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  • 1.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Analys av polisens alkoholutandningsprov i fem län åren 2001-20032007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The extent and results of the police breathalyser tests in Stockholm, Västerbotten, Östergötland, Skåne and Västra Götaland Counties over the period 2001-2003 have been analysed. The primary aim is to uncover and describe shortcomings in existing data, not to estimate the extent of drink driving. The analysis has been made with reference to the codes applied by the police to describe the type of control at which the test was made. These codes are - 0) Police initiated driver control - 1) "Random" control (not random in the strict statistical sense) - 2) Control because of a road traffic accident - 3) Targeted control (e.g. at strategically selected points such as shops selling alcoholic drinks) - 4) Other codes - It is mainly the breathalyser tests coded by the police as 0, 1 and 3 that are examined in the analysis. The other codes appear very rarely in the controls made.

  • 2.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Matstoms, Ylva
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Child safety in cars: Literature review2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study child safety in cars, international literature was reviewed with respect to road vehicle transportation for children, with the focus being on the age up to 12 years. The review included literature in English and Swedish. Furthermore, the review was limited to focus on results from Australia, the U.K., the USA and Sweden. To ensure that all children are protected as passengers in cars, several aspects needed to be considered.

    Within this study, the focus was, hence, on legal aspects and recommendations, traffic fatalities and serious injuries, the safety consequences for children due to the car development (airbags (SRS) and installation systems), use and misuse of child restraint systems (CRS) regarding medical, technical and user aspects, measurements for improvements, e.g. campaigns and, finally, children with disabilities. The review focused mainly on literature from 1990 until today. The main conclusions were that:

    • Available statistics show that rearward facing CRS is a good preventive measure to take for enhancement of traffic safety.
    • Impacts from the in-safety development of cars on choosing and mounting safety devices for children were found to be a crucial issue.
    • Children exposed to an airbag deployment can be fatally injured, despite being seated in an approved child restraint system.
    • In Sweden and the U.K. the level of child restraint usage among infants and small children was found to be at least 95% in the front seat and approximately at the same level in the rear seat. Even though the levels of usage in several countries were high, the level of misuse was alarmingly high (90%).
    • The road transportation of children with disabilities was found to be complex and insufficiently described in the literature.
  • 3.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Barn i bil - socioekonomiska faktorer: litteratur- och enkätstudie2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to identify relationships between no use/misuse of safety belt/child restraints and socio-economic aspects. The conclusions from the study will provide a basis for the future development of information and campaigns to increase the correct use of restraints. The study consisted of two parts: a literature review and a questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 2,010 parents of children aged 2 months–9 years. The response rate was about 70 per cent. The level of misuse among small children was lower than among older children and lower in the family car compared with the overall situation. Parents who neglected to use the safety belts themselves were more likely to be careless in ensuring that the child used recommended restraint. The results also indicated that parents who were more likely to act in contradiction with rules and recommendation concerning use of restraints were also more likely to allow their children to travel without safety belts.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Planering av en regional resvaneundersökning i Östergötland: Samverkan mellan olika intressenter2016Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST. NTF.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Cyklisters hastigheter: Kartläggning, mätningar och observation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different road users share space on pedestrian and cycle paths, and their speeds may differ greatly. Differences in speed can complicate the interactions between road users which in turn may cause incidents and accidents. The purpose of this project is to enhance the understanding of cycle speeds on the pedestrian and cycle paths and to understand how the cyclists adapt their speed to other road users and to the surrounding environment. Three different data collection methods were used: Previous measurements of cycle speed and flow in three different municipalities, Eskilstuna, Linköping and Stockholm (18 locations); new measurements in Linköping (4 locations) and Stockholm (1 location); and new observation studies of bicycle types at these locations.

    The average speed of cyclists on the paths selected varies between 15–25 kilometer per hour. As expected, the lower average speeds were found in the uphill directions, near intersections and in paths with high pedestrian flow. The higher speeds were found in downhill directions and on commuter routes. No general increase in cyclists’ speed was found between years, neither in mean speed nor in proportion of high-speed cyclists. However, bicycle flow has increased in many of the locations over the years. This implies that the number of cyclists holding a high speed, above 30 kilometer per hour, will be increased, even if the proportion of high-speed cyclists stays the same. This may mistakenly be interpreted as increased mean speed. About 70–95 percent of the road users observed on the pedestrian and cycling paths were cyclists and roughly 5–30 percent were pedestrians. An extremely small proportion were mopeds, 0.2 percent. The comfort bike was the most common type, followed by the trekking bike. The electric and racer bike occurred in all locations, but varied 1–10 percent respectively 1–15 percent. The relationship between the type of bike and the speed claim is not entirely clear, but cyclists on the electrical and racer bikes generally have higher speed claims.

  • 6.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Alkohol och droger i trafiken - var står vi idag?2012In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 89, no 6, p. 471-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rattfylleri är ett av de största trafiksäkerhetsproblemen i Sverige. I den här artikeln ges en översikt över den senaste tidens forskning vad gäller problemets omfattning, attityder till att köra rattfull och de åtgärder som erbjuds. Genomgången, som avser svenska förhållanden, visar att vi har mer kunskap om rattfylleri med avseende på alkohol än med avseende på droger. Forskningen visar att alkoholrattfylleri är ett större trafiksäkerhetsproblem än drograttfylleri men att även drograttfylleri är förenat med stora risker. Det är därför viktigt att förbättra kunskapen om droger i trafiken. Det är också viktigt att beakta att det bakom många rattfylleribrott finns människor med missbruksproblem och att rehabilitering därför bör ingå som en del av trafiksäkerhetsarbetet.

  • 7.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Drink drivers' views of a voluntary alcohol interlock program for drink driving offenders in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A permanent alcohol interlock program was introduced in Sweden in 2012. The program is voluntary and makes it possible for drivers that are apprehended by the police to keep their driver’s license if they install an alcohol interlock in their vehicle. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program and it applies to all types of driver’s licenses. The duration of the program is one or two years, depending on the severity of the drink driving offence. A previous study showed that about 30 percent of all drivers that had their license withdrawn due to drink driving applied for and was granted participation in the program, 10 percent were assigned to the one-year program and 20 percent to the two-year program. Moreover, the age groups 35–44, 45–54 and 55–64 have the highest participation rates (in relation to the total number of drink drivers), about 35 percent, while the youngest (≤24) and oldest (≥75) have participation rates of about 20 and 10 percent, respectively.

    The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge of the drink drivers’ views of the program, both participants and those who chose not to participate. More specifically, we were interested in why they have chosen or not chosen to participate in the program and their views on the application process, doctor visits and the handling of the interlocks. We also wanted to know if their health and drinking habits had changed after the drink driving offence.

