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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Renner, Linda
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Almqvist, Sverker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhetspåverkan vid omkörning av 30-metersfordon2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road Administration considers permitting longer and heavier trucks on Swedish roads, provided that they do not affect traffic safety. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of truck length, particularly accident risk associated with overtaking. Interviewed drivers of 30 meter trucks had not experienced the problems predicted by drivers of ordinary trucks concerning narrow roundabouts and intersections, but mentioned the importance of a supportive truck company, working environment and truck equipment. A simulator study investigated car drivers overtaking trucks 30 m and 18.75 m long on a 2+1 road where two lanes merges to one. The headway time gap was 0.2 sec. (sign.) shorter after overtaking the 30 meter truck in situations where the back was in the same relative position as of the 18.75 meter truck. A field study analysed video-recorded overtakings of a 30 meter and a 24 meter timber truck on a 2+1 road and a two-lane road. No significant differences were found between headway time gaps when overtaking the two trucks, regardless of road type. The latter result should be interpreted with great caution because of unevenly distributed data collected during specific conditions. The conclusions are that longer trucks may have a small negative effect on overtaking situations, and that further field studies are required.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Renner, Linda
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Hultgren, J
    Almqvist, S
    Traffic safety effects when overtaking 30 meter trucks2012In: Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics 2012- 14 Volume Set: Proceedings of the 4th AHFE Conference 21-25 July 2012 / [ed] Gavriel Salvendy, Waldemar Karwowski, Taylor & Francis, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate if the introduction of extra-long and heavy trucks has an effect on traffic safety on Swedish roads, especially in relation to overtaking maneuvers. Traffic safety effects will be measured in terms of road user behavior concerning accelerations and time slots. First, focus group interviews with heavy truck drivers. Truck drivers that do not drive extra-long trucks believe that the introduction of extra-long trucks will create a number of traffic safety problems especially in terms of conflicts with ordinary road users. The drivers of extra-long trucks do not experience the problems that ordinary truck drivers predict. The problems they experience can be taken care of with more planning (thinking ahead). They also believe that the traffic sign on the back of the extra-long vehicle has a positive effect. The truck company, working environment and truck equipment are other important aspects mentioned by the drivers of the extra-long vehicles.

    The simulator study investigates overtaking situations on a 2+1-lane highway, with extra-long trucks (30.4 m) and ordinary trucks (18.75 m). The results reveal that the distance from the rear/front of the truck to the point where only one lane exists affects car drivers’ decision to overtake, independently of truck length. If the truck is in the relatively same position, the timeslot for a safe overtaking maneuver before next one-lane section was reduced significantly for extra-long trucks compared to ordinary trucks. The conclusion is that there exist small tendencies which point in the direction of enhanced traffic safety problems with the introduction of extra-long trucks. The results should, however, be interpreted with caution as the number of data points was few and collected in specific situations and in specific conditions. It was neither considered how the introduction of longer and heavier trucks, given a constant amount of goods, reduces the number of heavy trucks on the road network.

  • 3.
    Canovi, Luca
    et al.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia.
    Minin, Luca
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kutila, Matti
    VTT Technical Research Centre, Finland.
    Britschgi, Virpi
    VTT Technical Research Centre, Finland.
    Sachelarie, Adrian
    The Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi.
    Barsanescu, Paul
    The Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi.
    Janos, Stautz
    Clarity Consulting Info rmation and Management Services.
    Eckstein, Bernd
    Univ ersity of Stuttgart.
    Regulation knowledge presentation2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ASSET-Road project is focussing on improving road safety and road traffic by pushing different transportation stakeholders to interact between each other and integrating modern communication and sensing technologies. This deliverable is the result of the project tasks 3.1 (Regulation knowledge & awareness study), 3.2 (Situation identification & information presentation) and part of task 3.3 (Smart information provision Mechanism & HMI). In brief, objectives of the deliverable are: 1. to report the study conducted in task 3.1 where information about how deep drivers’ knowledge is (for truck and coaches drivers) have been collected in several countries in relation to road and safety regulations (e.g. speed limits on different roads, traffic rules, safety equipments, etc.). This is the first part of the document and includes two studies, the first one conducted in Europe and the second one conducted in Tanzania; a comparison between them is proposed; 2. to describe the smart In-Vehicle Information System specifications based on the requirements collected in WP1 (task 1.2 Users needs and requirements). In this section systems features are briefly introduced and the simulator study setup where the system will be tested is described, including scenario setup, situation identification and simulator iterations.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Alexander
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Drivers’ recovery performance in a critical run-off-road scenario: A driving simulator study2018In: Proceedings of the 6th Humanist Conference, The Hague, Netherlands, 13-14 June 2018 / [ed] Nicole Van Nes, Charlotte Voegelé, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Single vehicle accidents are commonly caused by fatigue and distractionand resulting in severe casualties and high economic costs. In order to evaluate driver recovery from run-off-road accidents, comprising of 80% of fatal crashes on rural roads, a simulator study in an advanced full-motion driving simulator was carried out. Drivers were given a secondary task to perform at six positions down the road(to simulate distraction), and an artificial yawdeviation was added to the vehicle to induce a run-off-road accident whilst the driver was distracted. The results show that the severity of the recovery manoeuvre was larger than similar events caused by the failureof automated lane keeping systems, leading to lane departures. Furthermore, significant learning effects was found, providing recommendations for further studies into run-off-road experiments.

