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  • 1.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm university, Stress research institute.
    Kircher, Albert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska institutet, Clinical neuroscience.
    The effects of driving situation on sleepiness indicators after sleep loss: A driving simulator study2009Ingår i: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 393-401Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost all studies of sleepy driving are carried out in driving simulators and with monotonous road conditions (no interaction with other cars). The present study investigated indicators of sleepy driving in a more challenging scenario after a night awake. 17 participants drove a high fidelity moving base driving simulator experiment while sleepiness was monitored physiologically and behaviourally. Short periods of situations of free driving (no other vehicles) alternated with short periods of following another vehicle (car following) with and without the possibility to overtake. The result showed that a night of prior sleep loss increased sleepiness levels at the wheel (eye closure duration and lateral variability) compared to after a night of normal sleep. Blink duration while overtaking was significantly lower compared to the other situations, it was at the same level as after night sleep. Speed when passing a stopped school bus was not significantly affected by sleepiness. However the warning caused a more rapid reduction of speed. In conclusion, a moderately challenging driving contest did not affect sleepiness indicators, but a very challenging one did so (overtaking). This suggests that it is important to monitor the driving situation in field operational tests of sleepy driving.

  • 2.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Kircher, Albert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    The effect of milled rumble strips versus virtual rumble strips on sleepy drivers: a driving simulator study2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the EU project IN-SAFETY is to create effective combinations of traditional infrastructure measures combined with new technology to increase the self-explanatory and forgiving nature of the road traffic system. This report describes the method, results and conclusions of a driving simulator experiment with the aim to evaluate the effect of two scenarios of importance selected on a theoretical framework within IN-SAFETY: lane departure warning in terms of milled rumble strips or as a driver support system, and the effect of an in-vehicle warning system informing there is a school bus ahead, simulating a system based on vehicle to vehicle information. Concerning the "lane departure warning", the experiment considered possibilities and consequences of replacing the infrastructure element milled rumble strips with a haptic in-vehicle system. Both centre and side line rumble strips on a two-lane highway were studied and compared with a baseline. In-vehicle "School bus ahead warning" was considered as an example of in-vehicle information used to inform the driver of upcoming events. Both rumble strips and school bus warning was studied for drivers after not having slept the night before driving as well as after a night's sleep in order to investigate consequences of driver state on system effectiveness. The results showed that there is a potential to substitute the infrastructure measure rumble strips with an in-vehicle assistance system. Moreover, in-vehicle information was found to be an effective way of reducing the subjects' speeds during temporary critical situations concerning traffic safety.

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  • 3.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Chalkia, Eleni
    Centre of Research and Technology Hellas/Hellenic Institute of Transport, Thessaloniki, Greece .
    Watch Out! Something Precious is Moving2011Ingår i: Infrastructure and Safety in a Collaborative World: Road Traffic Safety / [ed] E. Bekiaris, M. Wiethoff och E. Gaitanidou, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg , 2011, 1, s. 233-242Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    One critical situation when a driver needs to have a high degree of awareness, to avoid critical situations or crashes, is when passing a school bus, stopped for boarding or de-boarding of children. With the help of an experiment in VTI’s moving base driving simulator, a scenario, using in-vehicle information before the bus was reached, was tested. The aim was to enhance drivers’ perception, in order to reduce the speed of vehicles passing by the stopped bus. Both alert and sleep deprived drivers were tested.

    The results showed a significant speed reduction thanks to the information given beforehand. Sleep deprivation did not seem to have an impact on speed reduction. This suggests that the warning signals are seen and followed, regardless the drivers’ state of alertness. Thus, it seems likely that this type of information may be useful as an Intelligent Transport System (ITS), to provide driver support about upcoming hazards. One step towards further research in this direction is performed within the EU project SAFEWAY2SCHOOL, the main objectives of which are presented at the end of this chapter.

  • 4.
    Benz, Thomas
    et al.
    PTV AG, Germany.
    Gaitanidou, Evangelia
    Hellenic Institute of Transport, Greece.
    Spyropoulou, Ioanna
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Yannis, George
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Modelling road traffic safety: the IN-SAFETY approach2006Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th World Congress and Exhibition on Intelligent Transport Systems and Services, 2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a model-based approach to road traffic safety developed within the EU funded project IN-SAFETY. Several existing models, both micro- and macro-models, will be adapted and used to assess safety related effects of ITS measures. Examples of such measures include but are not limited to ADAS and IVIS. While the micro-models will determine the individual vehicles' safety related behaviour, the macro-models will find out about the network wide aspects. Various models will be extended to cope with the ITS measures envisaged and then applied to relevant safety critical conditions. Major input will be available from the different test sites of the project, which are spread to cover the most significant aspects within the EU road environment.

  • 5.
    Benz, Thomas
    et al.
    PTV AG, Karlsruhe.
    Gaitanidou, Evangelia
    Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Hellenic Institute of Transport (CERTH/HIT).
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Toffolo, Silvana
    IVECO, ER&C, Torino, Italy .
    Yannis, George
    National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens, Greece.
    Spyropoulou, Ioanna
    National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens, Greece.
    Models on the Road2011Ingår i: Infrastructure and Safety in a Collaborative World / [ed] E. Bekiaris, M. Wiethoff och E. Gaitanidou, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, 1, s. 97-124Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the application of macro and micro traffic simulation modelling for the needs of road safety assessment and planning is dealt. The overall concept of traffic simulation modelling regarding safety is presented, together with a series of macro and micro simulation models (namely RuTSim, S-Paramics, SATURN and VISSIM) that are widely used and have been specifically applied for the needs of IN-SAFETY project. ITS and ADAS related scenarios defined within IN-SAFETY, aiming to enhance the road safety level, have been tested through specially developed applications of these models and their results indicate the influence of the use of such technologies, as well as the effectiveness of the selected models in simulating and evaluating their effects. Future enhancement in the models will provide the possibility of further using them in the context of road safety and the involvement of innovative technologies.

  • 6.
    Burzio, G
    CRF.
    Kloth, M (Bidragsgivare)
    POLIS.
    Tapani, Andreas (Bidragsgivare)
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Dissemination strategy and plan2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The CityMove project aims to achieve a widespread public awareness of its technologies and solutions among the relevant stakeholders involved in the urban freight distribution :

    - final customers and residents;

    - industry (automotive OEMs, automotive supplier);

    - shippers;

    - freight carriers,

    - Public Administrations.

    This deliverable aims at setting out CityMove strategy and objectives related to awareness raising and dissemination. It also identifies target audience, potential dissemination tools and channels to which address effective actions and messages.

