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  • 1.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm university, Stress research institute.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska institutet, Clinical neuroscience.
    The effects of driving situation on sleepiness indicators after sleep loss: A driving simulator study2009In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 393-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost all studies of sleepy driving are carried out in driving simulators and with monotonous road conditions (no interaction with other cars). The present study investigated indicators of sleepy driving in a more challenging scenario after a night awake. 17 participants drove a high fidelity moving base driving simulator experiment while sleepiness was monitored physiologically and behaviourally. Short periods of situations of free driving (no other vehicles) alternated with short periods of following another vehicle (car following) with and without the possibility to overtake. The result showed that a night of prior sleep loss increased sleepiness levels at the wheel (eye closure duration and lateral variability) compared to after a night of normal sleep. Blink duration while overtaking was significantly lower compared to the other situations, it was at the same level as after night sleep. Speed when passing a stopped school bus was not significantly affected by sleepiness. However the warning caused a more rapid reduction of speed. In conclusion, a moderately challenging driving contest did not affect sleepiness indicators, but a very challenging one did so (overtaking). This suggests that it is important to monitor the driving situation in field operational tests of sleepy driving.

  • 2.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The effect of milled rumble strips versus virtual rumble strips on sleepy drivers: a driving simulator study2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of the EU project IN-SAFETY is to create effective combinations of traditional infrastructure measures combined with new technology to increase the self-explanatory and forgiving nature of the road traffic system. This report describes the method, results and conclusions of a driving simulator experiment with the aim to evaluate the effect of two scenarios of importance selected on a theoretical framework within IN-SAFETY: lane departure warning in terms of milled rumble strips or as a driver support system, and the effect of an in-vehicle warning system informing there is a school bus ahead, simulating a system based on vehicle to vehicle information. Concerning the "lane departure warning", the experiment considered possibilities and consequences of replacing the infrastructure element milled rumble strips with a haptic in-vehicle system. Both centre and side line rumble strips on a two-lane highway were studied and compared with a baseline. In-vehicle "School bus ahead warning" was considered as an example of in-vehicle information used to inform the driver of upcoming events. Both rumble strips and school bus warning was studied for drivers after not having slept the night before driving as well as after a night's sleep in order to investigate consequences of driver state on system effectiveness. The results showed that there is a potential to substitute the infrastructure measure rumble strips with an in-vehicle assistance system. Moreover, in-vehicle information was found to be an effective way of reducing the subjects' speeds during temporary critical situations concerning traffic safety.

  • 3.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Chalkia, Eleni
    Centre of Research and Technology Hellas/Hellenic Institute of Transport, Thessaloniki, Greece .
    Watch Out! Something Precious is Moving2011In: Infrastructure and Safety in a Collaborative World: Road Traffic Safety / [ed] E. Bekiaris, M. Wiethoff och E. Gaitanidou, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg , 2011, 1, p. 233-242Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One critical situation when a driver needs to have a high degree of awareness, to avoid critical situations or crashes, is when passing a school bus, stopped for boarding or de-boarding of children. With the help of an experiment in VTI’s moving base driving simulator, a scenario, using in-vehicle information before the bus was reached, was tested. The aim was to enhance drivers’ perception, in order to reduce the speed of vehicles passing by the stopped bus. Both alert and sleep deprived drivers were tested.

    The results showed a significant speed reduction thanks to the information given beforehand. Sleep deprivation did not seem to have an impact on speed reduction. This suggests that the warning signals are seen and followed, regardless the drivers’ state of alertness. Thus, it seems likely that this type of information may be useful as an Intelligent Transport System (ITS), to provide driver support about upcoming hazards. One step towards further research in this direction is performed within the EU project SAFEWAY2SCHOOL, the main objectives of which are presented at the end of this chapter.

  • 4.
    Benz, Thomas
    et al.
    PTV AG, Germany.
    Gaitanidou, Evangelia
    Hellenic Institute of Transport, Greece.
    Spyropoulou, Ioanna
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Yannis, George
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Modelling road traffic safety: the IN-SAFETY approach2006In: Proceedings of the 13th World Congress and Exhibition on Intelligent Transport Systems and Services, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a model-based approach to road traffic safety developed within the EU funded project IN-SAFETY. Several existing models, both micro- and macro-models, will be adapted and used to assess safety related effects of ITS measures. Examples of such measures include but are not limited to ADAS and IVIS. While the micro-models will determine the individual vehicles' safety related behaviour, the macro-models will find out about the network wide aspects. Various models will be extended to cope with the ITS measures envisaged and then applied to relevant safety critical conditions. Major input will be available from the different test sites of the project, which are spread to cover the most significant aspects within the EU road environment.

  • 5.
    Benz, Thomas
    et al.
    PTV AG, Karlsruhe.
    Gaitanidou, Evangelia
    Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Hellenic Institute of Transport (CERTH/HIT).
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Toffolo, Silvana
    IVECO, ER&C, Torino, Italy .
    Yannis, George
    National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens, Greece.
    Spyropoulou, Ioanna
    National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens, Greece.
    Models on the Road2011In: Infrastructure and Safety in a Collaborative World / [ed] E. Bekiaris, M. Wiethoff och E. Gaitanidou, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, 1, p. 97-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the application of macro and micro traffic simulation modelling for the needs of road safety assessment and planning is dealt. The overall concept of traffic simulation modelling regarding safety is presented, together with a series of macro and micro simulation models (namely RuTSim, S-Paramics, SATURN and VISSIM) that are widely used and have been specifically applied for the needs of IN-SAFETY project. ITS and ADAS related scenarios defined within IN-SAFETY, aiming to enhance the road safety level, have been tested through specially developed applications of these models and their results indicate the influence of the use of such technologies, as well as the effectiveness of the selected models in simulating and evaluating their effects. Future enhancement in the models will provide the possibility of further using them in the context of road safety and the involvement of innovative technologies.

  • 6.
    Burzio, G
    CRF.
    Kloth, M (Contributor)
    POLIS.
    Tapani, Andreas (Contributor)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Dissemination strategy and plan2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The CityMove project aims to achieve a widespread public awareness of its technologies and solutions among the relevant stakeholders involved in the urban freight distribution :

    - final customers and residents;

    - industry (automotive OEMs, automotive supplier);

    - shippers;

    - freight carriers,

    - Public Administrations.

    This deliverable aims at setting out CityMove strategy and objectives related to awareness raising and dissemination. It also identifies target audience, potential dissemination tools and channels to which address effective actions and messages.

