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  • 1.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Trivector .
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Thorsson, Tobias
    WSP .
    Analys av modeller för beräkning av framkomlighet i korsningar2008Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Aria, Erfan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Schwietering, Christoph
    Schwietering Traffic Engineers, DE.
    Investigation of Automated Vehicle Effects on Driver's Behavior and Traffic Performance2016In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 15, p. 761-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) offer the possibility of helping drivers to fulfill their driving tasks. Despite different encouraging factors, automated driving raise some concerns such as possible loss of situation awareness, overreliance on automation and system failure. This paper aims to investigate the effects of AV on driver’s behavior and traffic performance. A literature review was conducted to examine the AV effects on driver’s behavior. Findings from the literature survey reveal that conventional vehicles (CV), i.e. human driven, which are driving close to a platoon of AV with short THW, tend to reduce their THW and spend more time under their critical THW. Additionally, driving highly AV reduce situation awareness and can intensify driver drowsiness, exclusively in light traffic.

    In order to investigate the influences of AV on traffic performance, a simulation case study consisting of a 100% AV scenario and a 100% CV scenario was performed using microscopic traffic simulation. Outputs of this simulation study reveal that the positive effects of AV on roads are especially highlighted when the network is crowded (e.g. peak hours). This can definitely count as a constructive point for the future of road networks with higher demands. In details, average density of autobahn segment remarkably improved by 8.09% during p.m. peak hours in the AV scenario, while the average travel speed enhanced relatively by 8.48%. As a consequent, the average travel time improved by 9.00% in the AV scenario.

    The outcome of this study jointly with the previous driving simulator studies illustrates a successful practice of microscopic traffic simulation to investigate the effects of AV. However, further development of the microscopic traffic simulation models are required and further investigations of mixed traffic situation with AV and CV need to be conducted.

  • 3.
    Bergh, Torsten
    et al.
    Movea.
    Remgård, Mats
    Trafikverket.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Strömgren, Per
    Movea.
    2+1-roads Recent Swedish Capacity and Level-of-Service Experience2016In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 15, p. 331-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first Swedish 2+1 median barrier road was opened in 1998. The concept was to retrofit the standard existing two-lane 13 m paved width cross-section at 90 and 110 kph posted speed limit without widening. This design has one continuous lane in each direction, a middle lane changing direction every one to three kilometres with a median barrier separating the two traffic directions. Today over 2 700 km 2+1 median barrier roads are opened for traffic. AADT’s vary from some 3 000 to 20 000 with an average just below 10 000 nowadays normally with 100 kph.

    The concept has lately been enhanced also to cover the existing 9 m paved width cross-section. The design concept is the same from a driver’s viewpoint, one continuous lane in each direction with a middle lane changing direction and a separating median barrier. This is created by introducing a continuous median barrier and adding overtaking lanes within an overtaking strategy. The differences are the existence of 1+1-sections, less overtaking opportunities and a slightly more narrow cross-section. Some 15 projects are opened. The purpose of this paper is to summarize present knowledge on level-of-service issues as they are presented in Swedish design and assessment guidelines and to give an overview of field measurements and theoretical analytical and simulation studies supporting the recommendations.

  • 4.
    Bergman, Astrid
    et al.
    Trivector Traffic.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Allström, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Analytical traffic models for roundabouts with pedestrian crossings2011In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 16, p. 697-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roundabouts have become a more common type of intersection in Sweden over the last 30 years. In order to evaluate the roundabout level-of-service both analytical models and simulation models are being used. Analytical traffic models for intersections, such as the Swedish capacity model Capcal, has difficulties estimating the level-of-service of a roundabout if there are pedestrians and cyclists at crossings located close to the roundabout. It is well known that a crossing located after a roundabout exit can cause an up-stream blocking effect that affects the performance of the roundabout. But how the upstream blocking effect depends on the different flows of vehicles and pedestrians is not known. In this paper an existing analytical model by Rodegerdts and Blackwelder has been investigated and compared to simulations in VISSIM and measurements from Swedish roundabouts. The purpose of this investigation is to examine if the model by Rodegerdts and Blackwelder is suitable for implementing into existing analytical models such as Capcal. The results show that the model by Rodegerdts and Blackwelder can estimate if a capacity loss will occur, but the magnitude of this loss is more difficult to evaluate. The conclusion and recommendation is that the model by Rodegerdts and Blackwelder should be implemented into the Swedish capacity model Capcal. The model by Rodegerdts and Blackwelder is to be used as a warning system if the results in Capcal are too uncertain to use for analysis of the roundabout performance.

  • 5.
    Bernhardsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Effektiva omkörningsfält på 2+1-vägar: trafiksimuleringar av olika utformningsalternativ ur ett framkomlighetsperspektiv2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The traffic performance at oncoming lane separated highways with alternating dedicated overtaking lanes (so called 2+1 roads), is dependent on the share of two lane segments (also known as the share of overtaking length). In order to maximize utilization and traffic performance, the configuration of the overtaking lanes should be designed to avoid congestion and delays. Short overtaking lanes implies limited time of queue discharge, but gives frequently recurring possibilities to overtake. Increased lengths of overtaking lanes imply the possibility to overtake several vehicles per overtaking lane, but increases the risk of catching up slower vehicles since the configuration also results in increased lengths of one lane segments.

    This report presents a traffic simulation study of how different configurations affects the throughput at 2+1 roads. The results indicate that overtaking lanes between 1 050 and 1 400 meters result in shortest travel time. However, the differences are small (~0.4 seconds/km) and not statistically significant. Thus, the benefit of optimizing the configuration in terms of throughput could be questioned. Based on the results, it becomes reasonable to question the concept of designing 2+1 roads with long overtaking lengths (which corresponds to the recommendations from the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket)). The major risk of catching up a slower vehicle at the one lane segments obviously affects the travel time.

  • 6.
    Bång, Karl-Lennart
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Köhler, Joakim
    WSP.
    Wahlstedt, Johan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Tyrens.
    Handbok för kapacitetsanalys med hjälp av simulering2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande handbok är att beskriva hur trafiksimulering kananvändas som en alternativ metod eller komplement till analytiska metoderför att bestämma kapacitet och framkomlighet. Liksom metodbeskrivningarnai TRV2013/64343 är beskrivningarna avsedda att kunna användas för att medhjälp av trafiksimulering uppskatta effekterna av en given utformning isamband med planering, konsekvensanalys, projektering och drift avvägtrafikanläggningar. Simulering kan användas som ett komplement till deanalytiska metoderna, eller som ersättning i fall som inte täcks av dessametoder. Härigenom minskas risken för onödiga kostnader förorsakade avsåväl över- som underkapacitet.

