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  • 1.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Marginal railway track renewal costs: A survival data approach2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 87, p. 68-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, renewal costs for railway tracks are investigated using survival analysis. The purpose is to derive the effect from increased traffic volumes on rail renewal cycle lengths and to calculate associated marginal costs. A flow sample of censored data containing almost 1300 observations on the Swedish main railway network is used. We specify Weibull regression models, and estimate deterioration elasticities for total tonnage as well as for passenger and freight tonnages separately. Marginal costs are calculated as a change in present values of renewal costs from premature renewal following increased traffic volumes. The marginal cost for total tonnage is estimated to approximately SEK 0.002 per gross ton kilometre.

  • 2.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Att bedöma säkerhetsnivån på spårbunden trafik i Sverige: en granskning av Transportstyrelsens befintliga data och förslag på fördjupade analyser2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) has been commissioned by The Swedish Transport Agency to analyse if the latter’s existing data can be used to estimate the level of safety of rail traffic in Sweden in a manner meeting the standards of the European commission. The analysis will show if the required information is available through the existing system, or if there is an increased need for data collection, and if so, what and how it should be collected. The commission also includes suggesting areas for further analysis. In the report, first a short description of the Swedish Transport Agency’s internal IT-system TRAP event is given. In TRAP event, serious accidents, incidents, and significant errors/flaws reported by the operators, are registered. We also make an assessment of the feasibility of estimating safety measures, defined by the European Commission, from TRAP event data, rather than through an annual safety report from the operators as is done today. Then we will give suggestions as to how the existing follow-up of accidents and risk factors can be refined, which analytical models that are feasible, and finally give suggestions for further data collection to enable in-depth analyses. The Swedish Transport Agency has today a large amount of information about events, vehicles, companies and infrastructure stored in different registers in the TRAP system. If it were possible to access more of these variables using search terms, if the data from different register in a higher degree than today could be combined, both within The Swedish Transport Agency and to databases managed by other agencies, more thorough analyses concerning incidents and accidents in rail traffic would be possible. However, today some information regarding many events is missing and more effort, both from The Swedish Transport Agency and the operators, is necessary in order to enable such analyses. Also, data regarding the common safety measures should be added to TRAP event to explore the relations between the safety measures, vehicle types, infrastructure, operators, etc.

  • 3.
    Ekström, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Hellman, FredrikSwedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.Haraldsson, MattiasSwedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Sammanställning av referat från Transportforum 20192019Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    VTI arrangerade Transportforum 9–10 januari 2019 i Linköping Konsert & Kongress. En konferens, som är störst i sitt slag i Norden och som 2019 innehöll 90 sessioner med en stor variation mellan ämnen. Temat för 2019 års inledande session var elektrifiering – möjligheter och utmaningar att nå klimatmålen.

  • 4.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Diskreta valmodeller för analys av urbana transport- och distributionssystem2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det arbete som presenteras här, syftar till att pröva ekonometriska analysmetoder för det tvärsnittsdata som samlas in i projektet. Metoderna appliceras på ett datamaterial som tidigare samlats in, och som i flera viktiga avseenden har en struktur som liknar det material som ska analyseras framledes. I notatet utförs analyser av detta material i syfte att testa logitmodellens lämplighet för det fortsatta forskningsarbetet. Utöver att testa logitmodellens värde bidrar arbetet också till en fördjupad analys av det befintliga materialet. Dessutom prövas en teknik för att ersätta saknade data.

  • 5.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Distansarbetares resmönster och karakteristik: deskriptiv statistik från RES2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta notat innehåller beskrivande statistik av delar av den nationella

    resvaneundersökningen, RES, 1999-2001 som bedöms ha relevans för en

    undersökning av sambandet mellan distansarbete och olika aspekter av resande.