  • 8.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Kartläggning av personskadeolyckor med fyrhjulingar på väg2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien har varit att kartlägga fyrhjulingsåkare som skadats i olyckor som skett på väg under perioden 2003–2013. Mer specifikt har syftet varit:

    • att beskriva egenskaper hos de skadade och andra omständigheter kring olyckan så som ålder, kön, misstanke om rattfylleri och hjälmanvändning
    • att, utifrån olycksbeskrivningen, analysera vad som orsakade olyckan
    • att analysera hur olyckans svårhetsgrad beror av generella egenskaper hos fordonet, vägen och föraren
    • att kartlägga vilka delar av kroppen som skadas.

    Kartläggningen har baseras på både polisrapporterade och sjukhusrapporterade olyckor i Strada och totalt har 1039 personer studerats.

  • 9.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Participation Rates in a Voluntary Alcohol Interlock Program for Drink Drivers in Sweden2016In: 21st International council on alcohol, drugs and traffic safety conference T2016: Conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After a long trial period, an alcohol interlock program was permanently introduced in Sweden in 2012. Participation in the program is voluntary and the duration of the program is one or two years, depending on the severity of the drink driving offence. An evaluation of the program during the trial period showed a participation rate of about 11%. Aim: The main aim of the study was to estimate the participation rate in the interlock program and evaluate if the changes made from the trial period had led to increased participation. Reasons for denied participation and the time between the drink driving offence and decision about participation in the program were also studied.

    A sample of about 3600 drivers who had their license withdrawn due to drink driving was investigated. The data includes age and gender, information about the drink driving offence and the application process.

    The participation rate in the permanent program is about 30%. The age group with the highest participation is drivers between 35 and 64 years old with about 35% participation. Moreover, the participation rate of drivers with BAC > 1 g/L is almost twice as high as the rate for drivers with BAC < 1 g/L.

    The study shows that the participation rate has increased from about 11% in the trial period to about 30% in the permanent program. Thus, the attempt of increasing the rate has been successful.

  • 10.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Rapportering från ett samverkansprojekt för bättre rattfylleristatistik: förslag till pilotstudie av rattfylleriets omfattning2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    The most important contribution to improved knowledge of the prevalence of drink-driving in Sweden is a sample survey where drivers are tested at randomly selected sites and time points. The prerequisites for such a study have been investigated in this project, which has been conducted in collaboration with the head of the traffic police in three counties (Södermanland, Östergötland and Örebro) and representatives from the National Board of Forensic Medicine. The main aim of the study was to propose a method of how to conduct the survey; a proposition of a pilot study is presented here. Other issues regarding the statistics from random breath tests, police reports from road traffic accidents, and driving under the influence of other drugs than alcohol is also discussed. The aim of the pilot study is partly to find out the prevalence of drink-driving among the car drivers in the selected counties, partly to test the methodology suggested in this report. It is not possible in practice to investigate the whole road network and to cover all hours of the day. Therefore, a number of limitations are suggested. Both the urban and rural network is limited to the most frequently used roads. All days a week will be observed, but the working hours of the traffic police restricts the study to the time between 7 and 23. About 95 percent of the total traffic volume is produced within this time frame. The study will be spread out during a whole year in order to cover all seasons. The total sample size is set to 25,000 tests. This number is set in consideration of the police capacity.

  • 11.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Rattfylleriets omfattning bland svårt skadade förare: En skattning baserad på polisens misstanke2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultaten i den här studien visar att bland de förare som misstänks för påverkan av alkohol eller annat ämne enligt Strada så har detta också bekräftats i 65 procent av fallen (konfidensintervall: 54-76 %). Detta framkommer när registreringen i Strada jämförts med uppgifter i olycksmaterial som erhållits av polisen. I resterande fall är det många gånger okänt om föraren varit rattfull eller inte och därför kan endast en miniminivå av andel rattfulla skattas.

    Andel rattfulla bland de svårt skadade personbilsförarna skattas till minst åtta procent. Motsvarande andel för motorcykelförare och mopedförare är sju respektive tio procent. Resultaten är alltså av samma storleksordning för alla dessa fordonsslag. Vidare visar resultaten att andel rattfulla bland de svårt skadade är högre på natten än på dagen och högre i singelolyckor än i kollisionsolyckor.

    Man kan också konstatera att polisen endast i mycket begränsad utsträckning verkar utnyttja den möjlighet som finns att begära blodprov från förare som varit inblandade i en trafikolycka, även om ingen misstanke om rattfylleribrott finns.

  • 12.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Skattning av rattfylleriets omfattning: metodfrågor och datakvalitet2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Drink-driving is one of the largest traffic safety problems in Sweden and a number of measures are taken to reduce the problem. However, drink-driving is only one of many problems and in the process of prioritising among traffic safety measures, different problems are assessed in relation to each other. It is therefore important to know the extent of the problem. The aim of this study has been to describe and examine different sources that are connected to drink-driving, and for each source elucidate methodological issues and data quality. Furthermore, the aim has been to assess the different sources' potential of estimating the extent of drink-driving in the general driving population. The results of the evaluation reveal data quality problems and inadequate reporting. Moreover, the task of estimating the size of the drink-driving problem is associated with a number of methodological difficulties. A number of suggestions for improving the present statistics are given at the end of the report.

  • 13.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ceder, Gunnel
    Rättsmedicinalverket, Linköping.
    Kronstrand, Robert
    Rättsmedicinalverket, Linköping.
    Förekomst av droger och läkemedel i trafik i Sverige: resultat från EU-projektet DRUID2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of illicit drugs and medicines in the driving population, i.e. among drivers on the road, was 2.5 per cent between the years 2006 and 2011 in Sweden. The prevalence of alcohol, illicit drugs and medicines among drivers killed in traffic the same years was 31.2 per cent. In comparison with other countries in the EU project DRUID, Sweden has the highest proportion of negative results, i.e. drivers without the presence of alcohol, drugs or medicine. This applies to both drivers on the road and drivers killed in traffic.

    The studies that form the basis of this report have been performed within the project DRUID - Driving under the influence of drugs, alcohol and medicine, which is a project within the EU's Sixth Framework Programme, which lasted five years (2006-2011). This report presents two sub-studies from the DRUID project. The aims of these studies were: - to study the prevalence of illicit drugs and medicines in the driving population (study among drivers on the road). - to study the prevalence of alcohol, illicit drugs and medicines among killed drivers (study of killed drivers).

    In the study among drivers on the road, saliva samples were collected. Toxicological results were analysed from 6,199 drivers in Södermanland, Örebro and Östergötland out of 10,223 drivers of passenger cars and vans that were stopped by the police in March 2008- February 2009. In the study of killed drivers we have toxicological results from 157 fatalities out of 178 drivers of passenger cars and vans that were killed in traffic accidents in 2008.