  • 7.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Metod för beräkning av fördröjningar på vägavsnitt utan omkörningsmöjlighet2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This VTI report presents a method for calculating expected queue length and travel time delay on one lane road sections without overtaking possibilities. The method was developed 2001 and presented in a working paper. The background for the model development was that the Swedish Road Administration (now the Swedish Transport Administration) planned to build so called 1+1 roads, i.e. roads with longer sections without overtaking possibilities. The method developed has later on also shown to be valuable for level of service calculations of 2+1 roads with varying share of two lane sections and for developing speed-flow relationships for the Administration’s ”Effect calculations for road facilities”. The method uses section length, traffic flow, average speed and standard deviation as input. The method is divided with respect to calculation of effects due to single slowrunning vehicles and effects at “normal” speed distribution. Since no data were available when the model was developed, the model results were instead compared to traffic simulations with the microscopic traffic simulation model AIMSUN. The results show a good correlation but the analytical model gives in general approximately 1.2 per cent lower travel time delay. The differences can probably partly be explained by the stochastic parts of the simulation model. One should also remember that neither the analytical model nor the simulation model has been calibrated and validated with real data for this type of roads. Thus, the differences between the models do not necessary imply that the analytical model is the one deviating from reality.

  • 8.
    Elyasi-Pour, Roya
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Utvärdering av förarstödsystem baserat på sammankoppling av trafiksimulering och fordonsimulering2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9. Gyergyay, B
    et al.
    Gomari, S
    Friedrich, M
    Sonnleitner, J
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Automation-ready framework for urban transport and road infrastructure planning2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Gyergyay, Bernard
    et al.
    Rupprecht Consult Forschung & Beratung GmbH.
    Gomari, Syrus
    Rupprecht Consult Forschung & Beratung GmbH.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Friedrich, Markus
    University of Stuttgart.
    Sonnleitner, Jörg
    University of Stuttgart.
    Rupprecht, Siegfried
    Rupprecht Consult Forschung & Beratung GmbH.
    Backhaus, Wolfgang
    Rupprecht Consult Forschung & Beratung GmbH.
    Automation-ready framework for urban transport planning2018In: Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA 2018, April 16-19, 2018, Vienna, Austria, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mission of the H2020 CoEXist project is to enable mobility stakeholders to get “Automation-ready” – which CoEXist currently defines as conducting transport and infrastructure planning for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) in the same comprehensive manner as for existing modes such as conventional vehicles, public transport, pedestrians, and cyclists, while ensuring continued support for existing modes on the same network. This definition will be fine-tuned through stakeholder engagement processes. The H2020 CoEXist project started in May 2017 and will run until April 2020. This paper introduces this project and covers its progress until January 2018, with a focus on the methodology of the “Automation-ready framework” that provides a planning framework for urban road authorities to prepare for the introduction of CAVs on the road network. The framework includes elements about strategic urban mobility planning for CAVs and a clear guide for urban transport planners with a list of concrete actions that cities can do now to plan for CAVs on their road network

  • 11.
    Janson Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effekter av dedicerade körfält för tung trafik på flerfältsväg2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta projekt har effekterna av dedicerade körfält för tung trafik på

    infarts- och genomfartsleder undersökts. Med dedicerade körfält för tung

    trafik avses ett eller flera körfält i vilka tunga fordon måste färdas i. I

    dessa körfält får även övriga fordonstyper färdas. Simuleringar har

    genomförts på E4:an, sträckan mellan trafikplats Järva krog och

    Linvävartorpet, i södergående riktning. Lämpliga andelar för tung trafik har

    skattats utifrån mätningar på liknande sträckor i Stockholmsområdet.

    Dedicerade körfält har positiva effekter på vägsträckor utan höga

    påfartsflöden. På sådana sträckor ökar kapaciteten på länken. Både den totala

    medelhastigheten och medelhastigheten för personbilar ökar, medan

    medelhastigheten för lastbilar minskar. Sett över alla fordonstyper fås

    alltså både en ökning i kapacitet samt en ökad reshastighet. Totalt sett går

    det således att avveckla fler fordon om dedicerade körfält för tung trafik

    används.

  • 12.
    Janson Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Harmonisering av hastigheter: effekter av minskad hastighetsspridning2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta projekt har möjligheterna att harmonisera hastigheterna på en väg med

    hjälp av variabla hastighetsgränser undersökts. Tanken är att en minskning i

    hastighetsspridning minskar antalet upphinnandeolyckor och att

    hastighetsskillnaden vid de olyckor som sker blir lägre. Om det går att få de

    förare som kör snabbare än medelhastigheten att sänka sitt hastighetsanspråk

    kan en jämnare trafikrytm uppnås med färre upphinnande- och

    omkörningsolyckor. De metoder som testats inom ramen för detta projekt bygger

    på att hastighetsgränsen justeras efter rådande medelhastighet. Ett antal

    simuleringar har genomförts på en sträcka av E4:an mellan trafikplatserna

    Lindvreten och Salem. Simuleringarna verifierar att en sänkning av

    hastighetsgränsen ger en minskning i hastighetsspridning. Minskningen beror

    till viss del på att olika fordonstyper har olika hastighetsbegränsning på

    vägar med hastighetsbegränsning 90 km/h och 110 km/h. Skillnaden mellan

    fordonstypers högsta tillåtna hastighet minskar vid en lägre hastighetsgräns.

    Acceptansen för en hastighetssänkning är troligen lägre vid låga flöden.

    Detta gör att effekterna vid låga flöden blir väldigt små. Förutom att

    spridningen i hastighet i varje körfält minskar så minskar även skillnaden i

    medelhastighet mellan körfälten vid en sänkning av hastighetsgränsen.

  • 13.
    Janson Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Matstoms, Pontus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nya V/D-funktioner på väg: preliminära funktioner för tätortsmiljöer baserade på ny metod2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In this report a preliminary set of V/D-functions based on a new calibration method is presented. The proposed V/D-functions follow a road categorization based on road type, road environment, speed limit and number of lanes. The functions are divided into two parts, one that describes the link travel time and one that describes the intersection delay. The link travel time has been estimated from the Speed-Flow relationships presented in Vägverket (2001). The intersection delay is estimated from calculations with the analytical intersection model CAPCAL A practical computer program has been developed which makes it easy to estimate functions for the different road categories based on assumptions about turn shares, flow relations, intersection density, etc. The set of V/D-functions presented in this report is based on preliminary assumptions. It has within the frames of this project not been possible to test or validate the functions in any traffic assignment. Before the functions can be used for real applications, a last stage is needed which should include - Final choice of functional form - Quality assurance on the underlying assumptions - Final test and validation with a traffic assignment program.

