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  • 1. Alten, Karoline
    et al.
    Deix, Stefan
    Peelen, Willy
    Wessels, Jos
    Courage, Wim
    Ravnikar Turk, Mojca
    Skaric Palic, Sandra
    Acalin, Nina
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Asset service condition assessment methodology (ASCAM Project)2012In: EPAM 2012, Malmö, Sweden, 5–7 September: 4th European pavement and asset management conference, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2012, , p. 12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Allocating financial resources among different sub-assets of a country’s road infrastructure is a challenge that is highly dependent on the strategic priorities and organisational structure of the infrastructure operator. While some agencies in Europe deal with pavements, bridges, tunnels or road furniture completely independently, others find that they have one mutual budget that needs to be shared out among the different assets in a way that represents their respective need for maintenance. The criteria upon which such allocations are based may be political, empirical, or based on stakeholder/user interests. The goal of the project ASCAM – Asset Service Condition Assessment Methodology – was to develop a framework for cross-asset management that can be used to objectively assign a budget to certain assets. While previous research projects have already compiled lists of various key performance indicators, ASCAM aimed to find mutual indices such as an “end user service level” that could be used to judge all sub-assets on equal terms and thus compare their condition on the same scale.

    By looking at asset management in the ASCAM partner countries and other European road agencies, the best-practice in individual asset management was extracted to develop the framework and perform a proof-of-concept for the project. While other projects such as PROCROSS within the same ERA-NET call also worked on cross-asset management – but from a top-down approach – ASCAM’s bottom-up approach looked at the more technical aspects of evaluating infrastructure condition and making a budgetary assignment based on the current and predicted state of the assets.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Breda körfält på motortrafikled. Trafikanteffekter vid alternativ vägbanemålning på motortrafikled1992Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Johansen, Trond Cato
    Ramböll.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Nordic certification system for road marking materials: version 5:20182018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Nordic certification system for road marking materials was introduced in 2015. The system is based on documented performance measurements of material samples applied on test fields on public roads. From 2016, the certification system includes both flat (type I) and structured/profiled (type II) markings. Since 2017 the certification system also includes antiskid materials (a material with enhanced friction). From 2018 the certification system will also include temporary markings (Denmark only), and inlaid markings (Norway only).

    Material tests are carried out at two test sites: one in Norway and one in Denmark. The tests fields are situated on public roads and the tested materials are thus exposed to real traffic conditions and to weather conditions representative for the Nordic countries. The materials are followed up by performance measurements during one or two years. The certification includes requirements on coefficient of retroreflected luminance RL under dry and wet conditions, luminance coefficient under diffuse illumination Qd, friction and colour coordinates. The number of wheel passages is measured at the test sites annually. The certification system includes material identification, which allows for future material sampling and analysis.

    The certification system is based on the European standards EN 1824 Road marking materials Road trials, EN 1436 Road marking materials Road marking performance for road users, and EN 12802 Road marking materials Laboratory methods for identification.

    The report describes the certification system and how it is applied in the Nordic countries. Procedures and methods that are used for application of materials and performance measurements are specified.

  • 4.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Heldragen kantlinje på tvåfältsväg: hastighet och synbarhet2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate whether travel speed on two lane roads is influenced by the type of edge line. Another aim was to investigate whether there is a difference in durability for different line types. The study was carried out on a rural road segment. In year one, the entire road segment had a continuous edge line. In year two and three, half the segment had a continuous edge line, while the other half had a broken edge line. Travel speed of free flow passenger cars was measured each year, both in daylight and at night. The function of the edge lines was measured in terms of retroreflection and luminance coefficient. The results showed that the type of edge line did not have an influence on travel speed, neither in daylight nor at night. The preview time was significantly higher for the continuous than for the broken edge line. No difference in durability between the two line types could be observed during the two years the study was carried out. From a traffic safety and comfort perspective, the results point toward the use of continuous edge lines on two lane roads, at least on hilly and curving roads.

