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  • 1.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet, Campus Gotland.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborg Universitet.
    Climate change and climatic events: Community-, functional- and species-level responses of bryophytes and lichens to constant, stepwise, and pulse experimental warming in an alpine tundra2014In: Alpine Botany, ISSN 1664-2201, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally imposed three different kinds of warming scenarios over 3 years on an alpine meadow community to identify the differential effects of climate warming and extreme climatic events on the abundance and biomass of bryophytes and lichens. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open top chambers (an average temperature increase of 1.87 °C), (b) a yearly stepwise increase of warming (average temperature increases of 1.0; 1.87 and 3.54 °C, consecutively), and (c) a pulse warming, i.e., a single first year pulse event of warming (average temperature increase of 3.54 °C only during the first year). To our knowledge, this is the first climate change study that attempts to distinguish between the effects of constant, stepwise and pulse warming on bryophyte and lichen communities. We hypothesised that pulse warming would have a significant short-term effect compared to the other warming treatments, and that stepwise warming would have a significant mid-term effect compared to the other warming treatments. Acrocarpous bryophytes as a group increased in abundance and biomass to the short-term effect of pulse warming. We found no significant effects of mid-term (third-year) stepwise warming. However, one pleurocarpous bryophyte species, Tomentypnum nitens, generally increased in abundance during the warm year 1997 but decreased in control plots and in response to the stepwise warming treatment. Three years of experimental warming (all treatments as a group) did have a significant impact at the community level, yet changes in abundance did not translate into significant changes in the dominance hierarchies at the functional level (for acrocarpous bryophytes, pleurocarpous bryophytes, Sphagnum or lichens), or in significant changes in other bryophyte or lichen species. The results suggest that bryophytes and lichens, both at the functional group and species level, to a large extent are resistant to the different climate change warming simulations that were applied.

  • 2.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Impacts of different climate change regimes and extreme climatic events on an alpine meadow community2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 21720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate variability is expected to increase in future but there exist very few experimental studies that apply different warming regimes on plant communities over several years. We studied an alpine meadow community under three warming regimes over three years. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open-top chambers (ca. 1.9 °C above ambient), (b) yearly stepwise increases in warming (increases of ca. 1.0, 1.9 and 3.5 °C), and (c) pulse warming, a single first-year pulse event of warming (increase of ca. 3.5 °C). Pulse warming and stepwise warming was hypothesised to cause distinct first-year and third-year effects, respectively. We found support for both hypotheses; however, the responses varied among measurement levels (whole community, canopy, bottom layer, and plant functional groups), treatments, and time. Our study revealed complex responses of the alpine plant community to the different experimentally imposed climate warming regimes. Plant cover, height and biomass frequently responded distinctly to the constant level of warming, the stepwise increase in warming and the extreme pulse-warming event. Notably, we found that stepwise warming had an accumulating effect on biomass, the responses to the different warming regimes varied among functional groups, and the short-term perturbations had negative effect on species richness and diversity.

  • 3.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    University of Gothenburg.
    Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition causes decline of bryophytes and lichens in alpine meadow and heath communitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Global change is predicted to have large and rapid impact on polar and alpine regions. Bryophytes and lichens increase their importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning at higher latitudes/altitudes. Here we report from a seven year factorial experiment with nutrient addition and warming on the abundance of bryophytes and lichens in an alpine meadow and heath community. Treatments had significant negative effect on relative change of total abundance bryophytes and lichens, the largest decline to the nutrient addition and the combined nutrient addition and warming treatments, bryophytes decreasing most in the meadow, lichens most in the heath. Nutrient addition, and the combined nutrient addition and warming brought rapid decrease in both bryophytes and lichens, while warming had a delayed negative impact. Of sixteen species that were included the statistical analyses, we found significant negative effects on seven species. We show that impact of simulated global change on bryophytes and lichens differ in in time and magnitude among treatments and plant communities. Our results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of climate change models, as short-term studies are poor predictors of longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens, similar to what have been shown for vascular plants. Species-specific responses may differ in time, and this will likely cause changes in the dominance structures of bryophytes and lichens over time.

  • 4.
    Alatalo, Juha, M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Testing reliability of short-term responses to predict longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens to environmental change2015In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 58, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes are predicted to have severe and rapid impacts on polar and alpine regions. At high latitudes/altitudes, cryptogams such as bryophytes and lichens are of great importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning. This seven-year factorial experiment examined the effects of fertilizing and experimental warming on bryophyte and lichen abundance in an alpine meadow and a heath community in subarctic Sweden. The aim was to determine whether short-term responses (five years) are good predictors of longer-term responses (seven years). Fertilizing and warming had significant negative effects on total and relative abundance of bryophytes and lichens, with the largest and most rapid decline caused by fertilizing and combined fertilizing and warming. Bryophytes decreased most in the alpine meadow community, which was bryophyte-dominated, and lichens decreased most in the heath community, which was lichen-dominated. This was surprising, as the most diverse group in each community was expected to be most resistant to perturbation. Warming alone had a delayed negative impact. Of the 16 species included in statistical analyses, seven were significantly negatively affected. Overall, the impacts of simulated warming on bryophytes and lichens as a whole and on individual species differed in time and magnitude between treatments and plant communities (meadow and heath). This will likely cause changes in the dominance structures over time. These results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of data used in climate change models, as models based on short-term data are poor predictors of long-term responses of bryophytes and lichens.

  • 5.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Čuchta, Peter
    Academy of Science of the Czech Republic.
    Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 18161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified. Site had significant effect on effective number of species, and abundance of six species, with abundance patterns differing between sites. Site and long-term warming gave non-significant trends in species richness.

    The highest species richness was observed in poor heath, but mean species richness tended to be highest in rich meadow and lowest in wet meadow. Warming showed a tendency for a negative impact on species richness. This long-term warming experiment across three contrasting sites revealed that Collembola is capable of high resistance to climate change. We demonstrated that micro-scale and site effects are the main controlling factors for Collembola abundance in high alpine subarctic environments. Thus local heterogeneity is likely important for soil fauna composition and may play a crucial role in buffering Collembola against future climate change.

  • 6.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    Little, Chelsea, J.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: contrasting short and medium term responses to simulated global change2014In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 2, article id e406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the impact of simulated global change on a high alpine meadow plant community. Specifically, we examined whether short-term (5 years) responses are good predictors for medium-term (7 years) changes in the system by applying a factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to 20 plots in Latnjajaure, subarctic Sweden. Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient enhancement caused dramatic shifts in dominance hierarchies in response to the nutrient and the combined warming and nutrient enhancement treatments. Dominance hierarchies in the meadow moved from a community being dominated by cushion plants, deciduous, and evergreen shrubs to a community being dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs. Short-term responses were shown to be inconsistent in their ability to predict medium-term responses for most functional groups, however, grasses showed a consistent and very substantial increase in response to nutrient addition over the seven years.

    The non-linear responses over time point out the importance of longer-term studies with repeated measurements to be able to better predict future changes. Forecasted changes to temperature and nutrient availability have implications for trophic interactions, and may ultimately influence the access to and palatability of the forage for grazers. Depending on what anthropogenic change will be most pronounced in the future (increase in nutrient deposits, warming, or a combination of them both), different shifts in community dominance hierarchies may occur. Generally, this study supports the productivity–diversity relationship found across arctic habitats, with community diversity peaking in mid-productivity systems and degrading as nutrient availability increases further. This is likely due the increasing competition in plant–plant interactions and the shifting dominance structure with grasses taking over the experimental plots, suggesting that global change could have high costs to biodiversity in the Arctic.

