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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Abubeker
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Utvärdering av gummiasfalt: provväg E22 Mönsterås : etapp 12019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory and filed investigations have been carried out to evaluate the performance of rubber modified asphalt test road on E22 Mönsterås.

    The laboratory investigations indicated that there are no significant differences in stiffness and shear modulus between the reference and rubber modified mixtures. The rubber modified mixture however showed slightly lower phase angle compared to the reference mixture which indicate that the rubber modified mixture is more elastic. The rubber modified mixtures also showed lower modulus at lower temperatures and slightly higher modulus at higher temperature which are desired properties for resistance against low temperature cracking and permanent deformation respectively. The fatigue tests indicated that the rubber modified asphalt mixture has slightly better fatigue cracking performance. But the difference is not significant.

    The road surface profile measurements indicated no significant differences between the reference and asphalt rubber sections. It is however early to draw conclusions after one year of traffic therefore additional follow-up of the test sections is needed to draw a conclusion.

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  • 2.
    Andrén, Peter
    et al.
    Datamani.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Prognosmodeller för tillståndsmått i Trafikverkets Pavement Management System: IRI och spårdjup2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the road surface condition is assessed regularly with laser-based profilographs. This has been done since 1987. All roads are, for financial reasons, not assessed every year, but one way to describe the condition of the entire road network is to work with models. The purpose of these assessments is to provide the Swedish Transport Administration’s Pavement Management System (PMS) with data. The main uses of the PMS are: • To provide a description of the overall road condition and its changes to determine if the selected operation and maintenance strategies are successful, and if an acceptable road standard can be offered. • Support the maintenance planning (prioritization and selection of sections for maintenance). • Support for the choice of maintenance method. • Monitoring of performance of construction or maintenance, for example, functional related contracts. • To support research. The Swedish Transport Administration needs a complete description of the road condition in order to demonstrate to the government and parliament how the mission to maintain the roads is achieved. One way to describe the condition of the entire road network is to work with models that forecast the condition the years when measurements are missing. In the choice between using a global or local model to describe the state of development for IRI (International Roughness Index) and rut depth on individual 100-meter segments, the present report shows that a local model is preferred. The coefficient of determination is not high enough in a global model. Also, the researchers cannot see any consequent pattern in the regression coefficients for the explanatory variables we have tried.

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  • 3.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Test av korrektionstjänst för GPS-mottagare vid vägytemätning2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An important factor in the inventory of the road network condition is to be able to geographically position the measurement data at the right place with sufficient accuracy.

    In March 2012, the correction service EPOS, used to provide an improved positioning, was shut down. By the commission of the Swedish Transport Administration, VTI has evaluated whether the free correction service EGNOS, operated by ESA, is possible to be used instead. The answer is yes. No systematic differences in the position data could be observed when using the old and the new correction service.

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  • 4.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Kalman, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Ekström, Camilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Cruz del Aguila, Fernando
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Friktions- och texturutveckling på nya beläggningar2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new pavement should be and be perceived as safe by road users, regardless of the road condition. It is therefore important that the road has a satisfactory level of friction already when the road is opened. There is limited documented knowledge of how the road change in the beginning after a paving performance.

    The purpose of this project is to determine how friction changes during the first period after road pavement is laid and traffic is permitted. The ambition is to determine if new road sections have reduced friction and provide recommendations for when a friction measurement is to be performed, and how warning signs should be displayed in connection with the pavement work. The study plan has been to follow different objects with frequent friction and texture measurements from just before the stretch is opened for traffic until the levels have stabilised.

    Initially, friction is high, and then decreases with the amount of traffic. After 1-3 weeks the lowest value was reached and then the friction increased or stabilized. Common to all investigated stretches, there are major changes in texture levels from the first vehicle and then a decreasing textural level until a stable level is reached after 1-3 weeks.

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  • 5.
    Arvidsson, Anna K.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Åkkvalitet på vinterväg2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What can be stated in this project is how a winter road is experienced when compared to snow free conditions, primarily with regard to unevenness and noise. Surveys carried out during the project show that it is possible, without too much difficulty, to measure the unevenness of a snow covered road surface. I this report is winter road defined as a snow covered road (around one day after heavy snowfall). Based on survey results, the study shows that the unevenness of section lengths between 0.05 metres and 1.0 metres are most affected by winter road conditions. Unevenness during winter road conditions is approximately five times greater than that experienced during snow free conditions. However, it is impossible to generalise for an entire road network as surface conditions during winter can be extremely variable. It is also possible to see that the surface structure described by the shortest wavelengths investigated, less than 10 millimetres, is smoother on the snow-covered surface. This is one hypothesis and indicates that measurements are reliable. The link between noise and unevenness is related to vehicle speed. The biggest sound difference between winter and summer road conditions, which could be related to the road surface measurements, was at the lower frequency range. Perceived in-car noise levels were between 3 and 6 decibel higher during winter conditions. However, for the higher frequency range the difference in noise levels was opposite - lower levels during winter conditions. A possible explanation for this is that sound may be absorbed by the snow.