  • 7.
    Cacciabue, Pietro Carlo
    et al.
    KITE Solutions.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    Univ. Lille Nord de France.
    Söderberg, Håkan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Unified Driver Model simulation and its application to the automotive, rail and maritime domains2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 21, p. 315-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the implementation of a model of a driver into a computerised numerical simulation. The model is developed to capture the essential characteristics and common aspects of cognition and behaviour of a human being in control of a “vehicle” in different surface transport systems, namely trains, cars and ships. The main functions of the simulation are discussed as well as the experiments carried out in different types of driving simulators to support the estimation of the parameters utilised in the numerical simulation. The validation processes carried out in the rail and maritime domains are also discussed together with a critical review of capacities and limitations of the proposed approach.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Framkomlighet och fördröjningar på E22 Fjälkinge-Gualöv2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    E22 i Skåne är motorväg på sträckorna Kristianstad-Fjälkinge och Gualöv - Bromölla. Sträckan mellan Fjälkinge och Gualöv på ca 8 km håller inte önskvärd standard. Sträckan är tvåfältig och i huvudsak 13 meter bred med många anslutande vägar. År 2004 skattades ÅDT-värdet för sträckan till ca 15 500 fordon med ca 10 % tunga fordon. Vägverket Region Skåne undersöker nu möjligheterna att förbättra trafiksäkerheten på sträckan genom ombyggnad till mötesfri landsväg med mitträcke. Tre olika alternativ benämnda E, L, S har studerats. Alternativ E innebär 1+1-väg hela sträckan. Alternativ L och S innebär två respektive tre tvåfältiga avsnitt per riktning. VTI har av Vägverket Region Skåne fått i uppdrag att studera reshastigheter, fördröjningar samt kölängder för befintlig väg samt de tre mötesfria alternativen. Effekter vid olika timflöden motsvarande trafiksituationer år 2004 samt 2020 ska undersökas. Beräkningarna ska ske med hjälp av VTI:s simuleringsmodell för landsvägstrafik, RuTSim. Vidare ska miljöpåverkan i form av emissioner för de olika alternativen uppskattas. Dessutom ska beräkningar göras av kölängder och fördröjningar till följd av att en traktor kör sträckan.

  • 9.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Rural Highway Design Analysis Through Traffic Micro-Simulation2006In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service, Tokyo: JSTE , 2006, p. 249-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, rural roads with separated oncoming lanes are becomingincreasingly important due to their superior safety properties.The level-of-service of such roads may however be reduced since traffic is restricted by the barrier between the oncoming lanes.This level-of-service impact can be evaluated through traffic microsimulation.Such simulation based assessments of rural highways require simulation models capable of modeling rural road traffic.This paper presents a simulation study of different rural road designs with separated oncoming lanes using a rural road traffic simulationmodel. The presentation illustrates the use of simulationfor rural highways and the result of the study indicates that oncominglane separation is a competitive alternative despite slightlevel-of-service reductions compared to undivided two-lane highways.

  • 10.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Metod för beräkning av fördröjningar på vägavsnitt utan omkörningsmöjlighet2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This VTI report presents a method for calculating expected queue length and travel time delay on one lane road sections without overtaking possibilities. The method was developed 2001 and presented in a working paper. The background for the model development was that the Swedish Road Administration (now the Swedish Transport Administration) planned to build so called 1+1 roads, i.e. roads with longer sections without overtaking possibilities. The method developed has later on also shown to be valuable for level of service calculations of 2+1 roads with varying share of two lane sections and for developing speed-flow relationships for the Administration’s ”Effect calculations for road facilities”. The method uses section length, traffic flow, average speed and standard deviation as input. The method is divided with respect to calculation of effects due to single slowrunning vehicles and effects at “normal” speed distribution. Since no data were available when the model was developed, the model results were instead compared to traffic simulations with the microscopic traffic simulation model AIMSUN. The results show a good correlation but the analytical model gives in general approximately 1.2 per cent lower travel time delay. The differences can probably partly be explained by the stochastic parts of the simulation model. One should also remember that neither the analytical model nor the simulation model has been calibrated and validated with real data for this type of roads. Thus, the differences between the models do not necessary imply that the analytical model is the one deviating from reality.

  • 11.
    Dukic, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Kettwich, Carmen
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Inverkan av elektroniska reklamskyltar på trafiksäkerhet: en studie på E4 i Stockholm2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report presents four studies that were conducted with the aim to evaluate how electronic billboards (ERS) affect traffic safety. Study 1 is a literature review to examine how billboards impact road safety. The conclusions from the review showed that animated pictures and the location of the billboards have a major impact on driver behaviour as well as that darkness and adverse weather conditions can create glare which makes driving difficult especially for older drivers.

    The second and third studies compared the speed and the number of accidents before and after the installation of the billboards. Neither difference in traffic volume nor in average speed could be demonstrated. There was nothing in the studied accidents to suggest that the accident was affected by a billboard.

    The fourth sub-study is a field study investigating 41 drivers (driving and visual behaviour) on the E4 as they pass the billboards. Results showed several cases of visual distraction. The results also show a negative attitude to the billboards for a majority of the drivers.

    In summary, no effects from the billboards on traffic safety could be showed at the macro level. However, the effects of visual distraction must be taken into consideration and investigated further before deciding whether billboards will be implemented on Swedish roads.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Säkerhetseffekten av ökat cyklande: kartläggning av nuläget för att planera för framtiden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, cycling has been highlighted as a travel mode with many positive qualities. The documents of Swedish national strategy reveal a trend of an increased cycling. At the same time, it is important that the safety of cyclists must be improved so that an increased cycling does not contribute to more injuries and fatalities in accidents. To cope with the increased cycling without compromising the safety, there is fore example, a need for better understanding of the relationship between the cycling flow and the injuries in various traffic environments.

    In this project, three different studies were carried out to understand how the trend of cycling changes over time and how cyclists' injury risk is influenced by the cycling flow and the traffic environment. In the first study, a travel demand model has been developed that includes both mode choice and destination choice for cycling. In the second study, models for cyclists’ injury risks have been developed for different types of accidents and traffic environments. In the third study, interactions between different road users have been observed, to study how these are affected by the level of bicycle flow. Overall, the studies in this project have shown that bicycle flow is an important factor influencing cyclists’ accident risks. Higher bicycle flow corresponds to fewer interactions per cyclist and a lower risk of injury in a single bicycle accident as well as in a collision accident with motorised vehicles. We have also been able to demonstrate that it is possible to model travel choices and destination choice of cyclists and to develop models that describe cyclists’ injury risk. However, to provide better estimates, data with better quality are necessary for the model inputs, especially when it comes to the cycling and the description of cycling infrastructure.

  • 13.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Cassani, Mirella
    KITE.
    Amantini, Aladino
    KITE.
    Lai, Frank
    University of Leeds.
    Kecklund, Lena
    MTO Säkerhet AB.
    Arvidsson, Marcus
    MTO Säkerhet AB.
    Results from the analysis and input to the development and validation of the statistical models2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of Deliverable 5.1 of the ITERATE project is to present results of analyses made of the data collected in the ITERATE WP4 driving simulator experiments. The ITERATE WP4 driving simulator experiments consisted of train and car driving experiments carried out on a portable car/train driving simulator platform and in full scale car and train driving simulators. The analyses conducted and presented in this deliverable consist of hypothesis testing, cluster analysis and development of a procedure for estimation of parameters of relationships in the WP6 UMD simulation model. Findings from the analyses show that country was found to be an important factor in both the car and train driving experiment. Significant effects of the factor workload were also established in many of the events analysed. The conclusion of comparisons between the data collected in the portable and full scale simulators is that the ITERATE portable driving simulator platform is a suitable tool to studying underlying factors controlling driver behaviour at least for the car diving. However, there were differences between the portable and full scale train simulators. These differences have to be considered in later stages of the project. The next step within the ITERATE project is to estimate relevant relationships in the WP6 UMD simulation model based on the findings of the analyses presented in this deliverable. The analyses presented will also be important as inspiration for other studies outside of the present project with the ITERATE driving simulator dataset as an important source of data.