  • 14.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: Sammanfattande slutrapport2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since January 1, 2012, there is a permanent alcohol interlock program for drink driving offenders in Sweden. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program. The interlock program has been evaluated in three studies: a register-based study, a questionnaire study, and an interview study. This final report summarizes results and conclusions from all three studies.

    The aim of the evaluation was to estimate the participation rate, but also to increase the understanding of why one chooses or does not choose to participate and to study the individual's experience of the program. The results from the studies show that:

    • The participation rate of the program was about 30 percent.
    • Both participants and non-participants in the interlock program experienced an improved health when they were asked a while after the drink driving offence and they also reported areduced alcohol consumption.
    • The largest barrier to increase the participation rate in the program is the cost, but there arealso other reasons that prevent drivers to apply.
    • Many participants experienced shortcomings in the information from the Transport Agency,both regarding the application process and regarding the mandatory parts of the program.
    • About 31 percent of the participants in the two-year program had the diagnosis alcohol abuseor alcohol dependence.
  • 15.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Impact of Nonresponse and Weighting in a Swedish Survey2007In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 1993, p. 80-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from travel surveys, together with traffic monitoring programs, serve as a basis for policy decisions and evaluations. Correct interpretation of the survey results is therefore of vital importance, and the impact of different sources of error needs to be investigated. This paper presents a study of nonresponse errors in a Swedish travel survey. Survey methodologists have addressed the problem of nonresponse for a long time, and several methods have been developed to reduce possible bias. Particularly common are different weighting methods based on auxiliary information. However, the performance of these techniques is based on how well the chosen auxiliary variables can explain the response behavior. The aims of the present study were to (a) investigate whether the mobility of nonrespondents differs from the mobility of respondents and (b) determine whether weighting reduces possible nonresponse bias. A weighting technique called calibration was used. The travel survey was based on a mail questionnaire, and the response rate was about 53%. Nonrespondents were contacted by telephone and asked a selected number of questions from the original questionnaire. Results show that mobility did differ between respondents and nonrespondents for some of the travel modes. The effect of calibration was generally small and inconsistent; the bias was reduced in some cases and increased in others. Nevertheless, calibration is recommended if procedures for calculating the weights are readily available.

  • 16.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Varedian, Maria
    Vectura.
    Rattfylleriets omfattning: en metodstudie i Södermanlands, Örebro och Östergötlands län2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This report presents the results from a study with the aim of estimating the prevalence of drink driving in three Swedish counties, as well as testing the used method in practice. Data was collected by the police that conducted breath tests of drivers of passenger cars and light trucks on randomly selected road sections. The planned sample size was 25,000 drivers, but due to missing data, 22,937 drivers were finally used in the calculations. The study was conducted between 7 am and 11 pm all days of the week during the period June 2006 to May 2007. The estimated prevalence of drink driving is 0.24 % (0.15 %; 0.32 %) where the numbers in parenthesis is a 95 per cent confidence interval. The results show significant difference in the prevalence of drink driving between men and women (0.32 and 0.04 per cent). Differences between different age groups are also present; the prevalence is lower for youngest group (16-34 years) than for the two other groups (25-64 years and over 65 years). Drink driving also turned out to be more prevalent in the morning than in the afternoon/evening, 0.62 against 0.11 per cent. In general, the method worked well, but a few things need to be changed in a future study. For example, we must ensure that the control sites are safe for the policemen also in the dark and in bad weather. It is also necessary to discuss how the police can get sufficient resources to conduct the survey.

  • 17.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kvalitetsgranskning av TSU92-, en undersökning om resvanor: en studie av urvalsfel, bortfallsfel och mätfel2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    TSU92- is a travel survey that started in 1992 with the aim to increase the knowledge of travels made by unprotected road-users. The survey is still focused on these groups, but questions of other transport modes are also included. An evaluation of the quality of the survey is presented in this report and measures to improve the quality are suggested. The study is limited to sampling errors, nonresponse errors, and measurement errors. The evaluation has been conducted as three separate studies. The aim of the study of sampling errors was to establish variance formulae for estimating the size of the errors and to calculate these variances. The aim of the study of nonresponse error was to examine whether respondents and nonrespondents differ with respect to travel habits and, to examine whether calibration reduces possible nonresponse errors. Calibration is a weighting method that are used to compensate for nonresponse. A follow up study of the nonrespondents was conducted to answer these questions. The aim of the study of measurement errors was to examine the extent of the problem with incorrectly filled-in questionnaires, and to try to understand how respondents think when the answer the questions.

  • 18.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Loukopoulos, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utlandsföddas trafiksäkerhet2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish traffic accident statistics have previously shown that involvement in accidents differs for people born in Sweden and people born abroad. The main aim of this report is to further illuminate this area through the use of four different studies. The introductory study is a literature review examining ethnicity and different aspects of traffic safety, focussing primarily on speed, accidents, use of seatbelts, alcohol and vulnerable road users. The term ethnicity was defined in different ways in the literature, if it was defined at all, and the term ethnic minorities was used as a collective term. The ways those terms are used complicate comparisons. Nevertheless, certain conclusions could be drawn. For example, the traffic behaviour of immigrants bore the imprint of the traffic norms prevalent in the country in which they grew up. Cultural values, the importance of language and socio-economical factors are dimensions of interest with regard to measures that can improve the traffic safety of immigrants living in Sweden. The second study identified the risk of a traffic accident for people who are born abroad but registered residents of Sweden. The results show that if the population is divided into nine zones, based on the country of birth, there are groups both with a higher risk of accidents than the Swedish-born and groups with a lower risk. Thus, immigrants should not be viewed as a homogeneous group. Furthermore, large parts of the differences can be explained by exposure, education, age and gender, through the use of logistical regression. In the third study a survey based on an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict the intention to speed, use seatbelt and use child restraints. The results show that previous behaviour and the perception of how others behave in traffic were the variables that best explained the intent to break speed regulations. This survey also indicates differences between groups, where the intent to use the seatbelt and protect children in the car was lower amongst some of the immigrants, while the intent to respect the speed limit was lower among the Swedish-born. The results of the survey could thus not unequivocally explain why certain groups identified by the accident analysis ran greater risks. In the fourth study interviews were carried out with seven men born in Iran but residing in Sweden. The subjects discussed were driving, speeding, alcohol and seatbelt use. The results showed that they experienced cultural differences in attitudes and behaviour in traffic, but that these differences gradually faded away. They showed zero tolerance when it came to drinking and driving. However, when it came to speeding and the use of seatbelts this was seen as unacceptable only in some contexts. Based on the compiled results recommendations are given, detailing specific actions that may increase the level of traffic safety among immigrants living in Sweden.