    Undersökningen ingår i projektet "Resebeteende och markanvändning i

    informationssamhället" som finansieras av Vinnova. Ett urval av deskriptiva

    mått över resebeteende, distansarbete och annan karakteristik hos individerna

    presenteras. Den deskriptiva statistiken ska ge en sammanfattande bild av de

    variabler som är av primärt intresse samt utgöra stöd vid val av

    kontrollvariabler.

  • 6.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Effects of distance work on the activity-travel pattern2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates the long run effects of distance work on various aspects of the activity-travel pattern. Estimations are made using econometric matching on a data material from the Swedish travel survey, RES, a travel diary collected in the period 1999-2001. The activity-travel pattern of men seems to be irresponsive to distance work, while some aspects of the activity-travel pattern of women change due to distance work. For instance, it is found that distance-working women adopt a more "local" lifestyle where purchases and child care are moved closer to home.

  • 7.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginal costs for road maintenance and operation: a cost function approach2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using observational data covering the whole Swedish national road network for the period 1998-2002, this paper estimates a set of maintenance and operation cost functions. It is found that costs for all operation and maintenance measures increase with traffic intensity, with two exceptions; total operation and winter operation measures are fixed cost activities. All other operation and maintenance measures have short run elasticities in the range 0.25-0.60. The impact of an additional vehicle is generally manifested in extra maintenance and operation costs, not only while the vehicle is using the road, but later on as well. Point estimates of long run cost elasticities are higher than one in general.

  • 8.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginalkostnader för drift och underhåll av det nationella vägnätet: skattningar med data från 2004-–20092012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using observed costs for operation and maintenance of the Swedish national road network, together with information about the amount of traffic and a description about the road network for the period 2004–-2009 cost functions are estimated. From these functions cost elasticity is derived and marginal costs are computed. The results of the estimations from these years are in this study compared to analyses of a similar but older dataset covering the years 1998–-2002. The results are reasonably consistent in some cases while in other cases differences are found between the two datasets. Given the limited amount of empirical results about these issues, the differences are not strikingly large. No obvious contradictions between analyses based on the older and newer dataset are found. Our view is that results from the two datasets in some sense confirm each other, although more data is required to establish more precise estimates of cost elasticity and marginal costs. From the analyses performed in this study the marginal costs can be estimated within an interval corresponding to 5–30 percent of the average costs.

    Our estimates show that marginal costs for operation and maintenance of the national road network are lower than the average costs (all elasticity is in the range 0.31–0.85). The cost increase in paved road maintenance resulting from an extra truck kilometer is about

    0.21–0.32 Swedish crowns. For gravel roads the corresponding marginal cost is about

    1.65–2.72 Swedish crowns. For operation measures the marginal cost is 0 Swedish crowns on paved roads and 0.15–0.24 Swedish crowns per vehicle kilometer on gravel roads. The per vehicle kilometer cost for winter maintenance is estimated to 0.01–0.02 Swedish crowns.

  • 9.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Samhällsekonomi i modern spårvägstrafik2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten studeras resandet på Tvärbanan i Stockholm och Kringen i