  • 14.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan (KTH).
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet.
    Analysis of a cooperative variable speed limit system using microscopic traffic simulation2015In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 52, p. 173-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable speed limit systems where variable message signs are used to show speed limits adjusted to the prevailing road or traffic conditions are installed on motorways in many countries. The objectives of variable speed limit system installations are often to decrease the number of accidents and to increase traffic efficiency. Currently, there is an interest in exploring the potential of cooperative intelligent transport systems including communication between vehicles and/or vehicles and the infrastructure. In this paper, we study the potential benefits of introducing infrastructure to vehicle communication, autonomous vehicle control and individualized speed limits in variable speed limit systems. We do this by proposing a cooperative variable speed limit system as an extension of an existing variable speed limit system. In the proposed system, communication between the infrastructure and the vehicles is used to transmit variable speed limits to upstream vehicles before the variable message signs become visible to the drivers. The system is evaluated by the means of microscopic traffic simulation. Traffic efficiency and environmental effects are considered in the analysis. The results of the study show benefits of the infrastructure to vehicle communication, autonomous vehicle control and individualized speed limits for variable speed limit systems in the form of lower acceleration rates and thereby harmonized traffic flow and reduced exhaust emissions.

  • 15.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Impacts of a Cooperative Variable Speed Limit System2012In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 43, p. 595-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable Speed Limit Systems (VSLS) where variable message signs show speed limits based on, for example,traffic volume or road conditions exists on motorwaysin many countries. The purpose of the VSLS is to decrease the number of accidents and to increase traffic efficiency. Cooperative systems are a type of intelligent transport system that has received increasing interest lately. The central part of a cooperative system is communication between vehicles and/or vehicles and the infrastructure. In this paper, a cooperative systems extension of a VSLS is proposed and evaluated by means of traffic simulation. By adding cooperative systems functionality to an existing VSLS there is a potential for further increase in traffic efficiency and also to reduce the environmental impacts of the traffic on the road. In the proposed cooperative VSLS, communication between the vehicles and the infrastructure is made available via a roadside unit communicating the speed limits to vehicles upstream on the road. The results of the study show that the cooperative VSLS has a potential to contribute to flow harmonization and to reduce environmental impacts.

  • 16.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Microscopic traffic simulation for evaluation of a cooperative variable speed limit system2013In: 1st SUMO User Conference 2013. Proceedings, Berichte aus dem DLR-Institut für Verkehrssystemtechnik, Band 21, Berlin: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. Institut für Verkehrssystemtechnik, Berlin-Adlershof , 2013, p. 147-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable Speed Limit Systems (VSLS) where gantries are showing speed limits based on, for example, traffic volume or other road or traffic conditions exists on motorways in many countries. The aim of the VSLS is usually to improve traffic efficiency. Lately, cooperative intelligent transport systems allowing for communication between vehicles and/or vehicles and the infrastructure has received increasing interest. A cooperative VSLS, utilizing communication between vehicles and the infrastructure, could possibly result in further improved traffic efficiency and decreased exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. In this paper, a cooperative VSLS is evaluated by the use of a microscopic traffic simulator. The cooperative VSLS is described together with a discussion on how the modeling of the cooperative VSLS and the assumptions made regarding vehicles behavior will impact the final results of the evaluation. Results from the simulations are presented with in terms of traffic efficiency and exhaust emissions.

  • 17.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Traffic State Estimation Using Connected Vehicles and Stationary Detectors2018In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, article id UNSP 4106086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time traffic state estimation is of importance for efficient traffic management. This is especially the case for traffic management systems that require fast detection of changes in the traffic conditions in order to apply an effective control measure. In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the traffic state and speed and density, by using connected vehicles combined with stationary detectors. The aim is to allow fast and accurate estimation of changes in the traffic conditions. The proposed method does only require information about the speed and the position of connected vehicles and can make use of sparsely located stationary detectors to limit the dependence on the infrastructure equipment. An evaluation of the proposed method is carried out by microscopic traffic simulation. The traffic state estimated using the proposed method is compared to the true simulated traffic state. Further, the density estimates are compared to density estimates from one detector-based method, one combined method, and one connected-vehicle-based method. The results of the study show that the proposed method is a promising alternative for estimating the traffic state in traffic management applications.

  • 18.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Using connected vehicles in a variable speed limit system2017In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier B.V. , 2017, p. 85-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable speed limit systems are used to improve the traffic conditions on specific road stretches. This is done by adjusting the speed limits according to current traffic situations. A variable speed limit system usually consist of stationary detectors to estimate the traffic state and variable message signs at predefined locations for the application of new speed limits. Advances in vehicle technology have made it possible to use connected vehicles to improve existing variable speed limit systems. Connected vehicles can continuously transmit information about speed and location. This can be used to get more detailed information about the traffic state. By including information from connected vehicles in a variable speed limit system there is a potential to identify bottlenecks also in between stationary detectors. Further, it is possible to use direct control of the connected vehicles to adjust vehicle speeds towards the new traffic situation. In this study, we propose such a variable speed limit system based on connected vehicles. The aim is to allow for application of variable speed limits in connection with non-recurrent bottlenecks. The proposed system is evaluated with respect to traffic efficiency using microscopic traffic simulation. An incident is simulated as an example of a non-recurrent bottleneck. The traffic performance when the proposed VSL system is applied is compared to the performance without the system. The results indicate that the VSL system manage to improve traffic efficiency in a majority of the simulated cases.

  • 19.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH.
    Characteristics of variable speed limit systems2018In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The control algorithm used for deciding on the speed limit in variable speed limit systems is crucial for the performance of the systems. The algorithm is designed to fulfil the purpose of the variable speed limit system, which can be one or several of the following aspects: increasing safety, increasing efficiency and decreasing environmental impacts. Today, many of the control algorithms used in practice are based on fixed thresholds in speed and/or flow. Therefore, they are not necessarily reflecting the current traffic conditions. Control algorithms with a greater level of complexity can be found in the literature. In this paper, four existing control algorithms are investigated to conclude on important characteristics affecting the performance of the variable speed limit system. The purpose of the variable speed limit system and, consequently, the design of the control algorithm differ. Requirements of the investigated control algorithms are that they should be easy to interpret and the execution time should be short. The algorithms are evaluated through microscopic traffic simulation. Performance indicators related to traffic safety, traffic efficiency and environmental impacts are presented. The results show that the characteristics of the variable speed limit system and the design of the control algorithm will have effect on the resulting traffic performance, given that the drivers comply with the variable speed limits. Moreover, the time needed to trigger the system, the duration and the size of speed limit reductions, and the location of the congestion are factors of importance for the performance of variable speed limit systems.