  • 7.
    Alatalo, Juha, M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Little, Chelsea, J.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Vascular plant abundance and diversity in an alpine heath under observed and simulated global change2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, p. 1-11, article id 10197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change is predicted to cause shifts in species distributions and biodiversity in arctic tundra. We applied factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to a nutrient and species poor alpine/arctic heath community for seven years. Vascular plant abundance in control plots increased by 31%. There were also notable changes in cover in the nutrient and combined nutrient and warming treatments, with deciduous and evergreen shrubs declining, grasses overgrowing these plots. Sedge abundance initially increased significantly with nutrient amendment and then declined, going below initial values in the combined nutrient and warming treatment. Nutrient addition resulted in a change in dominance hierarchy from deciduous shrubs to grasses. We found significant declines in vascular plant diversity and evenness in the warming treatment and a decline in diversity in the combined warming and nutrient addition treatment, while nutrient addition caused a decline in species richness. The results give some experimental support that species poor plant communities with low diversity may be more vulnerable to loss of species diversity than communities with higher initial diversity. The projected increase in nutrient deposition and warming may therefore have negative impacts on ecosystem processes, functioning and services due to loss of species diversity in an already impoverished environment.

  • 8.
    Ali, Arshad
    et al.
    East China Normal University.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bai, Yang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Qatar University.
    Diversity-productivity dependent resistance of an alpine plant community to different climate change scenarios2016In: Ecological research, ISSN 0912-3814, E-ISSN 1440-1703, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 935-945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report from a experiment imposing different warming scenarios [control with ambient temperature, constant level of moderate warming for 3 years, stepwise increase in warming for 3 years, and one season of high level warming (pulse) simulating an extreme summer event] on an alpine ecosystem to study the impact on species diversity–biomass relationship, and community resistance in terms of biomass production.

    Multiple linear mixed models indicate that experimental years had stronger influence on biomass than warming scenarios and species diversity. Species diversity and biomass had almost humpback relationships under different warming scenarios over different experimental years. There was generally a negative diversity–biomass relationship, implying that a positive diversity–biomass relationship was not the case.

    The application of different warming scenarios did not change this tendency. The change in community resistance to all warming scenarios was generally negatively correlated with increasing species diversity, the strength of the correlation varying both between treatments and between years within treatments. The strong effect of experimental years was consistent with the notion that niche complementarity effects increase over time, and hence, higher biomass productivity over experimental years. The strongest negative relationship was found in the first year of the pulse treatment, indicating that the community had weak resistance to an extreme event of one season of abnormally warm climate.

    Biomass production started recovering during the two subsequent years. Contrasting biomass-related resistance emerged in the different treatments, indicating that micro sites within the same plant community may differ in their resistance to different warming scenarios.

  • 9.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Experiencing moose and landscape while driving: a simulator and questionnaire study2014In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 41, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal vehicle collisions (AVC's) have large economic, medical and ecological consequences but have rarely been studied with respect to driver behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate different AVC-relevant landscape settings (vegetation cover), with and without game fencing and in combination with encountering moose. Twenty-five participants took part in an advanced driving simulator experiment. The results show that neither the presence of a game fence nor vegetation was found to affect driving speed, speed variability, lateral position or visual scanning in general. When a moose appeared at the side of the road, the drivers reacted by slowing down earlier and reducing their speed more when no game fence was present. Furthermore, the speed reduction when a moose was present was significantly larger when the vegetation was sparse. Game fencing made drivers feel at ease whereas dense vegetation was experienced as more stressful.

  • 10.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Klimatanpassning av vägkonstruktion, drift och underhåll2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global climate change is a reality and affecting society and transport systems. Climate change adaptation of transport systems will make the means of transportation more resilient and decrease the risk and magnitude of disruptions. Generally, climate change adaptations in road construction, operation and maintenance will need relatively large changes, but there is a shortage of the specific knowledge required as to what steps need to be taken, when and where, before measures can actually be implemented. Since climate change effects vary among Sweden's climatic zones, the impact of climate change on the road behavior and longevity is extremely difficult to predict. The need for winter maintenance in Sweden will generally decrease due to the warmer climate. Ploughing frequency will probably decrease as well, but preparedness should not be reduced too much since occasions with more extreme instances will increase. In order to succeed in making the road transport system resilient to climate change, we conclude that there is a need to develop more knowledge about the impact on the road infrastructure system as well as the operation and maintenance of the system including how to adapt through different types of variable and flexible climate adaptation measures and the effects of extreme weather events.

  • 11.
    Cornelissen, Johannes H C
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit.
    Van Bodegom, Peter M
    Vrije Universiteit.
    Aerts, Rien
    Vrije Universiteit.
    Callaghan, Terry V
    University of Sheffield.
    Van Logtestijn, Richard S.P.
    Vrije Universiteit.
    Alatalo, Juha
    VINNOVA.
    Chapin, Stuart F.
    University of Alaska.
    Gerdol, Renato G
    Università degli Studi di Ferrara Dipartimento delle Risorse Naturali e Cultural.
    Gudmundsson, Jon
    Agricultural University of Iceland.
    Gwynn-Jones, Dylan
    University of Wales.
    Hartley, Anne E
    Florida International University.
    Hik, David S
    University of Alberta.
    Hofgaard, Annika
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research.
    Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S.
    Agricultural University of Iceland.
    Karlsson, Staffan
    Vetenskapsrådet.
    Klein, Julia A
    Colorado State University.
    Laundre, Jim
    Marine Biological Labratory.
    Magnusson, Borgthor
    Icelandic Institute of Natural History.
    Michelsen, Anders
    University of Copenhagen.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Onipchenko, Vladimir G.
    Moscow State University.
    Quested, Helen M.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Sandvik, Sylvi M
    Agder University College.
    Schmidt, Inger K.
    Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University Denmark.
    Shaver, Gus R.
    Marine Biological Labratory.
    Solheim, Bjørn S
    University of Tromsø.
    Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A
    Vrije Universiteit, Moscow State University.
    Stenström, Anna
    Länsstyrelsen Västra Götaland.
    Tolvanen, Anne
    Finnish Forest Research Institute.
    Totland, Ørjan T
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Wada, Naoya W
    University of Toyama.
    Welker, Jeffrey M
    University of Alaska Anchorage.
    Zhao, Xinquan
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Brancaleoni, Lisa
    Brancaleoni, Laura
    De Beus, Miranda A.H
    Cooper, Elisabeth J.
    Dalen, Linda
    Harte, John
    Hobbie, Sarah E
    Hoefsloot, Gerlof
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Göteborg University.
    Jonasson, Sven
    Lee, John A
    Lindblad, Karin
    Melillo, Jerry M
    Neill, Christopher
    Press, Malcolm C
    Rozema, Jelte
    Zielke, Matthias
    Global negative vegetation feedback to climate warming responses of leaf litter decomposition rates in cold biomes2007In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 619-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether climate change will turn cold biomes from large long-term carbon sinks into sources is hotly debated because of the great potential for ecosystem-mediated feedbacks to global climate. Critical are the direction, magnitude and generality of climate responses of plant litter decomposition. Here, we present the first quantitative analysis of the major climate-change-related drivers of litter decomposition rates in cold northern biomes worldwide.