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  • 6.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vägslitage och beläggningsunderhåll: analys av spårdjupsmätningar på fyra objekt2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förstudien från 1997 analyserade skillnader i spårdjups- och IRI-utveckling och därtill knutna beläggningskostnader vid nuvarande RUD-krav (17 mm spårdjup och IRI 2,5 över 400 m-sträckor för riksvägar med ÅDT >4 000 axelpar/dygn) för alternativa vägtyper med hjälp av Vägverkets PMS-modeller. Vid ÅDT >4 000 blir spårdjup styrande för underhållskostnaden enligt PMS-modellen.

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  • 7.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    et al.
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Objektiv mätmetod för tillståndsbedömning av grusväglag2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Condition ratings on the gravel road network are of today made subjectively according to the Swedish Transport Administration’s current method description. This project aims to develop a reliable, objective and mobile methodology for continuous measurement of the road surface condition parameters: evenness, loose gravel, dust and cross fall on gravel roads. It also aims to recommend an objective inventory method for evaluating the drainage condition of a gravel road construction. The result shows that the objective condition indicators which best seem to describe the requested functionality on gravel roads are the acceleration measured using a smartphone application as well as macro texture expressed as the mean profile depth MPD and the average laser pulse reflection over the road cross section measured with a laser equipped measurement vehicle. As an objective inventory method for evaluating the drainage condition of a gravel road, measurements of ditches to ensure satisfactory ditch depth, measurements of cross fall, measurements of support strips to ensure absence of road edge overhang that prevent water runoff from the road, and measurements of periodic and/or rapidly proliferating roughness are proposed. Since gravel road condition is rapidly changing during the season, a quick and simplified version of road surface measurements is required if it should be cost effective with these types of measurements on the gravel road network. Using a smartphone with an application for measurements of evenness is a simple and cost effective way to generate up-to-date condition data for the gravel road network. The application could be supplemented with a button to allow the public to report and mark out damages to the road or be connected to the contractor’s GPS-enabled reporting system, used to mark special points of interest, such as sites for frost heave or erosion.

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  • 8.
    Ekblad, Jonas
    et al.
    NCC Roads.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lundström, Robert
    NCC Roads.
    Texturmätning med vägytemätbil, som indikator för beläggningens friktion2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tillräcklig friktion är en viktig egenskap hos en vägyta. Normal friktionsmätning är omständlig och resurskrävande. Vägytans makrotextur mäts varje år för den större delen av vägnätet. Det skulle därför vara effektivt att använda makrotextur som indikator för nedsatt friktion. I denna rapport studeras sambandet mellan makrotextur och friktion.

    Mätningar utfördes på ett riktat urval av sträckor i Östergötland. Urvalet riktades mot låga makrotextur-värden. På identifierade sträckor mättes friktion (SAAB Friction Tester) och makrotextur (MPD, Mean Profile Depth med vägytemätbil). Makrotextur mättes av 2 olika mätare.

    Resultaten tyder på att det inte finns något tillräckligt starkt samband mellan friktion och MPD för att användas som indikator. Några generella mönster kan dock skönjas. Låg friktion uppträder främst vid låg makrotextur dock är det samtidigt endast en mycket liten del av sträckor med låga MPD som uppvisar nedsatt friktion.

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  • 9.
    Eriksson, Olle
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    MPD and IRI in the position of large goods vehicles: network measurements2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring of the state road network in Sweden includes the longitudinal measurements of International Roughness Index (IRI) and Mean Profile Depth (MPD). This data can be used to predict values associated with rolling resistance, comfort and vehicle wear. The paths of the measurements correspond to the surface contact points of the wheels of a light passenger vehicle. In Sweden, lateral position comparisons made between medium and large goods vehicles show that right wheel track positions are not similar. This applies to larger and wider roads (typical motorways and other wide main roads). Knowledge of the surface conditions (IRI and MPD) at the surface contact points associated with a large goods vehicle would prove to be useful when predicting e.g. rolling resistance for large goods vehicles on entire or local road networks. If these conditions are not measured, it is important to know how they differ from the values in the measured path. Using this knowledge VTI’s measurement vehicle was equipped with two extra texture lasers which were mounted to the right of the ordinary texture laser in the right wheel track. Data was collected on a road network with mixed categories of road standard, from secondary roads to motorways. During the study, differences in IRI and MPD values were analysed. Values corresponded to the position of light passenger vehicles right wheel paths and two other paths 25 centimetre and 45 centimetre further out to the right (position of medium and large goods vehicles). The possibility of predicting local differences (shorter sections) and average differences was analysed.

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  • 10.
    Eriksson, Olle
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    MPD/IRI Transverse Position2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Road monitoring of the state road network in Sweden includes for the longitudinal measurement of international roughness index (IRI) and mean profile depth (MPD). In Sweden the paths of the longitudinal measurements correspond to the surface contact points between the wheels of a light passenger vehicle. This data can be used to estimate values for friction, rolling resistance, comfort and vehicle wear. Knowledge of the surface condition (IRI and MPD) at the surface contact points associated with a large goods vehicle would prove to be useful when estimating similar values for large goods vehicle on an entire or local road network. If these conditions are not measured, it is important to know how they differ from the measured path.

    In Sweden, lateral position comparisons made between light and heavy vehicles show that left wheel track positions are similar. This applies to larger and wider roads (typical motorways and other wide main roads). Using this knowledge VTI’s measurement vehicle was equipped with two extra texture lasers which were mounted to the right of the ordinary texture laser in the right wheel track. Data was collected on a road network with mixed categories of road standard, from secondary roads to motorways.