  • 5.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mätning av friktion på vägmarkering: jämförelse av olika metoder samt utveckling av modell för mobil mätning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For road markings, there is a performance requirement regarding friction, which is given in units obtained with handheld instruments. Such instruments are not suitable for assessment of friction on longer stretches of road, since it would be too time consuming and expensive. In order to be able to monitor a large road network and to assess whether the performance requirements are fulfilled, mobile measurement methods are needed, i.e. methods based on instruments mounted on vehicles. Besides, the friction that occurs between the tyres of a vehicle and the road surface is speed dependent. Handheld instruments reflect the friction that occurs in low speeds, while from a traffic safety perspective, friction in higher speeds is most relevant.

    The present report describes the results from two studies about methods for mobile assessment or estimation of road marking friction. In the first study, three different mobile methods, Road Friction Tester (RFT), Traction Watcher One (TWO) and Road Marking Tester (RMT), were compared to the handheld method Portable Friction Tester (PFT). In the second study, a prediction model for friction in higher speeds was developed, based on measurements of the coefficient of retroreflected luminance and the texture of the road marking.

    The first study showed that the different methods give different results, which is expected since the physical quantity coefficient of friction does not have a unique definition but is dependent on the properties of the instrument. In lower speeds, there were significant relationships between PFT and RFT, and between PFT and TWO (correlation coefficient 0,89 and 0,86, respectively). The relationships between PFT and RMT were somewhat weaker, although significant (correlation coefficients 0,65–0,71). In higher speeds, there was a significant relationship between RFT and TWO (correlation coefficient 0,80). The relationships between RMT and RFT, and between RMT and TWO, were weaker but significant (correlation coefficients 0,86–0,89). TWO gave lower friction values than the other methods. Measurement speed had an influence on the results obtained with RFT and TWO.

    In the second study, TWO was used as a reference when developing a prediction model for friction in higher speeds. The results showed that friction to some extent can be predicted from the coefficient of retroreflected luminance and the texture of the marking, but that the relationship is not strong enough for the model to be applicable. A limitation of the study is that there is no standardized method for measurement of road marking friction in higher speeds available. The reference method used, TWO, is developed for friction assessment of road surfaces and not for road markings, which implies that the ability of the instrument to assess road marking friction is somewhat uncertain.

  • 6.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Night-time traffic in urban areas: a literature review on road user aspects2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of this literature study is to review recent research on night-time traffic from a road user perspective. The report discusses road users' behaviour, needs and problems in relation to other road users as well as to traffic environment. The study includes 128 references from 1998-2008 and it mainly concerns urban areas. The report begins with a chapter about accident statistics, followed by a theoretical background that includes lighting terminology, Swedish regulations on road equipment, and the human eye and night vision. The main part of the report has its focus on five road user groups - drivers, pedestrians, bicyclists, older people and visually impaired people - and their needs, difficulties, performances and behaviour in night-time traffic. The literature gives relatively much information about drivers' situation in night-time traffic, but there is a lack of knowledge in some areas such as drivers' interaction with parts of the driving environment. Also, there is partly a lack of knowledge on pedestrians and older road users. Regarding bicyclists and visually impaired people, there is only very limited literature available.

  • 7.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Englundh, Stig
    Mobil mätning av vägbelysning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For most types of road equipment there are regulations that set the performance requirements. For example, a road marking must have a minimum retroreflectivity for it to have sufficient visibility. Regarding road lighting there are multiple performance requirements in the Swedish Transport Administration's requirements for road and street design (VGU), including requirements for allowed glare, demands on shielding, illuminance and road surface luminance. On most roads and streets, the luminance requirement is the most important parameter, not least because this is important for the possibility of detecting pedestrians.

    For a requirement in the regulations to be meaningful, it is important that it is possible to check if the requirements are met. However, luminance measurements are complicated and susceptible to interference from ambient light sources.

    The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype of an instrument which enables fast mobile measurements of road surface luminance without the risk of interference from other traffic.

    Completed tests with the instrument have shown that the measurement of road surface luminance on longer sections can be performed, without light interference from other traffic. The measurements are also relatively rapid and requires a minimum of manual data processing. The measurement system additionally has good accuracy which makes it suitable for condition assessment of road lighting.