    Leaf litters collected from the predominant species in 33 global change manipulation experiments in circum-arctic-alpine ecosystems were incubated simultaneously in two contrasting arctic life zones. We demonstrate that longer-term, large-scale changes to leaf litter decomposition will be driven primarily by both direct warming effects and concomitant shifts in plant growth form composition, with a much smaller role for changes in litter quality within species. Specifically, the ongoing warming-induced expansion of shrubs with recalcitrant leaf litter across cold biomes would constitute a negative feedback to global warming. Depending on the strength of other (previously reported) positive feedbacks of shrub expansion on soil carbon turnover, this may partly counteract direct warming enhancement of litter decomposition.

  • 12.
    During, Heinjo J
    et al.
    Utrecht University.
    Verduyn, Betty
    Utrecht University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Hokkaido University.
    Biomechanical properties of the terrestrial mosses Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Pogonatum japonicum Sull. & Lesq. along altitudinal gradients in northern Japan2015In: Arctoa: A Journal of Briology, ISSN 0131-1379, Vol. 24, p. 375-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Altitudinal gradients along mountain slopes provide valuable opportunities to study variation in plant traits in response to changes in environmental conditions along such  gradients. This study focused on biomechanical traits of two moss species, the more or less horizontally growing Pleurozium schreberi and the erect-growing Pogonatum japonicum, along altitudinal gradients on two mountains in Hokkaido, northern Japan.

    We measured stem diameter in two directions to determine the second moment of area I, used three-point bending tests with free stem ends to determine the slope of the force-deflection curve dF/dx, and used these data to calculate Young’s modulus and flexural rigidity of the stems. Both species showed much variation in all traits among replicates in the samples at each altitude. Environmental variation associated with altitude had more effect on the biomechanical traits of P. japonicum than on those of P. schreberi. Stems of P. japonicum were thicker (larger I) than those of P. schreberi and had a larger Young’s modulus and flexural rigidity. Stems tended to become thinner (lower second moment of area) and less rigid (lower flexural rigidity) at increasing altitude in both species.

  • 13.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    State of preparedness for climate change adaptation in operations and maintenance of transport infrastructure in eight Swedish municipalities2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed the preparedness for climate change adaptation (CCA) of transport infrastructure in eight municipalities in Sweden. The study focused on municipal officials’ role in organizing and implementing CCA measures. The interviews were done in 2011. Many respondents confused CCA with climate change mitigation. Three of the municipalities had performed vulnerability analyses but apart from that, well-documented decision support in long-term adaptation was largely lacking. Adaptation measures were often based on day-to-day problems and recently experienced weather incidents. Strategic work with long-term CCA seemed to be largely lacking. The placing of the responsibility for CCA in the municipal organization was often unclear. Six of the respondents found there were no actual hindrances to their work with CCA and no conflicts with other municipal aims. However, several responses indicated budgetary competition with environmental aims or other societal strivings. The planning and implementation of CCA measures seemed to be highly dependent on individual officials, their engagement, their passivity/activity regarding this issue, their defined responsibility and the boundaries for their current position in the municipality organization. 

  • 14.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Häggmark-Svensson, Tobias
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Andersson, Hans
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Using traffic data to estimate wildlife populations2015In: Journal of Bioeconomics, ISSN 1387-6996, E-ISSN 1573-6989, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 17-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wildlife populations are threatened worldwide by, among others, habitat fragmentation and hunting pressure. An important impediment for the large scale, national and regional, management of the populations is the difficulty to quantify population dynamics. The purpose of this study is to present a tool for such estimations which is based on available data in several countries; traffic load and traffic accidents with wildlife. An econometric model is developed, which accounts for landscape characteristics. It is applied to wild boar in Sweden, for which data on traffic load and accidents for different counties and years are available. Landscape characteristics are introduced with direct or indirect effects on population growth. The indirect landscape model gives the best statistical performance, and the results show relatively small differences in calculated intrinsic growth rate among counties but considerable differences in predicted population developments.

  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Grumert, Ellen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Hastighetsdämpande åtgärder: en litteraturstudie med fokus på nya trafikmiljöåtgärder och ITS-orienterade lösningar2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A literature survey has been conducted regarding international traffic calming measures that could have a potential use in Sweden and other Nordic countries. Focus has been on measures in new traffic environments and ITS (Intelligent Transport System) based solutions. Information has been obtained through searches in literature databases and on different homepages, as well as from contacts in networks. Initially, we describe common traffic calming measures used today in Swedish traffic environments. For example, different forms of vertical and horizontal measures, and different types of surfaces, road markings and paintings. In the case of existing ITS solutions, we mention speed reminder signs, variable message signs and Motorway Control System (MCS).

    New kinds of physical measures that have most potential for use are e.g. modifications of speed bumps and the construction of small curves that enforce lower speed. Such curvatures can be used at entrances to communities or before roundabouts.

    Different concepts of "shared space" (e.g. walking speed zones) are something that could be used more extensively, even at intersections and other locations in urban areas. In such cases, all traditional road equipment is removed and a synergy between different user groups is created, leading to lower speeds.

    Different types of road markings and paintings can be used to visually narrow the road, but also in order to create an optical illusion that makes one feel as if the speed is high. However, such measures are not fully effective during winter conditions. Applications in 3D can also be used to create the illusion of obstacles in the roadway and result in reduced speeds. It is important to consider the overall picture and to combine various measures in a correct way. This report gives some examples on how to implement speed reduction measures in communities with thoroughfares. Furthermore, we give example on how strategic approaches and policy design may help to efficiently implement different kinds of traffic calming measures.

    ITS-solutions, where a two-way communication between vehicles and between vehicles and the infrastructure is used, have gained momentum in Europe and internationally. Three possible systems that have not yet been introduced on the market are described. Most of the cooperative systems are still in a research and development phase. The potential of the systems is considered to be large, and this is also reflected in the extensive research and development investments in the area. Furthermore, ITS as a whole, i.e. cooperative systems as well as other ITS solutions is believed to have a great potential.

  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ljudvarningar vid vägarbetsplatser för att uppnå sänkta hastigheter: Kartläggning och praktisk utvärdering2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A project has been carried out to find methods that effectively decrease drivers’ speeds at road work sites through real-time audio warnings. The project consisted of two parts. First, a survey of existing studies took place. The results show that the characteristics of a successful audio alert are female voice, direct and informative messages, an interaction between semantics and acoustics, successively increased intensity, and the dimming of secondary audio distractions. Based on the results of the survey, a practical evaluation of the potential use of audio warnings at road work sites was carried out in a VTI driver simulator. Twenty-two car drivers drove 25 kilometer on a motorway where two road works were placed on the hard shoulder. Half of the subjects were given an audio warning before the first road work and the other half prior to the second roadwork. The audio warning consisted of a sound similar to that of a GPS warning signal, followed by a female voice saying "Warning! Road work within 500 meters. Adjust the speed!". The message was sent via the car's internal speaker system. The speed reducing effect is significant and the average decrease is estimated to be 9–17 km/h greater with audio warning than without. Furthermore, there was still a small effect (0.5–3.3 km h) left of the audio alert after the road works. More results of the simulation tests are presented along with the drivers’ subjective opinions of such systems.

