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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Fors, Tobias
    Fredholm, Olof
    Lång, Anna-Maria
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    SAMLIC: pilotförsöket2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Growing cities are increasing the demand for goods carrying traffic to function well with other traffic. The number of zones for unloading goods in the centre of Linköping is small compared to the number of delivery addresses and the number of goods distributors. The attendant phenomena are congestion and costs of congestion. Therefore the local network for freight forwarders in Linköping has taken the initiative to the SAMLIC project. SAMLIC stands for Coordinated Retail Distribution in Linköping City. The aim of SAMLIC is to create an economically and logistically efficient system for goods distribution that is persistent and friendly to the environment. Economic profitability is neccessary for a system with a joint venture in coordinated distribution. The savings with coordinated distribution for the freight forwarders must be of such a dimension that they find it profitable to join instead of delivering the goods by themselves. During a trial period of nine weeks in the spring of 2004 there was a coordinated distribution to the centre of Linköping. Three freight forwarders took part in this project. The experience of the trial shows that the needed number of trucks decreased by 33 %, the total time for the distribution decreased by 15-20 % and the total driving kilometers in the centre decreased by at least 50 %.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lundgren, Bertil
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Implementering av SAMLIC: förslaget och processen2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Growing cities are increasing the demand for goods carrying traffic to function well with other traffic. The number of zones for unloading goods in the centre of Linköping is small compared to the number of delivery addresses and the number of goods distributors. The attendant phenomena are congestion and costs of congestion. Therefore the local network for freight forwarders in Linköping has taken the initiative to the SAMLIC project. SAMLIC stands for Coordinated Retail Distribution in Linköping City. Economic profitability is important to accomplish for a system with a joint venture in coordinated distribution to be successful. No matter which form the coordinated distribution takes, the savings for the freight forwarders must be of such a dimension that they find it profitable to join instead of delivering the goods by themselves. The aim of SAMLIC is to create an economically and logistically efficient system for goods distribution that is persistent and friendly to the environment. The aim of this implementation project is to make a proposal for an implementation of a functional system for coordinated retail distribution in the centre of Linköping. Also the process behind the proposal and the process of trying to implement the proposal will be described in the report. During a trial period of nine weeks in the spring of 2004 there was a coordinated distribution to the centre of Linköping. Three freight forwarders took part in this project. The experience of the trial shows that the needed number of trucks decreased by 25-35%, the total time for the distribution decreased by 15-20% and the total driving kilometer in the centre decreased by at least 50%. The coordinated distribution system might get introduced in several middle size and big cities. To efficiently handle this, there is a need of a common concept. In this project a concept of this type is developed as a prototype to be used at the implementation. The concept implies uniformity and clearness for freight forwarders and makes local solutions possible to be applied in different cities. The proposal is detailed enough to be a foundation of a decision between the freight forwarders to implement the coordinated distribution system. Besides, we show that the system is economically profitable and technically feasible. We include suggestions for texts for different necessary written agreements. Finally, why we did not succeed to implement the coordinated distribution system during the planned time for the project has different explanations. We will examine them in the report, too.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Efficiency in goods distribution collaboration in cities - SAMLIC2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of zones for unloading goods in the city centre is often small compared to the number of delivery addresses and carriers. The attendant phenomenon is congestion and its subsequent costs. One way to reduce these effects is to implement retail consolidation centres. Some trials have been carried out on urban distribution centres and a few implementations have been made. More research and knowledge is still needed. The SAMLIC project is one contribution to increase the knowledge in this field about urban distribution. A local network for Linköping freight forwarders took the initiative to create an economically and logistically efficient system. During a nine-week trial period in the spring of 2004, coordinated distribution to the centre of Linköping was carried out. Three freight forwarders took part in this project. The trial shows that the number of lorries needed decreased by a third, the total time for the distribution by a fifth and the total driving distance in the centre by about fifty per cent. The following paper describes this trail and an implementation proposal as well as the process of trying to implement it.