  • 19.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    NTF.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Den svenska förarutbildningen: dagsläge och framtidsutsikter2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to provide a deep and broad understanding of current practice of driver training. Based on the results of four in-depth studies, the project attempts to identify the need for improvement. Furthermore, and in order to improve driver training some essential actions will be presented. Several methods have been used to achieve this aim. The report starts with a literature review looking at various aspects which can influence young driver trainer’s ability to drive safely but also literature looking at deficiencies and needs for change. The following chapter presents accident statistics which includes current data on young drivers’ accident involvement and how this has changed in recent years. That is followed by a summary of statistics on driving license tests and retests. The project also includes an interview study in which eleven professionals were interviewed (politicians, government officials, researchers and representatives of driving schools and race tracks). The purpose of this study was to discuss their views on the current driver training in Sweden but also their own suggestions for change. Two surveys were then carried out. The first was aimed at new drivers of different ages about their driver training and the other was aimed at driving instructors. The general conclusion of this study is that the general discussion of driver training focuses too much on time and cost rather than quality which does not favour traffic safety. The recommendation is therefore that there is a need for a more fundamental change of driver training. To realise this, some of the teaching methods used need to be improved. These methods can then be applied to “risk education” and to the more general driver training. Other areas which are in need for improvement focus on; private practice and a closer contact with driving schools, enhancing the quality of compulsory training and introduce more parts, more frequent quality assurance of driving schools and increased supervision and collaboration between stakeholders, a development of driving licence testing and a better consensus between the objectives, content/process and driving test, a clearer division of responsibilities regarding research and development and a better coordination of the various elements of driver training. Finally, there is a need to highlight best practice which can only be done if evaluation becomes common practice.

  • 20.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Unga mopedisters olycksinblandning: orsaker och konsekvenser2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this study is to increase knowledge about the processes leading to accidents. This was done with a knowledge review, an in-depth study of moped crashes with serious injuries and an analysis of teenagers’ discussions on the internet about moped riding. Moped accidents are most common among young men. A number of different contributing factors have been identified as important for the possibilities to drive safely and avoid accidents. In addition to skills to maneuver the moped in traffic, other aspects important for motivation and choices before and during driving are presented. This may for example be age, sex, personality, group affiliation, socio economic standing and brain maturation. The statistics on moped sales show that fewer and fewer mopeds are sold in Sweden. The reduction in sales of class I is largest. There are several possible reasons for this, such as new rules for licensing or low economic growth. The reduction is also reflected in a reduction of the number of accident and injured persons over time. The domination by accidents involving 15-year-olds are also decreasing. From the interviews, it is obvious that riding moped in gangs is something that mainly boys are doing. Riding in gangs is also age related since when they are continuing to the gymnasium (high school), other interests than moped riding are taking over, occupying evenings and weekends. From the Internet analysis, it is clear that young people are discussing mopeds and moped riding in many different forums. The topics are spare parts, technical matters, tuning, speeding, helmet use, police chases etc. The discussions may be regarded as a basis for the development of role models and ideal for different subcultures within the moped world. Measures were discussed in the areas of police, rules and regulations, age limits, technical aspects, insurance, education, parental engagement, information campaigns, internet, vehicle classifications, infrastructure and future technical support systems.

  • 21. Gregersen, Nils Petter
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av miljöinslagen i körkortsutbildningen: en studie av effekter på körbeteende och bränsleförbrukning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to measure the effects of the education in environmental friendly driving that is included in the Swedish driver education for license class B on fuel consumption and a selection of driving behaviour that are typical for environmental friendly driving among drivers with license since half a year. Comparisons were made between a group of 25 drivers who estimated that they had much  education in environmental friendly driving and a group of 25 drivers who estimated that they had  little or none such education. Those with much education in environmental friendly driving had participated more in both driving lessons and theory lessons at driving schools than those with little education. The drivers drove an instrumented car along a pre-defined road of 30 km where 12 parts were used to collect data about fuel consumption and a selection of different driving behaviour.  The results show that education in environmental friendly driving during driver licensing has had an effect on fuel consumption. The group with much education used 8.7 percent less fuel than the group with little education. However, an expert/educator in environmental friendly driving who was driving the same roads had a much lower fuel consumption. This can probably be explained by the more complex driving behaviour, such as driving in mixed traffic with zero consumption and to minimize declutching and braking to the advantage of engine braking, requiring a higher mental load of novice drivers. 

  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    15-åringar i Nordens trafik: Vad vet de? Vad tycker de? Vad gör de?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med enkätundersökningen var att skaffa ett underlag för att förbättra trafiksäkerheten bland ungdomar i Norden. I projektet har barn i åldern 12-17-år kallats ”de glömda barnen” eftersom väldigt lite görs för deras trafiksäkerhet. Slutsatser från studien är att det finns en rad kunskaper, attityder och beteenden som inte är på topp när det gäller trafiksäkerhet. Även om många ungdomar vet mycket och beter sig rätt är andelen som gör fel alldeles för hög. Det visar att det finns ett stort behov av att arbeta med ungdomarna och att en stor del av deras trafikolyckor skulle kunna förhindras med ett mer systematiskt och målinriktat arbete. När det gäller Sverige kan konstaterasatt de stora bristerna i nationellt stöd till skolans arbete med trafikfrågor också ger resultat i bristande attityder, kunskaper och beteenden.

  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Barn i bil: Litteratur som underlag till NTF Konsument2013Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Certifiering av barnfack- och bilhandeln: en lyckad satsning?2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    NTF (Nationalföreningen för Trafiksäkerhetens Främjande) bedriver utbildning

    av försäljare inom barnfackhandeln och bilhandeln som säljer

    skyddsanordningar för barns säkerhet i bil. De handledare som arbetar med

    detta har utbildats vid VTI (Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut).

    Efter att försäljare utbildats certifieras butiken och kan i sin

    marknadsföring framhålla att man är NTF-certifierad inom området barn i bil.

    Certifierade butiker garanterar hjälp med montering av bilbarnskydd i bilen

    och tillhandahåller minst en bilbarnstolsmodell godkänd för bakåtvänt åkande

    upp till 25 kg. Certifieringsprojektet har utvärderats med avseende på

    NTF-handledarnas och försäljarnas kunskap samt kundens kunskap och upplevelse

    av att erhålla sakligt stöd vid inköp av skyddsanordning. Utvärderingen har

    gjorts i form av för- /efterstudier. NTF-handledarna samt försäljare inom

    barnfackhandeln och bilhandeln har fått besvara enkäter både före och efter

    utbildning. Kunder som varit i butik för att titta på skyddsanordningar har

    intervjuats både utanför certifierade och inte certifierade butiker.