  • 14.
    Janson Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Matstoms, Pontus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    TU06 - nya V/D-funktioner för tätort: revidering av TU71-funktionerna2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Static equilibrium models play an important role in long-term traffic planning. A central assumption in this kind of models is the underlying volume delay functions, commonly called V/D-functions. For applications in Stockholm and Gothenburg, the so-called TU71-functions are used for traffic assignment on one hour basis. These functions are derived from a rigorous traffic investigation in early 1970s. However, the functions partly fail to describe the current traffic situation. The TU71-functions are in this report examined and adjusted, resulting in a new set of functions (TU06). The TU06-functions include functions for two additional road types: freeways with speed limit 70 km/h and 90 km/h. Three of the original functions have been adjusted. The TU06-functions have been evaluated by Emme/2 runs on the Stockholm network. It shows that the new functions result in an improvement in the comparison between model results and traffic measurements. The new functions have so far only been evaluated for the Stockholm network. Further comparisons and tests in other cities are needed in order to assure general validity. Moreover, the TU06 functions affect the travel times to such an extent that new runs of the SAMPERS model must be considered.

  • 15.
    Janson Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Simonsson, Jenny
    Simulerad trafik till VTI:s körsimulator: en förstudie2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    A driving simulator is an advanced piece of equipment used to create

    realistic driver sensations in a laboratory environment. The the Swedish

    National Road and Transport Research Institute, (VTI) driving simulator has

    an advanced motion system. Today the VTI driving simulator does not include

    any model that generates and simulates ambient traffic. The aim of this

    master thesis was to construct a model that generates and simulates vehicles

    for the VTI driving simulator. In order to achieve this, a survey of other

    similar models around the world was performed. We found that there are at

    least ten similar models. Our model is valid for a straight, dry and plane

    motorway without any entering and exiting lanes. The model is named

    Intelligent Traffic Generator, INTRAG. There are five different areas of

    three types in INTRAG. The three types are: simulated area, candidate area

    and generation area. The area closest to the driving simulator is the

    simulated area. In this area the vehicles are simulated according to models

    for driving behavior. The models that we have used for car-following, lane

    changing and acceleration are based on the model Traffic Performance on Major

    Arterials, TPMA, and the VTI Traffic Simulation Model. INTRAG also includes

    models for deceleration, transformation of basic desired speed and

    communication between vehicles with turn and brake signals. The areas on both

    sides of the simulated area are the candidate areas. These areas are buffer

    zones of vehicles. The vehicles in these areas are seldom updated. When

    updated, this is not done according to any models for driving behavior. There

    are two generation areas in INTRAG, one at the end of each candidate area. In

    these areas, new vehicles are generated. Vehicles that have traveled out of

    the model are removed in this area. The thesis also includes the task to

    construct a communication link between INTRAG and the driving simulator. We

    have chosen to use the Internet protocol IP and the transport protocol UDP.

    The packages that are sent between INTRAG and the driving simulator are built

    according to a structure that we have developed. INTRAG has been implemented

    in the programming environment Borland Delphi 5. An application that can be

    used as a substitute for a real driving simulator was created to test INTRAG.

    The substitute has also been used during the model verification and

    validation. We found, during the model verification, that the flow in average

    is 3.6 to 9.9 % too low. The reason is probably non-valid measurement

    methods. Besides this, the model seems to be implemented correctly. INTRAG

    has not yet been tested within the VTI driving simulator. The tests that have

    been done with the substitute provide an indication that the model may be a

    good representation of the reality.

  • 16.
    Janson Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Comparison of car-following models2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic simulation is an often used tool in the study of traffic systems. A traffic simulation model consists of several sub-models; each handles one specific task in the simulation. These sub-models include, among others, car-following. This model controls the interactions with the preceding vehicle in the same lane. This paper compares and describes the car-following models used in the four traffic microsimulation software packages AIMSUN, MITSIM, VISSIM, and the Fritzsche car-following model. A variant of the Fritzsche model is used in the software tool Parmics. Paramics exists in two versions. The differences between the car-following models used in these versions and the Fritzsche car-following model is however unknown. Both similarities and differences between the models as well as model's individual properties are clarified. Two of the four models, the Fritzsche model and the model included in VISSIM, have a similar approach to car-following, whereas the other two models have fundamentally different approaches. However, the resulting following behaviours of the models show similarities even though the car-following approaches are different.

  • 17.
    Jonkers, Eline
    et al.
    TNO.
    Carsten, Oliver
    ITS Leeds.
    Nellthorp, John
    ITS Leeds.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Data and framework for scaling up2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global aim of the ecoDriver project is to increase the fuel efficiency by 20% by optimising the driver-powertrain-environment feedback loop and delivering effective advice to drivers. In the course of the project, field experiments will take place with a wide range of vehicles —e.g. cars, light trucks and vans, medium and heavy trucks and buses —covering both individual and collective transport. The last step of the project (Sub Project 5; SP5) is to scale up the results from these tests and analysecosts and benefits for a number of future scenarios.

    This deliverable describes the data needs for each step. It also contains a description of the approaches proposed for the scenario building, the microscopic traffic simulations, the scaling up and the cost-benefit analysis.

  • 18.
    Jonkers, Eline
    et al.
    TNO.
    Nellthorp, John
    University of Leeds.
    Wilmink, Isabel
    TNO.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Evaluation of eco-driving systems: A European analysis with scenarios and micro simulation2018In: Case Studies on Transport Policy, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2213-6258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, various field operational tests (FOTs) have been carried out in the EU to measure the real-world impacts of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). A challenge arising from these FOTs is to scale up from the very localised effects measured in the tests to a much wider set of socio-economic impacts, for the purposes of policy evaluation. This can involve: projecting future take-up of the systems; scaling up to a wider geographical area – in some cases the whole EU; and estimating a range of economic, social and environmental impacts into the future. This article describes the evaluation conducted in the European project ‘ecoDriver’, which developed and tested a range of driver support systems for cars and commercial vehicles. The systems aimed to reduce CO2 emissions and energy consumption by encouraging the adoption of green driving behaviour. A novel approach to evaluation was adopted, which used scenario-building and micro-simulation to help scale up the results from field tests to the EU-28 level over a 20 year period, leading to a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) from both a societal and a stakeholder perspective. This article describes the method developed and used for the evaluation, and the main results for eco-driving systems, focusing on novel aspects, lessons learned and implications for policy and research.

  • 19.
    Jonkers, Eline
    et al.
    TNO.
    Wilmink, Isabel
    TNO.
    Nellthorp, John
    ITS Leeds.
    Gühnemann, Astrid
    ITS Leeds.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Costs and benefits of green driving support systems2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global aim of the ecoDriver project was to deliver the most effective advice to drivers on fuel efficient driving by optimising the driver-powertrain-environment feedback loop. More specifically, the focus of the project was on the interaction between technology and the driver, since the behaviour of a driver is a critical element in energy efficiency. Advice to drivers covers the whole spectrum, from previewing the upcoming situation, optimising the current driving situation, to post-drive feedback and learning.