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  • 7.
    Cacciabue, Pietro Carlo
    et al.
    KITE Solutions.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    Univ. Lille Nord de France.
    Söderberg, Håkan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Unified Driver Model simulation and its application to the automotive, rail and maritime domains2013Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 21, s. 315-327Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the implementation of a model of a driver into a computerised numerical simulation. The model is developed to capture the essential characteristics and common aspects of cognition and behaviour of a human being in control of a “vehicle” in different surface transport systems, namely trains, cars and ships. The main functions of the simulation are discussed as well as the experiments carried out in different types of driving simulators to support the estimation of the parameters utilised in the numerical simulation. The validation processes carried out in the rail and maritime domains are also discussed together with a critical review of capacities and limitations of the proposed approach.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Framkomlighet och fördröjningar på E22 Fjälkinge-Gualöv2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    E22 i Skåne är motorväg på sträckorna Kristianstad-Fjälkinge och Gualöv - Bromölla. Sträckan mellan Fjälkinge och Gualöv på ca 8 km håller inte önskvärd standard. Sträckan är tvåfältig och i huvudsak 13 meter bred med många anslutande vägar. År 2004 skattades ÅDT-värdet för sträckan till ca 15 500 fordon med ca 10 % tunga fordon. Vägverket Region Skåne undersöker nu möjligheterna att förbättra trafiksäkerheten på sträckan genom ombyggnad till mötesfri landsväg med mitträcke. Tre olika alternativ benämnda E, L, S har studerats. Alternativ E innebär 1+1-väg hela sträckan. Alternativ L och S innebär två respektive tre tvåfältiga avsnitt per riktning. VTI har av Vägverket Region Skåne fått i uppdrag att studera reshastigheter, fördröjningar samt kölängder för befintlig väg samt de tre mötesfria alternativen. Effekter vid olika timflöden motsvarande trafiksituationer år 2004 samt 2020 ska undersökas. Beräkningarna ska ske med hjälp av VTI:s simuleringsmodell för landsvägstrafik, RuTSim. Vidare ska miljöpåverkan i form av emissioner för de olika alternativen uppskattas. Dessutom ska beräkningar göras av kölängder och fördröjningar till följd av att en traktor kör sträckan.

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  • 9.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Rural Highway Design Analysis Through Traffic Micro-Simulation2006Ingår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service, Tokyo: JSTE , 2006, s. 249-258Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, rural roads with separated oncoming lanes are becomingincreasingly important due to their superior safety properties.The level-of-service of such roads may however be reduced since traffic is restricted by the barrier between the oncoming lanes.This level-of-service impact can be evaluated through traffic microsimulation.Such simulation based assessments of rural highways require simulation models capable of modeling rural road traffic.This paper presents a simulation study of different rural road designs with separated oncoming lanes using a rural road traffic simulationmodel. The presentation illustrates the use of simulationfor rural highways and the result of the study indicates that oncominglane separation is a competitive alternative despite slightlevel-of-service reductions compared to undivided two-lane highways.

  • 10.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys.
    Olstam, Johan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Metod för beräkning av fördröjningar på vägavsnitt utan omkörningsmöjlighet2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta VTI notat presenterar en beräkningsmetod för beräkning av förväntad kölängd och restidsfördröjning för enfältiga vägavsnitt utan omkörningsmöjligheter. Metoden utvecklades 2001 och presenterades i ett PM. Bakgrunden till modellutvecklingen var att dåvarande Vägverket (nu Trafikverket) planerade att införa så kallade 1+1-vägar, det vill säga, vägar med längre delsträckor utan omkörningsmöjlighet. Den utvecklade beräkningsmetoden har sedermera visat sig värdefull även vid framkomlighetsberäkningar för 2+1-vägar med varierande andel tvåfältsavsnitt och har använts vid framtagning av hastighetsflödessamband till Trafikverkets ”Effektsamband för vägtransportsystemet”. Metoden använder avsnittslängd, trafikflöde samt medelhastighet och standardavvikelse som indata. Metoden är uppdelad på beräkning av effekter på grund av enstaka långsamtgående fordon samt effekter vid ”normal” hastighetsfördelning. Då mätdata saknades vid modellutvecklingen jämfördes metoden med simuleringskörningar med den mikroskopiska trafiksimuleringsmodellen AIMSUN. Resultaten visar på en relativt god korrelation men generellt så ger den analytiska metoden cirka 1,2 procent lägre restidsfördröjning. En stor del av skillnaden mellan modellerna vid måttliga flöden bör kunna härledas till det stokastiska inslaget i simuleringen. Det bör även påpekas att varken den analytiska modellen eller trafiksimuleringsmodellen har kalibrerats och validerats mot verkliga data för denna typ av väg. Skillnaden mellan modellerna innebär således inte att den analytiska modellen självklart är den som avviker från verkligheten.

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  • 11.
    Dukic, Tania
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Björketun, Urban
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Kettwich, Carmen
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Patten, Christopher
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Inverkan av elektroniska reklamskyltar på trafiksäkerhet: en studie på E4 i Stockholm2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar fyra delstudier som genomfördes med syftet att utvärdera hur elektroniskareklamskyltar (ERS) påverkar trafiksäkerheten.Delstudie 1 är en litteraturstudie som undersökte påverkan av ERS på trafiksäkerhet. Slutsatsen var attrörliga bilder samt placering av skyltarna har en stor inverkan på förarens beteende och att i mörker och iogynnsamma väderförhållanden kan ljusbilden upplevas som bländande vilket försvårar körningenspeciellt för äldre förare.Den andra och tredje delstudien jämförde trafiken före och efter installation av ERS. En jämförelse avhastighet och olyckor gjordes. Inga skillnader i trafikflöde och medelhastighet som beror på ERS kundepåvisas. Sammantaget fanns inget i det studerade olycksmaterialet som tyder på att olycksutfalletpåverkats av ERS.Den fjärde delstudien är en fältstudie som undersöker förares beteende i verklig miljö när de passerarERS på motorvägen. Mätningar av visuellt beteende samt körbeteende visar flera fall av visuell distraktionvid passage av ERS. Effekter på kördata kunde inte påvisas. Resultaten visar också en negativinställning till ERS för en majoritet av förarna.Sammanfattningsvis kan ingen påverkan från ERS på trafiksäkerhet ses på makronivå. Dock måsteeffekterna på visuell distraktion tas i beaktning och undersökas närmare innan det beslutas huruvida ERSblir en verklighet på svenska vägar.

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  • 12.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Forward, Sonja
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Niska, Anna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Säkerhetseffekten av ökat cyklande: kartläggning av nuläget för att planera för framtiden2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har cykeln lyfts fram som ett transportmedel med många positiva egenskaper och i nationella strategidokument har det uttryckts en önskan om att cyklingen ska öka. Samtidigt poängteras att säkerheten för cyklister måste bli bättre så att en ökad cykling inte leder till fler skadade och omkomna cyklister. För att klara av att öka cyklandet utan att försämra säkerheten, behövs underlag för att fatta beslut om vilka åtgärder som behöver genomföras. Bland annat behövs bättre kunskap om sambandet mellan cykelflöde och skaderisk i olika trafikmiljöer.