  • 5.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Trafiksäkerhetseffekter vid införande av längre och tyngre fordon: en kunskapsöversikt2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This review concerns potential traffic safety effects from the introduction of longer and heavier trucks than those currently allowed in Sweden. For this purpose, a summary of results from accident studies, literature summaries and in-depth studies of fatal accidents involving heavy trucks done in the past few years was made. In addition, a focus group study with truck drivers was conducted and results from a parallel VTI study concerning overtaking of longer trucks have also been included in order to give an overall picture of the possible traffic safety effects associated with the introduction of longer and heavier trucks in Sweden.

    Following are some of the recommendations, based on the aspects that have been addressed in this report:

    • Longer and heavier vehicles should mainly operate on main roads where it is possible to overtake heavy vehicles without fear of oncoming traffic. Longer and heavier vehicles should operate as little as possible in urban areas.
    • •Longer and heavier vehicles shall be constructed for good stability, and be equipped with Electronic Brake System (EBS).
    • •Longer and heavier vehicles puts greater demand on tires, brakes and especially maintenance and inspection.
    • •Driver fatigue is a cause of an essential part of single-vehicle accidents with heavy vehicles. Drive and rest times may be harder to keep with the extra-long vehicles if rest areas, which are already today overcrowded along certain roads, are not extended.
    • •The signs of the transition distance on 2+1 roads should be reviewed to possibly reduce the risk of dangerous situations and emergencies caused by overtaking of heavy vehicles.
    • •Additional field studies on two-lane roads are necessary to determine whether there is a higher risk to overtake a 30 m long vehicle compared to overtaking a conventional heavy truck.
  • 6.
    Huang, Yu-Hsing
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ljung, Mikael
    Volvo Cars Safety Centre.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Accident Models for Modern Road Traffic: Changing Times Creates New Demands2004In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to develop accident models that can be applied to modern road traffic. Several criteria are proposed that a model suitable for the conditions of modern road traffic should fulfil. Four commonly applied general accident models are reviewed, and found to be inadequate in relation to the criteria. Also, the consequences of an underlying structural problem in all four model types, which is the result of regarding the human as a system component, are discussed. To remedy the discovered problems, it is argued that traffic safety should make use of the developments that have been made in the field of industrial safety. Several suggestions are proposed for how a new model could be developed, based on experiences from industrial safety.

  • 7.
    Jansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Fischer, Martin
    DLR (German Aerospace Center, Institute of Transportation Systems) .
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Design and performance of the VTI Sim IV2014In: New development in driving simulation design and experiments: Driving simulation conference Europe 2014 proceedings / [ed] Andras Kemeny, Paris, 2014, p. 4.1-4.7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The VTI simulator IV (Sim IV) is the fourth advanced driving simulator designed and built at The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). The simulator, taken into operation 2011, has an 8 degrees of freedom (DoF) moving base, a field of view (FoV) of 180 degrees and features a system for rapid cabin exchange. With a budget of roughly 2,4 M euro; Sim IV was developed to provide VTI’s newly established Gothenburg office with advanced driving simulation capability, and to be a cost efficient complement to the Sim II and Sim III facilities in VTI’s Linköping office. This paper describes the design and technical performance of the facility. A brief summary of results and experience from validation studies for the first three years of operation is also presented.

