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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dangerous use of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving: A toolbox of counter-measures2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile phone and similar devices while driving has been a topic of discussion and research for several years. It is now an established fact that driving performance is deteriorated due to distraction but no clear conclusions can yet be drawn concerning influence on crash rates. Better studies on this relationship is needed. Most countries in Europe and many countries elsewhere have introduced different types of bans for handheld devices. Sweden has, however, no such bans. VTI was commissioned by the Swedish Government to outline possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving as alternatives to banning. This task was a result of a previous VTI-state-of-the-art review of research on mobile phone and other communication device usage while driving. One of the findings in the review was that bans on handheld phones did not appear to reduce the number of crashes.

    Eighteen different countermeasures in three main areas were suggested. (1) Technical solutions such as countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. (2) Education and information, describing different ways to increase knowledge and understanding among stakeholders and different driver categories. (3) Different possibilities for how society, industry and organisations can influence the behaviour of individuals, via policies, rules, recommendations and incentives. Our conclusion is that a combination of different countermeasures is needed – where education and information to the drivers are combined with support and incentives for a safe usage of different communication devices.

  • 2.
    Antov, Dago
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology.
    Banet, Aurélie
    Barbier, Cécile
    Bellet, Thierry
    Bimpeh, Yaw
    Boulanger, Ankatrien
    Brandstätter, Christian
    Britschgi, Virpi
    Brosnan, Michael
    Buttler, Ilona
    Cestac, Julien
    De Craen, Saskia
    Delhomme, Patrice
    Dogan, Ebru
    Drápela, Emil
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Freeman, R
    Furian, Gerald
    Gábor, Miklós
    Goldenbeld, Charles
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Holte, Hardy
    Kraïem, Sami
    Papadimitriou, Eleonora
    Podlesek, Anja
    Polič, Marko
    Sánchez-Martín, Fermina
    Sardi, Gian-Marco
    Schmidt, Eike-Andreas
    Silverans, Peter
    Siska, Tamas
    Skládaná, Pavlina
    Theofilatos, Athanasios
    Von Below, Ariande
    Yannis, George
    Zaidel, David
    Zavrides, Neophytos
    Delhomme, Patricia (Editor)
    IFSTTAR.
    European road users' risk perception and mobility: the SARTRE 4 survey2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The SARTRE (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) project started in 1991. It consists of a European wide survey about knowledge of road traffic laws and road traffic risks, attitudes regarding road safety issues, reported road traffic behaviours, transport habits and needs in several European countries. Various topics related to road safety are in the focus of the project such as alcohol, drugs, or phone use while driving, speeding, use of advanced driver assistance systems and the transport infrastructure and environment.

  • 3.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Holgersson, Stefan
    Unga på moped: en studie av riskgrupper och riktade polisinsatser för att motverka trimning2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Unrestricted or so-called trimmed mopeds and speeding are experienced as an increasing traffic safety problem. There is a risk of an increased number of seriously injured and casualties among adolescents as a consequence of the increased number of mopeds found in traffic today and the higher speeds they are driven at. One common police action to reduce trimming is to follow the moped riders who are suspected of altering their vehicles. This can lead to "chase situations" which increase the risk to both moped riders and fellow road-users. One purpose of this report is to study the effects of an alternative way of working with the moped problems by the police in four different towns and by interviews, observations and a questionnaire study broaden our knowledge about attitudes to moped riding and trimming among youths. The results showed that the efforts of the police in the experiment towns had not had any effect on the attitudes and the points of view of the youths towards traffic safety. One possible reason for this is that the method used is too new and that it was not extensive enough. Parents have an effect on the attitude of the youths towards trimming. The parents of those who trim seem to have a more tolerant attitude towards trimming. The results from the questionnaire study show that those that had driven but do not a moped but did not have av moped of their own, as well as those who have a trimmed moped of their own were more positive towards taking risks in traffic, would consider driving at faster speeds and had more experience of traffic offenses. In addition, they are of the opinion that parents, friends and fellow roadusers find it acceptable to exceed the speed limits. Furthermore, these two groups were not as involved in organised leisure activities as the other two groups, their parents were not as strict, grades were not considered as important and they indicated to a greater degree that attending school is difficult or boring. Based on this study, it can be concluded that trimming is not an isolated behaviour but related to a certain lifestyle. In order to reduce trimming an increased understanding of those mechanisms which determine the behaviour of the target groups are needed as well as improved methods to detect trimming. Qualitative studies could be used to discuss the problem with parents, youths and those living in special residential areas where the problem is experienced as being widespread. It might also be interesting to analyse incoming calls/complaints to police communication centres and evaluate the effects police work has on the number of trimmed mopeds over a period of time.

  • 4.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Samspel i trafiken: formella och informella regler bland cyklister2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of cyclists’ behaviour in relation to rules and regulations are rather poor and the same applies to cyclists’ interaction with other road users. The purpose of this project was therefore to explore cyclists’ knowledge of traffic rules but also what determine their own compliance or noncompliance. Participants in the study were 612 people between 18 and 74 years from Gothenburg, Linköping and Stockholm and were recruited through a web panel. A survey was used which asked them about their background, view of themselves as cyclists, own self-compliance, view of others’ compliance, knowledge of rules and various factors that determine their intention to break the rules.

    The results from the study showed that the participants’ regular knowledge was relatively good, at least in terms of behaviours that are prohibited. The participants who thought that a certain behaviour was forbidden also replied that they did this to a lesser extent. Cyclists who stated that they would like to arrive as soon as possible tended to choose more flexible routes (e.g. bike across pedestrian crossings, pavements and roads mainly used by vehicles), whether permitted or not. To a greater extent they also stated that they did not always stop at red lights or at stop signs. Cycle crossings, junctions, pedestrian crossings and pavements were used as examples of places/situations where the rules were considered unclear. Perceived behavioural control and attitude influenced the intention to behave according to three hypothetical scenarios which described how other road users had to break or swerve in order to avoid an accident with the cyclist. This meant that those who intended to behave in the manner indicated believed that it was easy and rather harmless, but also that it was both right and good. However, the most important factor was if they had performed the behaviour in the past, which in turn may have reinforced this view, that is if nothing serious had happened.

  • 5.
    Cedersund, Hans-Åke
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hur värderar bilisterna böter för olika trafikförseelser?: en litteraturstudie2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    A fine is the most common sanction for most traffic offences, but it is only one of several sanction options for society. If one is caught driving without a safety belt, and other similar minor traffic offences, the sanction is always a fine of fixed sum. For minor speeding offences a fixed sum is also charged. Only for excessive speeding a court may adjudge the confiscation of the driving license for a shorter or longer period. For drunken driving fines are not used at all. Instead a monetary fine, i.e. a fine assessed on the basis of the defendant's daily income, will be administered, and if the drunken driving is deemed to be excessive the court may withdraw the driving license for a shorter or longer period. The question is which effect the precise magnitude of a fine has for the prevention of crime. How do drivers evaluate the current fine sums, and when are they felt to be really heavy? The project documented here is a literature study on this topic. It is planned that this literature study shall be followed by a questionnaire survey to a randomly selected population of private car drivers.