    I syfte att studera hur sättet att använda cykeln förändras över tid och hur cyklisters skaderisk påverkas av cykelflöde och trafikmiljön, har tre olika delstudier genomförts i det här projektet. I den första delstudien har en modell utvecklats som innehåller både färdmedelsval och destinationsval för cykel. I den andra delstudien har modeller för skaderisker hos cyklister utvecklats för olika olyckstyper och trafikmiljöer. I den tredje delstudien har interaktioner mellan olika trafikanter observerats, i syfte att studera hur dessa påverkas av nivån på cykelflödet. Sammantaget visar studierna i projektet att cykelflödet har betydelse för cyklisters olycksrisk. Högre flöden ger färre interaktioner per cyklist och lägre risk att skadas i såväl singelolyckor som kollision med motorfordon. Vi har också kunnat visa att det är möjligt att modellera färdmedels- och destinationsval för cykel såväl som att med hjälp av modeller beskriva effekter på cyklisters skaderisk. För att kunna göra bättre skattningar som mer rättvist beskriver verkligheten behövs dock ett bättre dataunderlag till modellerna, framförallt när det gäller cykelresor och beskrivning av cykelinfrastrukturen.

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  • 13.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Cassani, Mirella
    KITE.
    Amantini, Aladino
    KITE.
    Lai, Frank
    University of Leeds.
    Kecklund, Lena
    MTO Säkerhet AB.
    Arvidsson, Marcus
    MTO Säkerhet AB.
    Results from the analysis and input to the development and validation of the statistical models2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of Deliverable 5.1 of the ITERATE project is to present results of analyses made of the data collected in the ITERATE WP4 driving simulator experiments. The ITERATE WP4 driving simulator experiments consisted of train and car driving experiments carried out on a portable car/train driving simulator platform and in full scale car and train driving simulators. The analyses conducted and presented in this deliverable consist of hypothesis testing, cluster analysis and development of a procedure for estimation of parameters of relationships in the WP6 UMD simulation model. Findings from the analyses show that country was found to be an important factor in both the car and train driving experiment. Significant effects of the factor workload were also established in many of the events analysed. The conclusion of comparisons between the data collected in the portable and full scale simulators is that the ITERATE portable driving simulator platform is a suitable tool to studying underlying factors controlling driver behaviour at least for the car diving. However, there were differences between the portable and full scale train simulators. These differences have to be considered in later stages of the project. The next step within the ITERATE project is to estimate relevant relationships in the WP6 UMD simulation model based on the findings of the analyses presented in this deliverable. The analyses presented will also be important as inspiration for other studies outside of the present project with the ITERATE driving simulator dataset as an important source of data.

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  • 14.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Bernhardsson, Viktor
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Ekström, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ringdahl, Rasmus
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Variabla hastighetsgränser för Stockholms motorvägsnät: effekter av alternativa algoritmer och möjligheter till styrning genom estimerade trafiktillstånd2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Variabla hastighetsgränser är väl utbrett på Stockholms stadsnära motorvägar och en del av Stockholms Motorway Control System (MCS). Målet med dagens system är att minska risken för olyckor och följdolyckor vid låga hastigheter, trafikstockningar m.m. Detta görs genom att mäta medelhastigheten med hjälp av fasta detektorer och uppdatera hastigheten som visas på variabla meddelandeskyltar utifrån rådande trafiktillstånd. I och med att efterfrågan på resor i Stockholm under rusningstid överstiger den tillgängliga kapaciteten i vägnätet är behovet av ett effektivt trafiksystem stort. Variabla hastighetsgränser kan bidra till ökad framkomlighet, men då dagens system har som målsättning att öka säkerheten är effekter som leder till ökad framkomlighet begränsade. Dessutom finns det i dagens system ett stort beroende av fungerande detektorer som mäter trafiktillståndet så korrekt som möjligt för att valet av hastighet ska kunna bestämmas på ett effektivt sätt.

    Syftet med den här rapporten är att undersöka alternativa styralgoritmer för att bestämma variabla hastighetsgränser på Stockholms motorvägsnät. Målet är att öka framkomligheten jämfört med dagens system. Två olika sträckor med olika komplexitet, trafiksituation och problematik studeras. Valet av studerade styralgoritmer för de olika sträckorna väljs för att på bästa sätt motverka den problematiken som uppstår på de specifika sträckorna. Därmed kan val av algoritmer komma att skilja sig åt beroende på sträcka. I projektet utvärderas också om estimering av trafiktillståndet kan användas för att förbättra informationsflödet till algoritmerna då detektorer inte fungerar som de ska eller helt saknas, vilket i sin tur kan leda till förbättrad anpassning av de variabla hastighetsgränserna. Detta görs av för en av de studerade sträckorna. Styralgoritmerna utvärderas med mikroskopisk trafiksimulering och metoden utvecklad i projektet Mobile Millenium Stockholm (MMS), som bygger på en makroskopisk trafikflödesmodell och Kalman filtrering, används för estimering av trafiktillståndet.

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  • 15.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan (KTH).
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet.
    Analysis of a cooperative variable speed limit system using microscopic traffic simulation2015Ingår i: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 52, s. 173-186Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable speed limit systems where variable message signs are used to show speed limits adjusted to the prevailing road or traffic conditions are installed on motorways in many countries. The objectives of variable speed limit system installations are often to decrease the number of accidents and to increase traffic efficiency. Currently, there is an interest in exploring the potential of cooperative intelligent transport systems including communication between vehicles and/or vehicles and the infrastructure. In this paper, we study the potential benefits of introducing infrastructure to vehicle communication, autonomous vehicle control and individualized speed limits in variable speed limit systems. We do this by proposing a cooperative variable speed limit system as an extension of an existing variable speed limit system. In the proposed system, communication between the infrastructure and the vehicles is used to transmit variable speed limits to upstream vehicles before the variable message signs become visible to the drivers. The system is evaluated by the means of microscopic traffic simulation. Traffic efficiency and environmental effects are considered in the analysis. The results of the study show benefits of the infrastructure to vehicle communication, autonomous vehicle control and individualized speed limits for variable speed limit systems in the form of lower acceleration rates and thereby harmonized traffic flow and reduced exhaust emissions.

  • 16.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Bottleneck mitigation through a variable speed limit system using connected vehicles2020Ingår i: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2324-9943, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 213-233Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable speed limit (VSL) systems are used to improve the traffic conditions by adjusting the speed limits based on the current traffic situation. Advances in vehicle technology have made it possible to use connected vehicles in VSL systems. Connected vehicles can continuously transmit information about their speed and location, which can be used to estimate the current traffic conditions at arbitrary locations. In this study, we propose a VSL system based on connected vehicles. The aim is to also allow application of VSLs for non-recurrent bottleneck mitigation at arbitrary locations, unlike today's systems which require densely placed detectors or are limited to beforehand known bottleneck locations. The proposed system is evaluated by microscopic traffic simulation. The results indicate that the VSL system manage to improve traffic efficiency in a simulated incident scenario.