    Göteborg. Trafikvolymerna granskas mot bakgrund av samhällsekonomiska

    analyser och prognoser som gjorts inför projekten. Dessutom förs en generell

    och översiktlig diskussion om s.k. indirekta effekter. De kalkyler som gjorts

    för Tvärbanan visar i allmänhet på dålig lönsamhet, men baseras på

    sträckningar som inte fullt ut är jämförbara med den som faktiskt byggdes. Om

    en jämförelse mellan prognostiserat och faktiskt resande ändå görs förefaller

    prognoserna ha överskattat resandet. Att viktiga förutsättningar såsom

    bebyggelseutveckling, turtäthet m.m. inte blivit som planerat gör dock

    jämförelsen vansklig. Oavsett vilka orsakerna är så medför det låga resandet

    dock att nyttan också blir lägre. Kringen består till skillnad från Tvärbanan

    av delar som infogas i ett befintligt system. Att mäta resandeeffekter är

    därför mycket svårt. Utbyggnaden beräknades vara samhällsekonomiskt lönsam i

    jämförelse med ett oförändrat system, med resenärsvinster som mest

    betydelsefulla nyttopost. Olika mätningar indikerar att byggandet av Kringen

    kan ha påverkat resandet med Göteborgs spårvagnar positivt, samtidigt som

    annan statistik visar en fallande trend. All statistik om resandet på Kringen

    är emellertid mycket osäker. Beträffande indirekta effekter konstateras det i

    rapporten att sådana sannolikt existerar och också ofta används som argument

    för olika projekt. Att utnyttja icke-kvantifierbar information har ett visst

    stöd i de riktlinjer som ska användas vid planering av infrastrukturprojekt,

    samtidigt som ambitionen är att så långt som möjligt utveckla metoder för att

    fånga effekter kvantitativt. Slutligen konstateras att det i allmänhet

    förefaller vara svårt att få samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet i spårbunden urban

    kollektivtrafik, vilket eventuellt kan bero på att den använda kalkylmetoden

    är i behov av utveckling eller förfining.

  • 10.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The marginal cost for pavement renewal: a duration analysis approach2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The wear and tear of an extra vehicle that uses a road results in advancement of future repavements. This increases the present value cost of these repavements, which is interpreted as the marginal cost. Using a large data set covering all pavement renewals on the Swedish national road network since the 1950s, deterioration elasticities that express the relation between traffic intensity and the pavement lifetime are estimated and are then used to compute marginal costs. The elasticities for heavy goods vehicles and passenger cars are found to be small and marginal costs are accordingly low.

  • 11.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Travel behaviour and land use in the information society: Literature review and problem discussion2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to review literature relevant for studies about the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on transportation. The review will be used as a starting point for a research project at Swedish national road and transport research institute (VTI) and the department of economics, Uppsala university. To the relevant literature belongs of course empirical studies. But for the planned research it is maybe even more important to find suitable theoretical models. Therefore a quite comprehensive literature review of activity based transport research is included as well. Finally the report contains a brief description of data sources to be used in the project.

  • 12.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Estimating the economic lifetime of roads using road replacement data2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the economic lifetime of roads in Sweden using a data over kilometres of new roads together with a "centrality" index constructed from population statistics. The relation between economic lifetime and centrality is performed by poisson regression. It is shown that roads in more central parts of the country and in parts more affected by population changes (increase) generally have shorter economic lifetimes. The analysis shows economic lifetimes of Swedish roads to be between 25 and 111 years, with the majority of the economic lifetimes in the upper part of this range (above 70 years).

  • 13.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys av rundvirkestransporter med 90-tonslastbilar: delprojekt inom Sammodalitetsprojektet2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to make a cost benefit analysis, showing how costs for truck transports of round wood would change if vehicles with a total weight of 90 tonnes were used instead of the 60-tonne vehicles that are currently in use. The analysis has two parts. First, costs per vehicle kilometre are presented for both vehicle sizes. This gives a good general view but does not take into account the various conditions with regard to road type, etcetera, that affect costs. Neither does it take into account that the amount of vehicle kilometres associated with round wood transports changes if larger vehicles are allowed. Therefore a scenario analysis is also performed. The basis for this analysis is simulations using the Swedish transport and logistics system Samgods. Flow estimates from Samgods are combined with road attribute data from the national road database (NVDB) to compute the total transport cost, including externalities. In these computations road type and other situation specific factors are taken into account. The scenario analysis is summarized by the total annual cost for road transports of round wood in Sweden. Due to the simulations the amount of vehicle kilometres are reduced by 21 percent if 60-tonne vehicles are replace by 90-tonne vehicles, given that the capacity of bridges is left without regard. In socioeconomic terms this equals cost reduction of 4 per cent of 163 million Swedish crowns annually. It should be kept in mind, though, that costs for improving bridge capacity, which is required for this scenario to be realized, are not included in the analysis. When 90-tonne vehicles are not allowed to pass bridges with limited bearing capacity, larger vehicles do not generally improve efficiency. There are however some important round wood transport routes where larger vehicles are possible to use without any measures to improve bridges.