  • 25.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Cyklisters hjälmanvändning i ett regionalt perspektiv: fokusgruppsintervjuer samt analys av olycks- och skadedata2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present study was to obtain knowledge about bicycle helmet use and its variations across Sweden. First, data on cyclists’ accidents, injuries and helmet use were studied in terms of regional differences. These data were taken from hospital reported accidents in the database Strada (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) and from VTI’s observational studies of bicycle helmet use on bike routes. Cyclists aged 16 years or older were studied and especially in Stockholm, Malmö and Umeå. It is noted that in Malmö, the proportion of accidents between bicycles and motor vehicles are 25 per cent, which is a higher proportion than in the other cities. Accordingly single accidents in Malmö represent a smaller proportion (63%). In Umeå single accidents constitute a much larger percentage (81%) and collisions with motor vehicles, only eight per cent. It is unclear if there are differences in the traffic environment or operation and maintenance that may be the reason for the differences in the types of accidents. It may also be noted that the use of bicycle helmets in Stockholm is by far the highest in Sweden, both on bike routes and in accidents. In addition, the helmet use in bicycle accidents in Stockholm is lower than among observed cyclists on bike routes in traffic. It should be noted, however, that the observations are made only during daytime Monday to Friday. In the project also focus group interviews in Stockholm, Malmö and Umeå have been conducted with a total of 23 participants. These cities were selected because of differences in bicycle helmet use and to get a spread in cities with different climates and different traffic environments. The focus group interviews have given information about what affects the use or nonuse of helmets. With this knowledge measures could be performed and lead to a higher helmet use throughout the country.

  • 26.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hastighetsförseelser vid olika hastighetsgränser i Västerbottens och Norrbottens län, juli 2006 - juni 2007: Promemoria på uppdrag av Vägverket Region Norr2007Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hastighetsförseelser vid olika hastighetsgränser, maj-augusti 2007: Promemoria på uppdrag av Vägverket Region Norr2007Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Kantstensparkering och trafiksäkerhet2011Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Mobile Phone use while Driving in Sweden2003In: Driver Behaviour and Training / [ed] Lisa Dorn, Ashgate, 2003, p. 293-306Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mobilen i fokus: diskussion med mobiltelefonanvändare i fokusgrupper2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mobiltelefonens användning i ett generellt perspektiv och i ett trafikantperspektiv har diskuterats i två olika fokusgrupper. Diskussionernas syfte var att med kvalitativ metodik samla information som sedan skulle nyttjas vid formuleringen av en enkät. Diskussionerna i fokusgrupperna berörde de beteenden, vanor, rutiner och erfarenheter som fanns när det gällde mobiltelefonen vid framför allt bilkörning.

    Varje fokusgrupp bestod av sex till åtta män och kvinnor med olika yrken. De var alla bilförare och ägde mobiltelefon. Det som skiljde de båda grupperna åt var åldern. Den ena gruppens deltagare var mellan 45 och 60 år och den andra gruppens deltagare var mellan 19 och 26 år.

    Diskussionerna i fokusgrupperna var inte strukturerade och styrda utan fick flyta fritt. Det fanns dock en intervjuguide med frågeställningar som önskades beröras under diskussionen. Resultaten från diskussionerna i fokusgrupperna kan inte generaliseras, utan det som framkom i respektive diskussion gäller endast för denna grupp.

    I båda diskussionsgrupperna framkom att man ansåg sig vara en sämre bilförare när man samtidigt som man körde talade i mobiltelefon. De flesta ansåg att det var nödvändigt att använda någon form av handsfreeutrustning för att underlätta framförandet av bilen. Flera nämnde att de använde telefonen för mycket vid bilkörning, men ingen hade på allvar försökt att minska sitt nyttjande. I gruppen med äldre deltagare fanns en skillnad i nyttjande av mobiltelefon beroende på om man i sitt arbete färdades mycket i bil och då behövde använda telefonen för att ha kontakt med exempelvis kunder och uppdragsgivare. I gruppen med yngre deltagare var det flera som läste och skrev SMS under bilkörning, vilket inte förekom i gruppen med äldre deltagare.  

  • 31.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nordiska invånares syn på trafiksäkerhet: Resultat från en enkätundersökning genomförd av Nordiska Trafiksäkerhetsrådet våren 2010 i Danmark, Finland, Färöarna, Norge och Sverige2011Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Resor i Sverige: redovisning av resultat från TSU92- åren 1996-20022003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    TSU92- är en enkätbaserad trafiksäkerhetsundersökning som bekostas av

    Vägverket och organiseras av VTI. Enkätens syfte är att ge en totalbild av

    svenskarnas exponering i trafikmiljö men också att ge ett

    trafiksäkerhetsperspektiv. Enkätsvaren visar därför även svenskarnas

    användning av reflexer, cykelhjälm, cykelbelysning, bilbälte och bilar

    utrustade med krockkudde. Föreliggande rapport innehåller resultat från

    tidsperioden 1996-2002 med tyngdpunkten lagd på åren 2000-2002.

  • 33.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Resor i Sverige: redovisning av resultat från TSU92- åren 1996-20032004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafiksäkerhetsundersökningen TSU92- är en enkätbaserad undersökning som

    bekostas av Vägverket och organiseras av VTI. Enkätens syfte är att ge en

    totalbild av folkets exponering i trafikmiljö och en utförligare

    exponeringsbild av gående och cyklister. Enkäten har ett

    trafiksäkerhetsperspektiv med bland annat frågor om trafikmiljön, användning

    av mobiltelefon under bilkörning, användning av bilbälte, cykelhjälm,

    belysning och reflexer. Föreliggande rapport innehåller resultat från

    tidsperioden 1999-2003.

  • 34.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    SMADIT: samverkan mot alkohol och droger i trafiken : utvärdering av försöksverksamheten i Stockholms län 2003-20052007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SMADIT - Joint Action against Alcohol and Drugs in Traffic - is a collaborative project in Stockholm County involving the Swedish Road Administration, the Police Authority, Stockholm County Council, the Association of Local Authorities in Stockholm County, Stockholm City, the Swedish Prison and Probation Service, and the County Administrative Board. The aim of the project is to set up fast procedures, so that drivers under the influence of alcohol or drugs who are resident in Stockholm County ("SMADIT customers") are offered, within 24 hours, a consultation regarding the chances of receiving treatment for alcohol or drug dependence, i.e. they receive a SMADIT offer. This report is an evaluation of the trial scheme in Stockholm County over the period 2003-2005. The project comprises specific activity objectives, process objectives and information objectives which have been evaluated using statistics concerning the entire project, a questionnaire study and an interview study.The activity objectives concern the suspected drink drivers who had been stopped by the police, offered consultation with the Treatment Centre for Alcohol and/or Drug Addicts, and received treatment. In 2004, there were 91 SMADIT customers who had been offered treatment, who were assessed by specialist physicians, and 50 who continued treatment. In 2005 there were 146 persons who had been offered treatment, who were assessed by specialist physicians, and 88 who continued treatment. The police had made far too few breathalyser tests in Stockholm County, and therefore the objective regarding the number of SMADIT customers could not be achieved. The SMADIT offers made to drivers who had been stopped and suspected of being under the influence of alcohol or drugs had also been slightly too few in number, and there had also been too few SMADIT customers who were motivated to accept the offer of consultation.

