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  • 1. Arm, Maria
    et al.
    Suer, Pascal
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    Frogner-Kockum, Paul
    Larsson, Lennart
    Toomväli, Cecilia
    Förutsägelse av långtidsegenskaper hos restprodukter: teknik och miljö i vägar2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, use of industrial by-products is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. This report describes a three-year research project aiming to identify the key processes of ageing related to the usefulness of by-products in roads; investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the by-products, and propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict long-term properties. The project has compared naturally aged samples of two by-products used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh by-products from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash were chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterized in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The working hypothesis was that ageing processes lead to changes in pH, effective particle size and mineralogy, which in turn determine leaching, stiffness and stability of the material. One of the conclusions from the project is that the test results confirmed that the pavement edge material is ageing faster than the road centre material is.

  • 2.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dynamisk treaxiell provning för bedömning av lagringstiders inverkan på styvhets- och deformationsegenskaper hos bärlagergrus1995Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dynamiska treaxialförsök på VTI: jämförelse mellan VTI-metoder och EN 13286-72006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    At VTI cyclic load triaxial tests on pavement structure materials have been performed since 1993. The methods for this has been developed at VTI with some inspiration from among others USA. The VTI methods are named after the unbound layers of the pavement structure (baselayer test, sub-baselayer test and capping layer test). During the year 2004 the European standard EN 13286-7 "Cyclic load triaxial test for unbound mixtures" came which meant other loadings and other ways of studying permanent deformation and resilient behaviour. VTI participated in a round robin test for resilient behaviour according to the European standard during 2004. Later the same year three different kinds of bottom ashes were tested with both VTI's capping layer test and the European standard test for permanent deformation. In this work there were three main purposes: - To learn how European standard works and what it means to test according to the standard. It has been achieved by simply starting to use it. - To compare results between VTI methods and the European standard, this showed to be complicated. You can partly do this for resilient behaviour but it is more difficult for permanent behaviour. - To describe in detail how to perform cyclic load triaxial tests at VTI.

  • 4.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    HVS-test för skattning av nedbrytningseffekter från den tunga trafikens belastning: SE14, SE18 och SE202014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication describes the aim and outcome of the constructions made to estimate deterioration/degradation of roads from the load of heavy traffic. The purpose was to study three constructions with three different wheel-loads (40 kN, 50 kN and 60 kN which corresponds to axle-loads of 8 tons, 10 tons and 12 tons). To minimize the test matrix the idea was to copy older test constructions tested with the wheel-load 60 kilonewton (kN). The outcome was not to full content, especially did the thinner, older constructions differ in the bearing capacity (static plate loading). For the most modern construction (SE14), with totally of 625 millimetre of super structure including 111 millimetre of asphalt layers, that was compared with SE10 and SE11 the differences was acceptable. The wheel load was 40 kN in 600 000 passes and 50 kN for another 600 000 passes, in total 1.2 million passes. Total rut depth became approximately 6 millimetre. The ”medium” construction (SE18) had a super structure of 349 millimetre including 100 millimetre of asphalt layers and it was compared with SE06. The wheel load was 40 kN in 500 000 passes, 50 kN for 400 000 passes and 60 kN in 300 000 passes, in total 1.2 million passes. Total rut depth became just over 11 millimetre. The thinnest construction (SE20) had a super structure of 310 millimetre including 70 millimetre of asphalt layer and it was compared with SE02. The wheel load was 40 kN in 390 000 passes, 50 kN for 170 000 passes and 60 kN in 190 000 passes, in total 0.75 million passes. Total rut depth became almost 21 millimetre.

  • 5.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Jämförande provning – ballast 2015: flisighetsindex, korndensitet och kulkvarn2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report shows results, some statistical analysis and precision data for profiency testing (round-robin) performed on three materials of aggregate during 2015. The properties that was determined was Flakiness Index (EN 933-3), particle density (EN 1097-6) and Nordic ball mill (EN 1097-9). The number of participating laboratories were for Flakiness index 58 pcs., for particle density 60 pcs. and for Nordic ball mill 52 pcs.

    There are some scatter of the results which is not surprising. A few of the laboratories show clearly high or low results (for all three materials) for one of the analysis. Generally is the scatter in results varying. E.g. some of the laboratories have a clearly high result for one of the materials, a slightly low result for the second material and are quite close to the average for the third material.