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  • 17.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Impacts of a Cooperative Variable Speed Limit System2012Ingår i: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 43, s. 595-606Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable Speed Limit Systems (VSLS) where variable message signs show speed limits based on, for example,traffic volume or road conditions exists on motorwaysin many countries. The purpose of the VSLS is to decrease the number of accidents and to increase traffic efficiency. Cooperative systems are a type of intelligent transport system that has received increasing interest lately. The central part of a cooperative system is communication between vehicles and/or vehicles and the infrastructure. In this paper, a cooperative systems extension of a VSLS is proposed and evaluated by means of traffic simulation. By adding cooperative systems functionality to an existing VSLS there is a potential for further increase in traffic efficiency and also to reduce the environmental impacts of the traffic on the road. In the proposed cooperative VSLS, communication between the vehicles and the infrastructure is made available via a roadside unit communicating the speed limits to vehicles upstream on the road. The results of the study show that the cooperative VSLS has a potential to contribute to flow harmonization and to reduce environmental impacts.

  • 18.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Microscopic traffic simulation for evaluation of a cooperative variable speed limit system2013Ingår i: 1st SUMO User Conference 2013. Proceedings, Berichte aus dem DLR-Institut für Verkehrssystemtechnik, Band 21, Berlin: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. Institut für Verkehrssystemtechnik, Berlin-Adlershof , 2013, s. 147-164Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable Speed Limit Systems (VSLS) where gantries are showing speed limits based on, for example, traffic volume or other road or traffic conditions exists on motorways in many countries. The aim of the VSLS is usually to improve traffic efficiency. Lately, cooperative intelligent transport systems allowing for communication between vehicles and/or vehicles and the infrastructure has received increasing interest. A cooperative VSLS, utilizing communication between vehicles and the infrastructure, could possibly result in further improved traffic efficiency and decreased exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. In this paper, a cooperative VSLS is evaluated by the use of a microscopic traffic simulator. The cooperative VSLS is described together with a discussion on how the modeling of the cooperative VSLS and the assumptions made regarding vehicles behavior will impact the final results of the evaluation. Results from the simulations are presented with in terms of traffic efficiency and exhaust emissions.

  • 19.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Traffic State Estimation Using Connected Vehicles and Stationary Detectors2018Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, artikel-id UNSP 4106086Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time traffic state estimation is of importance for efficient traffic management. This is especially the case for traffic management systems that require fast detection of changes in the traffic conditions in order to apply an effective control measure. In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the traffic state and speed and density, by using connected vehicles combined with stationary detectors. The aim is to allow fast and accurate estimation of changes in the traffic conditions. The proposed method does only require information about the speed and the position of connected vehicles and can make use of sparsely located stationary detectors to limit the dependence on the infrastructure equipment. An evaluation of the proposed method is carried out by microscopic traffic simulation. The traffic state estimated using the proposed method is compared to the true simulated traffic state. Further, the density estimates are compared to density estimates from one detector-based method, one combined method, and one connected-vehicle-based method. The results of the study show that the proposed method is a promising alternative for estimating the traffic state in traffic management applications.

  • 20.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Using connected vehicles in a variable speed limit system2017Ingår i: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier B.V. , 2017, s. 85-92Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable speed limit systems are used to improve the traffic conditions on specific road stretches. This is done by adjusting the speed limits according to current traffic situations. A variable speed limit system usually consist of stationary detectors to estimate the traffic state and variable message signs at predefined locations for the application of new speed limits. Advances in vehicle technology have made it possible to use connected vehicles to improve existing variable speed limit systems. Connected vehicles can continuously transmit information about speed and location. This can be used to get more detailed information about the traffic state. By including information from connected vehicles in a variable speed limit system there is a potential to identify bottlenecks also in between stationary detectors. Further, it is possible to use direct control of the connected vehicles to adjust vehicle speeds towards the new traffic situation. In this study, we propose such a variable speed limit system based on connected vehicles. The aim is to allow for application of variable speed limits in connection with non-recurrent bottlenecks. The proposed system is evaluated with respect to traffic efficiency using microscopic traffic simulation. An incident is simulated as an example of a non-recurrent bottleneck. The traffic performance when the proposed VSL system is applied is compared to the performance without the system. The results indicate that the VSL system manage to improve traffic efficiency in a majority of the simulated cases.

  • 21.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH.
    Characteristics of variable speed limit systems2018Ingår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikel-id 21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The control algorithm used for deciding on the speed limit in variable speed limit systems is crucial for the performance of the systems. The algorithm is designed to fulfil the purpose of the variable speed limit system, which can be one or several of the following aspects: increasing safety, increasing efficiency and decreasing environmental impacts. Today, many of the control algorithms used in practice are based on fixed thresholds in speed and/or flow. Therefore, they are not necessarily reflecting the current traffic conditions. Control algorithms with a greater level of complexity can be found in the literature. In this paper, four existing control algorithms are investigated to conclude on important characteristics affecting the performance of the variable speed limit system. The purpose of the variable speed limit system and, consequently, the design of the control algorithm differ. Requirements of the investigated control algorithms are that they should be easy to interpret and the execution time should be short. The algorithms are evaluated through microscopic traffic simulation. Performance indicators related to traffic safety, traffic efficiency and environmental impacts are presented. The results show that the characteristics of the variable speed limit system and the design of the control algorithm will have effect on the resulting traffic performance, given that the drivers comply with the variable speed limits. Moreover, the time needed to trigger the system, the duration and the size of speed limit reductions, and the location of the congestion are factors of importance for the performance of variable speed limit systems.

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  • 22.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), Stockholm.
    Effects of a Cooperative Variable Speed Limit System on Traffic Performance and Exhaust Emissions2013Ingår i: TRB 92nd Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable Speed Limit Systems (VSLS) where variable message signs show speed limits based on traffic or road conditions exist on motorways in many countries. The purpose of the VSLS is to decrease the number of accidents while increasing efficiency of traffic system. Cooperative systems are a type of intelligent transport system that has received increasing interest lately. The central part of a cooperative system is communication between vehicles and/or vehicles and the infrastructure. In this paper, a cooperative systems extension of a VSLS is proposed and evaluated by means of microscopic traffic simulation. In the proposed cooperative VSLS, communication between the vehicles and the infrastructure is made available via a roadside unit communicating the speed limits to vehicles upstream on the road. Both aggregate and micro-scale emission models are used to estimate emission from vehicle states in traffic flow. The results of the study show that the cooperative VSLS has a potential to contribute to flow harmonization and to reduce environmental impacts. The emission estimates in the study are dependent on the emission models being applied.

  • 23.
    Hegeman, Geertje
    et al.
    DHV BV Mobility Department.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Hoogendoorn, Serge
    Delft University of Technology.
    Overtaking assistant assessment using traffic simulation2009Ingår i: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 617-630Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution presents the results of a microscopic traffic simulation study of the potential effects of an overtaking assistant for two-lane rural roads. The overtaking assistant is developed to support drivers in judging whether or not an overtaking opportunity can be accepted based on the distance to the next oncoming vehicle. Drivers have been found to consider this to be a difficult part of an overtaking manoeuvre. The assistants effects on traffic efficiency, driver comfort and road safety have been investigated using traffic simulation. The results indicate that this type of overtaking assistant can provide safety benefits in terms of increased average time-to-collision to the next oncoming vehicle during overtaking manoeuvres. This safety benefit can be achieved without negative consequences for traffic efficiency and driver comfort. A driver assistance system that supports the distance judging part of overtaking manoeuvres can therefore contribute to improved traffic conditions on the two-lane rural roads of the future.