    The aim of the project was to optimise human machine interfaces (HMIs) and advice to drivers for both portable devices within the vehicle which provide assistance to the driver (nomadic devices) and built-in systems, and to compare the effectiveness of each. This was addressed across a wide range of vehicles — e.g. cars, light trucks and vans, medium and heavy trucks and buses — covering both individual and collective transport. Lastly, the project did not only examine (in both the field trials and the simulations) driving with current and near-term powertrains, but also with a full range of future vehicles, including hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles.

  • 20.
    Jopson, Ann
    et al.
    ITS Leeds.
    Batley, Richard
    ITS Leeds.
    Tanner, Reto
    ITS Leeds.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Jamson, Samantha
    ITS Leeds.
    Nellthorp, John
    ITS Leeds.
    Carsten, Oliver
    ITS Leeds.
    Scenarios for green driving support systems2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work package developed a range of future scenarios with varying degrees of green driver support, considering technological, human and political perspectives. These scenarios will be used in the microsimulation (WP53) and the scaling-up (WP54). Focus groups and a survey were carried out, as well as aggregation to the vehicle market. In the focus group discussions, eco-driving systems were valued for heavy vehicle, fleet markets and individual drivers, with commercial buyers sensitive to costs and HMI, but private buyers concerned with engine type and fuel economy – both relating to costs. In the survey, purchasers indicated that they were willing to pay substantially more for a built in advice system as compared with a mobile phone app.

  • 21.
    Nitsche, Philippe
    et al.
    Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT).
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Taylor, Nicholas
    Transport Research Laboratories (TRL).
    Reinthaler, Martin
    Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT).
    Ponweiser, Wolfgang
    Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT).
    Bernhardsson, Viktor
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Mocanu, ISabel
    Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT).
    Uittenbogaard, Jeroen
    Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO).
    van Dam, Esra
    Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO).
    Pro-active Management of Traffic Incidents Using Novel Technologies2016In: Transportation Research Procedia, 2016, Vol. 14, p. 3360-3369Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of the assessment phase of the project PRIMA (Pro-Active Incident Management), where the benefits, costs and risks of novel traffic incident management techniques are investigated. The project targets the enhancement of current state-of-the-art measures for handling incidents, i.e. road accidents, breakdowns and congestion, by recommending proactive techniques. To this end, modern technologies such as eCall, C2X or xFCD are assessed in terms of their potential to optimize the overall incident duration and response. Results are derived from a scenario-based assessment methodology involving macroscopic traffic simulations, traffic performance calculations and cost-benefit analysis. The work presented in this paper is being followed up by the development of practical guidelines and recommendations for traffic managers of motorways and primary roads.

  • 22.
    Olstam, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    A model for simulation and generation of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving simulators are used to conduct experiments on for example driver behavior, road design, and vehicle characteristics. The results of the experiments often depend on the traffic conditions. One example is the evaluation of cellular phones and how they affect driving behavior. It is clear that the ability to use phones when driving depends on traffic intensity and composition, and that realistic experiments in driving simulators therefore has to include surrounding traffic.

    This thesis describes a model that generates and simulates surrounding vehicles for a driving simulator. The proposed model generates a traffic stream, corresponding to a given target flow and simulates realistic interactions between vehicles. The model is built on established techniques for time-driven microscopic simulation of traffic and uses an approach of only simulating the closest neighborhood of the driving simulator vehicle. In our model this closest neighborhood is divided into one inner region and two outer regions. Vehicles in the inner region are simulated according to advanced behavioral models while vehicles in the outer regions are updated according to a less time-consuming model. The presented work includes a new framework for generating and simulating vehicles within a moving area. It also includes the development of enhanced models for car-following and overtaking and a simple mesoscopic traffic model.

    The developed model has been integrated and tested within the VTI Driving simulator III. A driving simulator experiment has been performed in order to check if the participants observe the behavior of the simulated vehicles as realistic or not. The results were promising but they also indicated that enhancements could be made. The model has also been validated on the number of vehicles that catches up with the driving simulator vehicle and vice versa. The agreement is good for active and passive catch-ups on rural roads and for passive catch-ups on freeways, but less good for active catch-ups on freeways.

  • 23.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Beräkning av kapacitet och reshastighet på 2+1- och tvåfältsvägar2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Cirkulationsplatser2014In: TRVMB Kapacitet och framkomlighetseffekter: Trafikverkets metodbeskrivning för beräkning av kapacitet och framkomlighetseffekter i vägtrafikanläggningar / [ed] Freddie Westman, Borlänge: Trafikverket , 2014, TRV 2013:64343, p. 314-349Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    TRVMB Kapacitet och framkomlighetseffekter innehåller beräkningsmetoder för kapacitet, belastningsgrad, kölängd, fördröjning och andel stopp för stopp/väjnings- och högerreglerad korsning, signalreglerad korsning, landsvägsträcka och för motorvägar inklusive trafikplatser. Metoderna kan användas för att verifiera övergripande krav i TRVÖK Övergripande krav för gators och vägars utformning (Trafikverket 2012:181) och krav i TRVK Krav för gators och vägars utformning (Trafikverket 2012:179). Metoderna kan också användas vid detaljutformning av vägtrafikanläggningar och för jämförelse av framkomlighetseffekter för olika alternativ.

  • 25.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Ej signalreglerade korsningar2014In: TRVMB Kapacitet och framkomlighetseffekter: Trafikverkets metodbeskrivning för beräkning av kapacitet och framkomlighetseffekter i vägtrafikanläggningar / [ed] Freddie Westman, Borlänge: Trafikverket , 2014, TRV 2013:64343, p. 271-313Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Generation and simulation of surrounding vehicles in a driving simulator2006In: DSC 2006 Europe, 2006, p. 176-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving simulators are used to conduct experiments on driver behavior, road design, and vehicle characteristics, etc. It is important that a driving simulator include a realistic simulation of surrounding vehicles in order to be a valid representation of real driving. This paper describes a model that generates and simulates surrounding traffic for a driving simulator. The model is built on established techniques for time-driven micro-simulation of traffic. The model only considers the closest neighborhood of the driving simulator vehicle. This neighborhood is divided into one inner region and two outer regions. Vehicles in the inner region are simulated according to advanced behavioral models while vehicles in the outer regions are updated according to a less time-consuming mesoscopic model. The sub-models for driving behavior are enhanced versions of the sub-models in the HUTSIM/TPMA model and the VTISim model. The developed simulation model also includes a new sub-model for the behavior during overtakings. The developed model has been tested within the VTI Driving simulator III. A driving simulator experiment has been performed in order to check if the participants observe the behavior of the simulated vehicles as realistic or not. The results were promising but they also indicated that enhancements could be made. The model has also been validated on the number of vehicles that catches up with the driving simulator vehicle and vice versa. The agreement is good for active and passive catch-ups on rural roads and for passive catch-ups on freeways, but less good for active catch-ups on freeways.