  • 20.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), Stockholm.
    Effects of a Cooperative Variable Speed Limit System on Traffic Performance and Exhaust Emissions2013In: TRB 92nd Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable Speed Limit Systems (VSLS) where variable message signs show speed limits based on traffic or road conditions exist on motorways in many countries. The purpose of the VSLS is to decrease the number of accidents while increasing efficiency of traffic system. Cooperative systems are a type of intelligent transport system that has received increasing interest lately. The central part of a cooperative system is communication between vehicles and/or vehicles and the infrastructure. In this paper, a cooperative systems extension of a VSLS is proposed and evaluated by means of microscopic traffic simulation. In the proposed cooperative VSLS, communication between the vehicles and the infrastructure is made available via a roadside unit communicating the speed limits to vehicles upstream on the road. Both aggregate and micro-scale emission models are used to estimate emission from vehicle states in traffic flow. The results of the study show that the cooperative VSLS has a potential to contribute to flow harmonization and to reduce environmental impacts. The emission estimates in the study are dependent on the emission models being applied.

  • 21.
    Hegeman, Geertje
    et al.
    DHV BV Mobility Department.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Hoogendoorn, Serge
    Delft University of Technology.
    Overtaking assistant assessment using traffic simulation2009In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 617-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution presents the results of a microscopic traffic simulation study of the potential effects of an overtaking assistant for two-lane rural roads. The overtaking assistant is developed to support drivers in judging whether or not an overtaking opportunity can be accepted based on the distance to the next oncoming vehicle. Drivers have been found to consider this to be a difficult part of an overtaking manoeuvre. The assistants effects on traffic efficiency, driver comfort and road safety have been investigated using traffic simulation. The results indicate that this type of overtaking assistant can provide safety benefits in terms of increased average time-to-collision to the next oncoming vehicle during overtaking manoeuvres. This safety benefit can be achieved without negative consequences for traffic efficiency and driver comfort. A driver assistance system that supports the distance judging part of overtaking manoeuvres can therefore contribute to improved traffic conditions on the two-lane rural roads of the future.

  • 22.
    Janson Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Comparison of car-following models2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic simulation is an often used tool in the study of traffic systems. A traffic simulation model consists of several sub-models; each handles one specific task in the simulation. These sub-models include, among others, car-following. This model controls the interactions with the preceding vehicle in the same lane. This paper compares and describes the car-following models used in the four traffic microsimulation software packages AIMSUN, MITSIM, VISSIM, and the Fritzsche car-following model. A variant of the Fritzsche model is used in the software tool Parmics. Paramics exists in two versions. The differences between the car-following models used in these versions and the Fritzsche car-following model is however unknown. Both similarities and differences between the models as well as model's individual properties are clarified. Two of the four models, the Fritzsche model and the model included in VISSIM, have a similar approach to car-following, whereas the other two models have fundamentally different approaches. However, the resulting following behaviours of the models show similarities even though the car-following approaches are different.

  • 23.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköping Universitet.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping Universitet.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköping Universitet.
    Local performance measures of pedestrian traffic2014In: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 159-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient interchange stations, where travelers are changing lines and/or travel modes, are essential for the functionality of the whole public transport system. By studying pedestrian movements, the level of service and effectiveness imposed by the design of the interchange station can be evaluated. We address the problem by microsimulation, where a social force model is used for the phenomenological description of pedestrian interactions. The contribution of this paper is the proposal of measures describing the density, delay, acceleration and discomfort for pedestrian flows. Simulation experiments are performed for the movements in two canonical pedestrian areas, a corridor and a corridor intersection. Clearly, each of the four measures gives a description for how pedestrians impede each other, and hence for the efficiency at the facility. There is, however, different information provided by each measure, and we conclude that they all are well-motivated for quantifying the level of service in a pedestrian flow. We also illustrate the outcome for a railway platform, with two trains arriving in parallel.

  • 24.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Performance evaluation of railway platform design using microscopic simulation2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient interchange stations, where travelers are changing lines and/or travel modes, are essential for the functionality of the whole public transport system. By studying pedestrian movements, the level of service and effectiveness imposed by the design of the interchange station can be evaluated.

    We address the problem by microsimulation, where a social force model is used for the phenomenological description of pedestrian interactions. The contribution of this paper is the proposal of measures describing the density, delay, acceleration and discomfort for pedestrian flows.

    Simulation experiments are performed for the movements in two canonical pedestrian areas, a corridor and a corridor intersection. Clearly, each of the four measures gives a description for how pedestrians impede each other, and hence for the efficiency at the facility. There is, however, different information provided by each measure, and we conclude that they all are well-motivated for quantifying the level of service in a pedestrian flow. We also illustrate the outcome for a railway platform, with two trains arriving in parallel.

  • 25.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping Universitet.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Waiting pedestrians in the social force model2015In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 419, p. 95-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microscopic simulation of pedestrian traffic is an important and increasingly popular method to evaluate the performance of existing or proposed infrastructure. The social force model is a common model in simulations, describing the dynamics of pedestrian crowds given the goals of the simulated pedestrians encoded as their preferred velocities.

    The main focus of the literature has so far been how to choose the preferred velocities to produce realistic dynamic route choices for pedestrians moving through congested infrastructure. However, limited attention has been given the problem of choosing the preferred velocity to produce other behaviors, such as waiting, commonly occurring at, e.g., public transport interchange stations.

    We hypothesize that: (1) the inclusion of waiting pedestrians in a simulated scenario will significantly affect the level of service for passing pedestrians, and (2) the details of the waiting model affect the predicted level of service, that is, it is important to choose an appropriate model of waiting.

    We show that the treatment of waiting pedestrians have a significant impact on simulations of pedestrian traffic. We do this by introducing a series of extensions to the social force model to produce waiting behavior, and provide predictions of the model extensions that highlight their differences. We also present a sensitivity analysis and provide sufficient criteria for stability.

  • 26.
    Jonkers, Eline
    et al.
    TNO.
    Carsten, Oliver
    ITS Leeds.
    Nellthorp, John
    ITS Leeds.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Data and framework for scaling up2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global aim of the ecoDriver project is to increase the fuel efficiency by 20% by optimising the driver-powertrain-environment feedback loop and delivering effective advice to drivers. In the course of the project, field experiments will take place with a wide range of vehicles —e.g. cars, light trucks and vans, medium and heavy trucks and buses —covering both individual and collective transport. The last step of the project (Sub Project 5; SP5) is to scale up the results from these tests and analysecosts and benefits for a number of future scenarios.

    This deliverable describes the data needs for each step. It also contains a description of the approaches proposed for the scenario building, the microscopic traffic simulations, the scaling up and the cost-benefit analysis.

  • 27.
    Lindberg, Therese
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    A Simulation Model of Local Public Transport Access at a Railway Station2017In: / [ed] N. Tomii, I.A. Hansen, J. Rodriguez, P. Pellegrini, S. Dauzère-Pérès, D. De Almeida, 2017, p. 922-943Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A high quality railway service requires that all parts of the complete journey, from door to door, are well-functioning. This includes any transfers taking place, as well as last mile transportation to and from the railway station. Since the last mile often consists of local public transport, the access to this mode at stops and terminals and how well these are functioning are of great importance. A critical aspect is the capacity of the stop or the terminal in relation to the number of departures, where a higher capacity generally means an increase in size. At the same time it is desirable to limit the use of valuable land and keeping the facility as small as possible. The trade-off between capacity and size needs to be evaluated when designing stops and terminals.