  • 6.
    Coogan, Matthew A
    et al.
    New England Transportation Institute.
    Campbell, Margaret
    Resource Systems Group, Inc.
    Adler, Thomas J.
    Resource Systems Group, Inc.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Examining behavioral and attitudinal differences among groups in their traffic safety culture2014In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 26, no PB, p. 303-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores the concept that, for a given population, there is not a single "traffic safety culture," but rather a set of alternative cultures in which the individual driver might belong. There are several different cultures of dangerous driving behavior and each might need a separate strategy for intervention or amelioration.

    First, the paper summarizes the over-arching theory explored in the research, which applies Multi-group Structural Equation Modeling (MSEM) in a modification of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in the explanation of Risky Driving Behavior, based on ten observed explanatory factors.

    Second, we apply Latent Class Cluster (LCC) segmentation to the full sample, revealing four segments: one cluster reflecting a "Low Risk Driving Safety Group" and three clusters describing three different groups of problematic drivers. We first apply MSEM to two groups; the "Low Risk Driving Safety Group," and the "High Risk Driving Safety Group," defined as the members of the three problematic clusters together, revealing how a "Low Risk" culture differs from the "High Risk" culture, with the relative importance of the TPB explanatory factors varying sharply between the two groups.

    Finally, the three problematic clusters are profiled for demographics and their mean scores for the ten observed explanatory factors. Each of the clusters is reviewed in terms of responses to selected survey questions.

    Three separate and distinct dangerous traffic safety cultures emerge: first, a culture of risky driving dominated by excitement seeking and optimism bias; a second dominated by denial of societal values; and a third characterized by its propensity to find rational justifications for its speeding behavior.

    The paper applies two research methods together: LCC segmentation divides our sample into meaningful subgroups, while MSEM reveals both within-group analysis of variance and between-group differences in safety attitudes and outcomes. The paper concludes that the combination of the segmentation powers of the LCC and the analysis powers of the MSEM provides the analyst with an improved understanding of the attitudes and behaviors of the separate groups, all tied back to the over-arching theory underlying the research.

  • 7.
    Delhomme, Patricia
    et al.
    IFFSTAR.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Transport psychology: Identification of road users' risks and attitudes and behaviour change2014In: Revue europeenne de psychologie appliquee, ISSN 1162-9088, E-ISSN 1878-3457, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 93-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Delhomme, Patricia
    et al.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Loukopoulos, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Boulanger, Ankatrien
    Kommunikationskampanjer för trafiksäkerhet: handbok för design, genomförande och utvärdering (förkortad version)2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta häfte är en förkortad version av CAST-handboken för utformning, genomförande och utvärdering av kommunikationskampanjer om trafiksäkerhet.

    CAST (Campaigns and Awareness-Raising Strategies in Traffic Safety) är ett riktat forskningsprojekt som stöds av Europeiska kommissionen. Det startades som ett led i kommissionens strävan att förbättra trafiksäkerheten med hjälp av effektivare trafiksäkerhetskampanjer. CAST-projektet, som pågick mellan 2006 och 2009, gällde utveckling av tre verktyg för att ge kampanjmakare praktisk hjälp. Tillsammans ger verktygen tydliga anvisningar för utformning och utvärdering av trafiksäkerhetskampanjer. Verktygen är: - en handbok för utformning, genomförande och utvärdering av trafiksäkerhetskampanjer ; - ett utvärderingsverktyg, avsett att vara till hjälp vid bedömning av kampanjens effektivitet; - ett rapportverktyg, som beskriver hur en fullständig och standardiserad kampanjrapport skrivs.

    CAST-projektet genomfördes av ett konsortium av 19 partner och samordnades av Belgiens trafiksäkerhetsinstitut (IBSRBIVV). Alla större europeiska organisationer med kunskaper om och erfarenhet av trafiksäkerhetskampanjer medverkade – projektet samlade alltså expertis från hela EU.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Säkerhetseffekten av ökat cyklande: kartläggning av nuläget för att planera för framtiden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, cycling has been highlighted as a travel mode with many positive qualities. The documents of Swedish national strategy reveal a trend of an increased cycling. At the same time, it is important that the safety of cyclists must be improved so that an increased cycling does not contribute to more injuries and fatalities in accidents. To cope with the increased cycling without compromising the safety, there is fore example, a need for better understanding of the relationship between the cycling flow and the injuries in various traffic environments.

    In this project, three different studies were carried out to understand how the trend of cycling changes over time and how cyclists' injury risk is influenced by the cycling flow and the traffic environment. In the first study, a travel demand model has been developed that includes both mode choice and destination choice for cycling. In the second study, models for cyclists’ injury risks have been developed for different types of accidents and traffic environments. In the third study, interactions between different road users have been observed, to study how these are affected by the level of bicycle flow. Overall, the studies in this project have shown that bicycle flow is an important factor influencing cyclists’ accident risks. Higher bicycle flow corresponds to fewer interactions per cyclist and a lower risk of injury in a single bicycle accident as well as in a collision accident with motorised vehicles. We have also been able to demonstrate that it is possible to model travel choices and destination choice of cyclists and to develop models that describe cyclists’ injury risk. However, to provide better estimates, data with better quality are necessary for the model inputs, especially when it comes to the cycling and the description of cycling infrastructure.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Resvanor och inställning till färdmedel i Falu kommun2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce the negative effects of private transportation more people need to travel pro-environmentally. In this report, travel mode choice and the reasons for using different travel modes in the municipality of Falun are described. A travel survey revealed that on average the respondents undertook 3.3 trips a day, and that 64 % used a car for the majority of these trips. Bus, bicycle, and walking accounted for around 10 % of the trips each. The majority of the trips were to and from work, followed by trips to make various purchases. Results from an attitude survey revealed that the respondents had a favourable attitude to bicycles in particular, and also to cars. However, there were a number of circumstances that were perceived to mitigate against cycle usage and entailed an advantage in favour of cars instead. The bus was seen as slightly more negative and the possibility of taking the bus was rated lower than the possibility of using the car. The intention to use the car, the bus and the bicycle was mainly influenced by perceived behavioural control, social norms, and attitude toward the travel mode. In addition, certain background factors, such as driving licence and access to car, were important for the intention to use different travel modes. The results point towards the importance of improving the opportunities to use alternative modes of transport if more car users are to travel pro-environmentally.

  • 11.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Alkohol och droger i trafiken - var står vi idag?2012In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 89, no 6, p. 471-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rattfylleri är ett av de största trafiksäkerhetsproblemen i Sverige. I den här artikeln ges en översikt över den senaste tidens forskning vad gäller problemets omfattning, attityder till att köra rattfull och de åtgärder som erbjuds. Genomgången, som avser svenska förhållanden, visar att vi har mer kunskap om rattfylleri med avseende på alkohol än med avseende på droger. Forskningen visar att alkoholrattfylleri är ett större trafiksäkerhetsproblem än drograttfylleri men att även drograttfylleri är förenat med stora risker. Det är därför viktigt att förbättra kunskapen om droger i trafiken. Det är också viktigt att beakta att det bakom många rattfylleribrott finns människor med missbruksproblem och att rehabilitering därför bör ingå som en del av trafiksäkerhetsarbetet.

  • 12.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Aggressivitet på väg: följande PM utgör underlag till ett föredrag presenterat vid ett seminarium den 21 april 1999 i Borlänge2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett vanligt tillvägagångssätt inom trafiksäkerhetsforskning har varit att beskriva orsaken till olyckor utifrån perceptuella (informationsinhämtning genom synsinnet) och motoriska begränsningar hos föraren. Uppgiften har därmed bestått i att förbättra körförmågan och att förändra den yttre miljön. Detta har dock inte alltid lett till de resultat man önskat sig och under senare år har man börjat förstå att lösningen till problemet inte alltid ligger i vad föraren kan eller inte kan göra utan vad han/hon faktiskt gör.