  • 14.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Marginalkostnadsskattningar för buss och lätt lastbil: buller, trafiksäkerhet och vägslitage2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to estimate marginal costs for noise, traffic safety and road wear and tear for buses and light trucks. The noise costs are computed using the Nord 2000 model together with values from ASEK 5. Marginal costs for traffic safety are estimated using accident information from STRADA, together with a distribution showing the shares of traffic in urban and non-urban areas and values from ASEK 5. The marginal costs for road wear and tear are computed by an adjustment of costs for average weighted vehicles from ASEK 5. The adjustment is based on the number of equivalent standard axle loadings. For buses the number of standard axles is computed using information from the road traffic registry. The number of standard axles on light trucks is computed using the maximum total weight of that vehicle category. The marginal cost for noise is differentiated between roads with various traffic load and roads with differently populated surroundings.

  • 15. Link, Heike
    et al.
    Stuhlemmer, Anna
    DIW Berlin.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Abrantes, Pedro
    Wheat, Phil
    Iwnicki, Simon
    Nash, Chris
    Smith, Andrew
    ITS.
    Cost allocation Practices in the European Transport Sector2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable D1, Cost Allocation practices in the European Transport Sector, is one of two reports from WP1 - State of the art methodology and survey of existing practice. It summarises the existing practice of cost estimation and cost allocation in all modes of transport. Its purpose is to identify gaps and open issues in allocation methods which currently prevent the use of marginal cost figures in pricing, and to analyse the methodological background of available studies. As the whole CATRIN project, the focus is on infrastructure costs, e.g. on the costs of providing, maintaining, renewing and operating infrastructure. The second deliverable from WP1 provides the internal blueprint for the case studies to be conducted in CATRIN.

  • 16.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar från transporter i olika delar av Sverige: sammanfattning och slutsatser från arbetet med luftkvalitet i SAMKOST2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att genom några beräkningsexempel klargöra hur de externa kostnaderna för luftföroreningar varierar mellan transportslag och geografi i Sverige, samt att tydliggöra vilka faktorer som ligger bakom dessa skillnader. Syftet är också att sätta in dessa resultat i en internationell kontext för att beskriva hur den svenska situationen förhåller sig till den som råder i andra länder både när det gäller miljöproblemen som orsakas av utsläpp till luft men också arbetet med att utforma miljöarbetet baserat på denna kunskap. Det senare är viktigt för att kunna föra en diskussion om hur Sverige påverkas av och kan bidra till internationellt luftvårdsarbete, framförallt inom EU eftersom den största påverkan av utsläpp från transportsektorn i Sverige sker inom Europa. Vi har i arbetet med SAMKOST studerat effekter på såväl lokal som regional nivå utifrån den metodik som tillämpas inom EU där hälsoeffekter utvärderas baserat på marginella haltförändringar i det som kallas urban eller regional bakgrund. De underlag som tagits fram i SAMKOST-projekten skiljer sig därför från flertalet svenska studier som oftast bedömer effekterna av den totala halten utan hänsyn till källa eller åtgärd. De modelleringar som är grunden för beräkningarna har genomförts av SMHI vilket säkerställer att resultaten är jämförbara mellan de olika transportslagen.

  • 17.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Redovisning av regeringsuppdrag kring trafikens samhällsekonomiska kostnader: SAMKOST 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting in 2013, VTI has been tasked with three government missions to improve knowledge about the traffic's socioeconomic costs. SAMKOST 3 has covered all modes of transport, but focus has been on maritime transport and aviation. The main purpose of the analysis is to improve the knowledge about the external costs of the traffic i.e. costs of accidents, congestion, noise, air pollution and climate impact. This final report summarizes the results of the sub-reports that have been prepared to meet the purpose. An important part of the analysis has been an in-depth discussion of the role of Sweden’s carbon dioxide tax on fuels to limit emissions.