  • 35.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Smadit-metodens nytta och effekter: en uppföljande intervjustudie med misstänkta rattfyllerister2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Misstänkta rattfyllerister som snabbt efter en rattfyllerihändelse fått kontakt med socialtjänst eller beroendevård för hjälp när det gäller missbruk anser att insatsen varit till stor nytta. Metoden att upprätta en kontakt inom 24 timmar används över hela landet för att minska antalet påverkade förare i trafiken. Enligt detta notat har metoden effekt. Smadit – Samverkan mot alkohol och droger i trafiken – kallas metoden som har till syfte att minska antalet påverkade förare på väg och till sjöss och att minska antalet återfall i rattfylleribrott. Samverkan sker mellan framför allt polis, kommuner (socialtjänst) och landsting (beroendevård). Metodens utgångspunkt är att misstänkta rattfyllerister så snabbt som möjligt ska komma i kontakt med socialtjänst eller beroendevård om de vill ha hjälp med att komma till rätta med missbruk eller beroende av alkohol eller droger. I den här studien har tolv personer som haft en rattfyllerihändelse ungefär ett år tidigare intervjuats om sin livssituation idag. Samtliga informanter har genom Smadit-metoden kommit till socialtjänst eller beroendevård och några har också deltagit i rehabiliterande/behandlande kurser eller program i syfte att ändra alkoholmissbruk eller beroende. Smadit kan anses ha stor nytta och en effekt för att minska rattfylleri utifrån följande: • Informanternas uppskattning och tacksamhet för att de fick Smadit-erbjudandet av polisen, eftersom de är osäkra på om de själva skulle ha kontaktat de instanser de behövde för att komma tillrätta med sina alkoholproblem. • Den insikt i alkoholvanor och alkoholkonsumtion som informanterna erhållit i samtal på socialtjänsten eller beroendevården, i samtal med övervakare eller genom deltagande i kurser och rehabiliteringsprogram. • Informanternas förändrade beteende när det gäller att dricka alkohol, där de flesta dricker mycket mindre än tidigare eller helt avstår. • Informanternas förändrade inställning till att det är viktigt att inte köra onykter med anledning av risken att orsaka död eller skada vid en olycka.

  • 36.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vogel, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Samband mellan socioekonomisk bakgrund och användning av skyddsanordningar för barns säkerhet i bil: en litteraturstudie med resultat från Sverige, Tyskland, USA och Australien2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En genomgång av litteratur från Sverige, Tyskland, USA och Australien under

    1990- och 2000-talet rörande barn i bil har utförts. Undersökningens syfte

    var att samla kunskap om skillnader i användning och felanvändning av

    skyddsanordningar för barns säkerhet i bil beroende på sociala, ekonomiska,

    geografiska eller kulturella förhållanden. Vi studerade också om det hade

    genomförts några kampanjer eller andra insatser för att nå ut med information

    till olika grupper i samhället. I föreliggande studie beskrivs resultat från

    olika undersökningar av ickeanvändning samt felanvändning av

    skyddsutrustning. Ickeanvändning av skyddsutrustning, det vill säga att

    bälten inte används samt felanvändning av särskild skyddsutrustning för de

    barn som använder/borde använda det, förekommer i alla länderna.

    Ickeanvändningen av bälte ökar ofta med stigande ålder, liksom

    ickeanvändningen av särskild skyddsutrustning. Det finns en skillnad mellan

    länderna beträffande vilka barn, beroende på ålder och ibland vikt och/eller

    längd, som omfattas av lagar om bälten och särskilda skyddsutrustningar,

    vilket gör det svårt att jämföra de olika länderna. Felanvändning av

    skyddsutrustning är ytterligare ett problem. Det kan innebära både att barnet

    sitter i fel skydd för sin ålder eller vikt eller att utrustningen använts på

    fel sätt, till exempel att bältet inte är tillräckligt sträckt. I den lästa

    litteraturen visas på skillnader i användning och felanvändning av

    skyddsutrustning beroende på socioekonomisk bakgrund. Ickeanvändning och

    felanvändning är vanligare bland de barn vars föräldrar har en låg utbildning

    jämfört med barn till föräldrar med hög utbildning. Likaså är

    ickeanvändningen och felanvändningen av barnens skyddsutrustning lägre i

    hushåll med en högre inkomst jämfört med hushåll med lägre inkomst. Detta

    stöds ytterligare av det faktum att föräldrar som inte använder

    skyddsutrustning till sina barn lägger större vikt på kostnaden för att

    använda skyddsutrustningar till sina barn än föräldrar vars barn är skyddade.

    Barn som reser på landsväg är skyddade i större utsträckning än de som färdas

    i tätort. I flera undersökningar finns resultat som tyder på en större

    ickeanvändning och större felanvändning i folkgrupper med utländsk bakgrund

    eller där språket är ett annat än landets officiella språk. I en amerikansk

    studie omfattande alla delstater framkommer att det finns skillnader mellan

    delstaterna i användning av skyddsanordning för barn 5-14 år. Dessa

    skillnader antas bero på hur lagarna är utformade i de olika delstaterna.

  • 37.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Cosini, Rickard
    NTF.
    Barns färd i bil: en observationsundersökning genomförd av trafiksäkerhetsorganisationen NTF våren 20102011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The National Society for Road Safety, NTF, has conducted an observational survey at 347 preschools comprising 5,000 children aged 0-10 years. The aim of the study was to follow up Swedish laws and recommendations concerning how children are secured when travelling in car. The results show that: - 95 per cent of the children were belted. - 90 per cent did use some sort of child restraint system, which is required if the child is shorter than 135 centimetres. - 5 children aged 1-3 years out of 510 observed in the front passenger seat were placed in rearward facing child restraint system in front of an active airbag. This is illegal and dangerous in a crash where the airbag is activated. - Some children were seated forward facing earlier than stated in Swedish recommendations (which is from 5 years of age); 6 per cent of the 1-year-olds were travelling forward facing, 20 per cent of the 2-year-olds, 60 per cent of the 3-year-olds and 93 per cent of the 4-year-old children. - 15 per cent of the children were seated in front of an active airbag; 11 per cent of the children aged 1-4-years, 22 per cent of the children aged 5-6 years and 20 per cent of the children aged 7-10 years.