    In this talk, we will present a study of the differences of IRI and MPD corresponding to the position of light vehicles right wheel path with two other paths, 25 and 45 cm further out to the right (position of large goods vehicles). We also will discuss the possibility to predict the differences between the tracks. A statistical analysis procedure for calculating the mean difference and an error margin is suggested. The results showed that although it is very difficult to explain or predict local differences, average differences can be estimated.

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  • 11.
    Eriksson, Olle
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Prediction models for international roughness index and rut depth2019In: Pavement and Asset Management - Proceedings of the World Conference on Pavement and Asset Management, WCPAM 2017, CRC Press/Balkema , 2019, p. 225-230Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, road surface conditions have been assessed with laser-based profilographs since 1987. The Swedish Transport Administration needs a complete description and prediction but not all roads are assessed every year. Therefore, models are needed to forecast and complete the data. We propose a linear regression model of International Roughness Index (IRI) and rut depth against pavement age on individual 100-meter segments, with a random component pooled for all segments within the same pavement category and county. This method depends heavily on the rate at individual segments. A model that uses explanatory variables like Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT), road with etc. has not showed better results. Also, the analysis does not show that the rate of change is higher the first year. We describe available data and corrections for outliers, unregistered maintenance activities and sudden changes. We also show the widths of confidence and prediction intervals for new observations.

  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Mika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Andrén, Peter
    Datamani.
    Prognosmodeller för tillståndsmått i Trafikverkets Pavement Management System - makrotextur, MPD2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the road surface condition is assessed regularly with laser-based profilo-graphs. This has been done since 1987. The purpose of these assessments is to provide the Swedish Transport Administration’s Pavement Management System (PMS) with data. All roads are, for financial reasons, not assessed every year, but the Swedish Transport Administration still needs a complete description of the road condition. One way to describe the condition of the entire road network is to work with models that forecast the condition the year when measurements are missing. This report has two main purposes. Firstly, to develop a methodology/approach how to create a prognostic model for a condition index that can change both linearly and non-linearly. Secondly, during the method development, create a prognostic model for MPD. The model is data-driven generated, but it also describes the time evolution. From this we can see clear trends for MPD development on an annual basis. The approach used to create a prognostic model for MPD can be used for other road surface characteristics such as megatexture, edge depth, water area, etc.

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  • 13.
    Knutsson, G
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thoren, H
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ahlberg, P
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundgren, T
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Beteckningssystem för bergundersökningar - förstudie1973Report (Other academic)
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  • 14.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jämnhetsvariation hos sommar- och vintervägar2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien försöker ge ett svar på vägojämnhetens variation under året. Mäter

    man ojämnheten vid rätt tidpunkt? Om variationen är stor kan man då

    prediktera den mellan olika tidpunkter? Studien visar att jämnheten på våra

    vägar förändras under vinterhalvåret relativt sommarhalvåret. Den här studien

    visar att en förhöjning sker med ca: 30 % av jämnhetsmåttet, IRI

    (International Roughness Index). Resultaten i denna rapport baseras på

    mätningar gjorda i Värmland. IRI är det tillståndsmått som har den största

    inverkan vid resursprioritering och åtgärdsplanering av det statliga

    vägnätet. Då Sverige ligger i många olika klimatzoner och en stor del av

    trafikarbetet också sker under vinterhalvåret borde en större hänsyn tas till

    ojämnhetsökningen som orsakas av tjälen. Studien ger inte svar på hur tjälens

    effekt på jämnheten ska hanteras, det visar däremot att hänsyn bör tas då

    effekten är så stor. Ökningen av IRI var störst vid vintermätningen (tjälat

    förhållande) då data från sommarmätningen (otjälat förhållande) är referens.

    Mellan 27 och 35 % var ökningen i genomsnitt för vintermätningen. Motsvarande

    siffror för vårmätningen (tjällossning) var en ökning med mellan 6 och 9 %.

    En del av arbetet visar på att ojämnheter med vissa våglängder påverkas mer

    än andra. Ojämnheter med våglängder mellan 3 och 10 m påverkas mest. En

    förhöjning mellan 36 och 51 % observerades för de två undersökta åren. Detta

    intervall tillsammans med ojämnheter med våglängder mellan 1 och 3 m var de

    som påverkades allra mest. Undersökningen pågick under två år, 1997 och 1998,

    och förhöjningen av de observerade jämnhetsmåtten skiljer sig relativt mycket

    mellan åren. Orsaker till detta kan vara många. Den största inverkan torde

    dock vattenmängden i vägkroppen ha samt antalet nedfrysningar och

    uppfrysningar under vinter-perioden. En annan del av undersökningen visar att

    det finns en större sannolikhet att stora differenser mellan IRI sommar och

    vinter uppträder där stora IRI registrerats sommartid. Detta var i och för

    sig väntat men det var också en förvånande stor andel stora differenser där

    låga IRI registrerats sommartid. Detta tyder på att differenserna inte ger en

    bestående skada utan till största delen återställs under tjällossningen för

    att återgå till sitt ”normala” sommartillstånd. De ojämnheter som snabbast

    återställs till sitt ”normala” sommartillstånd är ojämnheterna med korta

    våglängderna, medan ojämnheterna med de långa våglängderna är mer varaktiga.