  • 18.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    SAMKOST 2: redovisning av regeringsuppdrag kring trafikens samhällsekonomiska kostnader2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2012, the government commissioned VTI to update the social marginal costs for using infrastructure for all modes of transport based on state-of-the-art knowledge in the research community. A final report was submitted in December 2013 and shortly after, the government extended VTIs commission. The present report summarizes the results of the extended mission. In the same way as in SAMKOST 1, the taxation of fuel is substantially higher than the costs generated by passenger cars that use the road network. It is also concluded that heavy vehicles are charged less than the costs inflicted by using roads.

    Users of railway infrastructure are charged track user charges which are below marginal costs for using tracks.

    Estimates of the marginal costs emanating from merchant shipping include piloting, icebreaking and accident risks, all emanating from the activities of the Swedish Maritime Administration. A new study of emissions from shipping is part of the background work within SAMKOST 2. Overall, current levels of fees charged by the Swedish Maritime Administration is well below the industry’s costs.

    There are no indications that landings and take-offs at airports have consequences for the need for maintenance and renewal of runways. The marginal costs of aviation are primarily related to emissions and noise. Charges for national flights may be fairly close to marginal costs while costs for European and in particular inter-continental flights are substantially higher than the different types of charges levied. It is, however, important to emphasize that conclusions regarding shipping and in particular aviation are less certain than when the comparison concerns road and railway charges relative to marginal costs.

  • 19.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Yarmukhamedov, Sherzod
    Riksrevisionen.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    The marginal cost of track reinvestments in the Swedish railway network: using data to compare methods2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analyze the difference between survival and corner solution models in estimating the marginal cost of reinvestments. Both approaches describe the reinvestment process in rather intuitively similar ways but have several methodological distinctions. We use Swedish railway data on track segment and section levels over the period 1999-2016 and focus on reinvestments in track superstructure. Results suggest the marginal costs from survival and corner solution models are SEK 0.0041 and SEK 0.0103, respectively. The conclusion is that the corner solution model is more appropriate, as this method consider the impact traffic has on the risk of reinvestment as well as on the size of the reinvestment cost. The survival approach does not consider the latter, which is problematic when we have systematic variations in costs due to traffic and infrastructure characteristics.

  • 20.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Utvecklingen på telemarknaderna efter regelreformerna2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1993, the Telecommunications Act formally opened the market for telecommunications in Sweden for entry. After 10 years, it was replaced by the Electronic Communications Act (LEK) both to implement a set of EU Directives, and to adapt to technological developments and changing market conditions. The purpose of this study of the telecommunications market in Sweden is to follow up the political objectives for the regulatory reforms in 2003 formulated in the relevant bills and also present an account of the impact of the reform from a consumer perspective. In our synopsis we emphasized that an important part of an assessment of a regulatory reform is to assess the counterfactual technology and market developments that could have taken place without the regulatory reform. This basically means to assess the extent to which an observed sequence of events depends on the regulatory reform and to what extent it depends on other circumstances. This memorandum examines how prices, demand, market shares and investment in telephony and broadband developed after 2003. It also, to some extent, describes how the regulation changed and evolved. Today, the regulations to be analyzed are applied in seven producer markets where telecom companies trade with each other, while the impact of the regulatory framework is observed at user markets i.e. the end customer.