  • 8.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Aurell, John
    John Aurell consulting.
    Performance based standards for high capacity transports in Sweden: FIFFI project 2013-03881: Report 1: Review of existing regulations and literature2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Project Performance Based Standards (PBS) for High Capacity Transports (HCT) in Sweden started at the end of 2013 to investigate applicability of PBS in Sweden. The purpose of the project is to propose a performance based regulation of HCT vehicles and their access to the road network; under a PBS approach to regulation, standards would specify the performance required from vehicle, rather than mandating how this level of performance should be achieved by putting limits on the vehicle length or weight. In this project, all the three domains of safety, infrastructure and environment will be addressed, but the focus is on safety for which extensive testing, simulations and analysis are planned. This report gathers the outcome of work packages 1 and 2 of the project, which is a review of the existing regulation in Sweden, PBS approaches in other countries and relevant literature and regulations.

  • 9.
    Nilsson, Peter
    et al.
    Volvo GTT.
    Laine, Leo
    Volvo GTT.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    High speed control of long combination heavy commercial vehicles within safe corridors2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main scope of the project was to initiate a technical framework for studying manual and automated high-speed driving of long vehicle combinations (LVCs) in a driving simulator environment.

    The project included implementation and evaluation of vehicle models representing a rigid truck solo (reference vehicle) and an A-double LVC in VTI driving simulator IV (Sim IV). The A-double combination consisted of a 6x4 tractor unit followed by a three-axle semi-trailer, two-axle converter dolly and a second three-axle semi-trailer unit. The total vehicle length of the A-double was 32 metres and the total weight was set to 80 tonnes. The implementation of the vehicle models was evaluated by drivers from Volvo product development. The evaluation was carried out during normal driving conditions, with speeds ranging from 0 to 90 km/h.

    Besides the implementation and evaluation of vehicle models, the project also included a driving simulator study in which manual and automated driving of the A-double have been studied. The participants in the study were 12 professional truck drivers from a haulage contractor and 8 drivers from Volvo product development. The driving scenario consisted of a relatively curvy and hilly single-lane Swedish county road (Road 180), without additional road users and safety critical events. Two automated driving strategies for steering, propulsion and braking were formulated, whereof one of the steering strategies included results from an optimal control based receding horizon approach. The drivers’ manual lane keeping and speed profiles were recorded for post-analysis. In addition, the drivers’ subjective acceptance of automated driving trajectories was also collected.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Peter
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Laine, Leo
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    On actions of long combination vehicle drivers prior to lane changes in dense highway traffic: A driving simulator study2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 55, p. 25-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address drivers’ actions prior to mandatory lane changes of long combination vehicles in dense highway traffic. The studied driver actions were: turn indicator activation, speed reduction and lateral intrusion. We categorised and compared the drivers’ actions with respect to the surrounding traffic cooperation and the level of urgency. Urgency here was based on the remaining distance to a targeted exit ramp. The results show that when the subject vehicle is close to the exit ramp, drivers used speed reduction significantly more than when the vehicle is further away. No significant difference was found for the use of lateral intrusion considering the distance to the exit ramp. As regards traffic cooperation, significant differences were found for both speed reduction and lateral intrusion. The drivers’ speed reduction and lateral intrusion were significantly greater when the surrounding traffic cooperation was low.

  • 11.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Aggregating Case Studies of Vehicle Crashes by Means of Causation Charts: An Evaluation and Revision of the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for increased knowledge about causes to motor-vehicle crashes and their prevention. Multidisciplinary in-depth case studies can provide detailed causation data that is otherwise unattainable. Such data might allow the formulation of hypotheses of causes and causal relationships for further study. By converting the data into causation charts that are aggregated, common causation patterns would give greater weight to such hypotheses. However the charts must first be compiled by means of a systematic analysis method, which requires three parts; a model, a classification scheme and a classification method.

    Four general accident models were evaluated and found inadequate to form the basis for a causation analysis method. This was primarily because the models in practice treat road-users, vehicles and traffic environment as separate components, but also due to the focus on events immediately prior to the crash and either static, sequential, or absent modelling of interaction.

    Two studies were carried out to evaluate whether case files could be aggregated by means of charts that had been compiled with the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM). In DREAM, contributory factors (genotypes) are systematically analysed, classified and linked in a single chart for each driver that illustrate the causes of a critical event (phenotype). In the first study, case files from 38 single-vehicle crashes were examined to distinguish crashes with similar circumstances. Four types of loss of vehicle control were identified, for which the associated DREAM charts were aggregated. The results revealed common patterns within the types, as well as different patterns between them. The second study focused on 26 intersection crashes. Based on the most common violations at intersections, six risk situations were defined, and the DREAM charts associated with each risk situation were aggregated. A common pattern in each of two risk situations indicated that drivers with and without the right of way had not seen the other vehicle due to distractions and/or sight obstructions. A frequently occurring pattern for the drivers with the right of way was that they had not expected another vehicle to cross their path. The absence of clear patterns in three risk situations was a result of a low number of charts and rather unique circumstances in these cases. Parts of the aggregated charts contained an unexpectedly large variation, identified as a consequence of inconsistently compiled charts.