    Tre olika mänskliga felhandlingar har beskrivits: - överträdelse (t.ex. fortkörning, rattfylleri), - misstag (t.ex. bristfälligt seende eller felbedömningar), och - felsteg (glömska).

    Då det gäller olyckor har man funnit att det är överträdelser som utgör huvudorsaken snarare än misstag och felsteg. Överträdelser har beskrivits som en medveten avvikelse från rutiner som i vanliga fall skall skydda individen från fara. I detta resonemang utgår jag från följande: att individen aktivt försöker förstå och tolka sin omgivning och att tolkningen påverkar handlingen.

    Aggressivitet är många gånger orsaken bakom regelbrott och olyckor i trafiken och fenomenet som sådant har beskrivits som "Road Rage" och kan definieras enligt definitionen "Att medvetet skada eller döda en annan trafikant, eller har för avsikt att skada eller döda en annan trafikant". I mindre extrema fall, vilket också är det vanligaste, har man inte för avsikt att skada andra men där man ändå utsätter andra för fara genom sitt körbeteende

  • 13.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Attitude studies and its implication for road safety education1996Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Exploring people's willingness to bike using a combination of the theory of planned behavioural and the transtheoretical model2014In: Revue europeenne de psychologie appliquee, ISSN 1162-9088, E-ISSN 1878-3457, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 151-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The amount of travel by car is increasing, leading to negative effects on our environment and on our own quality of life. In order to achieve a change in a more pro-environmental direction, it is important to understand the decision making process of travel behavior.

    Objective The aim of this study is to explore important factors determining people's willingness to bike using two well-established theories namely: the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the transtheoretical model of change (TTM). Studies have found that habits help to understand travel mode choice a further aim was therefore to determine the relationship between habit and TTM.

    Method This study included a sample of 414 people drawn from the general public who had to respond to a questionnaire based around a journey they most often made during one week.

    Results The results confirmed that the constructs, as measured by the TPB, only distinguished between precontemplation and contemplation and between preparation and action. The introduction of habit revealed that it was mainly people at the first and the last stage where the behaviour could be considered to be automatic. The results also showed that the relationship between the TPB and the TTM was mainly linear, but also quadratic. This study explored respondents' behavioural beliefs and based on these results, using factor analysis, three components were presented. In general people agreed that cycling was good for their health and the environment. What differentiated them were aspects related to the pros and cons of cycling, perceived consequences became more positive and less negative with advancing stages.

    Conclusion This study suggests that the combination of TPB and the TTM is useful when trying to understand modal choice. However, the study strongly argues that it is the multidimensional nature of the constructs, which is interesting rather than purely focusing on separate ones. It also suggests that even if short-term benefits are strongly related to the process of change, negative ones need to be addressed and taken seriously if we want people to persist with their new behaviour. Implications of the current findings for the description of people at the different stages are discussed. 

  • 15.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Factors influencing the intention to travel by car on a regular basis2014In: Advances in Psychology Research: Volume 99 / [ed] Alexandra M. Columbus, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014, Vol. 99, p. 93-111Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper includes a sample of 1133 people living in the middle and the south of Sweden. The main objective was to explore the use of a car on a journey carried out on a regular basis. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used including a separate measure of subjective norm and descriptive norm. In addition to this, a measure of past behaviour was included. The results showed that the TPB explained 31 percent of the variance in intention to use the car. When past behaviour was entered in the second step the variance increased by 26 percent. The most important factors were past behaviour followed by subjective norm. A further analysis was carried out assessing salient beliefs and outcome evaluation. The results showed that only eight behavioural beliefs out of fifteen items significantly explained 34 percent of the intention to use the car. The most important factors included; finding it easy to find somewhere to park and that the car would provide them with more time to carry out daily activities. That the car provided them with a sense of freedom was also important whereas the cost of a journey was less important. To contribute towards a better environment was also regarded as less important. When car drivers and cyclists who on a regular basis travelled a maximum of 7 km were compared some significant results were presented. Car drivers' belief in their own impact on the environment was significantly less than cyclists. Car drivers were also more concerned with time and comfort than the cyclist. Implications of the current findings for the development of intervention programmes are discussed.

  • 16.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    FEAT-projektet: en beteendestudie2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att klarlägga effekten av en elektronisk vägkantsskylt, vilken ger information i realtid om den egna bilens utsläpp. Frågan var om denna information ökade förarnas medvetenhet om miljöfrågor – och då framförallt om sådana som kunde kopplas samman med transporter och det egna körbeteendet.

  • 17.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hållbart resande – möjligheter och hinder2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the results of a survey including 1.133 people using a questionnaire covering factors that affect traveller´s intentions to cycle and how to get the "reluctant" rider to start cycling. The survey was based on two different theories; "Theory of planned behaviour" (TPB ) and "The Transtheoretical model of change" (TTM). In the survey, participants were answering different questions based on the above theories and were asked to link them to a journey they usually make in a week. Results from a regression analysis showed that 10% of their intentions to cycle were explained by the distance travelled. When added to their attitude, subjective norm, descriptive norm and perceived behavioural control in step 2, the variance increased to 57%. The participants were then divided into two groups; those who biked or used the car on a regular basis. Motorists were more negative to cycling and believed that it was sweaty, not particularly comfortable, and that it would make it difficult for them to carry out everyday activities. The final section of this report only analysed travellers who travelled a distance of 7 kilometres or less. In this section a combination of questions based on TPB and TTM were used. The greatest difference between the stages defined by TTM was that people at stage 1 (pre contemplation) had a significantly more negative attitude towards cycling compared with step 5 (maintenance). The study also included a factor analysis including different behavioural beliefs. The results presented three different components; "fast and efficient", "well-being and environmental awareness” and "discomfort". It was shown that the greatest difference between the different stages was with regard to “fast and efficient”, i.e. short-term effects. Those who were at the early stages were less likely to agree with this compared with those who had changed their behaviour or were on their way. In contrast, almost everybody argued that cycling was good for their own health and the environment which were part of component 3 "well-being and environmental awareness”. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the combination of the theories TPB and TTM is useful when studying the factors that affect modal choice. The results show that people are at different stages in the change process and that measures should be tailored to the stage the group is at. The report finish with some recommendations aimed to increase the number of cyclists.

  • 18.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Modes of transport on short journeys: Attitudes and behavior of the inhabitants of Gothenburg1998Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Synen på det kollektiva resandet och hur egna erfarenheter kan bidra till ett positivare synsätt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the project is to use a before and after study to evaluate the effect of a pilot project in which individuals who were not already travelling on public transport got to try it for two weeks. Another aim is to offer an account of attitudes towards public transport in purely general terms, and the differences between those who travel by car and those who use public transport.

    110 residents of urban Motala (living within a radius of 3 km from Motala travel centre) took part in the before study. In the study, the participants were asked whether they were interested in trying public transport, which meant that they would be given a free travel pass worth SEK 500, valid for 14 days. This question was directly solely at those who, at the time of the study, were not using public transport to make their most common trip. Among those who responded to the before questionnaire were 11 people who were willing to take part and who also met the criterion. This was an insufficient number, so recruiting was also carried out via social media. The final number of people who tried out public transport was 41; these people also completed the after questionnaire.