    In this study we have developed a discrete event simulation model of a combined bus and tram stop, which is a part of a larger multi-modal station. The objective of the study is to evaluate the modelling approach for the situation at hand. Of special interest are the complexities due to the different driving patterns of buses and trams. The developed model is capable of evaluating design alternatives and is applied in a case study of a stop at Norrköping railway station in southern Sweden. The model was found to realistically capture the various events occurring at such a stop and the case study further showed that the model is a useful tool in design evaluation.

  • 28.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Evaluation of Safety Effects of Driver Assistance Systems Through Traffic Simulation2006In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 1953, p. 81-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road safety is a major concern in all countries, and large effortsare constantly dedicated to create safer traffic environments. Todayincreasing attention is turned toward active safety improvingcountermeasures that improve road safety by reducing accidentrisks. Such active countermeasures include advanced driver assistancesystems (ADAS). To ensure that these new applicationsresult in real safety improvements, a priori estimations of safetyeffects are needed. This paper considers estimation of the safetyeffects of ADAS through traffic simulation. Requirements imposedon a traffic simulation model to be used for ADAS evaluation arepresented, and a car-following model to be used in simulations thatinclude ADAS-equipped vehicles is proposed. ADAS have an impacton traffic through the functionalities of ADAS and throughchanges in driver behavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles. Driverbehavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles has usually not been consideredin previous simulation studies, including those for ADASequippedvehicles. Simulation runs of rural road traffic that usedthe proposed car-following model did, however, indicate that behavioralchanges caused by the ADAS were important factors forthe safety impact. Modeling of the behavior of drivers in ADASequippedvehicles is therefore essential for reliable conclusions onthe road safety effects of ADAS.

  • 29.
    Miglietta, Maurizio
    et al.
    CNR.
    Routhier, Jean Louis
    LET.
    Pluvinet, Pascal
    LET.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Roissac, Zohra
    Volvo.
    Buhl, Hanna
    Schenker.
    Boot, Marco Aimo
    Iveco.
    Evaluation plan: dissemination level: public2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Deliverable 5.1 aims at developing a holistic evaluation methodology based on a comprehensive project assessment framework. The evaluation methodology indicates at what extent the application of CityMove to a real urban context will improve the freight transport and logistics operation, safety, including performance, energy-consumption, technical reliability, cost-effectiveness, externalities (environmental and noise impacts). The CityMove project aims at developing a new vehicle concept for the Delivery of Goods and Urban Services. CityMove is aimed at enhancing freight transport logistics industry towards long-term efficiency and growth, having an impact on safety, congestion, air pollution, noise pollution anddependence on fossil fuels. A goods delivery vehicle is typically designed around a general architecture, designed not specifically for urban areas. CityMove is instead aimed at developing a new vehicle architecture specifically designed for the optimisation of the freight transport in urban areas.

  • 30.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Bernhardsson, Viktor
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    van Noort, Martijn
    TNO.
    Wilmink, Isabel
    TNO.
    Klunder, Gerdien
    TNO.
    Choudhury, Charisma
    ITS Leeds.
    Tate, James
    ITS Leeds.
    Ligterink, Norbert
    TNO.
    Carsten, Oliver
    O.M.J.Carsten@its.leeds.ac.uk.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Traffic system impacts of green driving support systems2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global aim of the ecoDriver project was to deliver the most effective advice to drivers on fuel efficient driving by optimising the driver-powertrain-environment feedback loop. More specifically, the focus of the project was on the interaction between technology and the driver, since the behaviour of a driver is a critical element in energy efficiency. By increasing the acceptance of eco-driving applications through intelligent HMI and advice solutions, the ecoDriver project substantially contributes to the Europe 2020 goals through a much needed reduction of gas emissions and energy usage in transport, and thereby a significant reduction in the negative impact of transport on the environment.

    The ecoDriver advice to drivers covers the whole spectrum, from previewing the upcoming situation, over optimising the current driving situation, to post-drive feedback and learning. The aim of the project was to optimise human machine interfaces (HMIs) and advice to drivers for both portable devices within the vehicle which provide assistance to the driver (nomadic devices) and built-in systems, and to compare the effectiveness of each. This was addressed across a wide range of vehicles — e.g. cars, light trucks and vans, medium and heavy trucks and buses — covering both individual and collective transport. Lastly, the project did not only examine driving with current and near-term powertrains, but also with a full range of future vehicles, including hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles.

  • 31.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    A review of guidelines for applying traffic simulation to level-of-service analysis2011In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, p. 771-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microscopic traffic simulation is often used as an alternative or complementary tool to analytical methods and procedures for level-of-service analyses of road traffic facilities. The increased usage of traffic simulation for level-of-service analysis has raised a need for guidelines on how to apply and use traffic simulation models. Many countries have developed or are currently developing traffic simulation guidelines. This is also the case in Sweden, were the new Swedish highway capacity manual will include a chapter on traffic simulation. This paper presents a survey of the current traffic simulation guidelines in USA, Germany, UK, Denmark and Sweden. The guidelines have been analysed with respect to the aspects covered: when to apply simulation; the workflow of a simulation study; data collection needs; calibration and validation; experimental design; statistical analysis; and calculation of level-of-service measures. The guidelines analysed are focused on different aspects and none of them covers all of the topics listed above. Some of the guidelines are connected to specific simulation software packages and some are written in a more general manner. Most of the aspects covered are general and applicable in any country. The main reason for developing country specific guidelines is often a need for guidelines in the local language. Experimental design and statistical analysis are not treated extensively in the guidelines; neither do the guidelines discuss how to deal with calibration based on limited real world measurements. Calculation of level-of-service measures are quite extensively treated in some of the guidelines and to a little extent in others. All of the guidelines contain important contributions for the simulation chapter of the new Swedish highway capacity manual

  • 32.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Comparison of car-following models2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Enhancements to the Intelligent Driver Model2010In: TRB 89th annual meeting Compendium of Papers DVD, Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a modified version of the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM) [M. Treiber, A. Hennecke, and D. Helbing, Phys. Rev. E. 62, 2 (2000)]. The IDM is a car-following model. A car-following model controls the accelerations of individual vehicles in a microscopic traffic simulation model. The original IDM has been observed to result in negative vehicle accelerations in situations where the distance to the preceding vehicle is much larger than the estimated desired safety distance. In this paper, we propose a modified function for the interaction with preceding vehicles which do not include this model property. A comparison of the results of simulations with the original and the modified IDM shows that the modified IDM results in higher average speed for a specific flow, a less steep speed-flow relationship and higher capacity. The speed-flow relationships of simulations with the modified IDM are also shown to better match the speed-flow relationships in real traffic on Swedish freeways. The differences between the results for the original and the modified IDM increase if the models are extended to include drivers' anticipation of the downstream traffic condition.