    Prior the final study assessing intercoder agreement, DREAM was revised into a new version based on the experience from the latter aggregation study. A total of seven investigators from four European countries compiled seven DREAM charts for each driver involved in four types of accidents. The results indicated that the intercoder agreement for genotypes ranged from 74% to 94% with an average of 83%, while it for phenotypes ranged from 57% to 100% with an average of 78%. This acceptable level of agreement is expected to rise with enhanced training. The present thesis thus shows that DREAM is a highly promising method for the compilation of causation charts. Future studies are expected to benefit from aggregating DREAM charts when formulating hypotheses of general causes and causal relationships as a subject for further research, as well as to identify alternative countermeasure strategies.

    List of papers
    1. Understanding the causation of single-vehicle crashes: A methodology for in-depth on-scene multidisciplinary case studies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the causation of single-vehicle crashes: A methodology for in-depth on-scene multidisciplinary case studies
    2007 (English)In: International Journal of Vehicle Safety, ISSN 1479-3105, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 316-333Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the interaction between and consequences of causation factors is essential when designing active safety measures. There is frequently a lack of adequate details in the area of causation, especially pertaining to Single-Vehicle Crashes (SVCs). This study describes the in-depth and on-scene investigations of 38 SVCs that took place in Gothenburg, Sweden. The causation factors involved were analysed using the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM). The 38 SVCs were grouped into four scenarios. In the first scenario, vehicles drifted out of lane due to driver fatigue, sleepiness or distraction. In the second, an undetectable reduction in road friction caused experienced drivers to lose control in curves. Loss of control in curves was also a factor in scenario three, partly due to high speed. In this scenario, drivers overestimated their driving skills or had limited experience of the vehicle or the curve. In the final scenario, alarmed drivers lost control as a result of excessive steering-wheel manoeuvres. This study demonstrates a methodology that can be used to explain how a combination of factors may increase the risk of SVCs.

    Keywords
    One, Vehicle, Accident, Cause, Method, Fatigue (human), Slipperiness, Speed, Steering (process)
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Research subject
    80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 81 Road: Accidents; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13355 (URN)10.1504/IJVS.2007.015546 (DOI)2-s2.0-64249137108 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-10-31 Created: 2018-10-31 Last updated: 2019-03-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Accident Models for Modern Road Traffic: Changing Times Creates New Demands
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accident Models for Modern Road Traffic: Changing Times Creates New Demands
    2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to develop accident models that can be applied to modern road traffic. Several criteria are proposed that a model suitable for the conditions of modern road traffic should fulfil. Four commonly applied general accident models are reviewed, and found to be inadequate in relation to the criteria. Also, the consequences of an underlying structural problem in all four model types, which is the result of regarding the human as a system component, are discussed. To remedy the discovered problems, it is argued that traffic safety should make use of the developments that have been made in the field of industrial safety. Several suggestions are proposed for how a new model could be developed, based on experiences from industrial safety.

    Keywords
    Accident, Cause, Classification, Driver, Behaviour
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 81 Road: Accidents; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-13356 (URN)10.1109/ICSMC.2004.1398310 (DOI)
    Conference
    International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. October 10-13, The Hague, The Netherlands
    Available from: 2007-02-26 Created: 2018-10-31 Last updated: 2019-03-13Bibliographically approved
  • 12.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Johansson, Regina
    Volvo Cars Corporation.
    Svanberg, Bo
    Volvo Cars Corporation.
    Petersson, Mats
    Volvo Cars Corporation.
    Evaluation of a Run-off-Road Scenario for Driving Simulators used for the Assessment of Automatic Steering-Wheel Interventions2015In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology Towards zero traffic accidents, 2015, 2015, p. 545-550Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The setup of a run-off-road scenario was based on the current knowledge about critical run-off-road situations and accidents. The scenario was initiated by a visual secondary task. During the task, an added clockwise yaw deviation, intended to create the run-off-road scenario, was presented visually but not by the vehicle dynamics or the lateral acceleration of the simulator’s motion system. Results from two experiments show that the drivers frequently neutralised the yaw deviation because of their lack of full attention to the secondary task, the occasionally rough yaw deviation, or a combination of both. Because of the frequently neutralised yaw deviations, the number of steering-wheel interventions from an implemented system, intended to steer back into the lane in run-off-road situations, became limited in number. The system generated in total 14 steering-wheel interventions, ranging from torque levels of 0.3 to 3.7Nm. During ten of the interventions, the driver counteracted the torque with one hand. Nevertheless, the drivers that had experienced the interventions would like to have a system that could steer back to the lane when approaching the road edge, and accept that it takes control of the steering wheel. Further research on shared steering control is required so that driver responses to interventions does not neutralise the intended safety benefit of the system.