    This is against the recommendation indicating that the child has to be 140 centimeters long to be seated in front of an active airbag.

  • 38.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The traffic safety situation among foreign born in Sweden: based on eight road user population zones2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Road traffic crashes are identified as a world wide public health problem. Prognoses by WHO suggest these crashes to constitute the third most common reason for fatalities and disabilities in 2020. However, the crash risk varies from country to country. Previous research concerning foreign born within the Swedish road transport system shows an overrepresentation of crash involvement for this group. In order to identify the nature of the problem and to be able to compare crash involvement among foreign born with native born, the aim of the study was to cluster countries world wide into road user population zones, depending on Gross National Income (GNI), motorization, the traffic safety situation and geographical position for each country. Based on the eight identified clustered zones, comparisons of the zones and possible correlations between the different parameters were made, using Sweden (native born) as reference country. Data from several registers showed that an increase in GNI correlated with more cars and fewer traffic fatalities. For a number of zones, nearly all of them less wealthy, an increase in GNI correlated with more cars, and the more cars, the lower the number of killed road users per car. Furthermore, among foreign born, the average relative crash risk was 50% higher for males and about 10 % for females compared to native born in the Swedish road transport system. If the subgroup of crash involved car drivers 18 years and older was selected for analyses, data revealed that male foreign born ran double the risk of being involved in a crash, while for female foreign born the relative risk was increased by 70%.

  • 39.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Alcohol- and drug-related fatal accidents in Sweden: where do they occur?2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This conference paper presents an accident study investigating where fatal alcohol- and drug-related accidents occur with respect to traffic environment (i.e., urban versus rural), road type, speed limit, annual average daily traffic flow, and road category. The study uses data from in-depth studies of fatal accidents and from the Swedish National Road Database. Accident data from the 2006–2009 period are used.

    The results indicate that the proportion of all fatal accidents that are alcohol-related is about the same on urban (21%) and rural roads (23%). However, the proportion of alcohol-related fatal accidents is higher on ordinary roads (i.e., two-lane single carriageways with no central reservation or median barrier; 23%) than on other types of rural state roads (11%). On ordinary roads, alcohol-related fatal accidents are more common on roads with speed limits of 60–70 km/h (35%) than on roads with speed limits of 80–100 km/h (14%) and more common on second- and third-class county roads (32%) than on roads in other categories (less than 20%). The alcohol-related accident risk follows the same pattern, i.e., the accident risk is highest where the proportion of alcohol-related accidents is highest.

     It was also found that the distribution of drug-related fatal accidents among various parts of the road network is more similar to the distribution of fatal accidents involving sober drivers than to alcohol-related fatal accidents. The present results can be used by the police in strategic planning of the surveillance. 

  • 40.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Analys av rattfylleriolyckor: var och när sker olyckorna?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Minor roads shouldn’t be left unattended by the police when surveying drink-driving and extensive surveillance is needed during nighttime. These are the main conclusions of a VTI study concerning where and when alcohol-related traffic accidents occur.

    The results of the study show that the proportion of alcohol-related fatal accidents of all accidents is about the same on urban and rural roads. Moreover, the proportion of alcohol related accidents is larger on ordinary roads, i.e. two-lane single carriageway with no central reservation, than on other road types on rural state roads.

    Within the ordinary roads, alcohol-related accidents are more common on roads with speed limit 60-–70 km/h than on roads with speed limit 80-100 km/h and more common on second-class and third-class county roads than on other road categories. A similar pattern is seen in the results for severe accidents, but the differences with respect to speed classes and road categories are not as pronounced as for fatal accidents.

    The results also show that 52 per cent of the alcohol related fatal accidents occur between 10 pm and 7 am and that the accident risk is considerably higher during the night than during the day. Drivers under the age of 25 are found in 53 per cent of all alcohol related fatal accidents during the night but only in 14 per cent during the morning and 10 per cent during the afternoon.

  • 41.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Rattfylleri vid färjelägen: Analys av data från polisens bevisinstrument2014Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: enkätstudie2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A permanent alcohol interlock program for drink drivers came into force on 1 January 2012. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program that applies to all types of driver's licenses. The program includes both a one-year and a two-year alternative. The two-year program applies to offenders that have committed a severe drink driving offence (BAC > 1 g/L, the legal limit in Sweden is 0.2 g/L), have an earlier offence within the previous five years, or have the diagnosis alcohol use disorder or alcohol dependence. All others are assigned to the one-year program.

    Several aspects of the alcohol interlock program are evaluated at VTI. This report presents the results of a survey in which 1,100 questionnaires were answered by both participants and non-participants. The response rate was 45 percent of the participants in the interlock program and 28 percent of the non-participants. The average age of the respondents was just over 50 years, with marginal differences between participants and non-participants. The proportion of women among the respondents in the program was 13 percent, compared to 20 percent of the respondents without alcolock.

    It is possible to apply for a license with the alcolock condition directly after the drink driving offence and the withdrawal of the driver’s license. On average, it took little more than three months from the drink driving offence until the respondent received his or her conditioned license in the one-year program, and little more than five months for respondents in the two-year program. This time depends on how long after the drink driving offence the participants made their application, but there is also a request for faster processing times at the Transport Agency.

  • 43.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Droger och mediciner: är det ett problem i svensk trafik?2012In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 89, no 6, p. 480-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkohol i kombination med bilkörning är ett relativt väl utforskat område men när det gäller andra ämnen är kunskapen bristfällig. Syftet med den här studien är att kartlägga omfattningen av illegala droger och mediciner i svensk trafik. Resultaten visar att alkohol är det största problemet ur trafiksäkerhetssynpunkt men att det också finns stora olycksrisker förknippade med illegala droger. Även användning av mediciner medför förhöjda olycksrisker men tolkningen av dessa resultat försvåras av att vi inte vet om medicinerna använts enligt läkares förskrivning eller ej. Här behövs mer forskning för att utreda vid vilken användning mediciner blir ett problem i trafiken.

  • 44.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Simonsson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Vägtrafikens hastigheter: kunskapsinventering2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve the interim target for road safety it is necessary that compliance of speed limits increases at the road network. VTI has been commissioned by the Swedish Transport Administration to analyse major problems and challenges concerning velocity, and to identify key areas for action.

    Through a review of available knowledge about speed, and gain of new knowledge from focus group discussions we found that different types of incentives are needed for both private motorists and professional drivers to hold the speed.

    Both education and information are important to motivate the driver to act correctly and create a norm in society that deprecates speed violations. However, this should occur in combination with speed monitoring and technical measures.

  • 45.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nordic citizens' views on traffic safety2012In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 48, p. 373-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though traffic safety is very high in the Nordic countries, there are still too many people who die or are severely injured. The Nordic Road Safety Council conducted a questionnaire survey with the purpose to find differences between member countries in inhabitants’ behavior and attitudes in relevant traffic safety fields.