  • 34.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Developing a unified model of driving behaviour for cars and trains2012In: Human factors of Systems and Technology / [ed] D. de Waard, N. Merat, A.H. Jamson, Y. Barnard and O.M.J. Carsten, Maastricht: Shaker Publishing , 2012, p. 343-357Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hastighet-flödessamband för mötesfria landsvägsutformningar2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The Swedish Road Administration is planning to install median barriers on narrow two-lane rural roads with paved carriageway widths down to 9 m. Overtaking lanes will be added on the road sections where barriers are installed. The added overtaking lanes will make it possible to overtake on at least 15 per cent of the road length. The narrow roads with median barrier will therefore mostly get one lane per direction. The result will be a "sparse" 2+1-road as opposed to the conventional Swedish 2+1-design with a continuous overtaking lane that is alternating between the two driving directions. VTI has, by commission of the Swedish Road Administration, constructed speed-flow relationships for "sparse" 2+1-roads with different percentages of the road lengths including an overtaking lane. The speed-flow relationships are based on simulation using the Rural Traffic Simulator (RuTSim). Speed-flow relationships for a normal two-lane road and a conventional 2+1-road have also been constructed using the same method to allow comparison of the "sparse" 2+1-road designs with conventional designs. The length of the overtaking lanes has been assumed to be 850 m on the "sparse" road designs and 1 500 m on the conventional 2+1-design. Moreover, the road alignment has been assumed not to place any additional restrictions on the quality-of-service.

  • 36.
    Strömgren, Per
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköping Universitet.
    A Model for Traffic Simulation of Flared Rural Road Intersections2015In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 6, p. 239-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a micro-simulation model that takes flared design of rural intersections into consideration. The intersection model is designed with input parameters that describe the geometric conditions of the flare. The behavior model includes both a traditional gap-acceptance sub-model and a passage model for modelling of vehicles’ possibility to pass other vehicles using the flare. The intersection model developed has been implemented in the traffic micro simulation model RuTSim. The gap-acceptance part of the model has been calibrated using data for stop and yield 3-way intersections. The validation was performed by using video recordings to calculate delay for the yield regulated intersection and time in queue and service time for the stop regulated intersection. The results from the validation simulations correspond well with the empirical validation data. The effect of the flare on delay has been studied by using 3 different intersection lay-outs and different levels of minor and major flow. The result shows that the delay is decreasing with increasing intersection radius.

  • 37.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    A Traffic Simulation Modeling Framework for Rural Highways2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Models based on micro-simulation of traffic flows have proven to be useful tools in the study of various traffic systems. Today, there is a wealth of traffic microsimulation models developed for freeway and urban street networks. The road mileage is however in many countries dominated by rural highways. Hence, there is a need for rural road traffic simulation models capable of assessing the performance of such road environments. This thesis introduces a versatile traffic micro-simulation model for the rural roads of today and of the future. The developed model system considers all common types of rural roads including effects of intersections and roundabouts on the main road traffic. The model is calibrated and validated through a simulation study comparing a two-lane highway to rural road designs with separated oncoming traffic lanes. A good general agreement between the simulation results and the field data is established.

    The interest in road safety and the environmental impact of traffic is growing. Recent research has indicated that traffic simulation can be of use in these areas as well as in traditional capacity and level-of-service studies. In the road safety area more attention is turning towards active safety improving countermeasures designed to improve road safety by reducing the number of driver errors and the accident risks. One important example is Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). The potential to use traffic simulation to evaluate the road safety effects of ADAS is investigated in the last part of this thesis. A car-following model for simulation of traffic including ADAS-equipped vehicles is proposed and the developed simulation framework is used to study important properties of a traffic simulation model to be used for safety evaluation of ADAS. Driver behavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles has usually not been considered in simulation studies including ADAS-equipped vehicles. The work in this thesis does however indicate that modeling of the behavior of drivers in ADAS-equipped vehicles is essential for reliable conclusions on the road safety effects of ADAS.

  • 38.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Analysis of Rumble Strips and Driver Fatigue Using Traffic Simulation2008In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 14, p. 69-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in in-vehicle Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is increasing. New systems such as Adaptive Cruise Controls and Collision Avoidance Systems are currently introduced at a rapid pace. ADAS can both substitute and complement traditional infrastructure based safety improving counter measures. To exploit the full potential of these systems, it is necessary to estimate the systems future impact already at early development stages. This paper presents a traffic simulation framework for analysis of the aggregation of individual driver/vehicle behaviour due to ADAS to effects on the traffic system. Application of the simulation framework is exemplified by a study of centre line rumblestrips on rural roads. The effects of physical milled rumble strips are compared to the effects of “virtual” in-vehicle rumblestrips for both alert and sleep deprived drivers. The use of traffic simulation made it possible to study the combined impact of changes in drivers’ free driving speed, reaction time and overtaking behaviour. Indications that the different rumble strips have an impact on average journey speeds were found amongst the simulation results. Changes in safety indicators that can be related to changes in overtaking behaviour were also observed.

  • 39.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Analysis of system effects of driver assistance systems by traffic simulation2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in in-vehicle Advanced Driver Assistance Systems(ADAS) is increasing. New systems such as Adaptive Cruise Controlsand Collision Avoidance Systems are currently introduced at a rapidpace. To exploit the full potential of these systems it is necessary to es-timate the systems future impact already at early development stages.This paper introduces a traffic simulation framework for analysis ofthe effects of ADAS on the traffic system. The framework considersboth the system functionalities of the ADAS as well as behaviouralchanges of drivers in equipped vehicles. Such behavioural changeshave usually not been considered in previous traffic simulation studiesof ADAS. Application of the simulation framework is exemplified bytwo studies of ADAS that assist drivers on two-lane highways

  • 40.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effekter vid mötesfri utformning av E18 Karlskoga-Lekhyttan2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    VTI has, by commission of WSP, compared the quality-of-service of an alternative rural road design to the performance of the existing road on a section of the national route E18. This studied part of E18 is located between Karlskoga and Lekhyttan. The alternative design has separated oncoming lanes and a lane design that follows that of the existing road with an addition of two 1,5 km long overtaking sections. The total length of the road is 15 km and no substantial traffic flows enter or exit the road along the studied stretch. All analyses were to be based on simulation results of the VTI rural traffic simulation model, RuTSim. AADT along the road has been estimated to 13 280 vehicles for the design horizon year 2025. Two hourly traffic flows for the simulation were constructed based on this estimate. One of the flows was set to 10.0 per cent of AADT for passenger cars and 7.65 per cent of AADT for heavy vehicles in order to correspond to the flow during the design hour. The other flow, 6.2 per cent of AADT for both passenger cars and heavy vehicles, corresponds to the average weekday traffic volume.