    The results from the before study, in which only residents of urban Motala took part, showed that 40 per cent drove themselves in a car when making their most common trip, which was primarily travel to work. Roughly one quarter responded that they intended to travel by bus or train within the next three weeks, with the proportion being somewhat lower for the train than for the bus. Analyses were then performed to determine whether there were any differences between two groups – those who never travelled by bus or train and those who did so occasionally or often. It is important to point out in this context that only those who could take the bus or the train to make their most common trip responded. The results for the bus showed that the two groups differed significantly with respect to all the questions related to attitude to travel by bus. Those who were already travelling by bus were considerably more positively disposed towards doing so than those who were not. Compared to the others, it was primarily those who travelled by bus who considered that it was a fast way to travel, that they felt free, and that it was inexpensive. Attitudes toward trains did not always differ between the two different groups in a significant way, although those who occasionally/often travelled by train were more positively disposed than those who did not use the train. As was the case for bus travel, the biggest difference had to do with such travel making them feel free, but also that they could relax, and how quickly the trips went.

  • 20.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Val av transporter i Aneby kommun2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett slumpmässigt urval av 250 personer anställda inom Aneby kommun deltog i

    denna studie vilken genomfördes med hjälp av en resvaneundersökning och en

    postenkät som utarbetats enligt en utökad version av teorin Theory of Planned

    Behaviour där variablerna attityd, subjektivnorm, upplevd känsla av kontroll

    samt vana ingick. Resvaneundersökningen inkluderade alla färdsätt och

    intervjuarens uppgift var att per telefon fråga en rad frågor om gårdagens

    resor samt att koda svaren utefter en redan färdigställd mall. Kort därefter

    fick samma grupp en attitydundersökning sig tillsänd per post. I början av

    enkäten presenterades ett scenario där vederbörande fick ta ställning till

    tre olika färdmedel; en med buss, en med cykel och en med bil, vilka alla

    påbörjades från hemmet och avslutades vid arbetsplatsen.

  • 21.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Val av transportmedel för kortare resor: göteborgarnas resvanor och attityder1998Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Views on public transport and how personal experiences can contribute to a more positive attitude and behavioural change2019In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce car usage, several strategies are needed, one of which focuses on social psychological factors. The aim of this study was to predict and explain bus usage using the theory of planned behaviour and the transtheoretical model of change in a sample of 983 residents. The study also evaluated the effect of providing a group of regular car users (n = 34) with a free travel pass, to be used on busses and trains in the region. A regression analysis showed that the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) explained 26% of the variance in intention to use the bus, increasing to 59% when past behaviour was added. The use of the free travel pass resulted in a more positive attitude towards bus usage, with a large number having either changed or having started to change their behaviour. When the same people were contacted three months later, 50% still used public transport. The conclusion is that negative attitudes and travel habits can be altered by experience. Although, a reduction of car use can only be achieved if several measures are implemented that make car driving less attractive and sustainable modes of transport more attractive.

  • 23.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    What Motivates Drivers to Disobey Traffic Regulations and How Can we Change this Behaviour?2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A traditional approach taken in road safety research has been to view accidents as a failure to cope with the perceptual motor skills required for a safe journey. The task was therefore to increase driver's skills and to modify the environment. However, in recent years, it has been found that the problem does not always lie in what the driver can or cannot do but what he/she actually decides to do. The crucial issue is therefore to understand what motivates drivers to commit an act, which puts both themselves and others at risk. Different campaigns have been developed trying to change peoples’ behaviour although some of them have had little or no effect. One conclusion drawn from this could be that money could be better spent. However, in this presentation I will argue that the reason for this failure is that the programmes are poorly developed and use a language which does not address the psycho-social processes underlying the behaviour.

  • 24.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlberg, Anders
    Linköpings universitet.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av fortbildning för yrkeskompetensbevis: Delkurs 1: Sparsam körning2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate periodic training for professional drivers, part 1 Eco-driving. The main objectives were: How has the training been conducted? Have the requirements of the regulations been met? and has the training program provided the participants with enough understanding of the subject? The study included two qualitative studies and one quantitative study. The qualitative studies used naturalistic observations and interviews. Seven vocational training courses were observed with the aid of an observation guide. The observer did not participate in the teaching. Interviews were conducted with instructors on the observed courses but also other actors who have a good knowledge of the training. The quantitative study consisted of a survey that 799 people (90 percent men) answered. Respondents were on average 44 years old. Most of those who participated in the survey were driving a truck.

  • 25.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thoresson, Karin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tjänstemännen och trafiksäkerheten i kommunerna: föreställningar, roller och beslut2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of the present study is to describe and analyze the attitude of local government officials to traffic safety and to their roles in the decisions being made with regard to traffic safety measures. The purpose is also to give an overall picture of the decision-making processes in connection with specific traffic safety measures in two municipal authorities. The study has been divided into two parts. The first part was an interview study in which twenty local government officials in eleven municipal authorities were subject to in-depth interviews. The second part consists of case studies of the planning and decision-making processes with regard to traffic safety matters in two municipal authorities, where the source material in each case consists of written documentation.

  • 26.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Aretun, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Engström, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nolen, Sixten
    Börjesson, Josefine
    Ungdomars inställning till att ta körkort 2002-20092010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of licensed drivers among adolescents (aged 18-24 years old) has in the past 15 years decreased in Sweden. In the 1980s a large number of adolescents obtained their driving licence very soon after their 18th birthday, but today, many people wait until later. The main aim of this study is, by the means of a longitudinal study (2002-2009), increase our understanding of what influences young people's desire to acquire a driving licence but also what opportunities and barriers they perceive in connection with this. Another purpose of this study is to investigate what predicts their licence taking behaviour and intentions using the theoretical model Theory of planned behaviour. The study used a questionnaire sent to a random sample of adolescents (17.5 years) in Sweden on five separate occasions: the fall of 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006 and spring 2009. In total, 6,015 people participated in the study (response rate of 67%).

  • 27.
    Forward, Sonja E
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    What is the value in attitude studies?1996Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Eriksson, Torbjörn
    Smartare kommunikation för hållbara färdmedel: handbok för kommuner, kollektivtrafik och andra organisationer som arbetar med att öka hållbara transporters marknadsandel2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till detta projekt är att marknadsföringsaktiviteter genomförda av myndigheter, kollektivtrafikföretag, kommuner m.m. med syfte att öka insikten om hållbara transporter inte fått någon större genomslagskraft. TAPESTRY, vilket är ett EU projekt, syftade till att lösa detta problem genom att utveckla bättre metoder och modeller. Denna handbok överför den kunskap som upparbetades i TAPESTRY men infogar även material från flera års forskning, både författarnas och andras. Rapporten syftar till att i första hand ge råd till dem som idag arbetar aktivt med att planera och genomföra kampanjer och till de beslutsfattare som beslutar om kampanjerna. Huvudtesen i handboken är att bra kommunikation/kampanjer är en förutsättning och ett viktigt redskap för att kunna uppfylla mer strategiska transport- och miljömål. En bra marknadskommunikation syftar till att: - öka människors medvetenhet och insikt om problemen orsakade av dagens färdmedelsval - skapa intresse att pröva nya transportval genom bra och intressanta budskap som riktat sig till olika målgrupper - skapa en social acceptans - etablera ett långsiktigt beteende.