  • 27.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Kalibrering av restidsfunktioner: förslag till metodik och datainsamlingsupplägg2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Route choice calculations in static traffic assignment models (as Emme, Visum, TransCad) are based on travel time estimations using volume delay functions. The volume delay function (also denoted travel time functions) describe how the travel time depend on the traffic volume for different types of roads. The volume delay functions are one of the base elements in travel prognosis models as the Swedish Sampers model system. This report presents a pre-study with the aim to investigate how volume delay functions should be designed and calibrated, including which road classification to use, which type of volume delay function that should be used, how the functions should be calibrated and which data that is needed for the calibration. These questions were investigated by a literature review on state-of-practice, workshops with experienced Sampers users to collect information and experiences of the current volume delay functions in Sampers, workshops with research experts on data collection of travel times, and project internal discussions on calibration methodologies.

    The literature review showed that there are few guidelines on how volume delay functions can or should be calibrated. The calibration is commonly conducted by fitting the volume delay function curve to cross-sectional measurements of flow and mean speed. There are some examples of calibration based on travel time measurements based on floating car measurements or number plate recognition. These calibration approaches focus on describing travel time for a given link based on the flow at the link. However, based on the literature review and experience from earlier research in Sweden it is concluded that volume delay functions that represent the traffic process on a road link in a good way do not necessary give a good fit of the static assignment calculated and observed link and route flows and travel times. There are several attempts described in the literature of calibration approaches that aim to minimize the difference between model calculated and observed flows and travel times using optimization techniques. The suggestion from the pre-study is that such an approach should be investigated for calibration of the Sampers volume delay functions. To avoid overfitting and unrealistic parameters values the optimization should include lower and upper limits of the parameters.

    The calibration requires both link flow and travel time observations. Link counts are regularly measured for other purposes and can be collected from the Swedish Transport Administration and municipality regular traffic measurement programs. The suggestion for travel time data is to use the travel time data that currently is commissioned by the Swedish Transport Administration and Stockholm and Göteborg municipality. Our recommendation is also that the Swedish Transport Administration investigate the possibility to buy travel time data for the Swedish main road network.

  • 28.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet.
    Kapacitet i Landsbygd2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Kapacitet i landsbygd2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Landsvägar2014In: TRVMB Kapacitet och framkomlighetseffekter: Trafikverkets metodbeskrivning för beräkning av kapacitet och framkomlighetseffekter i vägtrafikanläggningar / [ed] Freddie Westman, Borlänge: Trafikverket , 2014, TRV 2013:64343, p. 42-91Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Olstam, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Simulation of rural road traffic for driving simulators2005In: Proceedings of the 84th Annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., USA, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving simulators are used to conduct experiments on driver behavior, road design, and vehicle characteristics, etc. The results of the experiments often depend on traffic conditions. One example is the evaluation of cellular phones and how they affect driving behavior. It is clear that the ability to use phones when driving depends on traffic intensity and composition, and that realistic experiments in driving simulators must therefore include surrounding traffic. This paper describes a model that generates and simulates surrounding rural road traffc for a driving simulator. The model generates a traffic stream, corresponding to a given target flow and simulates realistic interactions between vehicles. The model is built on established techniques for time-driven microsimulation of traffic. The model only considers the closest neighborhood of the driving simulator vehicle. This neighborhood is divided into one inner region and two outer regions. Vehicles in the inner region are simulated according to advanced behavioral models while vehicles in the outer regions are updated according to a less time-consuming model. The paper also discusses calibration and validation of the model and the problem of combining stochastic traffic and driving simulator scenarios.

  • 32.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Simulation of Surrounding Vehicles in Driving Simulators2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving simulators and microscopic traffic simulation are important tools for making evaluations of driving and traffic. A driving simulator is de-signed to imitate real driving and is used to conduct experiments on driver behavior. Traffic simulation is commonly used to evaluate the quality of service of different infrastructure designs. This thesis considers a different application of traffic simulation, namely the simulation of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators.

    The surrounding traffic is one of several factors that influence a driver's mental load and ability to drive a vehicle. The representation of the surrounding vehicles in a driving simulator plays an important role in the striving to create an illusion of real driving. If the illusion of real driving is not good enough, there is an risk that drivers will behave differently than in real world driving, implying that the results and conclusions reached from simulations may not be transferable to real driving.

    This thesis has two main objectives. The first objective is to develop a model for generating and simulating autonomous surrounding vehicles in a driving simulator. The approach used by the model developed is to only simulate the closest area of the driving simulator vehicle. This area is divided into one inner region and two outer regions. Vehicles in the inner region are simulated according to a microscopic model which includes sub-models for driving behavior, while vehicles in the outer regions are updated according to a less time-consuming mesoscopic model.

    The second objective is to develop an algorithm for combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events. Driving simulators are often used to study situations that rarely occur in the real traffic system. In order to create the same situations for each subject, the behavior of the surrounding vehicles has traditionally been strictly controlled. This often leads to less realistic surrounding traffic. The algorithm developed makes it possible to use autonomous traffic between the predefined controlled situations, and thereby get both realistic traffc and controlled events. The model and the algorithm developed have been implemented and tested in the VTI driving simulator with promising results.

    List of papers
    1. Simulation of rural road traffic for driving simulators
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation of rural road traffic for driving simulators
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the 84th Annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., USA, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving simulators are used to conduct experiments on driver behavior, road design, and vehicle characteristics, etc. The results of the experiments often depend on traffic conditions. One example is the evaluation of cellular phones and how they affect driving behavior. It is clear that the ability to use phones when driving depends on traffic intensity and composition, and that realistic experiments in driving simulators must therefore include surrounding traffic. This paper describes a model that generates and simulates surrounding rural road traffc for a driving simulator. The model generates a traffic stream, corresponding to a given target flow and simulates realistic interactions between vehicles. The model is built on established techniques for time-driven microsimulation of traffic. The model only considers the closest neighborhood of the driving simulator vehicle. This neighborhood is divided into one inner region and two outer regions. Vehicles in the inner region are simulated according to advanced behavioral models while vehicles in the outer regions are updated according to a less time-consuming model. The paper also discusses calibration and validation of the model and the problem of combining stochastic traffic and driving simulator scenarios.