  • 24.
    Janson Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Comparison of car-following models2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic simulation is an often used tool in the study of traffic systems. A traffic simulation model consists of several sub-models; each handles one specific task in the simulation. These sub-models include, among others, car-following. This model controls the interactions with the preceding vehicle in the same lane. This paper compares and describes the car-following models used in the four traffic microsimulation software packages AIMSUN, MITSIM, VISSIM, and the Fritzsche car-following model. A variant of the Fritzsche model is used in the software tool Parmics. Paramics exists in two versions. The differences between the car-following models used in these versions and the Fritzsche car-following model is however unknown. Both similarities and differences between the models as well as model's individual properties are clarified. Two of the four models, the Fritzsche model and the model included in VISSIM, have a similar approach to car-following, whereas the other two models have fundamentally different approaches. However, the resulting following behaviours of the models show similarities even though the car-following approaches are different.

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  • 25.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköping Universitet.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping Universitet.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköping Universitet.
    Local performance measures of pedestrian traffic2014Ingår i: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159, Vol. 6, nr 1-2, s. 159-183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient interchange stations, where travelers are changing lines and/or travel modes, are essential for the functionality of the whole public transport system. By studying pedestrian movements, the level of service and effectiveness imposed by the design of the interchange station can be evaluated. We address the problem by microsimulation, where a social force model is used for the phenomenological description of pedestrian interactions. The contribution of this paper is the proposal of measures describing the density, delay, acceleration and discomfort for pedestrian flows. Simulation experiments are performed for the movements in two canonical pedestrian areas, a corridor and a corridor intersection. Clearly, each of the four measures gives a description for how pedestrians impede each other, and hence for the efficiency at the facility. There is, however, different information provided by each measure, and we conclude that they all are well-motivated for quantifying the level of service in a pedestrian flow. We also illustrate the outcome for a railway platform, with two trains arriving in parallel.

  • 26.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Performance evaluation of railway platform design using microscopic simulation2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient interchange stations, where travelers are changing lines and/or travel modes, are essential for the functionality of the whole public transport system. By studying pedestrian movements, the level of service and effectiveness imposed by the design of the interchange station can be evaluated.

    We address the problem by microsimulation, where a social force model is used for the phenomenological description of pedestrian interactions. The contribution of this paper is the proposal of measures describing the density, delay, acceleration and discomfort for pedestrian flows.

    Simulation experiments are performed for the movements in two canonical pedestrian areas, a corridor and a corridor intersection. Clearly, each of the four measures gives a description for how pedestrians impede each other, and hence for the efficiency at the facility. There is, however, different information provided by each measure, and we conclude that they all are well-motivated for quantifying the level of service in a pedestrian flow. We also illustrate the outcome for a railway platform, with two trains arriving in parallel.

  • 27.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping Universitet.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Waiting pedestrians in the social force model2015Ingår i: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 419, s. 95-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microscopic simulation of pedestrian traffic is an important and increasingly popular method to evaluate the performance of existing or proposed infrastructure. The social force model is a common model in simulations, describing the dynamics of pedestrian crowds given the goals of the simulated pedestrians encoded as their preferred velocities.

    The main focus of the literature has so far been how to choose the preferred velocities to produce realistic dynamic route choices for pedestrians moving through congested infrastructure. However, limited attention has been given the problem of choosing the preferred velocity to produce other behaviors, such as waiting, commonly occurring at, e.g., public transport interchange stations.

    We hypothesize that: (1) the inclusion of waiting pedestrians in a simulated scenario will significantly affect the level of service for passing pedestrians, and (2) the details of the waiting model affect the predicted level of service, that is, it is important to choose an appropriate model of waiting.

    We show that the treatment of waiting pedestrians have a significant impact on simulations of pedestrian traffic. We do this by introducing a series of extensions to the social force model to produce waiting behavior, and provide predictions of the model extensions that highlight their differences. We also present a sensitivity analysis and provide sufficient criteria for stability.

  • 28.
    Jonkers, Eline
    et al.
    TNO.
    Carsten, Oliver
    ITS Leeds.
    Nellthorp, John
    ITS Leeds.
    Olstam, Johan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Data and framework for scaling up2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The global aim of the ecoDriver project is to increase the fuel efficiency by 20% by optimising the driver-powertrain-environment feedback loop and delivering effective advice to drivers. In the course of the project, field experiments will take place with a wide range of vehicles —e.g. cars, light trucks and vans, medium and heavy trucks and buses —covering both individual and collective transport. The last step of the project (Sub Project 5; SP5) is to scale up the results from these tests and analysecosts and benefits for a number of future scenarios.

    This deliverable describes the data needs for each step. It also contains a description of the approaches proposed for the scenario building, the microscopic traffic simulations, the scaling up and the cost-benefit analysis.

  • 29.
    Lindberg, Therese
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Discrete Event Simulation of Bus Terminals: A Modular Approach with a High Spatial Resolution2021Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 2021, artikel-id 8862893Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Interchange stations with their many connecting modes and lines are central for a high-qualitypublic transport system. Bus access at the station needs to operate reliably and efficiently in order to prevent congestion and queues. To this end, a conceptual simulation model for evaluation of bus terminal operations is presented in this paper. It is based on discrete event simulation and able to describe the detailed movements and interactions that occur between vehicles at larger terminals. The model has a modular approach, where common spatial sections at terminals are represented bymodules that can be easily combined into many different terminal layouts. An implementation of the model is presented and, as a first sensitivity test, applied in a numerical experiment representingNorrköping interchange station in Sweden. The results indicate that the model can be a useful tool in planning processes.

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  • 30.
    Lindberg, Therese
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping University.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish Transport Agency.
    Microsimulation Of Bus Terminals: A Case Study From Stockholm2020Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2020 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] K.-H. Bae, B. Feng, S. Kim, S. Lazarova-Molnar, Z. Zheng, T. Roeder, and R. Thiesing, 2020Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    When new bus terminals are being planned or existing ones redesigned, suitable tools that are able todescribe the complex situation at a terminal are needed. Using microsimulation, vehicle movements andinteractions can be simulated and the congestion and capacity of a terminal can be evaluated. In this study,a discrete event simulation model is used in a case study of the Slussen bus terminal in Stockholm, Sweden.The model is calibrated and validated with empirical data that are automatically collected at the terminal.Already with this limited amount of data, the parameter time per boarding passenger can be calibrated witha relative error less than 1 % and the validation gives further insights into the data needed for calibrationof a terminal simulation model.

