and infrastructure planning for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) in the same comprehensive manner as for existing modes such as conventional vehicles, public transport, pedestrians, and cyclists, while ensuring continued support for existing modes on the same network. This definition will be fine-tuned through stakeholder engagement processes. The H2020 CoEXist project started in May 2017 and will run until April 2020. This paper introduces this project and covers its progress until January 2018, with a focus on the methodology of the “Automation-ready framework” that provides a planning framework for urban road authorities to prepare for the introduction of CAVs on the road network. The framework includes elements about strategic urban mobility planning for CAVs and a clear guide for urban transport planners with a list of concrete actions that cities can do now to plan for CAVs on their road network

  • 2.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Estimating interaction delay in bicycle traffic from point measurements2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning for bicycle traffic is getting increasingly popular in cities, often motivated by that it is beneficial for the environment and the public health, and that it is a space efficient mode of transport. However, research on bicycle traffic has traditionally focused mainly on safety and mode choice, and less on traffic engineering topics such as investigating travel times, delays, and capacities. This study contributes to filling this gap by presenting a general method to estimate a volume -- delay function for bicycle traffic based on point measurements of passage time, speed, and lateral position, and, using estimates of the value of time in bicycle traffic, estimating the marginal cost of the interaction delay.

    The proposed method is based on an established method to estimate the distribution of desired speeds, and extends this to estimate the delay of the observed cyclists. The method is demonstrated using a data set from a bridge in Stockholm, Sweden, showing that there is significant interaction delay and associated cost even for relatively modest volumes, implying that interaction delay and its cost should be considered when planning for bicycle traffic.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Pedestrian traffic simulation platform2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is documentation of a simulation platform for simulation of pedestrian traffic, such as at public transport interchange stations. The simulation platform takes a microscopic perspective, and thus simulates each pedestrian separately and uses as a base the so called “social force model”. This document describes the model and the implementation of it in detail to facilitate a discussion of the methodology, expose it to review, and simplify for others to implement similar models.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings Universitet.
    Duives, Dorine
    Delft University of Technology.
    Daamen, Winnie
    Delft University of Technology.
    Hoogendoorn, Serge
    Delft University of Technology.
    The Many Roles of the Relaxation time Parameter in Force based Models of Pedestrian Dynamics2014In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 2, p. 300-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In force based models of pedestrian traffic, the relaxation time, τ, is related to the time it takes a pedestrian to adapt its motion to its preferences. An example of this is linear acceleration, but τ is also connected to how the agent adjusts to spatial variations in its preferred velocity, and affects evasive maneuvers. These many roles of τ may be a problem when calibrating force based models.

    We compare linear acceleration, to new data on, and simulations of, turning movements. The results indicate that the models predict drifting of a magnitude that is not supported by the data.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköping Universitet.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping Universitet.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköping Universitet.
    Local performance measures of pedestrian traffic2014In: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 159-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient interchange stations, where travelers are changing lines and/or travel modes, are essential for the functionality of the whole public transport system. By studying pedestrian movements, the level of service and effectiveness imposed by the design of the interchange station can be evaluated. We address the problem by microsimulation, where a social force model is used for the phenomenological description of pedestrian interactions. The contribution of this paper is the proposal of measures describing the density, delay, acceleration and discomfort for pedestrian flows. Simulation experiments are performed for the movements in two canonical pedestrian areas, a corridor and a corridor intersection. Clearly, each of the four measures gives a description for how pedestrians impede each other, and hence for the efficiency at the facility. There is, however, different information provided by each measure, and we conclude that they all are well-motivated for quantifying the level of service in a pedestrian flow. We also illustrate the outcome for a railway platform, with two trains arriving in parallel.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Performance evaluation of railway platform design using microscopic simulation2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient interchange stations, where travelers are changing lines and/or travel modes, are essential for the functionality of the whole public transport system. By studying pedestrian movements, the level of service and effectiveness imposed by the design of the interchange station can be evaluated.

    We address the problem by microsimulation, where a social force model is used for the phenomenological description of pedestrian interactions. The contribution of this paper is the proposal of measures describing the density, delay, acceleration and discomfort for pedestrian flows.

    Simulation experiments are performed for the movements in two canonical pedestrian areas, a corridor and a corridor intersection. Clearly, each of the four measures gives a description for how pedestrians impede each other, and hence for the efficiency at the facility. There is, however, different information provided by each measure, and we conclude that they all are well-motivated for quantifying the level of service in a pedestrian flow. We also illustrate the outcome for a railway platform, with two trains arriving in parallel.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping Universitet.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Waiting pedestrians in the social force model2015In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 419, p. 95-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microscopic simulation of pedestrian traffic is an important and increasingly popular method to evaluate the performance of existing or proposed infrastructure. The social force model is a common model in simulations, describing the dynamics of pedestrian crowds given the goals of the simulated pedestrians encoded as their preferred velocities.

    The main focus of the literature has so far been how to choose the preferred velocities to produce realistic dynamic route choices for pedestrians moving through congested infrastructure. However, limited attention has been given the problem of choosing the preferred velocity to produce other behaviors, such as waiting, commonly occurring at, e.g., public transport interchange stations.

    We hypothesize that: (1) the inclusion of waiting pedestrians in a simulated scenario will significantly affect the level of service for passing pedestrians, and (2) the details of the waiting model affect the predicted level of service, that is, it is important to choose an appropriate model of waiting.

    We show that the treatment of waiting pedestrians have a significant impact on simulations of pedestrian traffic. We do this by introducing a series of extensions to the social force model to produce waiting behavior, and provide predictions of the model extensions that highlight their differences. We also present a sensitivity analysis and provide sufficient criteria for stability.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Interaction delay and marginal cost in Swedish bicycle traffic2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply the method presented by Johansson (2018) to estimate a volume delay function and marginal cost for bicycle traffic on cycling paths separated from motorized traffic based on point measurements of speed and lateral positions from seven sites in Sweden. The results indicate that a quadratic volume – delay function fits the data well in the observed range of volumes, and that there are significant delays already at volumes far below the capacity due to the heterogeneity of the desired speed over the population. The total marginal cost of delay per unit flow is estimated to €9×10-5 h/km.

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