  • 4.
    Grudemo, Stefan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Balans i avvägningen mellan biltillgänglighet och god miljö: slutrapport2000Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Johansson, Thomas
    TJ Kommunikation.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Spårburen kollektivtrafik i Linköping: förslag till en implementeringsmodell2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The new Master Plan for the City of Linköping and the included Transport Strategy discuss a high quality public transport network in the city, the so-called LinkLink. High quality public transport is seen as an important part of the city and municipal development in general with respect to land development, transportation and land use. The study "Railbound public transport in Linköping" is based on the current planned development of public transport Linköping. The aim is to improve knowledge and decision support for the municipality's continued planning work where tramways have arised as an future option.

    The study is based on European best practice in public transport, with focus on tramways, and taking into account the conditions that apply to light rail implementation in Sweden, and on the current planning situation in Linköping relevant to city public transport. The report describes a stepwise process model that can also function as a check-list for the municipality. The process model is based on research of modern tramway system in Sweden and internationally, and on interviews with officials and politicians in the Swedish towns and regions where the expansion of existing or new tramway systems are currently discussed.

    The process model is divided into successive steps to be taken in order to implement a future tramway system. The realisation of the process model´s different steps also means that the knowledge and decision data are sufficient for the municipality to decide on the future direction and if / when the next step in the implementation process should be taken.

  • 6.
    Henriksson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Invånarnas syn på den framtida trafiken i Malmös innerstad: resultat från en enkätundersökning2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of the transport system in urban centres should be based on a balance between different modes of transport that is in line with the inhabitants’ opinions. In this study a questionnaire was sent to a sample of all inhabitants in the municipality of Malmö aged 18–75 years. The questionnaire contains three different scenarios for traffic design in Malmö urban core. One out of five respondents think that Malmö city centre should be more adapted to car traffic following the scenario Better accessibility and more street space for cars in the city centre. In this alternative street design first and foremost care for good access for cars and ample parking space with low fees. Scenario B, A calmer traffic pace of the inner city, has been selected by 32 percent. The space motor vehicles are permitted to use on the major inner city streets is less in favour of pedestrians and cyclists. The even more car restrictive scenario C, A city centre with more street space for walking, cycling and public transport, has been chosen by about 48 percent of the respondents. Service vehicles such as taxis, vehicles for disabled people, goods deliveries etc. may use certain streets with respect to the conditions of pedestrians and cyclists. All other parking is directed to parking houses and the through traffic is directed around the city centre. To sum up, this means that 80 percent of the population of Malmö is in favour of a traffic policy and a street design that are more restrictive with regard to car traffic and car parking than is the case today. Close to every second of the Malmö residents support far-reaching changes involving better conditions for pedestrians, cyclists and public transport. The second group, which represents one-third, advocates more moderate measures such as limited space for cars to give priority to pedestrians and cyclists. Consequently, an interesting result arising from the analysis, and in a clear manner signalled by the overall outcome for the main question, is that a large majority of the inhabitants who drive and park the car in the city of Malmö prefer to change the traffic situation in the inner city with increased priorities and more space for cycling, walking and public transport. This result states the need for the type of studies that is reported here. A large majority of people living in Malmö are supporters of less car traffic and parking in the city centre, provided that the lower access for cars is instantly combined with better opportunities to walk, cycle and travel by public transport in the same area. Most residents in Malmö think that such a change of traffic priorities makes Malmö a more attractive city to live in.

  • 7.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Richardson, Tim
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lissandrello, Enza
    Aalborg University .
    Naess, Petter
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Tennøy, Aud
    TØI, The Institute of Transport Economics .
    Longva, Frode
    TØI, The Institute of Transport Economics .
    Innovations for sustainable public transport: Experiences and challenges in the Scandinavian countries2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project has been to analyse institutional and planning conditions for public transport in the Scandinavian countries from a comparative perspective, looking at the county of Skåne (Sweden) and the municipalities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Trondheim (Norway). The report considers qualitative case studies of public transport in Skåne, Aarhus, and Trondheim, and uses an empirical material consisting of written material and interviews. It concludes that: (i) new forms of coordination between organizations and policy areas are called for in a number of critical areas, if public transport is to contribute effectively to the development of an efficient and sustainable transport system (for example, forms for the coordination of public transport, land use, and infrastructure planning); (ii) public transport must not be seen as an end in itself, or as merely a technical transport system; (iii) the successful pursuit of public-transport innovations relies upon complex, interwoven stories and arguments that persuade diverse actors and organizations to collaborate and act on their shared meanings; and (iiii) there is a need to challenge the planning myths used to mobilize support for land-use and traffic system developments that undermine the long-term competitiveness of public transport.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Thomas
    et al.
    TJ Kommunikation.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Spårfaktorn på spåret: förutsättningar för spårväg i svenska städer i ett internationellt perspektiv: en förstudie2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this pilot study is to describe and analyse conditions and experiences/evaluations of investment in tramway systems in urban settings. The study is based on material from six different development projects.