    Vidare visar undersökningen att de vägar eller vägavsnitt som har synliga

    defekter eller skador med största sannolikhet också får ökade ojämnheter

    vintertid. De mätningar som denna rapport bygger på är endast gjorda vid tre

    tillfällen. Det finns med största sannolikhet tidpunkter under vintern då

    vägen har ett ännu sämre tillstånd än vad som registrerats i detta projekt.

    Vägnätet som testerna är gjorda på hör inte till det med högst jämnhetsklass.

    En mycket småskalig jämförelse mellan differenser av IRI, sommar och vinster,

    och tjälfarlighetsklass på ett material där undergrund och vägkonstruktion är

    väl dokumenterad är gjord med överrensstämmelse. Slutligen tyder allt på att

    man också fortsättningsvis ska genomföra inventeringen av det statliga

    vägnätet under sommarhalvåret, då det p.g.a. väderleksförhållanden är mycket

    svårt att genomföra snabb beröringsfri vägytemätning vintertid.

    Tillvägagångssättet borde istället vara att prediktera effekten av tjälen med

    hjälp av modeller.

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  • 15.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Kontrollmetod för nya vägbeläggningar2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport ges ett förslag till hur en ny asfaltytas struktur på en väg kan kontrolleras med beröringsfri lasermätteknik (vägytemätning av objekt med mätbil). Det gäller såväl kontroll av nybyggda objekt som objekt vid underhållsbeläggning. De metoder som arbetats fram ska kunna avgöra om ytan har en lämplig struktur med hänsyn till vald beläggningstyp och maximal stenstorlek. Det har varit en målsättning att använda ett mått som Trafikverket redan har som obligatorisk mätstorhet att ingå i kontrollmetoden. Med anledning av detta föreslår vi att kontrollen ska utföras genom mätning av ytans makrotextur med måttet MPD (Mean Profile Depth). Föreslagen kontrollmetod ska reglera:

    • att MPD-värdet inte är för lågt med hänsyn till potentiella friktionsproblem eller hur den kontrollerade beläggningens yta normalt ska vara
    • att MPD-värdet inte är för högt med hänsyn till potentiella beständighetsproblem
    • att MPD-värdet är homogent med hänsyn till utförandekvalitén.

    De beläggningstyper som studerats i denna rapport begränsas till vanligt förekommande beläggningar: asfaltbetong stenrik (ABS), tunnskiktsbeläggning (TSK) samt asfaltbetong tät (ABT) alla med maximal stenstorlek 11 mm eller 16 mm. Ett första steg i införandet av den föreslagna metoden är att testa den under en mätsäsong för att utvärdera och eventuellt justera gränsvärden innan de används för att reglera vites-/bonusbelopp. Under arbetets gång har det visat sig att olika mätutförare ger olika nivåer av MPD vid mätning på samma plats. En pågående undersökning har syftet att ta reda på vad skillnaderna beror på och föreslå en metod att hantera detta.

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  • 16.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Upphandling av vägytemätningar för perioden 2005-2008/20102012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vägverket har handlat upp vägytemätningar för perioden 2005-08 med en option på förlängning ytterligare två år. Upphandlingen påbörjades 2004 och avslutades våren 2005.

    Upphandlingen har omfattat uppdrag avseende vägnätsmätningar (vägnätsövergripande tillståndsmätning) och godkännande av leverantör av objektmätning (mätning av vägsträckor till exempel vid kontroll av entreprenad). De företag som godkänts för vägnätsmätningar har också godkänts för objektmätningar. Vägverket har i den här upphandlingen till skillnad mot tidigare inte gjort någon separat prövning avseende enbart objektmätningar.

    Det är viktigt att data från vägytemätningar är tillförlitliga. Förutom att ha en tillräcklig noggrannhet är det viktigt att data från vägytemätningar är jämförbara både geografiskt och över tiden. En väsentlig del i denna upphandling har därför varit att säkerställa att mätresultat från olika leverantörer är sinsemellan jämförbara samt att de är jämförbara med tidigare mätningar. I upphandlingen har därför ingått en kvalificering bestående av jämförande mätningar med efterföljande utvärdering. I bifogade rapport redovisas dokument som legat till grund för upphandlingen, sammanställningar av analysresultat samt utvärderingar och beslut.

    Utvecklingen inom området har nu kommit så långt att vi för första gången har konstaterat att det bör vara möjligt att anlita flera leverantörer av vägnätsmätningar med sinsemellan olika utrustningstyper. Utvärderingen av de jämförande mätningarna har även i övrigt bidragit med värdefull kunskap.