    Keywords
    Simulation, Simulator (driving), Micro, Model (not math)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-192 (URN)
    Conference
    Annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board
    Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2014-03-25Bibliographically approved
    2. A Framework for Simulation of Surrounding Vehicles in Driving Simulators
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework for Simulation of Surrounding Vehicles in Driving Simulators
    2008 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, ISSN 1049-3301, E-ISSN 1558-1195, Vol. 18, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes a framework for generation and simulation of surrounding vehicles in a driving simulator. The proposed framework generates a traffic stream, corresponding to a given target flow and simulates realistic interactions between vehicles. The framework is based on an approach in which only a limited area around the driving simulator vehicle is simulated. This closest neighborhood is divided into one inner area and two outer areas. Vehicles in the inner area are simulated according to a microscopic simulation model including advanced submodels for driving behavior while vehicles in the outer areas are updated according to a less time-consuming mesoscopic simulation model. The presented work includes a new framework for generating and simulating vehicles within a moving area. It also includes the development of an enhanced model for overtakings and a simple mesoscopic traffic model. The framework has been validated on the number of vehicles that catch up with the driving simulator vehicle and vice versa. The agreement is good for active and passive catch-ups on rural roads and for passive catch-ups on freeways, but less good for active catch-ups on freeways. The reason for this seems to be deficiencies in the utilized lane-changing model. It has been verified that the framework is able to achieve the target flow and that there is a gain in computational time of using the outer areas. The framework has also been tested within the VTI Driving simulator III.

    Keywords
    Traffic, Micro, Simulation, Real time, Simulator (driving)
    National Category
    Interaction Technologies
    Research subject
    20 Road: Traffic engineering, 25 Road: Traffic theory
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-205 (URN)10.1145/1371574.1371575 (DOI)
    Note

    © ACM, (2008). This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution.

    The definitive version is: Johan Janson Olstam, Jan Lundgren, Mikael Adlers and Pontus Matstoms, A Framework for Simulation of Surrounding Vehicles in Driving Simulators, 2008, ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, (18), 3, . http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1371574.1371575

    Copyright: Association for Computing Machinery

    Available from: 2014-01-15 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Combination of autonomous and controlled vehicles in driving simulator scenarios
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combination of autonomous and controlled vehicles in driving simulator scenarios
    2007 (English)In: Proceedings of Road Safety and Simulation (RSS2007), Rome, Italy, 2007Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a design methodology for driving simulator scenarios in which autonomous and controlled surrounding vehicles are combined. The main motives are to achieve both a high realism and high reproducibility. The methodology is introduced using a theater metaphor in which a driving simulator scenario is defined as a constellation of: everyday life driving, preparations for plays, and plays. Advantages, disadvantages and diffiulties with the proposed methodology are discussed.

    Keywords
    Simulation, Simulator (driving), Method
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-203 (URN)
    Conference
    Road Safety and Simulation (RSS2007)
    Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2014-03-25Bibliographically approved
    4. An algorithm for combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events in driving simulator experiments
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An algorithm for combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events in driving simulator experiments
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1185-1201Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles can be used to create realistic simulations of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators. However, the use of autonomous vehicles makes it difficult to ensure reproducibility between subjects. In this paper, an effort is made to solve the problem by combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events, denoted plays. The aim is to achieve the same initial play conditions for each subject, since the traffic situation around the subject will be dependant upon each subject's actions while driving in the autonomous traffic. This paper presents an algorithm that achieves the transition from autonomous traffic to a predefined start condition for a play. The algorithm has been tested in the VTI driving simulator III with promising results. In most of the cases the algorithm could reconstruct the specified start condition and conduct the transition from autonomous to controlled mode in a non-conspicuous way. Some problems were observed regarding moving unwanted vehicles away from the closest area around the simulator vehicle, and this part of the algorithm has to be enhanced. The experiment also showed that the controlled every-day life traffic normally used in the VTI driving simulator makes subjects drive faster than in autonomous traffic.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2011
    Keywords
    Simulation, Micro, Car, Traffic flow, Simulator (driving)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-204 (URN)10.1016/j.trc.2011.02.003 (DOI)000295663100018 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies|Swedish Road Administration, Transport Telematics Sweden||INRETS||

    Available from: 2014-01-15 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    5. Enhancements to the Intelligent Driver Model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancements to the Intelligent Driver Model
    2010 (English)In: TRB 89th annual meeting Compendium of Papers DVD, Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board , 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a modified version of the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM) [M. Treiber, A. Hennecke, and D. Helbing, Phys. Rev. E. 62, 2 (2000)]. The IDM is a car-following model. A car-following model controls the accelerations of individual vehicles in a microscopic traffic simulation model. The original IDM has been observed to result in negative vehicle accelerations in situations where the distance to the preceding vehicle is much larger than the estimated desired safety distance. In this paper, we propose a modified function for the interaction with preceding vehicles which do not include this model property. A comparison of the results of simulations with the original and the modified IDM shows that the modified IDM results in higher average speed for a specific flow, a less steep speed-flow relationship and higher capacity. The speed-flow relationships of simulations with the modified IDM are also shown to better match the speed-flow relationships in real traffic on Swedish freeways. The differences between the results for the original and the modified IDM increase if the models are extended to include drivers' anticipation of the downstream traffic condition.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 2010
    Keywords
    Mathmatical model, Simulator (driving), Micro, Safety, Vehicle spacing
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Road: Traffic engineering, Road: Traffic theory
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6584 (URN)
    Conference
    Transportation Research Board 89th Annual Meeting
    Available from: 2009-03-25 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2014-03-25Bibliographically approved
  • 33.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Simulation of traffic for driving simulators2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Simulation of vehicles in a driving simulator using microscopic traffic simulation2006In: International Symposium on Transport Simulation,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 35.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Simulation of vehicles in a driving simulators using microscopic traffic simulation2009In: Transport Simulation: Beyond Traditional Approaches / [ed] Edward Chung and André-Gilles Dumont, Lausanne, Switzerland: EPFL Press , 2009, 1, p. 43-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the transport simulation of large road networks has become far more rapid and detailed, and many exciting developments in this field have emerged.  Within this volume, the authors describe the simulation of automobile, pedestrian, and rail traffic coupled to new applications, such as the embedding of traffic simulation into driving simulators, to give a more realistic environment of driver behavior surrounding the subject vehicle. New approaches to traffic simulation are described, including the hybrid mesoscopic-microscopic model and floor-field agent-based simulation. Written by an invited panel of experts, this book addresses students, engineers, and scholars, as well as anyone who needs a state-of-the-art overview of transport simulation today.