    The standard deviations increase with increase in level of results (average), but not as much. The ratio of standard deviation and average decrease with increase of level.

    The precision data from this round-robin over all matches the levels from the test standards. The tests from this report has often a wider range of results. There is a correlation between reproducibility and level of average. The repeatability has not been calculated because tests actually have been performed as single tests.

    Analysis of background data, like handling, dimensions and type of model, shows that they have none or very little significance.

  • 6.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Jämförelse mellan Los Angeles-värde och nedbrytning från hjullast2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2004 the Swedish Road Administration has had requirements on unbound base layer concerning the resistance to fragmentation, the Los Angeles value. To study how degradation from traffic load is affected by resistance to fragmentation five materials with different Los Angeles values were tested in VTI’s Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS).

    The degradation from the wheel load has been recorded by comparing the grain size distribution before and after the HVS test. Some values from the grain size distribution have been used or calculated to easier compare the grading curves with the Los Angeles value, e.g. content of fines (material < 0.063 mm) or the area under the grain size distribution curve.

    There is a clear degradation from the wheel load of the HVS in unbound base layer materials. There is, however, not a clear connection between this degradation and the resistance to fragmentation, Los Angeles value. Therefore it is not possible from this investigation to recommend a new level or category of requirements concerning the resistance to fragmentation on unbound base layer material.

    The most important conclusion is that the method that has been used in this project is working to study the degradation and particle relocation in unbound layers.

  • 7.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Stödremsa: laboratoriestudie av täthet och bärighet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When the support strip is not supposed to carry traffic load is low permeability considered as a more important property than bearing capacity. That is why the conclusion of this study is that moraine is more suitable for the support strip than crushed rock.

    “Support strip”: means in this report the unbound material that protects the edge of the (top) asphalt layer along (rural) roads. The support strip is quite narrow, around 30 cm (1 ft) and it should not be considered as the road shoulder.

    Some of the functions of support strips is that they should be non-permeable and have some bearing capacity. There are more functions the support strip should fulfill but in this project the properties of permeability and bearing capacity as California Bearing Capacity, CBR, have been studied in laboratory.

    The first tested material has been a granite (crushed rock) with the gradings 0/8 mm with content of fines (material < 0,063 mm), f, 8%, 10%, 15% and 20%; grading 0/11 mm with f = 10% and grading 0/16 with f equals to 8%, 10% and 15%. The second material has been a moraine with gradings 0/16 mm with f equals to 8%, 10%, 15% and 20%.

  • 8.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Treaxiell provning av hyttsten och granulerad hyttsand2001Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Jämförande provning – ballast 2017: micro-Deval och Los Angeles2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report shows results, some statistical analysis and precision data for interlaboratory comparison (round robin) in Sweden performed on three materials of aggregate during 2017. The properties that was determined was resistance to wear by wet micro-Deval test (EN 1097-1) and resistance to fragmentation, Los Angeles test (EN1097-2). The number of participating laboratories were for micro- Deval 37 pcs. and for Los Angeles 34 pcs.

    There were three materials used for this comparison, the materials were called F, S and V. They were delivered to the participating laboratories in the grading 8/11 mm and 11/16 mm for each material. The laboratories should then generate the proper analyze fraction of 10/14 mm.

    The average results for micro-Deval were at the range of 6–8 for all of the materials. The standard deviations were also similar (0,43–0,50).

    For Los Angeles there were the average for one of the materials at 12 and for the other two materials the averages were around 26–27. The standard deviations are proportional to the averages.

  • 10.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Jämförelse mellan mekaniska egenskaper och nedbrytning av hjullast: del 22015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the correlation between the degradation of unbound base layer and mechanical properties (primarily Los Angeles test but also micro Deval test) a number of materials has been exposed by wheel load of VTI’s Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS). The first round was performed during the winter 2010–2011 and the second round during the following winter. In each round there were five materials tested. In the second round there were four new materials and one “old” as reference material. In this report results from round II will be presented, as well as some common results from both of the rounds, I and II. The results from round 1 are presented in VTI notat 4-2011. (Håkan Arvidsson: Comparison between the Los Angeles value and degradation from traffic load).The degradation has been defined as the difference in grain size distribution before and after HVS test. The degradation can be described in several ways. One way is as the difference in the area under the grain size distribution curve, another way is to sum the difference in percentage passing for all sieves or a few, e.g. the increase of fines by using results from the sieves 0.063–0.125 mm. The rutting has been measured by laser. The rutting is inversed proportional to the increase of fines. The increase of fines probably increases the stability in this quite coarse base layer grading. The materials with less increasing of fines have most of the hard minerals (quarts and plagioclase). The conclusion of these two tests on unbound base layer materials is that you partly can explain the degradation (change of grain size distribution) with mechanical properties (like Los Angeles and micro Deval). The correlations confirm this explanation and depend partly on an extreme material. Hellman et al (2013) show that degradation and crushing of the aggregates during compaction have a correlation with mechanical properties by studying microstructure and degree of crushing in microscope. Therefor the conclusion is that there is a degradation and crushing of aggregates in unbound base layer materials exposed by compaction and heavy traffic load.