  • 29.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    FEAT-projektet: en beteendestudie - del 22003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta projekt var att klarlägga attityden till miljö och

    transporter samt vilken effekt en elektronisk vägkantsskylt, som gav

    information i realtid om den egna bilens utsläpp, kunde ha på bilisternas

    attityder och beteende. Kunde man med hjälp av denna teknik öka bilisternas

    medvetande om miljöproblemen och, mer specifikt, kunde man få till stånd ett

    mer miljöanpassat beteende bland bilisterna, exempelvis med avseende på

    fordonsunderhåll, körbeteende samt val av fordon? För att få klarhet i detta

    genomfördes två studier: en innan skylten blev utplacerad och en efter det

    att den tagits ned. Samma personer deltog i för- och efterstudien. Deltagarna

    fick fylla i två enkäter. Den första enkäten mätte hur pass medvetna

    deltagarna var om miljöproblemen i stort samt hur detta var kopplat till

    deras eget användande av bilen. Frågor om fordonsval och körbeteende ingick

    även i denna enkät. Den andra enkäten var konstruerad på samma sätt som i

    förstudien, förutom att ytterligare frågor hade tillkommit som handlade om

    vägkantsskylten och var relaterade till den information som hade utdelats i

    samband med att skylten sattes upp.

  • 30.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lewin, Catharina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Attityden till åtgärder utförda på det kommunala vägnätet i Katrineholm2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Katrineholms kommun gav Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI) i

    Linköping uppdraget att undersöka acceptansen hos befolkningen i Katrineholm

    för två genomförda trafikåtgärder som gjordes på Storgatan respektive två

    korsningar i nära anslutning till Drottninggatan i centrala Katrineholm. De

    båda områdena trafikerades före åtgärden av mycket tung trafik, bilar med

    höga hastigheter och en stor mängd fotgängare och cyklister. Huvudsyftet med

    åtgärderna var att skapa en säkrare miljö för framförallt de oskyddade

    trafikanterna. Åtgärderna bestod av förhöjda korsningar, avsmalningar och att

    en gårdsgata skyltades om till en gågata. Detta resulterade bl.a. i att

    flödet av bilar minskade drastiskt och att bilarnas hastighet minskade.

    Syftet med föreliggande uppdrag var att ta reda på allmänhetens inställning

    till dessa åtgärder.

  • 31.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Mäns och kvinnors möjligheter att genomföra förarprov för körkort med godkänt resultat2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows that there is an inequality in the practical riding test of the motorcycle since men are more likely to pass the test than women. The most obvious difference in test scores is that women perform worse on slow speed maneuvers than men. One reason for this can be because of women's shorter height and lower body weight. When the speed increases, this is not as important and this is also supported by the fact that women manage the braking test and tests at high speed as well as or better than men. This suggests that the prospects for short women and men are not the same as others who are taller when it comes to their ability to carry out a maneuver at a slow speed. One important reason for this is the lack of low seat height motorcycles which can be used during the practical riding test.

    The results from the practical driving test for category B (cars) show no differences in the approval rate between men and women, which is interpreted to mean that men and women have equal chances to pass this test. If we look at how they are trained then we can see that women choose to take more professional help, while men rely more on private training. As for the theoretical test for motorcycles, men and women do equally well whereas for category B, women get better results than men. This is also in line with other studies showing that women usually get better grades at school than men.

  • 32.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mopedungdomars trafiksäkerhet: föräldrars ansvar och engagemang2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the importance of parents in young moped riders’ behaviour in traffic. The study consists of three parts; a literature review, a survey and an interview study. In the survey, 440 parents of teenagers (who had passed their test for mopeds) participated. In the interview study, 10 of the parents who took part in the survey were interviewed. The results from the literature review show that parents play an important role in young people’s perceptions, attitudes, norms, and behaviours associated with moped driving. Parents can also get involved in different ways to help in improving their teenagers’ knowledge and behaviour in traffic. In general, the review show that parents need support in order to be able to take control, and they also need support from other parents. The main results of the survey show that parents have great faith in the teenager when it comes to their knowledge and behaviour in traffic. In general, the results show that moped driving is not a topic being discussed very much. Some parents have implemented restrictions and the most common ones are related to alcohol and the usage of a helmet. In this study, less than ten percent wanted some form of support from others. Those who need help do not to the same extent as the others, believe that their teenager behave properly in traffic and they also believe that they are more influenced by social media. The study also found that the perception of boys and girls differ. Girls are considered to be safer on the roads but despite this, they have more restrictions placed on them than boys. Even if women value the teen’s knowledge and behaviour in traffic higher than men, they also have imposed more restrictions. In the family, women are talking more about risks in traffic than men are. The results from the interview study show that very few parents are in need of support when it comes to their children’s moped use. More detailed analyses of the interviews, however, reveals that parents would appreciate various forms of assistance, such as written information, training and/or information sessions as well as Internet-based parental forums. Implications of the current finding for the development of methods to increase parental commitment and engagement are presented.

  • 33.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Loukopoulos, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utlandsföddas trafiksäkerhet2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish traffic accident statistics have previously shown that involvement in accidents differs for people born in Sweden and people born abroad. The main aim of this report is to further illuminate this area through the use of four different studies. The introductory study is a literature review examining ethnicity and different aspects of traffic safety, focussing primarily on speed, accidents, use of seatbelts, alcohol and vulnerable road users. The term ethnicity was defined in different ways in the literature, if it was defined at all, and the term ethnic minorities was used as a collective term. The ways those terms are used complicate comparisons. Nevertheless, certain conclusions could be drawn. For example, the traffic behaviour of immigrants bore the imprint of the traffic norms prevalent in the country in which they grew up. Cultural values, the importance of language and socio-economical factors are dimensions of interest with regard to measures that can improve the traffic safety of immigrants living in Sweden. The second study identified the risk of a traffic accident for people who are born abroad but registered residents of Sweden. The results show that if the population is divided into nine zones, based on the country of birth, there are groups both with a higher risk of accidents than the Swedish-born and groups with a lower risk. Thus, immigrants should not be viewed as a homogeneous group. Furthermore, large parts of the differences can be explained by exposure, education, age and gender, through the use of logistical regression. In the third study a survey based on an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict the intention to speed, use seatbelt and use child restraints. The results show that previous behaviour and the perception of how others behave in traffic were the variables that best explained the intent to break speed regulations. This survey also indicates differences between groups, where the intent to use the seatbelt and protect children in the car was lower amongst some of the immigrants, while the intent to respect the speed limit was lower among the Swedish-born. The results of the survey could thus not unequivocally explain why certain groups identified by the accident analysis ran greater risks. In the fourth study interviews were carried out with seven men born in Iran but residing in Sweden. The subjects discussed were driving, speeding, alcohol and seatbelt use. The results showed that they experienced cultural differences in attitudes and behaviour in traffic, but that these differences gradually faded away. They showed zero tolerance when it came to drinking and driving. However, when it came to speeding and the use of seatbelts this was seen as unacceptable only in some contexts. Based on the compiled results recommendations are given, detailing specific actions that may increase the level of traffic safety among immigrants living in Sweden.