  • 17. Hemström, Kristian
    et al.
    Bramryd, Torleif
    Wik, Ola
    Johansson, Michael
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ackumulering av metaller i vegetation på geotekniska askkonstruktioner2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur användning av askor i ett långtidsperspektiv påverkar omgivande djur- och växtliv med avseende på ackumulation av metaller i ekosystem via växtupptag och exponering för betande djur. Studien innefattade en fält- och en odlingsstudie. I fältstudien studerades ackumulation av metaller och metalloider i blad från träd och buskar som självetablerat och växt under längre tid i äldre försöksuppställningar (lysimetrar) med aska. Dels i två olika åldrade slaggrus från avfallsförbränning och dels i åldrad aska från förbränning av biobränsle (grenar och toppar, GROT) och impregnerat returträ (RT), benämnd GROT/RT-aska. I odlingsstudien studerades ackumulationen av metaller och metalloider i engelskt rajgräs från askor och referensmaterial under en växtsäsong. Referensmaterial i odlingsstudien var två vanliga geotekniska material; bergkross och schaktmassa, och i fältstudien blad från träd och buskar i lysimetrarnas närområde. Samtliga studerade askor var åldrade;  5-24 år.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar studien på vikten av att ta hänsyn till damning och partikelkontaminering som exponeringsväg vid askanvändning. Vidare visar studien att åldrat slaggrus inte ger upphov till betydande förhöjda halter i blad från buskar och träd som självetablerat i sådant material eller i gräs från slaggrus som blandats med enhetsjord (50 vikt-%). Slutligen visade studien att de generella ackumuleringsfaktorer för upptag till växter som används i Naturvårdsverkets Handbok 2010:1 inte är lämpliga att använda i samband med riskbedömning av askor.

  • 18.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Trafikinformation och miljöeffekter: beräkningar av omledningseffekter2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims at calculating the environmental impact of traffic with a new computational model. A list of possible measures to reduce environmental effects using traffic information is given, aiming at improving energy efficiency, air quality, noise, and environmental impact. The use of traffic information to control traffic is growing, especially in urban environments where congestion impacts trafficability, while alternative routes are available. In the road sector The Swedish Transport Administration usually informs the traveller directly, while in the rail sector information is directed to the train companies who then inform travellers/drivers. This affects the ability to manage traffic, and creates problems for the intermodal information. This report focuses on the urgent environmental impact of traffic, although a review of long-term effects are included. Only the change in traffic and driving style affects the calculations. Many environmental impacts are affected by traffic, such as air pollution, noise, greenhouse gas emissions, but also the barrier effects, light pollution, water pollution and soil disturbance in sensitive areas. Calculations with the model show how emissions are affected by driving mode, and how the population exposure is affected. The existing models are highly simplified and development in emission modeling, exposure, effects of exposure, and model implementation is essential.

  • 19. Jonsdottir, I.S.
    et al.
    Crittenden, P
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Göteborg University.
    Measuring growth rates in bryophytes and lichens1997In: Summary document of 8th Annual ITEX Workshop. Royal Holloway Institute for Environmental Research, 19-22 April, 1997, 1997, , p. 10-15Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Jägerbrand, A.K.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ny vägbelysning: hur väljer man & hur miljövänlig är den?2014In: REV bulletinen, Vol. 1, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Jägerbrand, A.K.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Campus Gotland, Uppsala Universitet.
    Native roadside vegetation that enances soil erosion control in boreal Scandinavia2014In: Environments, ISSN 2076-3298, Vol. 1, p. 31-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on identifying vegetation characteristics associated with erosion control at nine roadside sites in mid-West Sweden. A number of vegetation characteristics such as cover, diversity, plant functional type, biomass and plant community structure were included. Significant difference in cover between eroded and non-eroded sub-sites was found in evergreen shrubs, total cover, and total above ground biomass. Thus, our results support the use of shrubs in order to stabilize vegetation and minimize erosion along roadsides. However, shrubs are disfavored by several natural and human imposed factors. This could have several impacts on the long-term management of roadsides in boreal regions. By both choosing and applying active management that supports native evergreen shrubs in boreal regions, several positive effects could be achieved along roadsides, such as lower erosion rate and secured long-term vegetation cover. This could also lead to lower costs for roadside maintenance as lower erosion rates would require less frequent stabilizing treatments and mowing could be kept to a minimum in order not to disfavor shrubs.                                                                                                             

  • 22.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Anpassning av vägmiljö och vegetation som åtgärd mot viltolyckor2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wildlife accidents are a global problem that causes human fatalities as well as physical and economic damage. Current preventive measures do not seem sufficient enough to achieve a reduction in wildlife accidents. The road environment may be modified so as to reduce the attractiveness of resources in the road area. Modifications may be directed towards the maintenance (e.g. adjustment of mowing practices) or the structure or composition of the vegetation. This report presents an overview of the current knowledge about how the road area, and to some extent also the adjacent areas, can be made less attractive to wildlife through road environment and vegetation changes. The report deals with relationships between wildlife presence/wildlife accidents and the surrounding environment as well as road operation and maintenance. Studies of wildlife collisions and the surrounding environment reveal complex relationships between wildlife collisions and landscape features (e.g. forest or open landscape), species and/or habitat diversity. How crucial these characteristics are for wildlife collisions largely depends on which game animals are studied. Mowing and clear-cutting activities, as well as adjacent land use may influence the roadside attraction for wildlife, sometimes in unknown ways. The list of plants that should be unattractive to grazing should be evaluated and developed further.

  • 23.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Dead or alive? Testing the use of C:N ratios and chlorophyll fluorescence in vertical shoot profiles to determine depth of vitality and point of senescence in populations of bryophytes2015In: Lindbergia, ISSN 0105-0761, E-ISSN 2001-5909, Vol. 38, p. 4-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bryophytes with indeterminate growth rarely exhibit clearly identifiable modules or age segments, but can be vertically divided into different physiologically active zones, since physiological activity normally declines vertically along the shoot profile depth. The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to use C:N ratios (C/N)and/or parameters from chlorophyll fluorescence measurements (e.g. Fv/Fm, Fm or qN)to determine if bryophyte tissue is alive, senescent or dead, and at what distance along the shoot segment profile the moss tissue cease to live. Variation in C:N ratios and chlorophyll fluorescence between sites was also examined. This study shows that it is possible to separate alive, senescing and dead parts of the moss shoots in Pleurozium schreberi, and that chlorophyll fluorescence is a good method to use, whereas C/N varies between sites and species (for Hylcomium splendens and Racomitrium lanuginosum)and does not seem to reflect physiological activity to the same degree.

  • 24.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    LED och ekologiska effekter2015In: Ceebel Nyhetsbrev, Vol. 1, p. 1-3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    LED har olika typer av ekologisk påverkan och kan i vissa fall leda till större effekter än traditionellt använd belysning. Samtidigt har LED potential att kunna utvecklas till en ekologisk neutral belysning. Det finns en rad olika saker man kan tänka på vid inköp av LED-lampor för att minimera ekologisk påverkan, såsom låg effektnivå, använda dimringsteknik, undvika oönskad ljusspridning och att försöka undvika lampor som har höga nivåer av våglängder under 500 nm.