  • 17.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Upphandling av vägytemätningar för perioden 2010-2013/20142011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafikverket, tidigare Vägverket har sedan 1987 samlat in vägnätsdata för planering och uppföljning av underhållet av det belagda vägnätet. 1996 genomfördes den första upphandlingen av mättjänsten. Upphandlingen gav en mätleverantör och ett ramavtal för en period av 4 år 1997-2000. År 2000 gjordes en ny upphandling av verksamheten och med ett utökat antal mätstorheter. Även vid denna upphandling skrevs ramavtal med en leverantör för en period av 4 år, 2001-2004. Upphandlingen 2004 omfattade perioden 2005-2008 med möjlighet att förlänga med 1+1 år. De genomförda testerna visade att skillnaderna mellan olika leverantörer var försumbara och mätuppdraget delades upp i två ramavtal. Ett på 75 % av mätområdet och ett på resterande 25 %. Denna upphandling medförde att vi bytte huvudleverantör. Det var inte helt smärtfritt att introducera en ny mätleverantör i en verksamhet som haft samma leverantör i arton år. Det är mycket som inte var reglerat i avtal utan som har fungerat enligt hävd. Efter ett något besvärligt första år så flöt verksamheten på bra den resterande tiden av perioden. Efter ett antal upphandlingar som genomförts som förhandlade upphandlingar ansåg man att upphandlingen 2009 skulle genomföras som selektiv upphandling. Det medförde att man behövde genomföra en mer genomgripande förberedelse inför de tester som skulle genomföras. En mätstrategi skulle läggas fast för de kommande 4 åren och en översyn av gällande metodbeskrivningar skulle genomföras. Ett antal nya mätstorheter skulle introduceras med mätmetoder, kontrollmetoder och referensmetoder. Dessutom så skulle ett antal mätstorheter verifieras dvs. vi försöker få svar på frågan om mätstorheterna fortfarande ger information om skador på vägnätet. Det genomfördes också en marknadsöversikt för att få en hint om hur många intresserade leverantörer som fanns på marknaden.

  • 18.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Andrén, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Wahlman, Thomas
    Ramböll.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ekdahl, Peter
    Ramböll.
    New technology for road surface measurement: transverse profile and rut depth2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The condition of the national coated road network is measured annually in Sweden and Finland. The measuring technology has been unchanged over a long period of time, which has its benefits. As the measurements are performed using the same technology, trends and measurement series are retained without any disruption. In addition, the technology currently used is reliable and can be procured at a price level that has fallen rather than risen over the years. The principal area of use for condition measurement is to provide maintenance work with an objective basis for the planning of surfacing, but when it is found that current objective condition data can only explain between 40 and 75 percent (depending on class of traffic) of the action actually taken on the road network, consideration must be given to whether new condition data need to be added. The information that is lacking is thought to be information on surface damage and cracks. This requires new measuring technology.

    If new technology will be adopted, for the collection of condition data, the dependability of the basic measured quantities must be ensured before new options and measured quantities are examined. This study is therefore focused only on transverse-profile measurement and measures of unevenness in the transverse direction (rut depth and ridge height).

    The study has examined two of the leading new technologies that operate with scanning lasers, LCMS from Pavemetrics and PPF from Fraunhofer. The outcome of the study shows that the technology is good, and that accuracy and repeatability are comparable to the present-day point-laser systems. It is also deemed possible to retain criteria and requirements for the procurement of measurement services when the new technology is used.

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  • 19.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Andrén, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Wahlman, Thomas
    Ramböll.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ekdahl, Peter
    Ramböll.
    Ny teknik för vägytemätning: tvärprofil och spårdjup2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The condition of the national coated road network is measured annually in Sweden and Finland. The measuring technology has been unchanged over a long period of time, which has its benefits. As the measurements are performed using the same technology, trends and measurement series are retained without any disruption. In addition, the technology currently used is reliable and can be procured at a price level that has fallen rather than risen over the years. The principal area of use for condition measurement is to provide maintenance work with an objective basis for the planning of surfacing, but when it is found that current objective condition data can only explain between 40 and 75 percent (depending on class of traffic) of the action actually taken on the road network, consideration must be given to whether new condition data need to be added. The information that is lacking is thought to be information on surface damage and cracks. This requires new measuring technology.

    If new technology will be adopted, for the collection of condition data, the dependability of the basic measured quantities must be ensured before new options and measured quantities are examined. This study is therefore focused only on transverse-profile measurement and measures of unevenness in the transverse direction (rut depth and ridge height).

    The study has examined two of the leading new technologies that operate with scanning lasers, LCMS from Pavemetrics and PPF from Fraunhofer. The outcome of the study shows that the technology is good, and that accuracy and repeatability are comparable to the present-day point-laser systems. It is also deemed possible to retain criteria and requirements for the procurement of measurement services when the new technology is used

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  • 20.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ekblad, Jonas
    NCC Roads.
    Göransson, Nils-Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Arvidsson, Anna K.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Makrotexturens möjlighet att identifiera låg friktion: tillståndsmätning av vägytan2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration want to describe the friction condition of the entire national road network. A nationwide friction measurement is practically difficult to manage and very costly, while we are already measuring road surface macrotexture. In this project, we test whether the macro texture (MPD, Mean Profile Depth) can be used to describe the friction condition of the road network. We have not been able to show this correlation but we present other interesting findings that give a piece of the puzzle for the Swedish Transport Administration how they can and should deal with the friction issue. We see, among other things, that the risk of low friction is greater on road sections with low MPD values and especially on roads with surface dressing that has bleeding patches. Furthermore, we describe the friction risks involved with different coatings and how these might be handled.

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  • 21.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Glantz, Christian
    Ramböll.
    Kontroll och uppföljning av entreprenader - del 2, tillståndsutveckling, mätfel och risker: Vägytemätning med mätbil2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration aims to increase the number of design build contracts. To get a functioning control device around the contracts, well defined requirements must be set for the warranty period of the road. In this survey we focus on functional requirements that are set for design build contracts and which can be checked by means of a road surface testing.