  • 41.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Estimating Traffic System Wide Impacts of Driver Assistance Systems Using Traffic Simulation2011In: Human Modelling in Assisted Transportation / [ed] P.C. Cacciabue, M. Hjalmdahl, A. Luedtke och C. Riccioli, Italia: Springer-Verlag Italia Srl , 2011, 1, p. 173-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to estimate impacts of proposed driver assistance systems already at early stages of the system development process. Estimations of the impacts of new technologies have to be based on laboratory studies and modelling. This paper presents a traffic simulation based framework for estimation of the traffic system wide impacts of driver assistance systems. The framework includes a two-step methodology. In the first step of the analysis, the considered driver assistance system’s impact on driver behaviour is observed. The second step of the analysis consist of traffic simulation modelling taking into account the system functionality as well as the observed driver behaviour of the considered driver assistance system. Driver behaviour studies for use of the data for traffic simulation modelling is discussed and traffic simulation modelling of different types of driver assistance systems is exemplified by modelling of an overtaking assistant, of in-vehicle virtual rumble strips and of adaptive cruise control.

  • 42.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Evaluation of safety effects of driver assistance systems through traffic simulation2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Framkomlighet på väg 67 Stingtorpet - Tärnsjö: en trafiksimuleringsstudie av mötesfria vägutformningsalternativ2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    VTI has studied two rural road design alternatives with separated oncoming traffic lanes. The road under consideration is a planned relocation of road 67 between Stingtorpet and Tärnsjö in Heby municipality. The two studied alternatives are both "1+1-designs" with one lane per direction of travel separated by a median barrier. One of the alternatives includes no overtaking lanes whereas the other includes overtaking lanes for increased quality of service. The total length of the road is 23 km including 3 km "2+1-road" in the northern part outside Tärnsjö. This "2+1" section has an overtaking lane that is alternating between the two directions of travel. Along the studied stretch there are two intersections with certain traffic volumes entering and exiting the main road. All analyses where to be performed based on simulations using the VTI rural traffic simulation model, RuTSim.

  • 44.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Integrerad fordons- och trafiksimulering för uppskattning av emissioner och energieffektivitet2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Simulering av trafik på landsväg2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Traffic simulation for road safety assessment of intelligent transportation systems2005In: SimSafe 2005: Proceedings of the Conference on Modeling and Simulation for Public Safety, Linköping: Linköping University , 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Traffic simulation modelling of driver assistance systems2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Traffic simulation modelling of driver assistance systems2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New in-vehicle driver assistance systems are currently introduced at a rapid pace. To exploit the full potential of these systems, it is necessary to estimate the systems future impact already at early stages of the system development process.

    This paper presents a traffic simulation framework for analysis of the impacts of driver assistance systems. Driver assistance system functionalities and changes in driver behavior due to driver assistance systems are considered in the framework. Application of the simulation framework is exemplified by the analysis of adaptive cruise control, of an overtaking assistant and of in-vehicle virtual rumble strips.

  • 49.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Traffic simulation modelling of driver assistance systems2011In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 23, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New in-vehicle driver assistance systems are currently introduced at a rapid pace. To exploit the full potential of these systems, it is necessary to estimate the systems future impact already at early stages of the system development process. This paper gives an introduction to the use of microscopic traffic simulation for analysis and evaluation of the impacts of driver assistance systems. Application of traffic simulation for analysis of driver assistance systems is exemplified by studies of an overtaking assistant and of adaptive cruise control.

  • 50.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Traffic Simulation Modelling of Rural Roads and Driver Assistance Systems2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microscopic traffic simulation has proven to be a useful tool for analysis of varioustraffic systems. This thesis consider microscopic traffic simulation of rural roads andthe use of traffic simulation for evaluation of driver assistance systems.

    A traffic simulation modelling framework for rural roads, the Rural Traffic Simulator(RuTSim), is developed. RuTSim is designed for simulation of traffic on singlecarriageway two-lane rural roads and on rural roads with separated oncoming trafficlanes. The simulated traffic may be interrupted by vehicles entering and leaving themodelled road at intersections or roundabouts.

    The RuTSim model is applied for analysis of rural road design alternatives.Quality-of-service effects of three alternatives for oncoming lane separation of anexisting Swedish two-lane road are analysed. In another model application, RuTSimis used to simulate traffic on a Dutch two-lane rural road. This application illustratesthat the high level of model detail of traffic micro-simulation may call for use of differentmodelling assumptions regarding driver behaviour for different applications,e. g. for simulation of traffic in different cultural regions.

    The use of traffic simulation for studies of driver assistance systems facilitateimpact analyses already at early stages of the system development. New and additionalrequirements are however then placed on the traffic simulation model. It isnecessary to model both the system functionality of the considered driver assistancesystem and the driver behaviour in system equipped vehicles. Such requirements canbe analysed using RuTSim.

    In this thesis, requirements on a traffic simulation model to be used for analysisof road safety effects of driver assistance systems are formulated and investigatedusing RuTSim. RuTSim is also applied for analyses of centre line rumble stripson two-lane roads, of an overtaking assistant and of adaptive cruise control. Thesestudies establish that the assumptions made regarding driver behaviour are crucialfor traffic simulation based analyses of driver assistance systems.

    List of papers
    1. Versatile Model for Simulation of Rural Road Traffic
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Versatile Model for Simulation of Rural Road Traffic
    2005 (English)In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 1934, p. 169-178Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries the road mileage is dominated by rural highways.For that reason it is important to have access to efficienttools for evaluation of the performance of such roads. For otherroad types, e. g., freeways and urban street networks, a wealth ofmicro-simulation models is available. However, only a few modelsdedicated to rural roads have been developed. None of thesemodels handles traffic flows interrupted by intersections or roundabouts,nor are the models capable of describing the traffic flow onrural roads with a cable barrier between oncoming lanes. Theseare major drawbacks when Swedish roads, on which cable barriersand roundabouts are becoming increasingly important, aremodeled. Moreover, as new areas of application for rural roadsimulation arise, a flexible and detailed model is needed. Suchapplications include, among other things, simulation of driver assistancesystems and estimation of pollutant emissions. This paperintroduces a versatile traffic micro-simulation model for the ruralroads of today and of the future. The model system presented,the Rural Traffic Simulator (RuTSim), is capable of handling allcommon types of rural roads, including the effects of roundaboutsand intersections on the traffic on the main road. The purpose ofthe paper is to describe the simulation approach and the trafficmodeling used in RuTSim. A verification of the RuTSim model isalso included. RuTSim is found to produce outputs representativeof all common types of rural roads in Sweden.