  • 8.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tillståndsmätning av vägmarkeringars funktion 20142015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of road marking performance have been carried out from 21 May to 6 November 2014 on a sample of Swedish roads. The aim of the performance assessment is primarily to investigate to what extent the road markings fulfil the Swedish regulations. Besides, the assessment aims at comparing the road marking performance in different counties and regions, and to analyse the development over time, as performance assessments have been carried out to various extent since 2000. The results of the measurements in 2014 show that 39 per cent of the road marking objects fulfilled the requirements regarding dry road marking retroreflection. The corresponding figure for wet road markings was 21 per cent. With respect to dry road markings, Region Norr (North) and Region Väst (West) had the largest percentage of road marking objects that fulfilled the requirement, with 52 per cent each. Region Stockholm had the lowest percentage of road markings objects that fulfilled the requirements – only 12 per cent. Regarding wet road markings, the percentage of approved objects were 50 per cent in Region Norr (North) and in the range of 7–30 per cent in the other regions. A comparison over the years 2011–2014 shows a downward trend. The percentage of road marking length that fulfills the requirements for dry road markings has decreased from 70 per cent in 2011 to 60 per cent in 2014. The corresponding figures for the percentage of approved road marking objects are 52 per cent and 39 per cent, respectively. In four out of the six regions, the percentage of approved road marking objects has decreased from 2013 to 2014. In summary, the fulfilment of the requirements is in general low and there has been a downward trend since 2011. Furthermore, there is a substantial difference in results between the regions, where Region Norr (North), Region Väst (West) and Region Syd (South) have better results than the other regions. Region Stockholm has markedly worse results than the other regions. A total of 303 objects, each including two edge lines and one centre or lane line, i.e. three road marking objects, have been monitored using mobile equipment. The objects have been randomly selected, however in such a way that at least 14 objects per county have been included in the sample.

  • 9.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringar i Norden: en jämförelse mellan vägmarkeringars funktion i Norge, Sverige och Finland2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the present study was to compile and compare road marking performance in Norway, Sweden and Finland, in order to disseminate knowledge. More specifically, the study aimed at investigating whether there are any differences in road marking performance between the countries, and whether there are any differences in road marking performance depending on traffic volume and road width. The results showed that road marking performance tended to be somewhat better in Norway and Sweden than in Finland. The average of the retroreflexion for dry edge markings were in Norway 179, in Sweden 177 and in Finland 142. Corresponding results for centre lines were in Norway 137 (yellow markings), in Sweden 164 (white marking) and in Finland 102 (white marking) and 107 (yellow marking), respectively. For wet edge markings, the retroreflexion was 45 in Norway and 31 in Sweden. In Finland, no data on wet markings was available. Furthermore, the results showed that the retroreflexion of the edge markings was independent of average annual daily traffic (AADT) and roadway width. Centre markings on roads with AADT<2000 had lower retroreflexion than centre markings on roads with larger traffic volume. A sample of 98–167 objects were selected from each country, where each object consisted of a 2–10 kilometre long stretch of road. All objects were two-lane roads, which were divided into five classes based on AADT and roadway width. For each object, the retroreflexion of both edge lines and the centre line was measured.

  • 10.
    Goubert, Luc
    et al.
    Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC).
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Report of the first round robin test for mobile reflectometers: research carried out in the frame of the activities of CEN/TC 226/WG22011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile reflectometers for measurement of road marking retroreflectivity have been commercially available since the late 1990’s. It has been speculated that measurement errors are larger for these mobile instruments than for the traditional hand-held reflectometers. In order to get basic data for a new standard, CEN/TC 226/WG2 asked the Expert Panel to investigate measurement accuracy of mobile reflectometers. This investigation was carried out in a round robin test, in which the three most commonly used instruments in Europe participated: Ecodyn 30, LTL-M and Zehntner ZDR 6020. Two instruments of type Ecodyn were tested and one of each of the other two instruments; thus four reflectometers participated in the test. These instruments were denoted No. 1–4.