  • 34.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Säkerhet och arbetsmiljö vid väg- och spårarbeten: implementeringsprocessen av nytt regelverk och dess effekter2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was, through the use of interviews, case studies, and a reference group meeting to describe and analyze the implementation process of new and revised regulations. This applies to both road and track in their administrative and operational activities within the Swedish Transport Administration and their contractors. The aim was also to analyze the effects the new and revised regulations had on roles and responsibilities but also their own and others' safety. For work on the road, new rules and regulations were established, which became effective as of 1st of January 2013. With regard to rail, a number of measures were implemented in 2011 to improve safety that included changed rules for work on and beside the tracks.

  • 35.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Digitalt utbildningsprotokoll: en pilotstudie av ett verktyg vid privat övningskörning2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Statistics from the Swedish Road Transport Administration show that less than half of learner drivers pass their driving test. An important explanation for this is that a large proportion of learner drivers who fail their test do not prepare sufficiently for the test. Researchers and professional driver trainers have therefore looked for new solutions and tools which can improve the educational process. A desired effect would be for more people to pass their driving test and thus shorten the waiting times for the test itself.

    The Swedish National Association of Driver Trainers (STR) therefore wondered if a digital education protocol (DUP) could help in reducing the number of re-takes. Thereafter, the development of the protocol started. Firstly, through discussions in a workshop with stakeholders and key persons and then through interviews with supervisors, driver trainer and researchers. In the final DUP, 15 training blocks were included, where text, images and films explained and described an exercise based on the objectives of the national curriculum. Either the private supervisor or the driver trainer could approve a teaching ‘block’, when its goal was considered to be fulfilled.

    In order to establish how DUP has been introduced at driving schools, how it has been used and if it has resulted in fewer re-takes, a ‘process evaluation’ and a before and after study were conducted. Methods used were surveys and a register, which was updated every time a private supervisor reported that they wanted to participate in the pilot study. The driving schools were responsible for recruiting supervisors during their introductory training. Recruitment started late autumn 2015 and lasted until autumn 2017 when more than 350 supervisors took part in the study. According to the register, there were very few participants who, at the beginning of 2017, had approved any of the blocks. In order to find out why a short survey was distributed to the group. The results showed that the large majority had not started to drive with the students, but there were also some who had technical problems. As a result of this evaluation the manual was revised, and information material was produced, which the driving schools could use in connection with supervisors' introductory training. One year later when the recruitment of new supervisors stopped and 369 had registered, a new web survey was sent out.

    This survey measured the effect of DUP but also how it had been used. The response rate was rather low, about 10 percent. Of the responses from 47 supervisors, it appeared that half of them had not noticed the material in the DUP. The main reason for this was that they had forgotten that they had registered an interest in participating, that they had not started to practice driving with their students or that they had changed their minds and no longer wanted to use the tool. Of those who had used the DUP, one third said that the DUP was a great support for them. The tool was used as a source of inspiration but there were only a few who also had approved any of the blocks which would indicate that it was completed. The reasons were, among other things, that the supervisor was unable to use it for technical reasons, that the block was not completed and/or that they saw no point in it. Fourteen percent of the supervisors who answered the survey considered that the DUP should become mandatory for private driver training. While several gave positive feedback on the DUP, some supervisors described the technical problems that had occurred. Some of the supervisors argued that it should be adapted to the mobile phone. The result from this pilot study did not find any significant difference between the groups who used it or those who did not when it came to how many ‘re-tests’ the learner driver had to take before getting his/her license.

    The conclusion from this project is that a training protocol, i.e. DUP, can be helpful for supervisors but that further actions are needed to increase its use. Technically, it needs to be easier to use, no matter which application is being used. Since some considered that the manual was enough, the content should be reviewed and offer such things that a printed manual cannot offer as easily. For example, feedback and links to movies. However, those who participated in this pilot project cannot be considered representative, since the number of ‘re-tests’ was considerably smaller and the number of privately reported tests was virtually non-existent. This means that further actions are needed to attract the group that might be most in need of the support that a DUP can provide. For instance, making DUP a mandatory requirement, which means that DUP must be included in the education. In addition, it is suggested that all blocks must be approved, either by the supervisor or a driver trainer, before a learner driver can registered for the driving test. In order to further strengthen the value of DUP, we recommend that the use of DUP is done in consultation with a driver trainer and that it becomes much clearer that both supervisors and teachers can approve parts.

  • 36.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av en ny obligatorisk riskutbildning för motorcyklister2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On 1 November 2009 a new risk education program for all students learning to ride a motorbike was introduced in order to enhance their perception of risk. The training is both theoretical and practical. The aim of the study is to evaluate if motorcyclists' perception of risk changed as a consequence of the new training program. The study used a internet survey and two different groups were compared: motorcyclist learner drivers who had completed their training before the implementation of the new program and those who had completed their training after the 1st of November 2009. In the study 1,472 people participated (before study=541; after study=931). The mean age was 30 years and the proportion of women was 20 procent. The results showed relatively small changes in the motorcyclists' attitudes, norms and intentions before and after the new training program. However, the difference was mainly in the "right" direction which indicated a greater understanding of risk. Some negative changes were also observed but most frequently amongst the youngest age group (16-20 years old). These negative changes were related to their perception of speeding, alcohol, fatigue and of their own ability to drive a motorbike if compared with other motorcyclists. In conclusion, the results suggest that further research in this area is needed which looks at the effect of training but also the content and how training is being conducted with regard to methods used and how specific groups are being targeted. Implications of the current findings for the development of educational programs for motorcyclists are discussed.

  • 37.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Effekten av de nya reglerna för AM-behörighet (moped klass I): en för- och efterstudie2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Class I moped license (AM) to drive a Class I moped (“EU moped”), that included a practical and theoretical course, was introduced on 1 October 2009. The aim of this study was perform a before and after study in order to assess the effects of this new driver training course. The survey was based on two theories: the theory of planned behaviour and the prototype willingness model. A further aim of this study was to describe the way in which young people regard risks and the factors that affect their actions. The participants in this study were 15-–24 years of age; 901 in the before study and 946 in the after study. The results indicated fairly small differences before and after the new regulation. The attitude towards driving at a speed of 65 km/h in an urban area showed that people in the after study were less inclined to believe that their friends would drive at a speed of 65 km/h in an urban area, and that they did not feel as safe at a speed of 65 km/h as at 45 km/h. The significant differences noted for statements linked to the alcohol scenario were that mopedists in the follow-up study were less concerned about being stopped by the police or having a traffic accident. From a traffic safety viewpoint, the results were less favourable in this case. Overall, the new AM training programme was well received – the young people considered it positive, and ment that they had learned a lot. What they had learned consisted primarily of traffic rules and regulations. The results from the prototype willingness model showed that respondents who wanted to speed or drink and drive were more likely than others to consider that such persons were cool, confident and clever. A model which was based on the two theories was tested. The results indicated that the model explained 52 per cent of their willingness to exceed speed limits and 19 per cent of their readiness to ride home from the party.

  • 38.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    En utvärdering av den obligatoriska riskutbildningen för motorcyklister2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On 1 November 2009 a compulsory risk education program for all students learning to ride a motorbike was introduced, in order to enhance their perception of risk. The education consists of two parts: Part 1 is theoretical and part 2 practical. The year after the introduction a study was conducted by VTI with the aim of evaluating if motorcyclists’ perception of risk has changed as a consequence of risk education. The purpose of the present study is to replicate the previous one that was carried out after the new rules were introduced to see if the education has become more effective and to see if there are still some shortcomings. Unlike the study published in 2011, which only consisted of a survey, the latter study also included observations and interviews with professionals.