  • 36.
    Olstam, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Trafiksimulering i kombination med körsimulator2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

        

  • 37.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Bernhardsson, Viktor
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Hastighetsflödessamband för svenska typvägar: Förslag till reviderade samband baserat på trafikmätningar från 2012–20152017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed-flow relationships are an important part of the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) model for evaluation of effects of road facilities (the EVA model). This report present suggestions for new speed-flow relationships for motorways (MV), low standard motorways (4F), oncoming lane separated highways with grade separated intersections (MML), oncoming separated highways with at grade intersections (MLV), and two-lane highways. The suggestions are based on data from measurements using the Swedish Transport Administration’s traffic measurement system TMS in combination with model calculations. The TMS data have, for each road category, been quality checked, processed and analysed. The data material is presented as speed-flow diagrams for passenger cars, buses and trucks without trailer, and trucks with trailers. A comparison of the current speed-flow relationships and the TMS-measurements was then conducted for each road category, and if needed a suggestion for a revision was presented. The most significant changes from last revision from 2013 are: average free flow speed for trucks without trailer have in general increased for all road types except two lane highways for which the speed has decreased; average free flow speed for trucks with trailers have in general decreased; and the average speed on two lane highways have in general decreased

  • 38.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Bernhardsson, Viktor
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    van Noort, Martijn
    TNO.
    Wilmink, Isabel
    TNO.
    Klunder, Gerdien
    TNO.
    Choudhury, Charisma
    ITS Leeds.
    Tate, James
    ITS Leeds.
    Ligterink, Norbert
    TNO.
    Carsten, Oliver
    O.M.J.Carsten@its.leeds.ac.uk.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Traffic system impacts of green driving support systems2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global aim of the ecoDriver project was to deliver the most effective advice to drivers on fuel efficient driving by optimising the driver-powertrain-environment feedback loop. More specifically, the focus of the project was on the interaction between technology and the driver, since the behaviour of a driver is a critical element in energy efficiency. By increasing the acceptance of eco-driving applications through intelligent HMI and advice solutions, the ecoDriver project substantially contributes to the Europe 2020 goals through a much needed reduction of gas emissions and energy usage in transport, and thereby a significant reduction in the negative impact of transport on the environment.

    The ecoDriver advice to drivers covers the whole spectrum, from previewing the upcoming situation, over optimising the current driving situation, to post-drive feedback and learning. The aim of the project was to optimise human machine interfaces (HMIs) and advice to drivers for both portable devices within the vehicle which provide assistance to the driver (nomadic devices) and built-in systems, and to compare the effectiveness of each. This was addressed across a wide range of vehicles — e.g. cars, light trucks and vans, medium and heavy trucks and buses — covering both individual and collective transport. Lastly, the project did not only examine driving with current and near-term powertrains, but also with a full range of future vehicles, including hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles.

  • 39.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Hastighetsflödessamband för svenska typvägar: förslag till reviderade samband baserat på TMS-mätningar från 2009-20112013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents suggestions for new speed-flow relationships for motorways (MV), low standard motorways (4F), oncoming lane separated highways with grade separated intersections (MML), oncoming lane separated highways with at grade intersections (MLV), and two-lane highways. The suggestions are based on measurements from Trafikverket’s traffic count measuring system TMS in combination with model calculations. The TMS data have, for each road category, been quality checked, processed and analyzed. The data material is presented as speed-flow graphs for personal cars, trucks/buses without trailers and trucks with trailers. A comparison of the current speed-flow relationships and the TMS measurements was then conducted for each road category. The revised set of relationships then constituted the base for the 2012 revision of Trafikverket's publication "Effect calculations for road facilities". The analysis conducted resulted in suggestions to decrease the free flow speed and the travel speed at higher flows for most of the road categories. For motorways also a decrease in capacity is suggested. For oncoming separated highways (both MML and MLV) are minor changes of the capacity suggested. The suggested capacity value is for MML and MLV 1550 vehicles/h independently of speed limit and lane/road width.

  • 40.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Elyasi-Pour, Roya
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Combining traffic and vehicle simulation for enhanced evaluations of powertrain related ADAS for trucks2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International IEEE Annual Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC 2013), The Hague, The Netherlands, October 6-9, 2013, 2013, p. 851-856Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) may change both vehicle dynamics and driver behaviour. To study traffic-related impacts of a powertrain-related ADAS for trucks, a simulation-based approach was developed. The paper presents an approach to interconnecting a microscopic traffic simulation model and a vehicle simulation model including modelling of ADAS functionality. Verification tests demonstrate that the approach is practical and that high ADAS penetration rates can be run within reasonable simulation execution times. The verification tests also demonstrate that current truck dynamics modelling in the Aimsun and Vissim traffic simulation models does not capture all relevant aspects of truck driving behaviour and dynamics related to vertical grades.

  • 41.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Engelson, Leonid
    Trafikverket.
    Johansson, Lars
    Trafikverket.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nya restidsfunktioner med korsningsfördröjning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents method and result for the development of new travel time functions for the Swedish national transport planning modelling system Sampers. Travel time functions include one part that describes the travel time delay on road links and one part that describes the delay at intersections. It is difficult and expensive to conduct synchronized measurements of traffic flow and travel times. An alternative approach has therefore been applied in which the travel time functions were calibrated based on calculations of intersection delay for different intersection designs using the intersection delay and capacity model Capcal. The travel time functions developed were tested and validated are now implemented in the Sampers system.

  • 42.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Espié, Stéephane
    INRETS, Institut National de REcherche sur les Transports et leur Séecurité, 2, Av. du Gl. Malleret-Joinville, F-94114, Arcueil, France.
    Combination of autonomous and controlled vehicles in driving simulator scenarios2007In: Proceedings of Road Safety and Simulation (RSS2007), Rome, Italy, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a design methodology for driving simulator scenarios in which autonomous and controlled surrounding vehicles are combined. The main motives are to achieve both a high realism and high reproducibility. The methodology is introduced using a theater metaphor in which a driving simulator scenario is defined as a constellation of: everyday life driving, preparations for plays, and plays. Advantages, disadvantages and diffiulties with the proposed methodology are discussed.

  • 43.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Espié, Stéphane
    INRETS.
    Combination of autonomous and controlled vehicles in driving simulator scenarios2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Espié, Stéphane
    INRETS, Institut National de REcherche sur les Transports et leur Sécurité, 58, Bd Lefebvre F-75732 Paris, France.
    Combination of autonomous and controlled vehicles in driving simulator scenarios2010In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 21, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a design methodology for driving simulator scenarios in which autonomous and controlled surrounding vehicles are combined. The main motives are to achieve both a high realism and high reproducibility. The methodology is introduced using a theater metaphor in which a driving simulator scenario is defined as a constellation of: everyday life driving, preparations for plays, and plays. Advantages, disadvantages and difficulties with the proposed methodology are discussed.