    A test route of 19 edge lines and 2 lane lines was defined. All edge lines were continuous, plane or profiled, while the lane lines were plane, 3 metres long with a gap of 9 metres. At each test site a section of 200 metres was measured, twice with each instrument. As reference, a hand-held reflectometer of type LTL-2000 was used. At each test site, a number of 32–38 readings were taken with this instrument.

  • 11.
    Helmers, Gabriel
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Detection distances to obstacles on the road seen through windscreens in different states of wear1988Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Helmers, Gabriel
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Räfflade kantlinjer: kontroll av vägrenens användning genom åtgärder som gör det obekvämt att köra på den1993Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Helmers, Gabriel
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Siktsträcka i halvljus till hinder på torra och våta vägbanor relaterade till vägbanornas reflexionsegenskaper1992Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Helmers, Gabriel
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Siktsträcka till reflex vid fordonsmöte i mörkertrafik1987Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Helmers, Gabriel
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Siktsträcka till vägmarkering i fordonsbelysning1991Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Helmers, Gabriel
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Visibility distances to retroreflectors in opposing situations between two motor vehicles at night1989Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Helmers, Gabriel
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lauridsen, Ib
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Åldring av retroreflekterande folier för vägmärken: resultat efter 3 års exponering. Delrapport, mars 20012001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet genomförs i nordisk samverken inom NMF

    (NordiskMörkertrafikForskning). Alla reflex-folier

    för vägmärken, som fanns på den nordiska marknaden 1997, har monterats på

    identiskt lika

    provskyltar som exponeras för trafik utefter landsväg på 9 provplatser:

    Damnark 2, Finland 2,

    Island 1, Norge 2 och Sverige 2. Provplatserna är valda så att de täcker in

    en stor klimatvariation.

    Efter "nymätning" vid utsättningen av provskyltarna 1997 görs mätning av

    retroreflexionen hos

    de rengjorda folierna under sensommaren varje år. Dessa mätningar har under

    år 2000 kompletterats

    med färgmätningar på ett antal provskyltar.

    I rapporten redovisas resultaten efter 3 års exponering.

    Projektet fortsätter.

  • 18.
    Helmers, Gabriel
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ytterbom, Uno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Herland, Lisa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vägmärkens sannolika "livslängd" och minsta godtagbara retroreflexion1999Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Helmers, Gabriel
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ytterbom, Uno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Upptäcktsavstånd till hinder på vägen i UV-ljus: Mätning i en simulerad fullskalig trafiksituation1993Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Herland, Lisa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mörkertrafik på väg med breda körfält1997Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Herland, Lisa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Omkörningsbeteende i trafikplatser på vägar med breda körfält1997Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Herland, Lisa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Provfält med vägmarkeringar på rv 351997Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    The influence of lighting, wall colour and inattention on traffic safety in tunnels: a simulator study2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the crash risk in tunnels is rather lower than on the open road network, crash consequences can be very severe. Therefore it is of high importance to assure high safety standard in tunnels, which includes, but is not limited to, an appropriate illumination. The aim of this study was to investigate in which way different levels of illumination and brightness of the tunnel walls influence the behaviour of attentive and inattentive drivers.

    The study was conducted in the Simulator III at VTI, which is a high-fidelity simulator with linear motion in lateral direction. A within-subjects design was employed, and 24 participants took part in the tests. Illumination was varied on three levels and tunnel wall colour and driver attention were varied on two levels each. Driving data, eye tracking data and subjective data were collected and analysed for an overtaking event and for an event-free driving situation.

    Bright walls were more important for experienced safety and comfort than high illumination level, as long as the illumination was sufficiently bright. Further, driving behaviour and gaze behaviour were heavily influenced by driver state, with distracted drivers showing more unsafe behaviour. Additionally, bright walls received slightly lower demand ratings than dark walls.

  • 24.
    Kjellman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Analys av livscykelkostnader för vägmärken med fokus på reflexmaterial2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is unknown if the road signs with retroreflective sheeting on Swedish roads meet the current requirements for a performance where good reading and discoverability are the targets. No inventory of road signs on state roads is done and no registry for mounted road signs, date of mounting and quality of signs are available.