  • 25.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Göteborg University.
    Patterns of species richness and vegetative performance in heath ecosystems at Thingvellir, Southwest Iceland2004In: Icelandic Agricultural Sciences, ISSN 1670-567X, Vol. 16-17, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. moss heath is a unique environment and is of great importance for co-occurring established vascular plants. A thick moss carpet can prevent or restrict the growth of vascular plants as they are exposed to more unfavourable growth conditions, but the effect on species richness and abundance is less known. To investigate the negative effects of a well-developed moss carpet on established vascular plants, patterns of species richness, shoot density, and number of leaves (Carex bigelowii Schwein. and Thalictrum alpinum L.) were studied in two different vegetation types, Racomitrium lanuginosum moss heath, and dwarf shrub heath in Þingvellir National Park, Southwest Iceland.

    Species richness was higher in dwarf shrub heath and increased proportionally with the size of the shrub patches. Total species richness and plant functional dominance did not differ between vegetation types. There were no differences found in shoot density, percentage of flowering and juveniles, number of leaves in Carex bigelowii, or shoot density, flowering percentage or number of leaves in Thalictrum alpinum between the vegetation types. However, leaf length of Carex bigelowii was higher in the dwarf shrubs heath, indicating more favourable growth conditions, shade or shelter effects. It is possible that translocation is taking place between the shoots of the clonal vascular plants in this study so that the plants themselves are counteracting unfavourable effects in the different vegetation types. The effect of global climatic change on moss heaths in Iceland is briefly discussed.

  • 26.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Träds inverkan på belysningseffekt på gång- och cykelvägar2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Trees and vegetation in the street environment are important components of urban areas and they increase the environmental quality in cities. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of trees on shade effects (illuminance and spectral distribution) in pedestrian and bicycle paths by quantifying the reduction of streetlight caused by tree intrusion in order to give recommendations for the management and maintenance of trees in the street environment. Measurements of the shading were tree intrusion and tree area as well as changes in R/FR. R/FR is a measurement on how shade from vegetation affects the spectral distribution. The results show that any type of intruding vegetation into the sidewalk area has a potential blocking effect on the illuminance and that the effect increased the more the trees are infringing. Tree shadow caused the illuminance to drop between 27-77%. Current guidelines for free height above pedestrian zones, bicycle roads and driving lanes are consequently not high enough to prevent shade effects by trees. The free height of vegetation and trees should be as high as the lighting pole in order to avoid light reductions due to tree intrusion.

  • 27.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Effects of human trampling on abundance and diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in alpine heath vegetation, Northern Sweden2015In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 4, no 95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of human trampling on cover, diversity and species richness in an alpine heath ecosystem in northern Sweden. We tested the hypothesis that proximity to trails decreases plant cover, diversity and species richness of the canopy and the understory. We found a significant decrease in plant cover with proximity to the trail for the understory, but not for the canopy level, and significant decreases in the abundance of deciduous shrubs in the canopy layer and lichens in the understory. Proximity also had a significant negative impact on species richness of lichens. However, there were no significant changes in species richness, diversity or evenness of distribution in the canopy or understory with proximity to the trail. While not significant, liverworts, acrocarpous and pleurocarpous bryophytes tended to have contrasting abundance patterns with differing proximity to the trail, indicating that trampling may cause shifts in dominance hierarchies of different groups of bryophytes. Due to the decrease in understory cover, the abundance of litter, rock and soil increased with proximity to the trail. These results demonstrate that low-frequency human trampling in alpine heaths over long periods can have major negative impacts on lichen abundance and species richness. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that trampling can decrease species richness of lichens. It emphasises the importance of including species-level data on non-vascular plants when conducting studies in alpine or tundra ecosystems, since they often make up the majority of species and play a significant role in ecosystem functioning and response in many of these extreme environments.

  • 28.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Hokkaido University.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Kudo, Gaku
    Hokkaido University.
    Variation in responses to temperature treatments ex situ of the moss Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt.originating from eight altitude sites in Hokkaido, Japan2014In: Journal of Bryology, ISSN 0373-6687, E-ISSN 1743-2820, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 209-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal acclimatisations are important for the survival and growth of individuals and populations but seldom studied for different populations of bryophytes. The aims of this study were to (I) investigate if responses to temperature treatments were independent of the site sampled or if the intra- and interpopulation variation in responses were larger than the responses to the temperature treatments (control, press, and pulse), and to (II) examine if experimental responses varied, depending on the sampled sites.

    We collected samples of the circumpolar bryophyte species, Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt., originating from eight altitude sites on Mt. Oakan in Hokkaido, Japan, and exposed them to three different temperature treatments ex situ for four weeks. Thermal acclimatisation was estimated by measuring responses in growth length increase, biomass increase, number of branches, and the maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm). We found that responses to temperature treatments were dependent of the site sampled, and that differences were most pronounced in the length increase. Results also shows that the responses to experimental treatments may differ between sites. Our results therefore raise important concerns regarding the general validity of both ex situ and in situ experiments when performed on a single or a limited number of sites.

  • 29.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Driving behaviour responses to a moose encounter, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message determined in a factorial simulator study2016In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 86, p. 229-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a driving simulator study, driving behaviour responses (speed and deceleration) to encountering a moose, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message, with or without a wildlife fence and in dense forest or open landscape, were analysed. The study consisted of a factorial experiment that examined responses to factors singly and in combination over 9-km road stretches driven eight times by 25 participants (10 men, 15 women). The aims were to: determine the most effective animal–vehicle collision (AVC) countermeasures in reducing vehicle speed and test whether these are more effective in combination for reducing vehicle speed; identify the most effective countermeasures on encountering moose; and determine whether the driving responses to AVC countermeasures are affected by the presence of wildlife fences and landscape characteristics. The AVC countermeasures that proved most effective in reducing vehicle speed were a wildlife warning sign and radio message, while automatic speed cameras had a speed-increasing effect. There were no statistically significant interactions between different countermeasures and moose encounters. However, there was a tendency for a stronger speed-reducing effect from the radio message warning and from a combination of a radio message and wildlife warning sign in velocity profiles covering longer driving distances than the statistical tests. Encountering a moose during the drive had the overall strongest speed-reducing effect and gave the strongest deceleration, indicating that moose decoys or moose artwork might be useful as speed-reducing countermeasures. Furthermore, drivers reduced speed earlier on encountering a moose in open landscape and had lower velocity when driving past it. The presence of a wildlife fence on encountering the moose resulted in smaller deceleration.

  • 30.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Speed reduction effects over distance of animal-vehicle collision countermeasures: a driving simulator study2018In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study examined if speed reduction effects from animal-vehicle collision (AVC) countermeasures are merely local or do extend to a wider area, and what implications the results have on road planning practice regarding AVCs.

    Methods: Twenty-five drivers drove repeatedly on a 9-km long road stretch in a high-fidelity driving simulator. The development of vehicle speed in the surrounding of an automatic speed camera, a wildlife warning sign and a radio message, were investigated in a full factorial within-subject experiment. The factors wildlife fence (with/without) and forest (dense/open landscape) were also included.