    Keywords
    Rural road, Simulation, Micro, Roundabout, Junction, Safety fence, Median, Traffic flow, Electronic driving aid, Driver information, Emission, Estimation, Speed, Acceleration, Car following, Overtaking
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6557 (URN)10.3141/1934-18 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Rural Highway Design Analysis Through Traffic Micro-Simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rural Highway Design Analysis Through Traffic Micro-Simulation
    2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service, Tokyo: JSTE , 2006, p. 249-258Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, rural roads with separated oncoming lanes are becomingincreasingly important due to their superior safety properties.The level-of-service of such roads may however be reduced since traffic is restricted by the barrier between the oncoming lanes.This level-of-service impact can be evaluated through traffic microsimulation.Such simulation based assessments of rural highways require simulation models capable of modeling rural road traffic.This paper presents a simulation study of different rural road designs with separated oncoming lanes using a rural road traffic simulationmodel. The presentation illustrates the use of simulationfor rural highways and the result of the study indicates that oncominglane separation is a competitive alternative despite slightlevel-of-service reductions compared to undivided two-lane highways.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Tokyo: JSTE, 2006
    Keywords
    Level of service, Micro, Simulation, Rural road
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6552 (URN)4-905990-61-0 (ISBN)
    Conference
    5th International Symposium on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service
    Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2014-06-18Bibliographically approved
    3. On the Application of Traffic Micro-Simulation To Road Environments in Different Regions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Application of Traffic Micro-Simulation To Road Environments in Different Regions
    2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board , 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New areas of application of traffic micro-simulation models are currently being explored. Examples include analysis of Intelligent Transportation Systems, safety assessments and vehicle emissions studies. Many of these new applications depend on reliable and representative simulated vehicle trajectories. The traffic simulation models used for these applications must therefore model driver/vehicle behavior with greater detail than what is necessary for traditional traffic engineering applications. In this paper, we argue that this increased model complexity may reduce the applicability of the models to other situations with different driver/vehicle behavior. Such situations include simulation of traffici n different countries or regions as well as simulation of road environments with different properties. The objective of the paper is to bring focus to modeling considerations that are important for today’s increasingly detailed traffic micro-simulation applications. Model application to traffic in different regions is exemplified by a case study in which the Rural Traffic Simulator developed in Sweden is applied to simulation of traffic on a Dutch two-lane highway. Simulation of traffic in different regions and new model applications is to a certain extent facilitated by the model calibration and validation. The high level of detail of micro-simulation models may however require use of different modeling assumptions for different applications. Advances in vehicle trajectory measurement techniques will allow developments of more detailed traffic microsimulation models. It is therefore increasingly important that the models are estimated and cross-validated using data sets that are collected in the regions and traffic conditions that the models are developed for.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 2008
    Keywords
    Micro, Simulation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6551 (URN)
    Conference
    87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
    Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2014-08-28Bibliographically approved
    4. Evaluation of Safety Effects of Driver Assistance Systems Through Traffic Simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Safety Effects of Driver Assistance Systems Through Traffic Simulation
    2006 (English)In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 1953, p. 81-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Road safety is a major concern in all countries, and large effortsare constantly dedicated to create safer traffic environments. Todayincreasing attention is turned toward active safety improvingcountermeasures that improve road safety by reducing accidentrisks. Such active countermeasures include advanced driver assistancesystems (ADAS). To ensure that these new applicationsresult in real safety improvements, a priori estimations of safetyeffects are needed. This paper considers estimation of the safetyeffects of ADAS through traffic simulation. Requirements imposedon a traffic simulation model to be used for ADAS evaluation arepresented, and a car-following model to be used in simulations thatinclude ADAS-equipped vehicles is proposed. ADAS have an impacton traffic through the functionalities of ADAS and throughchanges in driver behavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles. Driverbehavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles has usually not been consideredin previous simulation studies, including those for ADASequippedvehicles. Simulation runs of rural road traffic that usedthe proposed car-following model did, however, indicate that behavioralchanges caused by the ADAS were important factors forthe safety impact. Modeling of the behavior of drivers in ADASequippedvehicles is therefore essential for reliable conclusions onthe road safety effects of ADAS.

    Keywords
    Electronic driving aid, Simulation, Mathematical model, Traffic, Accident prevention, Evaluation, Impact study, Driver, Behaviour, Change
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Road: Traffic engineering, Road: ITS och traffic; Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Road user behaviour
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6554 (URN)10.3141/1953-10 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    5. Analysis of Rumble Strips and Driver Fatigue Using Traffic Simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Rumble Strips and Driver Fatigue Using Traffic Simulation
    2008 (English)In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 14, p. 69-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in in-vehicle Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is increasing. New systems such as Adaptive Cruise Controls and Collision Avoidance Systems are currently introduced at a rapid pace. ADAS can both substitute and complement traditional infrastructure based safety improving counter measures. To exploit the full potential of these systems, it is necessary to estimate the systems future impact already at early development stages. This paper presents a traffic simulation framework for analysis of the aggregation of individual driver/vehicle behaviour due to ADAS to effects on the traffic system. Application of the simulation framework is exemplified by a study of centre line rumblestrips on rural roads. The effects of physical milled rumble strips are compared to the effects of “virtual” in-vehicle rumblestrips for both alert and sleep deprived drivers. The use of traffic simulation made it possible to study the combined impact of changes in drivers’ free driving speed, reaction time and overtaking behaviour. Indications that the different rumble strips have an impact on average journey speeds were found amongst the simulation results. Changes in safety indicators that can be related to changes in overtaking behaviour were also observed.

    Keywords
    Advanced driver assistance system, Simulation, Rumble strip, Attention, Speed, Reaction time, Overtaking
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    20 Road: Traffic engineering, 23 Road: ITS och traffic
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6556 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    6. Overtaking assistant assessment using traffic simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overtaking assistant assessment using traffic simulation
    2009 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 617-630Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution presents the results of a microscopic traffic simulation study of the potential effects of an overtaking assistant for two-lane rural roads. The overtaking assistant is developed to support drivers in judging whether or not an overtaking opportunity can be accepted based on the distance to the next oncoming vehicle. Drivers have been found to consider this to be a difficult part of an overtaking manoeuvre. The assistants effects on traffic efficiency, driver comfort and road safety have been investigated using traffic simulation. The results indicate that this type of overtaking assistant can provide safety benefits in terms of increased average time-to-collision to the next oncoming vehicle during overtaking manoeuvres. This safety benefit can be achieved without negative consequences for traffic efficiency and driver comfort. A driver assistance system that supports the distance judging part of overtaking manoeuvres can therefore contribute to improved traffic conditions on the two-lane rural roads of the future.

    Keywords
    Driver assistance system, Overtaking, Evaluation (assessment), Micro, Simulation, Safety
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6578 (URN)10.1016/j.trc.2009.04.010 (DOI)000270610700006 ()
    Available from: 2013-12-05 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    7. Vehicle Trajectory Effects of Adaptive Cruise Control
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle Trajectory Effects of Adaptive Cruise Control
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems / Taylor & Francis, ISSN 1547-2450, E-ISSN 1547-2442, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 36-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is assumed to have a potential to improve quality-of-service and safety and to reduce the environmental impact of the road traffic system. This paper use vehicle trajectories from traffic simulation to study impacts of ACC on vehicle acceleration and deceleration rates. The analysis is based on traffic simulations with car-following models including ACC functionality and driver behaviour in ACC-equipped as wellas standard non-equipped vehicles. The simulation results show that ACC can improve the traffic situation in terms of reduced acceleration and deceleration rates even though macroscopic traffic properties may remain uninfluenced. This supports the hypothesised positive road safety and environmental effects of ACC. It is also established that the results are largely dependent on the assumptions made regarding driver behaviour in ACC-equipped and standard vehicles. It is consequently crucial to include appropriate assumptions regarding driver behaviour in traffic simulation based analyses of ACC.

    Keywords
    Adaptive cruise control, Traffic, Simulation, Acceleration, Deceleration
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6564 (URN)10.1080/15472450.2012.639641 (DOI)000302055100004 ()
    Note

    Available from: 2013-12-05 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
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