  • 39.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kos-Dienes, Dora
    Obrenovic, Sanja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Invandrare i trafiken: en attitydundersökning i Värmland och Skaraborgs län2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this project has been to determine immigrant attitudes towards traffic safety, as well as to explain to what extent these groups differ from the Swedes. The results showed that immigrants were less likely to use seat belts when driving in built-up areas, than Swedes. On the other hand, there was no difference between groups when it came to using seat belts outside populated areas. Immigrants were also less likely to use of safety equipment for children in cars. The general opinion was that children are safer travelling in the rear seat or sitting on the lap of an adult holding them. The study also included a number of questions about speed and compared with Swedes the immigrants were less inclined to exceed speed limits and had a more negative attitude to this fact. However, the longer respondents had lived in Sweden, the more usual it was to exceed speed limits. In general, immigrants were extremely satisfied with the situation for vulnerable road-users in Sweden. The same applied to the traffic conditions, an opinion that was strengthened the longer one had lived in Sweden. The results also showed that the term immigrant is ambiguous in itself since relatively large differences between groups depend on other factors such as nationality, age, gender, education and attitudes. Finally, the study recommends traffic safety information campaigns targeted at immigrant groups. This is not motivated solely because they are less safety-conscious than Swedes. It is often the case that Swedes and immigrants need the same message. But the information that goes out to the general public through the normal channels does not reach immigrants to the same extent as it does to Swedes. Another advantage with targeted information is that the information can be formulated with consideration to the target group's background knowledge and language capability.

  • 40.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lewin, Catharina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Medvetna felhandlingar i trafiken: en litteraturundersökning2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    When trying to explain the cause of traffic accidents an increasing number of studies have rejected the theory that the explanation lies in what drivers cannot do or their limitations. The explanation might lie in what they intend to do. This has then been described as a violation, a deliberate deviation from routines which are there to protect the individual from danger. This report is a review of the literature with the aim to increase the understanding of those motivational factors which make drivers violate. In the summary the results show that people who violate the traffic regulations perceive themselves as superior to other drivers thus traffic rules do not apply to them. The consequences of these actions are believed to be positive (i.e. the driving becomes more pleasant, they get to the destination quicker and they are better adjusted to other drivers). The negative effect of the same behaviour is undervalued (i.e. to get involved in an accident or stopped by the police). In addition to this they believe that their behaviour is accepted by others which in turn induce them to believe that their own behaviour is the norm rather than the exception. Drivers' personalities have also been studied and it appears that 'sensation-seekers' are more likely to commit driving violations than others. Studies have also found out that people judged as socially deviant, i.e. people who have been guilty of other kinds of crimes, also take greater risks in traffic. A sound understanding of what motivates drivers to violate serves as a starting-point when trying to change undesirable behaviours. A number of attempts have been made and the impression is that the most lasting effect is achieved when the message has an effect on individuals' own valuation of the behaviour.

  • 41.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Linderholm, Inger
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Alkohol i trafiken: djupstudier med personer som fällts för rattfylleri2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    In this interview study, eleven persons participated who had driven under the impairment of alcohol. All had been convicted, but instead of a prison term and as a condition of probation they had been sentenced to undergo a treatment program for drink drivers. In-depth interviews were carried out according to a fixed interview guide with opportunities for spontaneous comments. The interviews dealt with two different areas. The first concerned the respondents' attitude towards alcohol and driving from a general point of view and the second concerned their views on so-called "alcolocks".

  • 42.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Lindgren, Hanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Effekterna av begränsat antal handledarskap: en utvärdering2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Formerly, a private driving tutor could have an unlimited number of approvals, but new regulations limit the number to 15. The overall purpose of this study is to determine whether this limit on the number of approvals for practice driving a private tutor can have has had any effect on unlawful driving school operations. Another important aim is to offer suggestions for alternative measures to curtail such activity in the driver’s training field. We have taken three approaches to addressing these issues, i.e.: a register study, an interview study, and a survey study. The results of the interview study indicate that, regarding illegal driving school activities, a host of services are available for purchase: falsified tutoring permits, private driving instructions, written examinations filmed on site and that others can access, help to pass the theoretical test by providing the correct answers via an earpiece and booking the appointment for a driving test. According to the interviewees, the most common is to offer private driving tutoring in return for payment. Opinions vary as to the scope of such unlawful activities from minor to extremely extensive in scope. However, the results of the survey study offer indications that relatively extensive unlawful activities are taking place. As to whether the regulations had a positive or negative impact on the unlawful driving school activities, the interviewees were in relative agreement that the regulations had no effect whatsoever. The argument was that those currently engaged in the illegal driving schools, or at any rate the more serious offenders, are sophisticated enough that they would surely circumvent these regulations. Despite this some of them wanted further reductions, even though they did not believe that this reduction would suffice. For them it was important to clearly demonstrate that it is a private instruction and no a professional activity. In general terms, the study identified deficiencies in the current driving licence system that could undermine confidence that Swedish driving licences have been obtained legally. The report ends with 16 different measures which could curtail unlawful activity. This means that no single measure will solve the problem by itself.

  • 43.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Körkort med villkor automatväxellåda: finns det skäl och möjligheter att underlätta körkortsprocessen?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the present study is to investigate whether there are reasons for making it easier for driver trainers, both during their education and when taking the test, to use a car with automatic transmission. The study aims to answer two questions: 1) Can learning to drive become easier with an automatic transmission and at the same time provide the same training in traffic safety as when driving a car with a manual transmission? 2) Can a shorter driver training time due to automatic transmission have a negative impact, or can a reduced focus on handling the car increase the focus on other factors related to traffic safety? Several methods have been used to achieve the purpose of this study.

    Firstly, a literature review presents studies that examined the importance of automatic transmission during driver training and when taking the test. The same overview also includes a statistical accident analysis that compares automated cars with cars using a manual transmission. Thereafter, an interview study is presented, involving four traffic instructors and a survey of 34 traffic instructors on their view of training to drive with a car which have an automatic transmission. Finally, a survey was conducted including 949 people aged 18 to 25 who had just received drivers licence.

  • 44.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nordström, Mattias
    Sweco.
    Wallmark, Cecilia
    Sweco.
    Wiberg, Erik
    Vätgas Sverige.
    Wolf, Sven
    Inflow Consulting AB.
    Förnybara drivmedel: möjligheter och hinder sett utifrån privatbilisters och aktörers perspektiv2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project included three different studies with a view to providing an in-depth understanding of user needs and attitudes to alternative fuels and vehicles, such as: battery electric vehicles, hydrogen vehicles and cars using biogas. In addition the studies also examine attitudes to cars in general and climate change as well as exploring likely prospects for such cars in the future. The studies used three different methods; focus group, survey and interviews. The focus groups included six people, the survey 487 randomly selected road users and the interview study nine different stakeholders from government agencies, industry, branch organizations and the media. The results show that when purchasing a car safety and reliability are more important than the emission of CO2. The perception of cars powered by alternative fuels (electric, fuel cell, biogas), does not differ markedly. The price people are willing to pay for such a car is significantly lower than what these cars cost at present. In general, it could be argued that consumers want a car powered by alternative fuels to be similar or better than, a conventional car. The interview study also shows that politicians have an important role to play in the development of alternative fuels and the related infrastructure. According to the interviewees, the biggest challenge is not the technology, but rather how to provide an infrastructure for these vehicles. The industry is an important player who is willing to invest if the business can be profitable. Long-term is a keyword and is mentioned both in terms of policy instruments and information dissemination. In the latter case, since studies show that there are large gaps in the overall knowledge and understanding by the general public as well as considerable distrust of information presently available. Finally, the results also shows the need for a holistic approach where the focus is not only on fuel, but also on the development of attractive and accessible cities which reduce transport demand and provide for increased transport efficiency.