    Results: The radio warning message had the largest influence on vehicle speed with a speed reduction of 8 km/h that lasted beyond 1 km and 2 km after the implementation. Eighty-eight per cent of the drivers reported being made extra aware of AVC due to the radio message, which was also associated with stress, insecurity and unsafety. The warning sign reduced vehicle speed by 1.5 km/h, but speed reductions were not significantly reduced 1 km after the implementation. Only 8 % of the drivers felt insecure/unsafe after passing the wildlife warning sign, explaining its limited impact on speed. There were no main effects of the automatic speed camera on vehicle speed at longer distances after implementation.

    Conclusions: We recommend that AVC countermeasures should be of various design, occur at various segments along the road, and preferably be adaptive and geo-localized to minimize habituation effects on drivers.

  • 31.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Observationer av funktionskonflikter mellan miljö och drift och underhåll av vägar2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to increase the knowledge of functional conflicts between the environment and the operation and maintenance of roads. Functional conflicts may arise for example, when operation and maintenance measures are interfering negatively with land owners’ use of their land.

    The goal of this project was to find new, relatively unknown examples of functional conflicts through observations in the field as well as by using recorded comments and opinions received by the Swedish Transport Administration.

    Following functional conflicts were identified in the field:

    • Reuse of old materials may negatively affect the life-time of roads.
    • •Brush cutting in the roadside may enhance erosion in vulnerable areas.
    • •Forest clear-cutting with easily eroded soil may cause clogging of ditches and culverts.
    • •Culverts that end in the middle of the forest may cause the forest land to become waterlogged.

    To identify more functional conflicts, opinions and comments received by the Swedish Transport Administration in three regions (central region, western region and Stockholm region) were studied.

  • 32.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Potential för en energieffektivare väg- och gatubelysning: jämförelser mellan dimning och olika typer av ljuskällor2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce energy use and its accompanying costs, it is important to have as energy-efficient road and street lighting as possible. The objectives of this project were to provide basic data for different energy efficiency measures for road and street lighting and to examine how the use of dimming and various light sources affects visibility. This study shows that there is potential to reduce the energy consumption of several of the existing road lightings by reducing power and still meet the requirements based on traffic safety, because the luminance and the illuminance we measured show that some of the values fall between the recommended classes. This study highlights four different types of dimming schedules based on different conditions in which the savings in kWh/year is between 19-50%. The results from a web survey based on photographs from roads with various lighting show that responses were not conclusive regarding the best visibility between light sources. However, the survey shows that more people (62.4-71.6%) choose ceramic metal halide lighting instead of high-pressure sodium in order to feel most comfortable when driving.

  • 33.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Göteborg University.
    A new method for assessing dispersal and colonization of bryophytes2007In: Journal of Bryology, ISSN 0373-6687, E-ISSN 1743-2820, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 133-134Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Hokkaido University.
    Effects of an in situ temperature increase on the short-term growth of arctic-alpine bryophytes2007In: Lindbergia, ISSN 0105-0761, E-ISSN 2001-5909, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 82-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the short-term growth responses to a temperature increase in situ of three bryophytes species of different genera. Temperatures were enhanced by the use of open-top chambers at Latnjajaure, a subarctic-alpine site in northernmost Sweden. Growth was measured during the growing season of 1995, using the tied-thread method for Aulacomnium turgidum, the cranked-wire method for Sphagnum teres, and the shoot-transplanting method for Tomentypnum nitens. Temperature enhancement significantly increased the growth in length of Sphagnum teres while no significant effects were found for the other two species. One possible reason for this is that Sphagnum teres had more water available, while the other two species could not respond to increased temperature due to constraints of water availability. Copyright © Lindbergia 2007.

  • 35.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Kollisioner och olyckor med rådjur i Sverige under 10 år (2003–2012): variation i tid, geografi och kostnader2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal for this project was to create a 10-year overview of the number of deer collisions in Sweden and accidents variation in time, geography and cost, both in terms of property damage and personal injuries. Accident statistics were gathered from NVR (National Wildlife Accident Council, data on collisions), Strada (fatalities and injuries in Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) and Ofelia (collisions at railway). The results show that the number of deer collisions has increased over the 10-year period and that the increase has been much greater in the northernmost counties and Gotland. The number of deer collisions is higher during the early summer (May–June) and winter (October–December), whereas the number of fatalities and injury accidents is highest during the summer. The number of deer collisions varies during the day, but most accidents occur in the morning and evening for both property damage and personal injury accidents. For fatalities in accidents with roe deer, there are more than twice as many compared to the officially reported numbers, and the number of serious injuries is 177% higher than the official records. It is likely that the official statistics are also underestimating the number of fatalities and injuries from wildlife accidents caused by moose, deer and wild boar. This study shows that the total cost of roe deer collisions and accidents in 2012 exceeds 1 billion SEK, of which approximately 70% account for the cost of property damage.

  • 36.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    LED (Light-Emitting Diode) road lighting in practice: An evaluation of compliance with regulations and improvements for further energy savings2016In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-emitting diode (LED) road lighting has been widely implemented in recent years, but few studies have evaluated its performance after installation. This study investigated whether LED road lighting complies with minimum regulations in terms of traffic safety and whether improvements for energy efficiency are possible. Average road surface luminance (L), overall luminance uniformity (U0), longitudinal luminance uniformity (U1), power density (PD) and normalised power density (PN) were evaluated for 14 roads (seven designed for vehicular traffic and seven for pedestrians and bicycles). Energy savings were calculated as the percentage reduction to the minimum level of the existing lighting class or a lower lighting class and by applying a dimming schedule. The results showed that LED road lighting for vehicular traffic roads generally fulfilled the requirements, whereas that for pedestrian and bicycle roads generally corresponded to the lowest lighting class for L, and often did not meet the statutory requirements for U0 and UI. By adapting lighting levels to the minimum requirement of the existing lighting class or by dropping to a lower lighting class, vehicular traffic roads could save 6%-35% on L to lighting class M5 and 23%-61% on L to lighting class M6. A dimming schedule could lead to energy savings of 49%. There is little potential for savings on pedestrian and bicycle roads, except by implementing a dimming schedule. Thus, in general, for vehicular, pedestrian and bicycle roads, a dimming schedule can save more energy than can be achieved in general by reducing lighting class. Furthermore, since a dimming schedule can be adjusted to traffic intensity, any potential risk of compromising traffic safety is minimised.

  • 37.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    New Framework of Sustainable Indicators for Outdoor LED (Light Emitting Diodes) Lighting and SSL (Solid State Lighting)2015In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1028-1063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) and SSL (solid state lighting) are relatively  new light sources, but are already widely applied for outdoor lighting. Despite this, there is little available information allowing planners and designers to evaluate and weigh different sustainability aspects of LED/SSL lighting when making decisions. Based on a literature review, this paper proposes a framework of sustainability indicators and/or measures that can be used for a general evaluation or to highlight certain objectives or aspects of special interest when choosing LED/SSL lighting. LED/SSL lighting is reviewed from a conventional sustainable development perspective, i.e., covering the three dimensions, including ecological, economic and social sustainability. The new framework of sustainable indicators allow prioritization when choosing LED/SSL products and can thereby help ensure that short-term decisions on LED/SSL lighting systems are in line with long-term sustainability goals established in society. The new framework can also be a beneficial tool for planners, decision-makers, developers and lighting designers, or for consumers wishing to use LED/SSL lighting in  a sustainable manner. Moreover, since some aspects of LED/SSL lighting have not yet been thoroughly studied or developed, some possible future indicators are suggested.