    This project aims at analyzing life cycle costs for road signs on state roads through inventory of existing road signs on the state road network. Lifetime is determined by several parameters, but primarily by retroreflection requirements according to the Swedish Transport Administration's document Standard Description for Basic Road Maintenance (SBV) and colour requirements according to SS-EN 12899-1.

    The lifetime was determined by observing approximately 300 road signs in the field. The road signs were randomly selected from the Swedish Transport Administration's regions West and Mid. Information about these road signs, such as year of manufacture, how much light they reflect, what colour coordinates they have and what compass direction they were mounted in were registered. Road signs with five different bottom colours were invented; white (road to local destination in urban area), blue (public road), red (stop), green (road to or on motorway) and yellow (private roads). The signs belong to three different classes; RA1, RA2 and RA3B. The classes differ in terms of the amount of light reflected, where the RA3B reflects most. The costs of road signs, posts and foundations were collected through telephone interviews with five different contractors.

  • 25.
    Koronna-Vilhelmsson, Irena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ytterbom, Uno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Samband mellan torra och våta vägmarkeringars funktion: pilotstudie1999Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Koucheki, Behzad
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utvärdering av vägmarkeringar tillhörande klass 2 och 3 i VMN, VST och VN2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars retroreflexion har gjorts i varierande utsträckning i Sverige sedan år 2000. Företrädesvis har mätningarna gjorts på det högtrafikerade vägnätet, på vägar tillhörande vägmarkeringsklass 3, men under senare år har alltfler mätningar gjorts även på vägar med mindre trafik, vägar tillhörande vägmarkeringsklass 2. Syftet med mätningarna har varit att besvara två viktiga frågor: - I vilken utsträckning uppfylls kraven enligt Vägverkets interna föreskrift, Regler för Underhåll av Vägmarkering (RUV)? - Hur har vägmarkeringarnas funktion förändrats över tiden? Föreliggande notat redovisar detaljerat resultaten från mätningarna 2005 och sammanfattande resultat för torra vägmarkeringar från hela perioden 2000-2005.

  • 27.
    Koucheki, Behzad
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mobila mätningar av vägmarkeringars retroreflexion i Sverige 2006: en översikt2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    During the year of 2006 a large number of mobile measurements of road marking retroreflectivity were carried out in Sweden. In total, the retroreflectivity of dry markings was measured on 386 road stretches. Additionally, indirect measurements (predictions) of retroreflectivity of wet road markings were made on 25 road stretches. The measurements had different aims and were not carried out in the same way everywhere, which means that it is difficult to compare results from different regions and, in some cases, even results within the same region. The method for selection of road stretches to be measured and the length of the road stretches have varied between the regions and different kinds of instruments have been used. In three regions also the function of wet road markings has been predicted. All of this means that the results should be interpreted with some caution and that making comparisons between the regions is not meaningful. It is obvious that there is a lot to gain by co-ordinating the function measurements of road markings in the future. Naturally, the regions themselves must decide the extent of the function controls, but when measuring is decided, the strategy for measurement should be managed in such a way that comparisons between counties and regions can be made, and desired issues can be solved. In general, there is a need to consider if the strategy used since the year of 2000 is good.