    In the report, measurement errors are highlighted in object measurement (control measurement). The measurement error is divided into different components: random, systematic and variation between different suppliers. Risk assessment is also discussed where calculations of the risk of error assessment of a section are presented.

    Finally, it is presented how the results of the condition (evenness) affect the future development of the road and what initial values we can expect from a design build contract and maintenance work. We see that a road of good evenness, longitudinally and transversally, gives a lower development rate during the life of the road.

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  • 22.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Glantz, Christian
    Ramböll.
    Göransson, Nils-Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Kontroll och uppföljning av entreprenader - del 1, dagens krav och metoder: Vägytemätning med mätbil2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration aims to increase the number of design build contracts. To get a functioning control device around the contracts, well defined requirements must be set for the warranty period of the road. In this survey we focus on functional requirements that are set for design build contracts and which can be checked by means of a road surface testing. The report highlights what requirements are used and how they are checked, but it also takes up subjectively assessed requirements that should be replaced by an objective method.

    Furthermore, important aspects of the implementation of a contract are described. The contact between the measuring supplier and the contractor is extremely important for determining when, how and where the controls are to be performed. A total contract often contains several roads, ramps and so forth, which requires its special planning and control routines.

    A review is made of defects that can occur on design build contracts and at what stage they occur (construction stage/use stage). For many of the defects identified there is no established objective measurement method. Therefore, usable methods need to be further developed and verified.

    Another important aspect of design build contract is how the requirements are set and followed up. Clear guidelines for the requirement setting should be worked out where it is decided which consideration should be taken, for example, for traffic volume, studded tires, signed speed and climate.

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  • 23.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Henriksson, Peder
    Automatiserad metod för detektering av kantdeformationer2002Report (Other academic)
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  • 24.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Qualification of road surface monitoring services in Sweden, 1996-20002004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to summarise and report the experience acquired from the comparative surveys conducted in 1996, 1997 and 2000 in connection with the Swedish National Road Administration's procurement of road surface survey services. The main conclusions concerning the survey results are presented. Further, the report also contains findings related to the development of a method that was a prerequisite for the work. Basic background information is also given about the parameters and survey methods used. In the section entitled "Grey zone", a few grounds on which survey vehicles can be used to verify contracted surfacing works are presented on the basis of the survey results obtained.

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  • 25.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    The influence of lateral position when measuring road surface characteristic data: introductory study2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In conjunction with development of rolling resistance models it has been brought up to date that the knowledge of the size of variation of road surface characteristics data across a road section is not well known.

    In a rather limited VTI study it was shown that the MPD (Mean Profile Index) level varies with lateral position, especially on smaller roads which are often used as test sections in model development. Also other road surface data such as IRI (International Roughness Index) and megatexture vary. Another conclusion is that data used for model development should be collected. The study is a part of the MIRIAM project.

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  • 26.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Andrén, Peter
    Datamani.
    Svenska vägtillståndsmått, då, nu och i morgon: del 3: i morgon – år 2010 och framåt2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the Swedish Road Transport Administration, VTI has developed and proposed new indices of road surface measurement that better describe damaged or badly constructed road sections. The indices have been developed using data that is already collected during the regular road network surveys. The new indices can be used to describe road network conditions and changes during operation. To complement current indices, the report proposes four new indices and recommends changes in the use and/or calculation of two others. The main development principle was to use existing surveyed data and create either a new single index or indices based on a combination of other existing indices. The new indices must also correspond to a specific effect or property, for example safety risk. In connection with the development, thresholds for maintenance standards have also been suggested. The indices developed in this final phase of the project "New Indices of Measurement” that can complement existing indices are: • surface damage (small and large). • cross fall variation. • local unevenness (new definition). • surface water area. • edge depth (new definition). • IRI left (compliment to IRI right). This report describes new road condition indicators used in the period 2010 och onwards. Two earlier reports in this series describes indicators used in the period 1987–2005 (R717, 2013) respectively year 2006–2009 (R718, 2011).

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  • 27.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Andrén, Peter
    Datamani.
    Thorsenius, Johanna
    Trafikverket.
    Lindström, Fredrik
    Trafikverket.
    Trafikverkets upphandling av vägytemättjänsten för vägnät 2014 för perioden 2015–2018 (2019): vägnätsmätning med mätbil2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) annually monitors the condition of the national road network with survey vehicles. This is an operation that is, in principle, still carried out using the same technical basis as in 1986. During this time, however, measurement quantities have increased, measurement quality has improved, and measurement methods have been refined. In addition to monitoring the road network condition, the purpose of measurement surveys is to provide an information base that can be used to support investment decisions and maintenance planning. Condition measurement data can be used at an initial stage to identify potential maintenance candidates. Further investigations, carried out by project leaders, can then be used to determine which of the candidates are selected for maintenance action. The Swedish Transport Administration would ultimately like to be able to describe road conditions derived from surface measurement surveys even more accurately. This would allow project leaders to make more objective maintenance action decisions.