  • 38.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Trafiksäkerhets- och trygghetsaspekter i samspelet mellan gatumiljöns utformning och en mer energieffektiv belysning2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project's aim was to study the traffic safety aspects of new lights and the interaction with the street environment for pedestrians and cyclists. This project investigated the lighting conditions, effects on cyclists, and the interactions between lighting, traffic safety, street environmental conditions and/or other effects such as perceptions of safety for three different light sources (mercury vapour 125W, ceramic metal halide 70W and LED 25W) located in about the same type of street environment on a pedestrian and bicycle path on Kungsholms strand in Stockholm. Results show that the energy consumption of the LED lighting is 28% of the traditional mercury vapour lighting and 49% of ceramic metal halide lighting. This study shows that it is possible to obtain sufficient uniformity levels with LED lighting but that the levels are dependent on the luminaire design, pole design and the number of poles per meter road (in this study the pole spacing was 15.3 m). This study demonstrated no difference in cycle speed for LED lighting between daylight and darkness, or between different types of lighting. It worked well to perform analysis of perception of safety aspects based on simple estimates (through analysis of digital photographs). For example, perceptions of visibility corresponds very well with the measured uniformity.

  • 39.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Göteborgs Universitet.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    Jönköpings Universitet.
    Chrimes, Dillon
    University of Tokyo.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Plant community responses to 5 years of simulated climate change in meadow and heath ecosystems at a subarctic-alpine site2009In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 161, no 3, p. 601-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change was simulated by increasing temperature and nutrient availability in an alpine landscape. We conducted a field experiment of BACI-design (before/after control/impact) running for five seasons in two alpine communities (heath and meadow) with the factors temperature (increase of ca. 1.5-3.0°C) and nutrients (5 g N, 5 g P per m 2) in a fully factorial design in northern Swedish Lapland. The response variables were abundances of plant species and functional types. Plant community responses to the experimental perturbations were investigated, and the responses of plant functional types were examined in comparison to responses at the species level. Nutrient addition, exclusively and in combination with enhanced temperature increase, exerted the most pronounced responses at the species-specific and community levels. The main responses to nutrient addition were increases in graminoids and forbs, whereas deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs, bryophytes, and lichens decreased. The two plant communities of heath or meadow showed different vegetation responses to the environmental treatments despite the fact that both communities were located on the same subarctic-alpine site. Furthermore, we showed that the abundance of forbs increased in response to the combined treatment of temperature and nutrient addition in the meadow plant community. Within a single-plant functional type, most species responded similarly to the enhanced treatments although there were exceptions, particularly in the moss and lichen functional types. Plant community structure showed BACI responses in that vegetation dominance relationships in the existing plant functional types changed to varying degrees in all plots, including control plots. Betula nana and lichens increased in the temperature-increased enhancements and in control plots in the heath plant community during the treatment period. The increases in control plots were probably a response to the observed warming during the treatment period in the region. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

  • 40.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Kan viltolyckor förebyggas av körsätt?: En körsimulatorstudie utförd av VTI. Slutrapport till Viltvårdsfonden, projekt nr 802-0224-092013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektets syfte har varit att förstå mänskligt förarbeteende i situationer där vilt förekommer utmed vägmiljöer och även att undersöka vilka effekter förebyggande åtgärder har på förarbeteendet. Om det går att förstå förarbeteende bättre, samt undersöka exakt hur de förebyggande åtgärderna som skall förhindra viltkollisioner fungerar på människor, finns både goda möjligheter att reducera antalet viltkollisioner (oavsett viltstammens storlek), och ändra allmänhetens uppfattning av att det enbart är storleken på viltstammarna som gör att man kolliderar med vilt.

    Vi har utfört en körsimulatorstudie i SIM III där det ingick 25 försökspersoner, 10 män och 15 kvinnor. Försökspersonerna fick köra sträckor med en full-faktoriell design innehållande testvariablerna: ATK (hastighetskamera), riktat radiomeddelande, viltvarningsskylt, älg, viltstängsel samt öppet landskap och landskap med tät skog.

    Älgen förefaller vara den variabel som leder till störst reaktioner, även vad gäller stress. Det kan bero på att man inte är van att se älgar längs vägarna. Vi vet inte om det går att vänja sig vid detta, men då reaktionen av älg vid upprepning förefaller mildra effekterna av såväl stress som inbromsning tyder resultaten på att så kan vara fallet.

    Föreliggande studie har identifierat forskningsbehov inom flera områden såsom djupgående studier av att undersöka huruvida effekter av de förebyggande åtgärderna har en ihållande effekt på längre sikt, dvs. efter upprepningar. Annars föreligger en risk att förebyggande åtgärder (radiomeddelande, älg, ATK, varningsskylt), endast har en kortvarig effekt.

  • 41.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Björk, Robert
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Callaghan, Terry
    Seppelt, Rod
    Effects of climate change on tundra bryophytes2011In: Bryophyte ecology and climate change / [ed] Nancy Slack, Zoltan Tuba and Lloyd Stark, Cambridge University Press, 2011, 1, p. 211-236Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Dickinson, Joanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Viklund, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport.
    Dahlberg, Staffan
    Stockholm.
    Rebound effects of energy efficiency measures in the transport sector in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rebound effects represent the difference between anticipated or projected energy savings and the real energy saving in relation to, for example, implemented policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency. Rebound effects in the transport sector may counteract policy measures so that goals related to energy or emissions are not achieved, or achievement is greatly delayed. This comprehensive report examines the presence of rebound effects within the transport sector and while the aim was to provide a full review of the issue, for some transport areas it was not possible to find any studies on rebound effects. Those areas are identified as having knowledge gaps. We summarize the literature for rebound effects for passenger vehicles, technological developments, freight transports, public lighting, aviation, waterborne transports and for indirect, economy-wide effects, and also discuss rebound effects in aspects of environmental awareness and in the transport and community planning. The existing literature suggests that rebound effects exist to varying degrees and that there is a high risk of energy efficiency measures transferring transport energy savings into other transport modes, sectors or energy services. Consequently, rebound effects should be included when calculating whether Sweden will reach its climate and energy goals.

  • 43.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Göteborg University.
    During, Heinjo J
    Utrecht University.
    Effects of simulated shade on growth, number of branches and biomass in Hylocomium splendens and Racomitrium lanuginosum2005In: Lindbergia, ISSN 0105-0761, E-ISSN 2001-5909, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 117-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of simulated shade in terms of reduced light quantity (PPFD) and changed red:far-red ratio (R:FR ratio) on the growth in length, in number of branches and in biomass, were examined in a greenhouse experiment with Hylocomium splendens and Racomitrium lanuginosum, two species from habitats with different light conditions (with H. splendens often in more shaded microsites). Using ten intact moss turfs per species which had been collected on Iceland at 4 m distance between replicate turfs, we tested, whether light quantity affected growth and biomass, whether changes in light quantity and red:far-red ratio affected the number of branches, and whether the two species differed in these responses. Reduced light quantity (i.e. PPFD level) caused a greater length increase, decreased biomass, and biomass:length ratio in both species, but the magnitude of response varied greatly between species. Furthermore, in R. lanuginosum spectral shade (i.e. reduced PPFD and a lower R:FR ratio) generally caused stronger responses than neutral shade, with only a reduction in PPFD. H. splendens (from the shaded habitat) responded less strongly to the shade treatments than R. lanuginosum (from the open habitat) did. In addition to these effects of shading, there were strong effects of the turf of origin in both species, and in many cases the interaction between turf of origin and shading treatment was significant as well. Copyright © Lindbergia 2006.