    The results presented in this report may be used to improve the knowledge base for planning, design and operation of tramway systems, and as part of the discussion on identified development needs to be addressed if the goal is significantly to increase the market share of public transport.

    Six case studies have been conducted in the study. In Sweden, the tramway extensions in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Norrköping are studied. Outside Sweden, extension projects in Paris, Heidelberg and Zurich have been used as case studies. Perhaps the biggest difference between cities in Sweden and the three other cities in the study is the ability to seek and obtain national or state co-financing of project costs for both rail infrastructure and rolling stock.

    Alternative URL: http://fudinfo.trafikverket.se/fudinfoexternwebb/Publika tioner/Publikationer_001301_001400/Publikation_001329/R721.pdf

  • 9.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Det nya hastighetsgränssystemet: regionala beslutsfattares syn, problembilder och erfarenheter efter etapp 22012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the new speed limit system in Sweden on the basis of decision-makers perspective on regional and municipal levels for Stage 2 of the implementation process. The study focuses on the regional perspective and assesses regional impacts of changes in speed limits on national roads outside urban areas. To obtain the data sets needed to describe and analyse decision makers', in different regions of Sweden, views on the new speed limit system, qualitative interviews was selected as the method. The interview responses show that the implementation process in Stage 2 has been developed and improved in comparison with the corresponding process in Stage 1. The better link that many stakeholders called for between changing speed limits and measures in the investment planning has been improved during Stage 2. The Transport Administration has in the proposals for reduced speed limits indicated which deficiencies in road design justifying the lowered speed limit, and what steps need to be taken to remain at the current level. However, many respondents still believe that the Transport Administration does not sufficiently take into account that at the regional level, the issue of speed limits to a great extent is a politically charged issue caused by the assumed relationship between speed, accessibility, travel times and regional development. Regional associations, municipalities, counties, etc. need time to anchor political issues and allow politicians to get the time to familiarize themselves with the changes and take clear political decisions and positions in political assemblies of boards andcommittees on the issue of changing speed limits.

  • 10.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Balancing car accessibility and good urban environment2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has been produced as part of the research project “Optimal balance between access by private car and the environment in town and cities”. The background to the project is the increasing use of cars in towns and cities, which has been a major problem for town planners and politicians during the whole post-war period. The increasing use of private cars threatens the safety of other road users, for example pedestrians and cyclists. It is also related to a reduction in the number of people using public transport systems which, as a consequence, forces the operators to raise fares, run fewer routes, reduce frequencies and so on. There is no doubt that the increasing volume of motorised traffic has negative impacts on the environment in towns and cities. Important, but analytically difficult, values such as “beauty, comfort, and safety” are under constant pressure from the space-consuming private car in urban settings. The underlying objective for the entire research project is to investigate if the documented development in this area is in line with the public interest, or if there is an imbalance between the actual outcome and the inhabitants’ preferences.

    The central issue concerns the balance between the benefits to an individual of car-access and the public benefit of a good urban environment. There is no functioning market where this balance can be effectively settled because “urban environment” is an example of a public good that can not be purchased in desired quantities on a traditional market. Problems of non-rivalry in consumption and free riders hamper the functioning of the market as an efficient mechanism for allocating scarce resources. The isolated behaviour of an individual, or a household, has a negligible impact on the total outcome, which in turn influences the behaviour in certain directions.