  • 21.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hushållens inköpsmönster och val av dagligvarubutiker i Trollhättan, Västerås och Östersund2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I projektet Samhällsekonomisk analys av dagligvaruhandelns strukturomvandling undersöks hushållens inköpsmönster och preferenser avseende butiksstruktur med hjälp av enkätundersökningar. Undersökningarna syftar bl.a. till att avgöra om den pågående strukturomvandlingen, med allt fler externt lokaliserade stormarknader och ett uttunnat nät av butiker i bostadsområden, kan sägas vara samhällsekonomiskt effektiv. Att allt fler utnyttjar stora butiker i städernas ytterområden för sina dagligvaruinköp är ett välkänt faktum. Vad som däremot inte har blivit klarlagt är om individer i allmänhet anser att utvecklingen är positiv eller om det är någon annan utvecklingsinriktning som egentligen efterfrågas.

    Syftet med undersökningen är att kartlägga faktiska inköpsmönster och att beskriva och analysera hushållens preferenser angående dagligvaruhandelns utformning och strukturomvandling.

    En central forskningsfråga utgörs av om hushållens beteende verkligen avspeglar egentliga preferenser om hur dagligvaruhandeln borde vara utformad, eller om beteendet helt eller delvis påverkas av en uppgivenhet beträffande möjligheterna att med egna inköp påverka butiksnätets utformning. En närbesläktad problematik utgörs av skillnaden i preferenser mellan boende i samma bostadsområde. Om boende i samma område har vitt skilda uppfattningar om hur butiksnätet borde vara utformat, försvåras möjligheterna att åstadkomma effektiva lösningar som förmår att tillfredsställa efterfrågan.

    Den enkät som används har utformats för att ge svar på hur hushållen faktiskt handlar och vilka preferenser de har angående dagligvaruhandelns utformning. Inom ramen för den analys som presenteras här kommer fokus att riktas mot den andra frågeställningen, medan det faktiska inköpsmönstret beskrivs översiktigt.  

  • 22.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Invånarna i Sundsvall och trafiken i innerstaden: resultat från en enkätundersökning2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är viktigt att den avvägning som faktiskt görs när det gäller

    utformningen av en innerstad motsvarar den som invånarna efterfrågar. Det är

    dock förenat med vissa problem att ta reda på hur invånarna vill att trafiken

    ska utformas. Det finns ingen marknad där varje individ kan köpa den

    ”stadsmiljö” som han eller hon vill ha.

    Den enskilde individens användning av olika transportmedel och resvanor har

    heller ingen som helst effekt på situationen i stort. Så länge som det inte

    finns några garantier för att andra kommer att göra samma sak, finns det få

    anledningar för en enskild individ att försöka påverka stadsmiljön till det

    bättre genom att till exempel köra mindre bil i innerstaden.

    Detta innebär att kommunens stadsplanering måste ta ansvaret för trafikens

    utformning i centrum. Frågan är dock vilket beslutsunderlag som kommunen ska

    använda?

    En möjlighet är att utforma enkäter med olika alternativa utformningar eller

    scenarier och den vägen ta reda på hur efterfrågan ser ut, vilket är den

    metod som VTI-forskarna Tomas Svensson och Mattias Haraldsson valt för sin

    undersökning i Sundsvall som nu presenteras i ett VTI-notat.

    Utifrån fördelningen på de olika svarsalternativen i denna undersökning kan

    Sundsvallsbornas inställning till utformningen av innerstadens trafikmiljö

    sammanfattas på följande sätt: en tredjedel av de tillfrågade anser att

    dagens situation är tillfredsställande och tycker inte att en utveckling mot

    ökad eller minskad biltillgänglighet skulle leda till någon förbättring. En

    minoritet anser att innerstaden i högre utsträckning bör öppnas upp för

    ytterligare biltrafik. Två förhållandevis stora grupper av de tillfrågade som

    tillsammans utgör en majoritet, är för en utformning av innerstadens

    gatumiljö som är mer restriktiv när det gäller biltrafik än vad som är läget

    idag. Den ena gruppen stödjer långtgående förändringar där gatuutrymmet i

    princip helt tas över av fotgängare, cyklister och busstrafik och där privat

    biltrafik utgör ett undantag. Den andra gruppen förespråkar mer försiktiga

    åtgärder där bilar fortfarande tillåts trafikera ett antal av gatorna, men i

    lägre hastighet och på ett mer begränsat utrymme i jämförelse med dagens

    situation.