  • 44.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Energiutvinning ur vägar och vägmiljöer: en kunskapsöversikt2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to identify new technologies for energy harvesting and the ability to use them in the road and the surrounding road area. The survey focuses on the materials and methods that may be used in the Swedish (cold) climate. The report can be useful for planning of new infrastructure when you want to make use of renewable energy and wants to reduce the environmental impact. Considering today’s technological conditions, the following techniques may be relevant: photovoltaics, geothermal energy, piezoelectric technology, wind energy or bioenergy. There are, however, many factors holding back the development of new innovative systems for energy production in roads and their environment. Some important factors are for example that maintenance costs will increase or that the maintenance of the road will become more difficult.

  • 45.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Göteborg University.
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg S
    Univ. Centre in Svalbard.
    Økland, Rune H
    Dept. of Botany, Natural History Museum, Univ. of Oslo.
    Phenotypic variation at different spatial scales in relation to environment in two circumpolar bryophyte species2005In: Lindbergia, ISSN 0105-0761, E-ISSN 2001-5909, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 125-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Morphology, physiology and biomass in two widespread bryophyte species, Hylocomium splendens and Racomitrium lanuginosum, were studied to examine the extent to which different species exhibit similar phenotypic variation patterns within and across regions. Analyses of nine morphological variables, chlorophyll content, nitrogen content, C/N ratio and biomass were conducted in samples from five sites in two geographically separated and climatically different regions, Iceland and northern Sweden. Both species exhibited large between-site variation in morphology, physiology and biomass, but within-site variation in morphology was substantially higher in Hylocomium splendens than Racomitrium lanuginosum. Morphological patterns were partly similar, partly different between the species, indicating that the two species respond morphologically to external factors on different scales. The lowest concentrations of chlorophyll and nitrogen were found at the same sites for both species, while the site of highest concentration was not the same. In Hylocomium splendens, chlorophyll content was positively correlated with biomass. Many of the observed relationships between morphological, physiological variables and biomass were species-specific. Our results demonstrate that the two bryophytes exhibit different phenotypic responses to environmental variation. Copyright © Lindbergia 2006.

  • 46.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Kudo, Gaku
    Hokkaido University.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    Högskolan på Gotland.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Effects of neighboring vascular plants on the abundance of bryophytes in different vegetation types2012In: Polar Science, ISSN 1873-9652, E-ISSN 1876-4428, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 200-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the climate change, vegetation of tundra ecosystems is predicted to shift toward shrub and tree dominance, and this change may influence bryophytes. To estimate how changes in growing environment and the dominance of vascular plants influence bryophyte abundance, we compared the relationship of occurrence of bryophytes among other plant types in a five-year experiment of warming (T), fertilization (F) and T. +. F in two vegetation types, heath and meadow, in a subarctic-alpine ecosystem. We compared individual leaf area among shrub species to confirm that deciduous shrubs might cause severe shading effect. Effects of neighboring functional types on the performance of Hylocomium splendens was also analyzed.Results show that F and T. +. F treatments significantly influenced bryophyte abundance negatively. Under natural conditions, bryophytes in the heath site were negatively related to the abundance of shrubs and lichens and the relationship between lichens and bryophytes strengthened after the experimental period. After five years of experimental treatments in the meadow, a positive abundance relationship emerged between bryophytes and deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs and forbs. This relationship was not found in the heath site. Our study therefore shows that the abundance relationships between bryophytes and plants in two vegetation types within the same area can be different. Deciduous shrubs had larger leaf area than evergreen shrubs but did not show any shading effect on H. splendens. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and NIPR.

  • 47.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lindblad, Karin E M
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Björk, Robert G
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    Vinnova.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bryophyte and lichen diversity under simulated environmental change compared with observed variation in unmanipulated alpine tundra2006In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 15, no 14, p. 4453-4475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of simulated environmental change on bryophyte and lichen species richness and diversity in alpine tundra were investigated in a 5-year experiment at Latnjajaure, northern Sweden. The experiment had a factorial design including fertilisation and temperature enhancement in one meadow and one heath plant community. Responses in species richness, biodiversity, and species composition of bryophytes and lichens to experimental treatments were compared to the observed variation in six naturally occurring plant communities. The combination of fertilisation and enhanced temperature resulted in a species impoverishment, for bryophytes in the bryophyte-dominated community, and for lichens in the lichen-dominated communities, but the species composition stayed within the observed natural variation. During the course of the study, no species new to the investigated mid-alpine landscape were recorded, but that scenario is realistic within a decade when comparing with the processes seen in vascular plants.

  • 48.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Responses of bryophytes to simulated environmental change at Latnjajaure, northern Sweden2003In: Journal of Bryology, ISSN 0373-6687, E-ISSN 1743-2820, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 163-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We simulated a predicted environmental change in a subarctic-alpine plant community to study short-term growth in Hylocomium splendens, and three-year effects in abundance changes of the five most common bryophytes at Latnjajaure, northern Sweden. The experiment had a factorial design with increased temperature and nutrients, alone and in combination. Moss growth was measured during the 1995 growing season, and we measured species abundance before and after three years of environmental perturbation. The combined treatments of fertilizer and temperature enhancement caused a decreased growth in length and dry weight in H. splendens. There was a significant decrease in abundance of Rhytidium rugosum in the combined temperature and fertilizer treatment. The other four common bryophyte species (Aulacomnium turgidum, Dicranum groenlandicum, Hylocomium splendens, and Ptilidium ciliare) showed weaker, but not significant trends in the same direction. As the bryophytes are an important component of arctic and subarctic vegetation, we expect that they will play a key role in the impact of anticipated Global Change on the ecosystems.

  • 49.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ny kunskap för att underlätta införandet av energieffektivare väg- och gatubelysning2010In: Ceebel nyhetsbrev (centrum för energieffektiv belysning), Vol. 2, no 3, p. 1-1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Renewal of street and road lighting in Swedish municipalities2013In: Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference "Towards a New Century of Light", April 15-16, Paris, France, 2013., CIE, 2013, p. 1009-1015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied planning, responsibilities, and stakeholder’s involvement in 12 Swedish municipalities of different size to identify factors that could constitute barriers for developing more energy efficient street and road lighting (SRL). In this study, small municipalities had the most energy efficient lighting and all stated that energy savings were the main reason for their substitution of mercury lamps. In medium-sized and large municipalities the ecodesign directive was given as the main motive for renewal of the SRL by four municipalities, and the remaining four municipalities stated that their main motive was the need to replace old SRL. Outsourcing of management, operation and maintenance may constitute a barrier for renewal whereas lack of knowledge and costs for renewal does not seem to be any significant barriers. Integration of SRL planning with other strategies, such as energy and economy strategies, seems to be an important factor for a proactive SRL development.

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