    With technical support from the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), the Swedish Road Administration carries out the procurement of road surface measurement survey services. Road surface measurement services, for the period 2015 to 2018 (plus option year 2019), were obtained through a selective procurement process. Out of six suppliers who were invited to participate, three accepted the invitation to take part in the technical tests. The purpose of the tests is to examine the supplier’s ability to perform during simulated production conditions and be able to carry out the measurement surveys in accordance with pre-described conditions and specified limits. This report summarizes the results of the technical tests.

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  • 28.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Gustafsson, Mika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ihs, Anita
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Vägytans makrotextur och dess variation: vägytemätning med mätbil2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Early fault detection, particularly at construction stage, can result in substantial savings for the Swedish Transport Administration. A contributing element to these savings is to have a homogeneous bituminous surface structure. For example, load changes, at low temperatures, can create a heterogeneous surface structure that gives rise to premature maintenance needs. Established methods or macro texture measurement models are not currently available in Sweden. Other countries have made advances in this field but they have not yet had an impact in Sweden.

    An objective of this project is to maximize the possible use of existing measurement technology, quality and techniques associated with road surface measurement carried out by survey vehicles. In some cases, after a new surface has been laid, ‘object measurement’ is carried out by a survey vehicle. These measurements can be used to approve the surfacing contractor's performance in terms of longitudinal and transverse smoothness. A similar method, with specified values for homogeneous surface structures, will be developed in this project. An object is designed to provide a safe road surface throughout its design life expectancy. In order to be able to achieve this, it is important to discover surface shortcomings such as material separation. Four different models were tested in the project - all of which show promising results. Generally, all the models were able to identify the worst test surface. However, the actual "failed" road surface length of the object varied between models. This, above all, is a question of calibrating the models' limits. However, there is also potential to improve the model itself.

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  • 29.
    Said, Safwat F.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Rahman, Shafiqur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    McGarvey, Terence
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ahmed, Abubeker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Enocksson, Carl-Gösta
    Trafikverket.
    Utförandets inverkan på hållbarhet för beläggningslager2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-destructive testing in quantifying the asphalt pavement layers homogeneity can be used for the quality assurance in paving contracts. This paper summarizes the findings from a field study on segregation in bituminous pavement mixes that relates pavement layer surface texture to the homogeneity of the paved bituminous layer by distinguishing mix segregated area. The mean profile depth (MPD) values of paved layer were measured. Based on these values three locations on the road were identified having low, intermediate and high MPD values. Thereafter, cored samples were tested for stiffness modulus before and after moisture conditioning by performing the moisture induced sensitivity test (MIST). Results clearly showed that the samples from the locations with high MPD values were mostly affected by the moisture conditioning for which the stiffness moduli were significantly reduced. The samples with high MPD values had the highest air voids as well. Thus, this study demonstrated that construction quality described by segregation in the paved asphalt mix has a significant impact on the moisture sensitive performance of pavements. A limited number of falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measurements were performed at positions with different degree of separation in the road base layer. There was a tendency for the effect of separation in the road base layer on FWD even though there was a variation in data. The strong correlation between the MPD values and change in stiffness modulus also suggests that the measurements of the MPD values can be a reliable and non-destructive method for evaluating the construction quality of a pavement and in developing the quality assurance criteria based on pavement performance that can be used in paving contracts.

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  • 30.
    Sjögren, Leif
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Design an up to date rut depth monitoring profilometer, requirements and limitations2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sweden has a long tradition in road surface condition monitoring. There are two measures that have dominated the estimation of the road surface condition; namely rut depth and IRI (International Roughness Index). Rut depth is the estimate of unevenness in the transverse and IRI in the longitudinal direction of the road. Deformation or wear that shows up as rut depth are common in Sweden. One big reason is that there is a law to use winter tyres (usually studded) during the winter season. Yet another reason is the actual loads that are transported. To detect differences in wear origin certain specifications is needed to be fulfilled in the design of the monitoring device. This report will deal with findings and conclusions made from years of experience in Sweden. The organized road surface monitoring scheme started in the end of 1970: s. The result is stored in the Swedish PMS (Pavement Management System). Almost all paved roads maintained by the government have been monitored every year. In this paper the result is focused on 10 years of data from one of the seven regions in Sweden. The length of measured roads in this region, Mälardalen is approximately 3000 km per year. A mean transverse profile is stored every 20 meter of measured road. Each profile is estimated from 17 sensors.

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  • 31.
    Sjögren, Leif
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Svenska vägtillståndsmått då, nu och i morgon: del 2: nu - år 2005-20092011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish paved road network is, on a yearly basis, monitored by road surface testers in order to supply the road administration with objective condition data .The data is used to measure how well the decided road condition standard is achieved and in the road maintenance planning. The constant demand on the road administration to be more effective motivates the development of suitable and up to date indicators and tools. The management of roads and pavements is a very complex task and requires a comprehensive set of relevant indicators. The development is divided into three periods; 1987-2004, 2005-2009, 2010 and onward. This report covers the second period 2005-2009. The main principle in the development, covering this period has been to create new indicators by using already collected data that either on its own or in a combination forms the new indicator. Focus has been on indicating damage on low volume roads. The new indicators are edge deformation, distance between rut bottoms, rut area and rut width. Other indicators have also been developed to cover safety risks, localized roughness and calculated water area. From previously work macro texture indicated by MPD (Mean Profile Depth) is used to assess sections with risk for low friction at high speed and wet conditions.