  • 13.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Laine, Leo
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    A Lane-Change Gap Acceptance Scenario Developed for Heavy Vehicle Active Safety Assessment: A Driving Simulator Study2015In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology Towards zero traffic accidents, 2015, 2015, p. 537-543Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to develop a lane-change scenario for driving simulators in order to analyse the characteristics of lane-change manoeuvres performed with heavy vehicles. The scenario was set up based on information from lane-change accidents and on-road lane-change observations. The gap acceptance scenario consisted of two consecutive lane changes were the intention was to study truck drivers’ accepted gap between two vehicles in the adjacent right lane, at the initiation of each lane change. An experiment was conducted with 18 truck drivers in a full-motion driving simulator with implemented high fidelity models of an 80tonnes and 32m long vehicle combination and a 40tonnes and 22m tractor semi-trailer. The results showed no statistically significant difference in the accepted gaps to the lead and lag vehicles in the target lane. For both heavy vehicles, the overall average lead gap and lag gap was estimated to 0.85s and 0.83s respectively, at the average velocity of 17.3m/s. The difference in lane-change duration for the two vehicles was statistically significant and estimated to an average of 8.7s for the tractor semi-trailer, and 10.5s for the A-double. The conclusion from the present study is that the drivers performed the lane changes equally well with the tractor semi-trailer and the long vehicle combination. There were no major differences between the manoeuvres other than the duration times, which can be justified by the difference in vehicle length. Future studies are able to use this scenario as a non-critical reference to more critical events in the development and assessment of active safety functionality and automated driving systems.

  • 14.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Volvo Group Truck Technology.
    Laine, Leo
    Volvo Group Truck Technology.
    A lane-change scenario developed for assessment of active safety and ADAS in heavy vehicles: evaluated in a driving simulator study2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to develop a lane-change scenario for driving simulators to analyse the characteristics of lane-change manoeuvres performed with heavy vehicles.

    The definition of the lane-change scenario was based on a literature review, and an investigation of lane-change accidents in Sweden.

    A lane-change manoeuvre is in the literature typically described by accepted gap at the initiation of the manoeuvre as well as duration of the manoeuvre and speed during the manoeuvre. The literature review showed that there is a lack of real-world data regarding lane-change manoeuvres with heavy vehicles. The data that exist are collected mainly in the US and for discretionary lane changes, and a distinction between sizes of heavy vehicles is rarely made. Regarding accidents involving heavy vehicles on European level, there is a general lack of useful and reliable accident data. The most comprehensive data are available from the US and show that lane-change accidents account for a large share of accidents involving heavy vehicles.

    The investigation of lane-change accidents was made in the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA), on 10 500 police-reported accidents with heavy vehicles involved during the years 2003 to 2013. In STRADA, lane-change accidents are categorized together with overtaking accidents. Therefore, it is not possible to identify lane-change accidents and their share of heavyvehicle accidents directly from STRADA. Instead, lane-change accidents were identified by reading the accident narratives for overtaking accident and rear-end accidents (in total 5 612 accidents). Rearend accidents were included because the manner of collision may resemble lane-change collisions.

  • 15.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bálint, András
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Fagerlind, Helen
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Traffic safety of Heavy Goods Vehicles and implications for High Capacity Transport vehicles2014In: Transport Research Arena 2014, Paris, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper summarizes the results of the programme "Traffic safety effects of High Capacity Transport (HCT) vehicles and suggestions for compensatory measures" this far. An analysis of ten years of Swedish accident data shows that "long" combinations (18.76m to 25.25m) had lower rate of fatal or severe accidents per billion vehicle kilometres travelled compared to medium and short vehicles. It is argued in the literature that HCT vehicles would, on average, reduce the number of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV) accidents because fewer vehicles would be needed to transport a given amount of goods. However, further investigation is required of the causal relationship between crash risk and a HGVs’ weight, length, number of units, links and axles in certain traffic situations. One way to ensure the safety performance of HCT vehicles, and HGVs, is to assess them by Performance Based Standards. The paper describes the plans to adapt PBS to Swedish conditions, and to monitor Swedish HCT vehicles under trial with the surveillance system Intelligent Access Programme (IAP).