  • 11.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Jansson, Samuel
    Tetra Chemicals Europe.
    Effekt av dammbindningsmedel: en laboratoriestudie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride have been evaluated in combination with four different fine materials (granite, amphibolite, meta greywacke and naturally occurring silt), which are used for gravel road maintenance. Aqueous solutions of the two salts have been added to the fine material where after rain and drying has been simulated under laboratory conditions. Evaluation has been performed in terms of residual amount of salt after rain simulation, and SEM and optical microscopy on the fine material after drying, respectively

    It has been difficult to draw any conclusions that would yield new information from the tests. The methodology developed was not able to show agglomeration in the fine fraction of the gravel road material and it was not possible to provide recommendations regarding the dosage of dust binding agents.

    The tests show that calcium chloride is more efficient in retaining moisture than magnesium chloride when the comparison is based on the amount of flakes used.

    Agglomeration could not be proven despite several repeated tests.

    The chemical properties did not differ significantly, the salts behaved similarly and according to earlier known data.

    Differences in the origin of rock material was negligible compared with the effects of the salts.

    The added salt was for the most part (with a minimum of 80%) leached out during the rain simulation. No differences between calcium chloride and magnesium chloride or between the different fine materials were observed in terms of leaching. A small difference between leaching of cations and anions was recorded where the cations were retained in the fine material. This might be an ion-exchange effect.

    Analysis with SEM and optical microscopy did not yield any significant differences between the different combinations of salt and fine materials, respectively.

    During drying of the fine material it was observed that calcium chloride, calculated as commercial product, could absorb more water than magnesium chloride. This effect persisted also after the rain simulation.

    The experimental method that was developed during the study did not give any, previously not known, differences between the different salts and fine materials. Probably the system has been simplified to such an extent that relevant parameters were removed or do not reflect real field conditions.

  • 12.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Loorents, Karl-Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Inverkan av köld och vatten på glimmerhaltiga bärlager2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlled conditions offer a possibility to determine the influence of free mica grains in an unbound base layer during simulated frost heave and thaw cycling. By ensuring a similar grain size distribution between sample materials, and that the test samples have been soaked in water and later drained in a similar manner, followed by a well designed freeze-thaw cycling, a plain correlation between the amount of free mica grains in the unbound sub base materials of crushed rock aggregates and frost heave action (in particular noticeable in the residual heave) can be provided.

  • 13.
    Enkell, Kent
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Projekt: grusväg. Bärförmåga, krav och verifikationsmetoder. Delrapport: byggnadsrapport väg 671, Z län1997Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Appelquist, Karin
    CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Brander, Linus
    CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Undersökning av mekanisk nedbrytning av obundna material vid tung trafik under byggnation av vägar: HVS (Heavy Vehicle Simulator) tester av olika typer bergmaterial2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden the rock qualities are based on mechanical analyses such as the Studded Tyre Test, Microdeval and Los Angeles Tests. One of the issues in this project is whether these tests are sufficient to determine the rock quality. The Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) is a vehicle simulator at full scale in which the degradation of a road can be accelerated; the road can be exposed to large well defined traffic loads during a short time. In this project, the degradation and rutting of unbound base course have been studied. The results show that: (i) No clear relationship between rocks with high LA values or high MDE values with rutting development. (ii) The mineralogy of the rock material affects the rutting development. (iii) There is some correlation between the degree of the crushing and LA value. (iv) Some crushing provides increased stability and less rut depth development of trafficked base layers.