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  • 31.
    Lindberg, Therese
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    A simulation model for assessment and evaluation of bus terminal design2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Interchange stations with their connections between modes and lines are central for a high quality public transport system. Bus access at the station needs to operate reliably and efficiently in order to prevent congestion and queues. Here, a discrete event simulation model of vehicle movements and interactions at bus terminals is developed and implemented. The model has a modular approach, where common spatial sections at terminals are represented by modules that can be combined into various terminal layouts. These modules describe the events a vehicle may go through in a particular section of the terminal, such as arriving to a bus stop or stopping at a traffic light at the exit. The model can be used in planning processes, both for new terminals and redesign of existing ones, and is able to describe the detailed movements and interactions between vehicles that occur at larger terminals. The model is tested in a numerical experiment representing Norrköping interchange station in Sweden. The experiment shows that the model is able to evaluate and compare different scenarios and can thus be a useful tool in planning processes.

     

  • 32.
    Lindberg, Therese
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    A Simulation Model of Local Public Transport Access at a Railway Station2017Ingår i: / [ed] N. Tomii, I.A. Hansen, J. Rodriguez, P. Pellegrini, S. Dauzère-Pérès, D. De Almeida, 2017, s. 922-943Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A high quality railway service requires that all parts of the complete journey, from door to door, are well-functioning. This includes any transfers taking place, as well as last mile transportation to and from the railway station. Since the last mile often consists of local public transport, the access to this mode at stops and terminals and how well these are functioning are of great importance. A critical aspect is the capacity of the stop or the terminal in relation to the number of departures, where a higher capacity generally means an increase in size. At the same time it is desirable to limit the use of valuable land and keeping the facility as small as possible. The trade-off between capacity and size needs to be evaluated when designing stops and terminals.

    In this study we have developed a discrete event simulation model of a combined bus and tram stop, which is a part of a larger multi-modal station. The objective of the study is to evaluate the modelling approach for the situation at hand. Of special interest are the complexities due to the different driving patterns of buses and trams. The developed model is capable of evaluating design alternatives and is applied in a case study of a stop at Norrköping railway station in southern Sweden. The model was found to realistically capture the various events occurring at such a stop and the case study further showed that the model is a useful tool in design evaluation.

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  • 33.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Rydergren, Claes
    Linköping University.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Development of a large-scale transport model with focus on cycling2020Ingår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 134, s. 164-183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a transport model to better model cycling demand. The model improves modelling of cycling in several ways compared to a conventional transport model. First, it uses a detailed bicycle network containing information about existing bicycle infrastructure. Second, generalised cost measures based on different bicycle route choice models are calculated and compared to evaluate how to best represent the impact of bicycle infrastructure in the model. Third, the model utilizes a refined zone system with smaller zones of size 250 m × 250 m. Using these smaller zones, more short-distance tours are included in the model, and these are predominantly walking and cycling trips. Fourth, the model considers cycling also as an access mode choice to public transport. Therefore, the model treats cycling and public transport as both competing and complementary modes. Results show that the model captures detailed individual heterogeneity in cycling demand for different trip purposes. Impacts of bicycle infrastructure, land use characteristics and individual/household socio-demographics are investigated. Detailed individual level travel time and generalised cost are derived for cyclists of different socio-demographics. The result highlights the importance of choosing a good measure of generalised cost, given that different bicycle route choice models result in different effects of bicycle infrastructure. In future applications, the model can be used to evaluate proposed bicycle investments regarding their impact on link flow, bicycle route choice, modal shift and generation of completely new tours. The model can also be a powerful tool in a cost-benefit analysis of bicycle investments.

  • 34.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköping University.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Appraisal of cycling infrastructure investments using a transport model with focus on cycling2020Ingår i: Case Studies on Transport Policy, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2213-6258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) for cycling infrastructure investments are less sophistically developed compared to the ones for private cars and public transport, and one of main reasons is the lack of “well-developed” transport models for cycling. In this study, a dedicated transport model for cycling is used to appraise cycling infrastructure investments in Stockholm, Sweden. The model captures the impact of a change in cycling infrastructure on cycling route choice, mode choice, destination choice and trip generation and calculates cycling flow on link level. the generalised cost measure defined in the route choice model captures the impact of cycling infrastructure. Results suggest that although cycling flow on the links with investment may increase substantially, only a small share comes from modal shift and thus the external effects such as reducing car congestion and emissions are marginal. For all three scenarios investigated, over 97% of the benefits measured in the unit of generalised cost belong to the existing cyclists. The route choice model does not minimize travel time but generalised cost which also measures health, safety benefits and other possible benefits that may be considered by the cyclists when they choose to cycle. In fact, travel time saving benefits of the investments evaluated in this paper are all negative. The existing effect evaluation models therefore need to be adjusted to be more consistent with the transport model.

  • 35.
    Liu, Chengxi
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH.
    En transportmodell med fokus på cykeltrafik: modellutveckling och scenarioanalyser2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökad andel resor med hållbara färdmedel är en förutsättning för att kombinera fortsatt tillväxt med minskad resursförbrukning och miljöpåverkan. I många europeiska städer har cykel blivit ett alltmer populärt färdmedel under de senaste decennierna. Dagens storskaliga transportmodeller, som utgör viktiga verktyg för utvärderingar och samhällsekonomiska analyser, är dock oftast fokuserade på modellering av resor med bil eller kollektivtrafik. Den här rapporten presenterar en tur-baserad transportmodell med syfte att bättre modellera cykelresor. Nyheterna i denna modell är bland annat ett detaljerat cykelnät som innehåller mer än 200 000 länkar och att modellen nyttjar en mer detaljerad zonindelning. Jämfört med nuvarande verktyget för samhällsekonomisk analys av cykelåtgärder, GCkalk, beskriver modellen ett fullständigt utbud och efterfrågan för cykel på detaljerad geografisk nivå. Modellen har skattats på data från den senaste resvaneundersökningen i Stockholms län från 2015 och representerar därmed observerat resebeteende. Modellen beaktar även cykel som anslutningsfärdmedel till resor med kollektivtrafik. Därigenom behandlar modellen cykel- och kollektivtrafik både som konkurrerande och som komplementära färdmedel och modellen kan utvärdera effekten av en förbättring av cykelinfrastrukturen på både enbart cykelresande och på cykel som anslutningsfärdmedel till kollektivtrafikstationer. Modellen är validerad mot cykelräkningar i Stockholm stad från september och oktober 2015. Modellen har testats på sex scenarier valda från Stockholms stads investeringsplan. Resultaten visar att investeringarna har en begränsad effekt på överflyttning mellan färdmedel och en måttlig effekt på befintliga cyklisters ruttval, restid och generaliserad kostnad.