  • 45.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Espié, Stéphane
    INRETS, Institut National de REcherche sur les Transports et leur Sécurité, 58, Bd Lefebvre F-75732 Paris, France.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lundgren, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    An algorithm for combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events in driving simulator experiments2011In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1185-1201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles can be used to create realistic simulations of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators. However, the use of autonomous vehicles makes it difficult to ensure reproducibility between subjects. In this paper, an effort is made to solve the problem by combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events, denoted plays. The aim is to achieve the same initial play conditions for each subject, since the traffic situation around the subject will be dependant upon each subject's actions while driving in the autonomous traffic. This paper presents an algorithm that achieves the transition from autonomous traffic to a predefined start condition for a play. The algorithm has been tested in the VTI driving simulator III with promising results. In most of the cases the algorithm could reconstruct the specified start condition and conduct the transition from autonomous to controlled mode in a non-conspicuous way. Some problems were observed regarding moving unwanted vehicles away from the closest area around the simulator vehicle, and this part of the algorithm has to be enhanced. The experiment also showed that the controlled every-day life traffic normally used in the VTI driving simulator makes subjects drive faster than in autonomous traffic.

  • 46.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Häll, Carl-Henrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Smith, Göran
    Viktoria Swedish ICT.
    Habibovic, Azra
    Viktoria Swedish ICT.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Dynamic bus lanes in Sweden – a pre-study: PROVDYK – Final report2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic bus lanes are only dedicated for buses when and where the buses need them, and otherwise open for all vehicles to use. This report presents the results from a pre-study, investigating the potential that dynamic bus lanes could have as a priority measure for public transport in a Swedish context. Knowledge of situations in which dynamic bus lanes have the highest potential, and their implementation requirements is scarce. It is moreover uncertain how they would affect traffic safety, level of service, user experience, travel time and delays for other vehicles.

    A workshop was conducted within this pre-study in order to further investigate plausible user experiences. The results indicate that:

    • bus drivers’ stress levels could be reduced
    • the relative attractiveness of travelling by bus might rise
    • that motorists probably would experience the introduction of dynamic bus lanes as neither good nor bad, as long as the system is fairly intuitive

    Technical solutions for implementing dynamic bus lanes exist. A dynamic bus lane system would require development of a system control unit and integration with bus sensors, sensors for traffic flow measurement, variable message signs (to inform road users of the current status of the dynamic bus lane) and traffic signals. The overall conclusion form the pre-study is that dynamic bus lanes could be a useful complementary priority measure for public transport vehicles in Sweden, especially when dedicated bus lanes are not feasible or desirable.

  • 47.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Lundgren, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Adlers, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Matstoms, Pontus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    A Framework for Simulation of Surrounding Vehicles in Driving Simulators2008In: ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, ISSN 1049-3301, E-ISSN 1558-1195, Vol. 18, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes a framework for generation and simulation of surrounding vehicles in a driving simulator. The proposed framework generates a traffic stream, corresponding to a given target flow and simulates realistic interactions between vehicles. The framework is based on an approach in which only a limited area around the driving simulator vehicle is simulated. This closest neighborhood is divided into one inner area and two outer areas. Vehicles in the inner area are simulated according to a microscopic simulation model including advanced submodels for driving behavior while vehicles in the outer areas are updated according to a less time-consuming mesoscopic simulation model. The presented work includes a new framework for generating and simulating vehicles within a moving area. It also includes the development of an enhanced model for overtakings and a simple mesoscopic traffic model. The framework has been validated on the number of vehicles that catch up with the driving simulator vehicle and vice versa. The agreement is good for active and passive catch-ups on rural roads and for passive catch-ups on freeways, but less good for active catch-ups on freeways. The reason for this seems to be deficiencies in the utilized lane-changing model. It has been verified that the framework is able to achieve the target flow and that there is a gain in computational time of using the outer areas. The framework has also been tested within the VTI Driving simulator III.

  • 48.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Matstoms, Pontus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    TU06 - Nya V/D-funktioner för tätort2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

        

  • 49.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Matstoms, Pontus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Estimation of Volume Delay Functions for Urban Environments Based on an Analytical Intersection Model2008In: TRB 87th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers DVD, Washington: Transportation Research Board , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a method for estimating parameters in volume delay functions. The volume delay function is a central part of static traffic assignment models and describes how the travel time on road link changes with traffic demand. The proposed estimation method is based on that the volume delay function is divided into two parts, one part describing the link travel time and delay and one part describing the intersection delay. The parameters for the link and intersection parts are estimated separately. Collecting data for the link part is seldom a problem. However, earlier experiences have shown that it is both difficult and expensive to collect data on intersection delay. We have used an approach in which the intersection delay data is taken from a model for calculating intersection delay, in this case the analytical intersection model CAPCAL. The developed estimation method has been exemplified on one road type and road environment. A sensitivity analysis has been conducted in order to investigate how large influence that the different assumptions on the road factors have on the volume delay function. The conclusions are that the flow levels on the cross road, the intersection density, the share of straight forward traffic, and the share of different intersection types has the largest influence, and thus should be prioritized when collecting road type data. 

  • 50.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    A review of guidelines for applying traffic simulation to level-of-service analysis2011In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, p. 771-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microscopic traffic simulation is often used as an alternative or complementary tool to analytical methods and procedures for level-of-service analyses of road traffic facilities. The increased usage of traffic simulation for level-of-service analysis has raised a need for guidelines on how to apply and use traffic simulation models. Many countries have developed or are currently developing traffic simulation guidelines. This is also the case in Sweden, were the new Swedish highway capacity manual will include a chapter on traffic simulation. This paper presents a survey of the current traffic simulation guidelines in USA, Germany, UK, Denmark and Sweden. The guidelines have been analysed with respect to the aspects covered: when to apply simulation; the workflow of a simulation study; data collection needs; calibration and validation; experimental design; statistical analysis; and calculation of level-of-service measures. The guidelines analysed are focused on different aspects and none of them covers all of the topics listed above. Some of the guidelines are connected to specific simulation software packages and some are written in a more general manner. Most of the aspects covered are general and applicable in any country. The main reason for developing country specific guidelines is often a need for guidelines in the local language. Experimental design and statistical analysis are not treated extensively in the guidelines; neither do the guidelines discuss how to deal with calibration based on limited real world measurements. Calculation of level-of-service measures are quite extensively treated in some of the guidelines and to a little extent in others. All of the guidelines contain important contributions for the simulation chapter of the new Swedish highway capacity manual

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