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  • 32.
    Sjögren, Leif
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Andrén, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nya mått; ett underlag för en utvecklingsstrategi inom området vägytemätningar2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En förändrad behovsbild gör att det finns anledning att se över den information som samlas in vid tillståndsmätning av vägar. Behovet att underhålla det befintliga vägnätet ökar av flera skäl. Trafiken ökar och då särskilt andelen tunga fordon samtidigt som det byggs allt färre nya vägar. Den tillåtna fordonsvikten har ökat och kan komma att öka ytterligare, vidare kan belastningen på vägen öka till följd av ökat däcktryck. Äldre vägar är dimensionerade för andra förutsättningar och därmed uppkommer andra typer av skador på vägnätet.

    De mätmetoder och tillståndsmått som finns är inte förnyade i samma takt som ovanstående förutsättningar. Nya vägmaterial har kommit som gör vägen mer slitstark, vilket innebär att det kan vara andra egenskaper som bättre indikerar tillståndet än de gamla mätmetoderna och tillståndsmåtten.

    Enkätundersökningar bland transportanvändare har pekat på att man är mer och mer missnöjd med vägstandarden, tvärtemot vad de årliga tillståndsmätningarna visar. De övergripande tillståndsmätningar som hittills skett kanske inte längre speglar det man vill mäta? Nya eller kompletterande mått behövs.

    Rapporten beskriver förslag på mått som framkommit vid möten med Vägverkets regioner, mätleverantörer och med forskningsrepresentanter från Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI). Utifrån förslagen har ett urval av mått och mätmetoder som kan införas på relativt kort sikt gjorts.  

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  • 33.
    Sjögren, Leif
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Acceptance testing for road surface monitoring vehicles in Finland2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has carried out acceptance testing of companies that would like to do road surface monitoring in Finland. This has been done on commission of the Finnish Road Administration. This kind of acceptance testing has been done in Sweden by VTI in cooperation with the Swedish Road Administration several times (four times). With the experience of the tests in Sweden a test method adjusted for the Finnish needs have been composed. The purpose of the method is to accept or reject the participating companies for doing either object or network measurements or both. This is done by checking the validity and repeatability for the object part and the reproducibility for the network part. The tests for the object part involve measurements at test sections including measuring with reference methods as well as repeated measurements on a route. For the reproducibility test, done at the network measuring acceptance, runs with different combinations of vehicles and drivers/operators are carried out. The tests give answers to questions like: - The technical skill to measure according to the procurement specifications. - The ability and type of organisation to take care of and process data under given circumstances like this test. - The ability to deliver data of right quality in time. To be accepted as a contractor of network level measurements the company also has to be accepted for object measurements.

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  • 34.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Ekström, Camilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Säker framkomlighet: sammanfattande slutrapport 20152016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report consolidates evaluations performed within the project “Safe accessibility” on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration. Four different measures implemented on rural roads in Sweden with the aim to increase traffic safety and improve accessibility are investigated. The measures are; milled centerline rumble strips on rural 2-lane roads, shoulder rumble strips on motorways, narrow2+1 roads with median barrier and divided roads (painted 2+1 roads with median rumble strips).As regards traffic safety, all four measures show reductions in the number of fatalities and seriously injured. For milled centerline rumble strips on rural 2-lane roads, they do not have a confining effect on traffic and have no adverse effect on the rate of rutting. For barrier separated roads (2+1), the results indicated that for Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) levels greater than 8,000 vehicles, the annual rut depth development rate is about 25 percent higher than for conventional rural roads. With lower AADT levels, differences reduced to between 10–15 percent. Comparisons between divided roads and conventional roads only showed higher annual rut development rates for AADT levels greater than 8,000 vehicles. A study about the effects and consequences of different types of milled rumble strips showed that there are no known arguments for not using the sinus rumble strips. However, further studies on the impact of drivers of heavy vehicles are recommended. Studies of the effect on traffic efficiency showed that the proportion of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) is an important factor to consider in the design of narrow 2+1 roads and the proportion of HGVs need to be taken into account in the selection of the length of overtaking lanes.

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  • 35.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Ekström, Camilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Andrén, Peter
    Datamani.
    Säker framkomlighet: spårutveckling på mitträfflade, mötesfria och riktningsseparerade vägar2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project, rut depth development studies were carried out on road sections subjected to three specific types of traffic safety measure. The measures, implemented through the Swedish Transport Administration’s "Safe accessibility" project, included

    1. milled centre-line rumble strips
    2. narrow 2+1 roads with median barrier
    3. divided roads (painted 2+1 roads with median rumble strips)

    The introduction of centre-line rumble strips and barrier separation can result in traffic confinement and cause a reduction in the amount of vehicle lateral wander. This reduction is likely to increase the rate of rutting.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how annual rut development rates and rut area measurements – on conventional 2-lane roads with milled centre-line rumble strips, narrow barrier separated roads and divided roads – were affected by the introduction of these safety measures. With regards to centre-line rumble strips and comparisons between the test and control sections, results indicated that there were sometimes differences in the rut development rates. However, these differences were usually very small and inconsistent. The conclusions that can be drawn from the results are that centre-line rumble strips do not have a confining effect on traffic and have no adverse effect on the rate of rutting.

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