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  • 36.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Evaluation of Safety Effects of Driver Assistance Systems Through Traffic Simulation2006Ingår i: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, nr 1953, s. 81-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Road safety is a major concern in all countries, and large effortsare constantly dedicated to create safer traffic environments. Todayincreasing attention is turned toward active safety improvingcountermeasures that improve road safety by reducing accidentrisks. Such active countermeasures include advanced driver assistancesystems (ADAS). To ensure that these new applicationsresult in real safety improvements, a priori estimations of safetyeffects are needed. This paper considers estimation of the safetyeffects of ADAS through traffic simulation. Requirements imposedon a traffic simulation model to be used for ADAS evaluation arepresented, and a car-following model to be used in simulations thatinclude ADAS-equipped vehicles is proposed. ADAS have an impacton traffic through the functionalities of ADAS and throughchanges in driver behavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles. Driverbehavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles has usually not been consideredin previous simulation studies, including those for ADASequippedvehicles. Simulation runs of rural road traffic that usedthe proposed car-following model did, however, indicate that behavioralchanges caused by the ADAS were important factors forthe safety impact. Modeling of the behavior of drivers in ADASequippedvehicles is therefore essential for reliable conclusions onthe road safety effects of ADAS.

  • 37.
    Miglietta, Maurizio
    et al.
    CNR.
    Routhier, Jean Louis
    LET.
    Pluvinet, Pascal
    LET.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Roissac, Zohra
    Volvo.
    Buhl, Hanna
    Schenker.
    Boot, Marco Aimo
    Iveco.
    Evaluation plan: dissemination level: public2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Deliverable 5.1 aims at developing a holistic evaluation methodology based on a comprehensive project assessment framework. The evaluation methodology indicates at what extent the application of CityMove to a real urban context will improve the freight transport and logistics operation, safety, including performance, energy-consumption, technical reliability, cost-effectiveness, externalities (environmental and noise impacts). The CityMove project aims at developing a new vehicle concept for the Delivery of Goods and Urban Services. CityMove is aimed at enhancing freight transport logistics industry towards long-term efficiency and growth, having an impact on safety, congestion, air pollution, noise pollution anddependence on fossil fuels. A goods delivery vehicle is typically designed around a general architecture, designed not specifically for urban areas. CityMove is instead aimed at developing a new vehicle architecture specifically designed for the optimisation of the freight transport in urban areas.

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  • 38.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Bernhardsson, Viktor
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    van Noort, Martijn
    TNO.
    Wilmink, Isabel
    TNO.
    Klunder, Gerdien
    TNO.
    Choudhury, Charisma
    ITS Leeds.
    Tate, James
    ITS Leeds.
    Ligterink, Norbert
    TNO.
    Carsten, Oliver
    O.M.J.Carsten@its.leeds.ac.uk.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Traffic system impacts of green driving support systems2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The global aim of the ecoDriver project was to deliver the most effective advice to drivers on fuel efficient driving by optimising the driver-powertrain-environment feedback loop. More specifically, the focus of the project was on the interaction between technology and the driver, since the behaviour of a driver is a critical element in energy efficiency. By increasing the acceptance of eco-driving applications through intelligent HMI and advice solutions, the ecoDriver project substantially contributes to the Europe 2020 goals through a much needed reduction of gas emissions and energy usage in transport, and thereby a significant reduction in the negative impact of transport on the environment.

    The ecoDriver advice to drivers covers the whole spectrum, from previewing the upcoming situation, over optimising the current driving situation, to post-drive feedback and learning. The aim of the project was to optimise human machine interfaces (HMIs) and advice to drivers for both portable devices within the vehicle which provide assistance to the driver (nomadic devices) and built-in systems, and to compare the effectiveness of each. This was addressed across a wide range of vehicles — e.g. cars, light trucks and vans, medium and heavy trucks and buses — covering both individual and collective transport. Lastly, the project did not only examine driving with current and near-term powertrains, but also with a full range of future vehicles, including hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles.

  • 39.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    A review of guidelines for applying traffic simulation to level-of-service analysis2011Ingår i: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, s. 771-780Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microscopic traffic simulation is often used as an alternative or complementary tool to analytical methods and procedures for level-of-service analyses of road traffic facilities. The increased usage of traffic simulation for level-of-service analysis has raised a need for guidelines on how to apply and use traffic simulation models. Many countries have developed or are currently developing traffic simulation guidelines. This is also the case in Sweden, were the new Swedish highway capacity manual will include a chapter on traffic simulation. This paper presents a survey of the current traffic simulation guidelines in USA, Germany, UK, Denmark and Sweden. The guidelines have been analysed with respect to the aspects covered: when to apply simulation; the workflow of a simulation study; data collection needs; calibration and validation; experimental design; statistical analysis; and calculation of level-of-service measures. The guidelines analysed are focused on different aspects and none of them covers all of the topics listed above. Some of the guidelines are connected to specific simulation software packages and some are written in a more general manner. Most of the aspects covered are general and applicable in any country. The main reason for developing country specific guidelines is often a need for guidelines in the local language. Experimental design and statistical analysis are not treated extensively in the guidelines; neither do the guidelines discuss how to deal with calibration based on limited real world measurements. Calculation of level-of-service measures are quite extensively treated in some of the guidelines and to a little extent in others. All of the guidelines contain important contributions for the simulation chapter of the new Swedish highway capacity manual

  • 40.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Comparison of car-following models2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Enhancements to the Intelligent Driver Model2010Ingår i: TRB 89th annual meeting Compendium of Papers DVD, Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board , 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a modified version of the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM) [M. Treiber, A. Hennecke, and D. Helbing, Phys. Rev. E. 62, 2 (2000)]. The IDM is a car-following model. A car-following model controls the accelerations of individual vehicles in a microscopic traffic simulation model. The original IDM has been observed to result in negative vehicle accelerations in situations where the distance to the preceding vehicle is much larger than the estimated desired safety distance. In this paper, we propose a modified function for the interaction with preceding vehicles which do not include this model property. A comparison of the results of simulations with the original and the modified IDM shows that the modified IDM results in higher average speed for a specific flow, a less steep speed-flow relationship and higher capacity. The speed-flow relationships of simulations with the modified IDM are also shown to better match the speed-flow relationships in real traffic on Swedish freeways. The differences between the results for the original and the modified IDM increase if the models are extended to include drivers' anticipation of the downstream traffic condition.

  • 42.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Developing a unified model of driving behaviour for cars and trains2012Ingår i: Human factors of Systems and Technology / [ed] D. de Waard, N. Merat, A.H. Jamson, Y. Barnard and O.M.J. Carsten, Maastricht: Shaker Publishing , 2012, s. 343-357Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Hastighet-flödessamband för mötesfria landsvägsutformningar2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    The Swedish Road Administration is planning to install median barriers on narrow two-lane rural roads with paved carriageway widths down to 9 m. Overtaking lanes will be added on the road sections where barriers are installed. The added overtaking lanes will make it possible to overtake on at least 15 per cent of the road length. The narrow roads with median barrier will therefore mostly get one lane per direction. The result will be a "sparse" 2+1-road as opposed to the conventional Swedish 2+1-design with a continuous overtaking lane that is alternating between the two driving directions. VTI has, by commission of the Swedish Road Administration, constructed speed-flow relationships for "sparse" 2+1-roads with different percentages of the road lengths including an overtaking lane. The speed-flow relationships are based on simulation using the Rural Traffic Simulator (RuTSim). Speed-flow relationships for a normal two-lane road and a conventional 2+1-road have also been constructed using the same method to allow comparison of the "sparse" 2+1-road designs with conventional designs. The length of the overtaking lanes has been assumed to be 850 m on the "sparse" road designs and 1 500 m on the conventional 2+1-design. Moreover, the road alignment has been assumed not to place any additional restrictions on the quality-of-service.