    The survey focused on speed, driving under the influence of alcohol, use of safety belt, mobile phone use, fatigue, use of bicycle helmets and child restraint systems. Around 5000 people aged 18-74 years old answered the questionnaire. Some of the similarities and differences that were found between the countries are presented. This paper focuses on behavior and attitudes towards speed, drunk driving, and safety belt use.

  • 46.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    SMADIT: samverkan mot alkohol och droger i trafiken : utvärdering av utvecklingsfasen i Stockholms län 2005-20072007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SMADIT - Cooperation against alcohol and drugs in traffic, is a project in Stockholm County in cooperation between the Swedish Road Administration, the Police Authority, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm County branch of the Swedish Association of Local Authorities, Stockholm City, the Parole and Probation Department of the Swedish Prison and Probation Service, and the County Administrative Board. The objective of SMADIT is to reduce the number of drink drivers and to give people with drink and drug problems an opportunity to deal with their problem. The project intends to develop more effective procedures so that drivers under the influence of alcohol and drugs, resident in Stockholm County (SMADIT customers) are offered a consultation within 24 hours regarding the opportunity to tackle their alcohol or drug dependency, i.e. they are given a SMADIT invitation. This report is an evaluation of part of the development phase in Stockholm County which took place during the period 2005-2007. Within the project there are activity goals, process goals and information goals. These have been evaluated using comprehensive statistics relating to the work and questionnaires to people active in the project. During the period April 2006-March 2007, 2,588 drivers under the influence of alcohol or drugs, resident in Stockholm County, were encountered. Three quarters of the SMADIT customers (1,728 people) received a SMADIT invitation. Of these, 12% were given a specialist assessment. This means that the overriding aim of SMADIT, that 10% of the drink drivers found who were given an invitation to contact with the service for the care & treatment of alcohol and/or drug addicts, should accept treatment or some other action for their dependency, has been reached.

  • 47.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Grumert, Ellen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Hastighetsdämpande åtgärder: en litteraturstudie med fokus på nya trafikmiljöåtgärder och ITS-orienterade lösningar2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A literature survey has been conducted regarding international traffic calming measures that could have a potential use in Sweden and other Nordic countries. Focus has been on measures in new traffic environments and ITS (Intelligent Transport System) based solutions. Information has been obtained through searches in literature databases and on different homepages, as well as from contacts in networks. Initially, we describe common traffic calming measures used today in Swedish traffic environments. For example, different forms of vertical and horizontal measures, and different types of surfaces, road markings and paintings. In the case of existing ITS solutions, we mention speed reminder signs, variable message signs and Motorway Control System (MCS).

    New kinds of physical measures that have most potential for use are e.g. modifications of speed bumps and the construction of small curves that enforce lower speed. Such curvatures can be used at entrances to communities or before roundabouts.

    Different concepts of "shared space" (e.g. walking speed zones) are something that could be used more extensively, even at intersections and other locations in urban areas. In such cases, all traditional road equipment is removed and a synergy between different user groups is created, leading to lower speeds.

    Different types of road markings and paintings can be used to visually narrow the road, but also in order to create an optical illusion that makes one feel as if the speed is high. However, such measures are not fully effective during winter conditions. Applications in 3D can also be used to create the illusion of obstacles in the roadway and result in reduced speeds. It is important to consider the overall picture and to combine various measures in a correct way. This report gives some examples on how to implement speed reduction measures in communities with thoroughfares. Furthermore, we give example on how strategic approaches and policy design may help to efficiently implement different kinds of traffic calming measures.

    ITS-solutions, where a two-way communication between vehicles and between vehicles and the infrastructure is used, have gained momentum in Europe and internationally. Three possible systems that have not yet been introduced on the market are described. Most of the cooperative systems are still in a research and development phase. The potential of the systems is considered to be large, and this is also reflected in the extensive research and development investments in the area. Furthermore, ITS as a whole, i.e. cooperative systems as well as other ITS solutions is believed to have a great potential.

  • 48.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hastighetsförseelser vid olika hastighetsgränser, juni - september 2006: Promemoria på uppdrag av Vägtrafikinspektionen2006Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: intervjustudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A permanent alcohol interlock program for drink drivers came into force on 1 January 2012. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program which applies to all types of driver’s licenses. The program includes both a one-year and a two-year alternative. The two-year program applies to offenders whom have committed a severe drink driving offence (BAC > 1 g/L, the legal limit in Sweden is 0.2 g/L), have an earlier offence within the previous five years, or have the diagnosis alcohol use disorder or alcohol dependence. All others are assigned to the one-year program. Several aspects of the alcohol interlock program are evaluated at VTI. This report presents the results of an interview study with a total of 31 drivers who had committed a drink driving offense. They were interviewed both at a meeting, and at follow-up telephone interviews. The drivers are 11 people who participated in the two-year program, 10 people who participated in the one-year program and 10 people who did not participate in the interlock program.

  • 50.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    SMADIT ur den misstänkte rattfylleristens perspektiv: en intervjustudie2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SMADIT, Joint action against alcohol and drugs in traffic, is a method where the police offer suspected drunk drivers contact with the social services or the dependency care and treatment service, who can offer a consultation and, if needed, suitable treatment. In the present study, 14 suspected alcohol drunk drivers were interviewed about their perceptions and experience of the SMADIT method. The results show that the incident with the drunk driving and its consequences have been a turning point in the suspected drunk drivers' lives. Most of the informants have completely opted out of the alcohol, and in addition, family relationships and life situations have improved. The majority of the informants do not think they will drive drunk in the future. Overall, informants think that SMADIT is a good method in its efforts to prevent drunk driving. Informants' narratives show that the police attitude is very important as most felt that they were in a disgraceful situation. The interviews show that the police attitude and the informant's drinking habits can be crucial to the acceptance of SMADIT. There are also respondents who believed that by accepting the help through SMADIT they would retain the driving license and get alcohol interlocks. The study points out some suggestions that could improve the SMADIT method. It is important that the police always provide the suspected drunk driver with sufficient and accurate verbal information about SMADIT and hand over the written information leaflet with contact information for local social treatment services, even to people who have been free from suspicion of drunk driving. In addition, it is important that a person who answered no to the SMADIT-offer is asked a second time, preferably by a call from the police, or that the suspected drunk driver is asked again when the car key is retrieved. Furthermore, it appears that it is not necessary that the first contact with social treatment services takes place within twenty-four hours. Several of the informants state that they need time for reflection, however, it must not pass too many days before a first contact and meeting is held. Finally, the police motivation to work with SMADIT can be maintained if the social treatment services ask the suspected drunk driver for permission to give a feedback to the police about the person's contact with the social treatment service.

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