  • 23.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Invånarna i Örebro och trafiken i innerstaden: resultat från en enkätundersökning2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En enkät innehöll tre olika framtidsbilder för trafikens utformning i

    centrala Örebro skickades ut till invånarna i Örebro. Enkäten finns med som

    bilaga till rapporten. Närmare 17 (16,8) procent av de tillfrågade anser att

    centrala Örebro i högre grad än idag bör anpassas till biltrafik enligt

    alternativet Bättre framkomlighet och mer gatuutrymme åt bilarna i centrala

    Örebro. I detta alternativ utformas gatumiljön först och främst med tanke på

    god tillgänglighet för bilar och goda parkeringsmöjligheter med låga

    avgifter. Vissa bilfria zoner som gågator behålls, men i huvudsak medför

    alternativet att biltrafiken ges större utrymme, vilket innebär ökad

    biltrafik i innerstaden. Framkomligheten för fotgängare och cyklister

    försämras av mindre utrymme och tätare biltrafik. Lägre hastighetsgränser

    inom centrala Örebro är majoritetens val också bland de hushåll och individer

    som i stor utsträckning använder bilen i sitt dagliga liv. Därför är det mest

    intressanta resultat som följer av analysen, och som på ett tydligt sätt

    signaleras av det totala utfallet för huvudfrågan, att en stor majoritet av

    dem som kör och parkerar bil i dagsläget i centrala Örebro föredrar en

    omläggning av trafiken i innerstaden till förmån för cykel-, gång- och

    kollektivtrafik. Denna förändring ska göras på bekostnad av tillgänglighet

    för trafik och parkering med bil. Av de örebroare som trafikerar gatunätet i

    centrala Örebro med bil en genomsnittlig dag är en stor majoritet anhängare

    av de två framtidsbilder där utrymmet för biltrafik och bilparkering minskas.

    Detta resultat är ett kraftfullt stöd för diskussionen i inledningen av

    sammanfattningen och visar på behovet av den typ av undersökningar som

    redovisas här. En stor majoritet av invånarna i Örebro är anhängare av mindre

    biltrafik och bilparkering i centrala Örebro under förutsättning att den

    minskande tillgängligheten med bil samtidigt ger direkta positiva

    konsekvenser för möjligheterna att gå, cykla och åka med buss i samma område.

    En sådan omläggning av trafiken uppfattas av de flesta invånare i Örebro stad

    och kommun som att Örebro får ett bättre och mer attraktivt stadscentrum.

  • 24.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Konsekvenser av dagligvaruhandelns strukturomvandling: slutrapport2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural changes in retailing towards out-of-town establishments during the latest decades have profoundly affected the attractiveness of towns and cities and the urban transport system. Increasing car-usage and dependence, decreasing production of retail services in residential areas, degeneration of inner cities and costly revitalisation programs, reduced demand for public transport with negative consequences for quality, are some of the factors that can be observed and, in part, linked to the changes in retailing. Increasing access and usage of the car, in combination with a historic record of accommodating town planning, has enhanced the exploitation of scale economies within distribution firms. The research questions dealt with in this study concern the overall economic efficiency of grocery distribution systems in towns and cities. This main focus is tackled from two complementary perspectives: The construction of a spatial general optimisation model capable of evaluating the social costs associated with different distribution systems in urban areas and stated-preference studies with postal questionnaires to individuals with the aim to describe and analyse the demand for different services produced by grocery stores. It is plausible to assume that the ongoing trend towards more out-of-town stores and increasing car-dependence among consumers in grocery retailing will continue. The large economies of scale at firm level are of course a powerful force behind the structural changes. Moreover, the result from the model based cost analysis indicates that the total social distribution cost will decrease if the large stores increase their market share in typical Swedish cities. The cost savings in the firms will overcompensate for the costs associated with more participation from the households, as long as the street network is not severely congested. However, the result from the study also shows that there are efficiency problems in grocery retailing when the service production supplied by different types of stores is focused. The hypothesis that social dilemmas influence households' choice of store is supported by the results. The results also show that individuals living in the same residential area have different preferences about the demanded level of retailing service in the local surroundings. By using regression models, and other methods, it is possible to link the differences in preferences to socioeconomic background variables and actual purchasing behaviour.  