  • 16.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Ljung, Mikael
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Understanding the causation of single-vehicle crashes: A methodology for in-depth on-scene multidisciplinary case studies2007In: International Journal of Vehicle Safety, ISSN 1479-3105, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 316-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the interaction between and consequences of causation factors is essential when designing active safety measures. There is frequently a lack of adequate details in the area of causation, especially pertaining to Single-Vehicle Crashes (SVCs). This study describes the in-depth and on-scene investigations of 38 SVCs that took place in Gothenburg, Sweden. The causation factors involved were analysed using the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM). The 38 SVCs were grouped into four scenarios. In the first scenario, vehicles drifted out of lane due to driver fatigue, sleepiness or distraction. In the second, an undetectable reduction in road friction caused experienced drivers to lose control in curves. Loss of control in curves was also a factor in scenario three, partly due to high speed. In this scenario, drivers overestimated their driving skills or had limited experience of the vehicle or the curve. In the final scenario, alarmed drivers lost control as a result of excessive steering-wheel manoeuvres. This study demonstrates a methodology that can be used to explain how a combination of factors may increase the risk of SVCs.

  • 17.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Volvo GTT.
    Drivers’ Assessment of Driving a 32 Meter A-double with and without full automation in a moving base simulator2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In situations where LongCombination Vehicles can be challenging to maneuver, drivers could be supportedthrough automated driving systems. A safe way to assess prototypes of suchsystems is to take advantage of driving simulators. This study assessed therealism of driving a 32m and 80 ton A-double in an advanced moving-base drivingsimulator, with and without full automation. The conclusions were that the realism of the roadenvironment, vehicle suspension, vibrations, steering-wheel feeling and themaneuverability/drivability was on adequate levels but would benefit of moretuning. More urgent were adjustments of braking, acceleration, level of enginesound and improved view in the right-hand side mirror. Two tested automateddriving systems were appreciated for their lane positioning and drivingperformance, with a slight preference of the more advanced system for lateralcontrol. Negative comments referred to harsh decelerations before curves. Thesubjective assessment was much in correlation with the objective data from thesame simulator experiment.

  • 18.
    Sandin, Jesper
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Renner, Linda
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    The effect on passenger cars’ meeting margins when overtaking 30 meter trucks on real roads.2012In: Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics 2012- 14 Volume Set: Proceedings of the 4th AHFE Conference 21-25 July 2012, Taylor & Francis, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to study the effect of vehicle length on meeting margins during overtaking maneuvers. A field study video-recorded overtaking maneuvers of a 30 m and a 24 m truck on a two-lane road. The difference in average meeting margins between the trucks was not statistically significant. An ocular assessment of the video material revealed a few critical situations during the overtaking maneuvers of the 30 m truck; all with meeting margins less than 3 s. Although these results should be interpreted with great caution as the number of analyzed overtaking maneuvers was limited, two previous studies describe similar findings. The conflict technique is discussed as a tool in the assessment of critical meeting margins. It is concluded that more field studies and data are needed to estimate the risks when overtaking Longer Combination Vehicles.

  • 19.
    Thomson, Robert William
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    EDR Pre-Crash Data: Potential For Applications In Active Safety Testing2013In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, May 2013, Seoul, 2013, article id 13-0414Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passive safety testing has been based on accident research where objective physical evidence can be compiled and analysed when establishing technical test requirements. Active safety tests pose new challenges because objective data is more difficult to obtain. Until pre-crash variables became available in Event Data Recorders (EDR), the only sources of pre-crash vehicle motions were tire marks or witness statements. Both data sources have limitations since they may not always be available and require interpretation by the analyst. The pre-crash EDR data variables provide an objective source of data to active safety test development. However, the suitability of the data has not been thoroughly investigated in the published literature.

    The review of existing data shows that the variables identified in the new EDR requirement in FMVSS 563 are useful but incomplete for a comprehensive analysis of vehicle dynamics manoeuvres prior to a crash. In particular, the absence of vehicle yaw rate reduces the positioning accuracy of the vehicle in reconstructions. The objective data in the limited cases were used to compile the frequency of pre-crash braking and steering, and when possible, the magnitude of these driver inputs. Active Safety test development will benefit with more EDR analysis but the older data that does not conform to Part 563 has limited application.

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