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  • 44.
    Strömgren, Per
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Olstam, Johan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköping Universitet.
    A Model for Traffic Simulation of Flared Rural Road Intersections2015Ingår i: Transportation Research Procedia, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 6, s. 239-258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a micro-simulation model that takes flared design of rural intersections into consideration. The intersection model is designed with input parameters that describe the geometric conditions of the flare. The behavior model includes both a traditional gap-acceptance sub-model and a passage model for modelling of vehicles’ possibility to pass other vehicles using the flare. The intersection model developed has been implemented in the traffic micro simulation model RuTSim. The gap-acceptance part of the model has been calibrated using data for stop and yield 3-way intersections. The validation was performed by using video recordings to calculate delay for the yield regulated intersection and time in queue and service time for the stop regulated intersection. The results from the validation simulations correspond well with the empirical validation data. The effect of the flare on delay has been studied by using 3 different intersection lay-outs and different levels of minor and major flow. The result shows that the delay is decreasing with increasing intersection radius.

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  • 45.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    A Traffic Simulation Modeling Framework for Rural Highways2005Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Models based on micro-simulation of traffic flows have proven to be useful tools in the study of various traffic systems. Today, there is a wealth of traffic microsimulation models developed for freeway and urban street networks. The road mileage is however in many countries dominated by rural highways. Hence, there is a need for rural road traffic simulation models capable of assessing the performance of such road environments. This thesis introduces a versatile traffic micro-simulation model for the rural roads of today and of the future. The developed model system considers all common types of rural roads including effects of intersections and roundabouts on the main road traffic. The model is calibrated and validated through a simulation study comparing a two-lane highway to rural road designs with separated oncoming traffic lanes. A good general agreement between the simulation results and the field data is established.

    The interest in road safety and the environmental impact of traffic is growing. Recent research has indicated that traffic simulation can be of use in these areas as well as in traditional capacity and level-of-service studies. In the road safety area more attention is turning towards active safety improving countermeasures designed to improve road safety by reducing the number of driver errors and the accident risks. One important example is Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). The potential to use traffic simulation to evaluate the road safety effects of ADAS is investigated in the last part of this thesis. A car-following model for simulation of traffic including ADAS-equipped vehicles is proposed and the developed simulation framework is used to study important properties of a traffic simulation model to be used for safety evaluation of ADAS. Driver behavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles has usually not been considered in simulation studies including ADAS-equipped vehicles. The work in this thesis does however indicate that modeling of the behavior of drivers in ADAS-equipped vehicles is essential for reliable conclusions on the road safety effects of ADAS.

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  • 46.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Analysis of Rumble Strips and Driver Fatigue Using Traffic Simulation2008Ingår i: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 14, s. 69-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in in-vehicle Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is increasing. New systems such as Adaptive Cruise Controls and Collision Avoidance Systems are currently introduced at a rapid pace. ADAS can both substitute and complement traditional infrastructure based safety improving counter measures. To exploit the full potential of these systems, it is necessary to estimate the systems future impact already at early development stages. This paper presents a traffic simulation framework for analysis of the aggregation of individual driver/vehicle behaviour due to ADAS to effects on the traffic system. Application of the simulation framework is exemplified by a study of centre line rumblestrips on rural roads. The effects of physical milled rumble strips are compared to the effects of “virtual” in-vehicle rumblestrips for both alert and sleep deprived drivers. The use of traffic simulation made it possible to study the combined impact of changes in drivers’ free driving speed, reaction time and overtaking behaviour. Indications that the different rumble strips have an impact on average journey speeds were found amongst the simulation results. Changes in safety indicators that can be related to changes in overtaking behaviour were also observed.

  • 47.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Analysis of system effects of driver assistance systems by traffic simulation2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in in-vehicle Advanced Driver Assistance Systems(ADAS) is increasing. New systems such as Adaptive Cruise Controlsand Collision Avoidance Systems are currently introduced at a rapidpace. To exploit the full potential of these systems it is necessary to es-timate the systems future impact already at early development stages.This paper introduces a traffic simulation framework for analysis ofthe effects of ADAS on the traffic system. The framework considersboth the system functionalities of the ADAS as well as behaviouralchanges of drivers in equipped vehicles. Such behavioural changeshave usually not been considered in previous traffic simulation studiesof ADAS. Application of the simulation framework is exemplified bytwo studies of ADAS that assist drivers on two-lane highways

  • 48.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Effekter vid mötesfri utformning av E18 Karlskoga-Lekhyttan2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    VTI has, by commission of WSP, compared the quality-of-service of an alternative rural road design to the performance of the existing road on a section of the national route E18. This studied part of E18 is located between Karlskoga and Lekhyttan. The alternative design has separated oncoming lanes and a lane design that follows that of the existing road with an addition of two 1,5 km long overtaking sections. The total length of the road is 15 km and no substantial traffic flows enter or exit the road along the studied stretch. All analyses were to be based on simulation results of the VTI rural traffic simulation model, RuTSim. AADT along the road has been estimated to 13 280 vehicles for the design horizon year 2025. Two hourly traffic flows for the simulation were constructed based on this estimate. One of the flows was set to 10.0 per cent of AADT for passenger cars and 7.65 per cent of AADT for heavy vehicles in order to correspond to the flow during the design hour. The other flow, 6.2 per cent of AADT for both passenger cars and heavy vehicles, corresponds to the average weekday traffic volume.

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  • 49.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Estimating Traffic System Wide Impacts of Driver Assistance Systems Using Traffic Simulation2011Ingår i: Human Modelling in Assisted Transportation / [ed] P.C. Cacciabue, M. Hjalmdahl, A. Luedtke och C. Riccioli, Italia: Springer-Verlag Italia Srl , 2011, 1, s. 173-180Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to estimate impacts of proposed driver assistance systems already at early stages of the system development process. Estimations of the impacts of new technologies have to be based on laboratory studies and modelling. This paper presents a traffic simulation based framework for estimation of the traffic system wide impacts of driver assistance systems. The framework includes a two-step methodology. In the first step of the analysis, the considered driver assistance system’s impact on driver behaviour is observed. The second step of the analysis consist of traffic simulation modelling taking into account the system functionality as well as the observed driver behaviour of the considered driver assistance system. Driver behaviour studies for use of the data for traffic simulation modelling is discussed and traffic simulation modelling of different types of driver assistance systems is exemplified by modelling of an overtaking assistant, of in-vehicle virtual rumble strips and of adaptive cruise control.

  • 50.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Evaluation of safety effects of driver assistance systems through traffic simulation2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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