    The confirmed results are in contrast to the current practice in road construction in Sweden, which suggest that materials with low LA values give lower rutting than materials with high LA values. The tests are performed under dry conditions which gives that the tests are not considering the impact of moisture on rutting and deterioration mechanism.

  • 15.
    Höbeda, Peet
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ydrevik, Krister
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bedömning av hyttsten som förstärkningslager genom dynamiskt treaxialförsök1995Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Envix Nord AB.
    Miskovsky, Karel
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Expertsystem för bedömning av bergmaterialens mekaniska egenskaper2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to develop an assessment system for crushed rock aggregates mechanical properties based on petrographic properties and use for constructions purposes. Decisive data parameters were identified from research papers and empiric studies. Sampling focused on the most exploited types of rock in Sweden, magmatic and metamorphic rocks. In total 34 types of rock has been analyzed according to petrographic and mechanical properties and the results has been statistical evaluated. The assessment system takes in four selected groups of rock types. Their mechanical properties can with varying certainty be classified according to European standards categories (EN). Furthermore this work also includes explained methods for recording, descriptions and sampling of test objects. And also well documented datasheets with results of petrographic and mechanical analyzes. To improve the certainty of the classifications it is recommended to increase the existing data by testing of more materials.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Eva
    et al.
    Envix Nord AB.
    Miskovsky, Karel
    Envix Nord AB.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    Envix Nord AB.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Utveckling av expertsystem för bedömning av bergmaterialens mekaniska egenskaper: komplement till VTI rapport 7152012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration, Luleå University of Technology (LTU)/Envix North Ltd and the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) developed the expert system for evaluation of rock materials' mechanical properties, i.e. an evaluation system based on petrographic parameters. The project aimed to provide a prompt documented evaluation of rock mass quality and its practical use as aggregate, even when rock is covered by drift material. The project's primary outcome has been published in VTI rapport 715. The present project was carried out by analysis of selected samples, multivariate evaluation, and improvement of the expert system's classification keys for granitoids and gabbroids. The system is currently based on 43 selectively chosen rock materials. The multivariate evaluation used PCA and PLS. The correlation (PLS evaluation) between petrographic and mechanical properties shows that for both granitoids and gabbroids, there are generally the same petrographic parameters that affect mechanical properties. The petrographic parameter for the granitoids having the greatest impact on the mechanical properties are: grain size, grain size distribution and mica content. The analysis also indicated a strong correlation between mica content and degree of foliation, which in turn results in a clear difference between magmatic and metamorphic granitoids. Concerning the gabbroids, it was frequency of micro fractures, mica content, grain size, and grain size distribution that had the greatest impact on the mechanical properties. The analysis indicated that the degree of metamorphism affects the resistance to abrasion from studded tires. Low metamorphic gabbroids show generally “lower” (better) Nordic ball mill values, compared to rocks of “higher” degree of metamorphism. Mica in gabbroids generally has a positive effect (more competent) on mechanical properties. Rock samples with “higher” mica content (5–-15%) generally have better mechanical properties than those with lower (>5%) mica content. The multivariate evaluation has proven to be a suitable tool to verify the mechanical properties' dependence on petrographic parameters.

  • 18.
    Johansson, Hans G
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ydrevik, Krister
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Krossad betong: ett material för användning i vägar och gator1996Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Kuttah, Dina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Arvidsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Effect of Groundwater Table Rising on the Performance of a Swedish- Designed Gravel Road2017In: Transportation Geotechnics Journal, ISSN 2214-3912, Vol. 11, p. 82-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a wide network of gravel roads. When the water table levels rise during the freeze-thaw and wet seasons, the bearing capacity of the roads will decrease and rut depths increase. The road will suffer a small deterioration every time a vehicle travel over it. Therefore, it has been decided to investigate the long-term performance of a Swedish designed gravel road using an accelerated pavement testing facility.

    A trial gravel road was constructed and exposed to various levels of ground water table which simulate the weather changes in Sweden. The structure of the trial gravel road consisted of 15 cm (base and surface layer), 20 cm sub-base layer and 260 cm subgrade soil. The trial road was tested using the Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) and the vertical surface deformations and the vertical dynamic deformations were measured by means of laser profile measurement and εMU coils respectively. At the end of 85 000 HVS passes, the tested road suffered from serious deformations as discussed in details in this paper. Furthermore, a transverse trench section was excavated at the end of HVS trafficking in order to investigate the possible mechanism contributing to the tested road failure.

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