  • 25.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Berell, Håkan
    McDaniel, John
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Långa och tunga lastbilars effekter på transportsystemet: redovisning av regeringsuppdrag2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige tillåts lastbilar i inrikestrafik som är upp till 25,25 meter långa och 60 ton tunga. Detta skiljer sig från EU-normen, där lastbilar som regel inte är längre än 18,75 meter och väger maximalt 40 ton. Näringsdepartementet har gett VTI i uppdrag att studera vilka samhällsekonomiska konsekvenser avvikelsen har medfört för Sverige samt beskriva konkurrensytan mellan väg- och järnvägstransporter. Effekterna på transportkostnader för näringslivet, avgas- och bulleremissioner, vägslitage, tidsfördröjning för bilister samt trafiksäkerheten har beräknats. En mycket stor andel av godstransporterna på väg utförs med fordon som överskrider EU-normen. Att krympa fordonsstorleken skulle leda till stora samhällsekonomiska förluster. Framför allt är det transportkostnaderna som ökar, men det skulle även uppkomma betydande kostnadsökningar inom områdena trafiksäkerhet, avgasemissioner och bulleremissioner. I utredningen konstateras att det är svårt, åtminstone på kort sikt, att åstadkomma överflyttningar mellan väg och järnväg. Detta beror delvis på att järnvägens kapacitet är högt utnyttjad.

  • 26.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Berell, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    McDaniel, John
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    The effects of long and heavy trucks on the transport system: report on a government assignment2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trucks up to 25.25 metres in length and weighing up to 60 tonnes are permitted in domestic traffic in Sweden. This deviates from the EU standard, according to which trucks are not to be longer than 18.75 metres or weigh more than 40 tonnes. The Swedish Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications has commissioned VTI to study what economic consequences this deviation has had for Sweden and to describe the competition interface between road and rail transport. The effects on transport costs for business, exhaust and noise emissions, road wear, time delay for motorists and road safety have been estimated. A very large proportion of freight transport by road takes place by vehicles that exceed the EU standard. Reducing vehicle size would lead to large economic losses. Transport costs would increase in particular, but significant cost increases would also occur in the areas of road safety, exhaust emissions and noise emissions. It is noted in the study that it is difficult, at least in the short term, to bring about transfers between road and rail. This is due, in part, to high rate of utilisation of the railway capacity.

  • 27.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Näringslivets perspektiv på Europeiska kommissionens förslag om TEN-T och Connecting Europe Facility: regeringsuppdrag2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The suggested guidelines for the proposed Trans European Network – Transport (TENT) comprise two levels: a comprehensive-network and a core network. The purpose of the networks is amongst others to offer infrastructure services that support user needs, are efficient, safe and sustainable, support the introduction of new technologies and bring Europe together.

    The Swedish government has commissioned the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) to analyze to what extent the proposed TEN-T corridors are consistent with the Swedish foreign trade flows and needs of the Swedish industry. VTI has carried out the project by compiling foreign trade statistics and the transport flows generated by the foreign trade as well as transport forecasts that have been carried out for Sweden and the Baltic Sea region. Furthermore, companies with large export and/or import flows have been interviewed about their views on the TEN-T proposal. VTI has also used the referral responses that the Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications received regarding the TEN-T proposal.

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