  • 45.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    NTF.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Den svenska förarutbildningen: dagsläge och framtidsutsikter2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to provide a deep and broad understanding of current practice of driver training. Based on the results of four in-depth studies, the project attempts to identify the need for improvement. Furthermore, and in order to improve driver training some essential actions will be presented. Several methods have been used to achieve this aim. The report starts with a literature review looking at various aspects which can influence young driver trainer’s ability to drive safely but also literature looking at deficiencies and needs for change. The following chapter presents accident statistics which includes current data on young drivers’ accident involvement and how this has changed in recent years. That is followed by a summary of statistics on driving license tests and retests. The project also includes an interview study in which eleven professionals were interviewed (politicians, government officials, researchers and representatives of driving schools and race tracks). The purpose of this study was to discuss their views on the current driver training in Sweden but also their own suggestions for change. Two surveys were then carried out. The first was aimed at new drivers of different ages about their driver training and the other was aimed at driving instructors. The general conclusion of this study is that the general discussion of driver training focuses too much on time and cost rather than quality which does not favour traffic safety. The recommendation is therefore that there is a need for a more fundamental change of driver training. To realise this, some of the teaching methods used need to be improved. These methods can then be applied to “risk education” and to the more general driver training. Other areas which are in need for improvement focus on; private practice and a closer contact with driving schools, enhancing the quality of compulsory training and introduce more parts, more frequent quality assurance of driving schools and increased supervision and collaboration between stakeholders, a development of driving licence testing and a better consensus between the objectives, content/process and driving test, a clearer division of responsibilities regarding research and development and a better coordination of the various elements of driver training. Finally, there is a need to highlight best practice which can only be done if evaluation becomes common practice.

  • 46.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Förarprov för personbil: orsaker till den sjunkande godkännandegraden och förslag på åtgärder2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study had four objectives using both quantitative and qualitative methods: 1) to gather knowledge by means of a literature review of research, documented good examples, and proposals concerning ways of handling problems associated with retesting; 2) to examine, through two interview studies and one survey study, the reasons for the declining passing rate among those seeking class B driving licences; 3) to determine whether any specific groups of licence applicants have exhibited lower passing rates; and 4) to propose, based on the results, remedial measures to address the preparation and training of licence applicants before testing. In general, the results show that licence applicants who fail the tests many times lack the ability to assess their own abilities since they believe that they are well prepared. Even if the test then is harder than anticipated they do not feel that they had made any major mistakes, instead it is the examiner who was too strict. Therefore, they often scheduled their retests immediately after their unsuccessful attempts, meaning that some are unable to practice much or at all before the retest. Based on the results of this study, a number of remedial measures are suggested that could reduce the proportion of retests in the future.

  • 47.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ojala, Maria
    Polisens attityder till trafikövervakning: en jämförelse mellan år 1999 och år 20072008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is based on the results obtained from two questionnaire studies carried out during 1999 and 2007. The aim of the studies is to increase our knowledge about the attitudes and approach of the police to traffic safety work and how these attitudes have changed with time. In the first study 729 randomly chosen police officers completed the questionnaire and in the second 1,022. The results show that the basic attitude among the police towards traffic surveillance has become more positive. The attitudes towards the directives from the governing bodies and their ability to participate in decision making have improved slightly from the first measurement to the second measurement. However, it is characteristic that a fairly large proportion still is dissatisfied with the same. The attitude of the police towards their own reporting of accidents has not changed appreciably at all. On the other hand, the understanding that a certain amount of statistics shall be reported is slightly greater in 2007 than in 1999. The attitudes towards automatic surveillance have strongly improved although a well-visible policeman is still advocated. The need to reinforce the surveillance of professional traffic is considered to be greater in 2007 than in 1999. According to the police, the attitude amongst the public towards speeding offences has become more negative than it was before. Nevertheless, a relatively high proportion still believes that it is a relatively minor offence. In 2006, the tolerance level for speeding offences was lowered at the same time as the fines for traffic offences were raised markedly. The results of the questionnaire show that the police are neutral towards whether or not these measures will influence the public's acceptance of the traffic safety work, which could indicate that they have not yet defined their attitude regarding the question. More than half of all police officers in 2007 do not believe that the public are aware of the possibility of having a time for consideration with respect to the acceptance of a fine for a breach of regulations. Finally the results show that in 2007, more controls were carried out than before. The most important conclusions that can be drawn from these results are that the police have developed a more positive attitude towards the traffic safety work and that, at the same time, more traffic controls are being carried out. But there are also many who still do not feel that they are able to influence their work. Furthermore, many are dissatisfied with the governing body's directives regarding traffic safety work. Such a dissatisfaction can influence the psycho-social work environment and the motivation for carrying out good work, but concretely the results show that such a dissatisfaction influences, both directly and indirectly, how many traffic controls one carries out.

  • 48.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Samuelsson, Pia
    STRADA - blev det som det var tänkt?2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In 1996, the Swedish Government charged the Swedish Road Administration with the task of introducing a national information system for traffic accidents called STRADA - (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition). STRADA, unlike the previous information system OLY (the Road Authority's accident register/the Road Authority's information system on traffic safety) was to also include traffic accidents reported at hospitals and thus reducing the number of unreported accidents and provide a better basis for traffic safety efforts at the local, regional and national levels. The aim of this study is to examine how well the ambitions of STRADA were fulfilled from the viewpoint of various interested parties. The method used was qualitative, 43 different persons being interviewed. The interviewees represented those who the Government had selected to work with the development of STRADA and those who had been tasked to either put in data or use data from STRADA.

  • 49.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Samuelsson, Pia
    Yrkesförares syn på regelefterlevnad i trafiken2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional drivers are more likely to commit traffic violations compared to private drivers. The purpose of this study is to improve existing knowledge concerning the motives behind such traffic violations, focusing in particular on speeding and non-usage of seat belts. The study is divided into two parts: a qualitative study and a quantitative study. In the qualitative study, eight people who represent employers and various organisations within the professional driving sector were interviewed. The quantitative study consisted of a survey that measured professional drivers' attitudes towards speeding and seat belt usage.

  • 50.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wallen Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    En utvärdering av den utökade riskutbildningen för B-körkort: delstudie 42010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On 1 July 1999 the mandatory skid training for learner drivers was replaced by a new expanded risk education program. The aim was to put emphasis on teaching pupils’ risk awareness instead of how to handle critical situations. The purpose of this report is to present the results from an evaluation conducted before and after the implementation of the new training program. The study used a postal survey and the target group was learner drivers aged 18 to 24 years. Results are based on 1,403 people. The results show that participants in the after study believed that they learnt more about drink/drug driving and fatigue than the participants in the before study. They also believed that they learnt less about driving on slippery road surfaces, ABS brakes and traction control.

12 1 - 50 of 67
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