  • 28.
    Lauridsen, Ib
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, S-O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Målinger af faerdselsstribers SL-vaerdier i marts-augusti måned 19901991Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Linden, Sven-Åke
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utvärdering av hög mittbarriär på Essingeleden1999Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Lundkvist, S-O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utveckling av objektiv metod för mätningar av vägens visuella ledning1991Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Lundkvist, S-O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s erfarenheter rörande vägmarkeringars retroreflexionsegenskaper1986Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Lundkvist, S-O
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Helmers, G
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ytterbom, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Specific luminance measurements of road markings and road surfaces in the field: Comparisons between instruments1980Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Lundkvist, S-O
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Helmers, Gabriel
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ströljusluminans i vindrutor1987Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Lundkvist, S-O
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, B
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vägkantstolpars funktionella egenskaper1984Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Lundkvist, S-O
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, K
    Reflection properties of road markings in vehicle headlight illumination1980Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    A study of different types of road markings as related to retro-reflectivity and wear1989Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Alternativt utformade stigningsfält1994Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Analys av utvärdering av sex reflektometrar i USA2000Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Anordning som känner av och larmar vid passage av väglinjer1990Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Belysningstekniska grundbegrepp1993Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Beurteilung des LTL-M: mobile Messung von Strassenmarkierungen2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Das LTL-M, eine Ausrüstung für die mobile Messung der Rückstrahlung von Straßenmarkierungen, wurde von DELTA Light & Optics in Dänemark entwickelt. Dieses Gerät setzt ein anderes optisches Prinzip als das bisher übliche mobile Gerät ein. das Ecodyn 30. Das optische System des LTL-M könnte zu höherer Genauigkeit und besserer Wiederholbarkeit führen. Durch simultane Messungen mit den beiden mobilen Geräten und als Referenz mit dem Irlandmessgerät LTL-2000 wurden die Genauigkeit und Wiederholbarkeit des LTL-M und des Ecodyn 30 eingeschätzt. Die Messungen erfolgten im Labor an Proben von Straßenmarkierungen und in einer Feldstudie an durchgehenden und unterbrochenen Seitenlinien. Die Schlussfolgerung dieser Studie ist, dass das LTL-M mit weniger systematischen und Zufallsfehlern als das Ecodyn 30 misst. Außerdem ist die Wiederholbarkeit des LTL-M besser als die Wiederholbarkeit des Ecodyn 30.

  • 42.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Breda körfält på 13-metersväg1992Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En studie av trafikens sidolägesplacering och hastighet har tidigare gjorts på E4 vid Traryd. Denna 13 meter breda väg hade tidigare den traditionella, breda vägrenen och körfält med bredden 3,75 meter. Efter ommålningen är körfälten 5,50 meter breda och heldragna kantlinjer avskiljer de 1,00 meter breda vägrenarna. Den tidigare studien har kompletterats med mätningar avlångtidseffekten (mätning ett år efter ommålning) samt en studie av fordonens placering och hastighet då en fotgängare befinner sig på vägrenen.

    Mätningar har gjorts dag och natt under nästan 1 1/2dygn på två platser på delen med ny målning (heldragen kantlinje, breda körfält) och på två platser på delen som har konventionell målning. Den ena mätplatsen på respektive sträcka har varit identisk med tidigare mätplatser.

  • 43.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    E22 genom Blekinge: Olycksstudie samt besiktning av motortrafikleden1994Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effekter av UV-ljus i mörkertrafik1993Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Empiriska studier till grund för funktionskontroll av vägmarkeringar: mätningar i region väst 19971998Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    En inventering av vindrutors slitagetillstånd1993Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    En inventering av vägmarkeringarnas funktion i Sverige: fältmätningar med metodstudie2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a method for determining the performance of road markings in Sweden. The retroreflection (night-time visibility) of road markings in summer 2000 has been measured all over Sweden.

    The report describes how to sample and analyse data in order to compare the performance of road markings in the Road Administration Regions of Sweden. The result of this comparison is also presented.

  • 48.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Evaluation de l'Ecodyn 30: Validation d'un instrument mobile pour la mesure de la retroreflexion des marquages routiers1999Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Evaluation of Ecodyn 30: Validation of a mobile instrument for measuring the retroreflection of road markings1999Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Evaluation of the LTL-M: mobile measurement of road marking2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    An equipment for mobile measurement of road marking retroreflectivity, the LTL-M, has been developed by DELTA Light & Optics in Denmark. This instrument uses a different optical principle than the mobile instrument commonly used until now, the Ecodyn 30. The optical system used by the LTL-M might lead to better accuracy and repeatability. By simultaneous measurements using the two mobile instruments and, as the reference, the hand-held LTL-2000, the accuracy and repeatability of the LTL-M and Ecodyn 30 were estimated. Measurements were carried out in the laboratory on road marking samples and in the field on continuous and broken edge lines. The conclusion of the study is that the LTL-M measures with less systematic and random errors compared to the Ecodyn 30. Furthermore, the repeatability of the LTL-M is better than the repeatability of the Ecodyn 30.

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