  • 11.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Biltillgänglighet och bilbegränsningar i innerstäder och bostadsområden2000Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dagligvaruhandelns strukturomvandling - politik eller marknad?1999Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Duospårväg - innovativ kollektivtrafik: slutrapport2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of the research project "Tramtrain - Innovative public transport" is

    to describe and analyse if and how regional transport systems with tramtrains

    as an integrated part can contribute to more efficient and sustainable

    transportation in Swedish cities and regions. The aim is reached by describing

    and analyzing the prerequisites, design and consequences of a regional public

    transport system based on tramtrains. The research questions were applied and

    answered by designing and analysing a possible scenario for the future public

    transportation with buses, trams and trains in the East Gothia region in the

    southeast part of Sweden.

  • 14.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hushållens inköpsmönster och val av dagligvarubutiker: en förstudie2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I projektet ”Samhällsekonomisk analys av dagligvaruhandelns omvandling” haren förstudie genomförts som redovisas i föreliggande

    rapport. I projektet genomförs analyser och utvärderingar av dagligvaruhandelns pågående strukturomvandlingi riktning mot fler externa etableringar, färre fullsorterade butiker i stadsdels-centra och bostadsområden och ett ökat bilberoende. Forskningen inom projektet

    har hittills utförts inom tre sammanhängande områden:

    • dagligvaruhandelns institutionella inramning, politik och samhällsplanering

    • konstruktion av rumsliga optimeringsmodeller med

    utvärdering av olikabutiksnäts samhällsekonomiska effektivitet

    • enkätbaserade kartläggningar av hushållens inköpsmönster kombinerade meds.k. stated-preference undersökningar som kartlägger och analyserar individerspreferenser vad gäller dagligvaruhandelns utformning.

    Det är inom ramen för det sistnämnda forskningsområdet som förstudien har genomförts.

  • 15.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Konsekvenser av restriktioner för biltrafik i städer: en förstudie2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten är att översiktligt sammanställa det internationella kunskapsläget vad gäller konsekvenser av restriktioner för biltrafik i städer, med betoning på s.k. traffic calming eller trafiklugnande åtgärder. I viss utsträckning kommer också svensk litteratur att kommenteras.

    Den konkreta innebörden av begreppet ”konsekvenser” hålls medvetet öppet i förstudien. Ett viktigt motiv för att genomföra studien är att identifiera de konsekvenser som finns belysta i litteraturen och inom vilka områden som kunskapsunderlaget behöver förbättras. Före diskussionen om konsekvenser definieras innebörden av begreppet ”traffic calming”. Dessutom kommenteras den internationella och nationella utvecklingen av trafiklugnande åtgärder översiktligt.

  • 16.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Stormarknader eller närbutiker?: inköpsmönster och butiksval i södra Stockholm2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The results from earlier research imply that many

    individuals appreciate the existence of food stores in their own residential

    area. But the access to a local

    food store can be described as a public good which is not possible to

    purchase in desired quantities on a

    normal market. The reason for this is that one isolated household can not by

    itself influence the volume

    and quality of the local retail service. Therefore, it is not enough to

    register the revealed preferences on

    the market, i.e. describe and analyse the actual purchasing behaviour. Some

    kind of complementary

    stated preference investigations are necessary if the aim is to evaluate the

    social consequences of

    different store locations. This was done by means of postal questionnaires

    with hypothetical questions

    about households' choice of stores, together with questions about

    socio-economic conditions and actual

    purchasing behaviour. The questionnaire was sent out to 2,000 individuals,

    living in three city districts in

    the Swedish capital Stockholm. The answering frequency was 57 percent. The

    results from the study

    show that individuals living in the same residential area have different

    preferences about the demanded

    level of retailing service in the local surroundings. It is possible to link

    the differences in preferences to

    socio-economic conditions and actual purchasing behaviour. Some prefer local

    stores and are willing to

    pay for this service, and some prefer to drive their car to more distant

    stores and take advantage of lower

    prices. It is also clear that the actual changes in grocery retailing

    accomodates the preferences of the

    minority of individuals in the investigated districts, who prefer to make

    most of their grocery shopping in

    out-of-town establishments. The large stores attract customers from the

    entire city, which implies a

    diminishing market for the smaller local stores in residential areas.

  • 17.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hushållens inköpsmönster och val av dagligvarubutiker i Trollhättan, Västerås och Östersund2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I projektet Samhällsekonomisk analys av dagligvaruhandelns strukturomvandling undersöks hushållens inköpsmönster och preferenser avseende butiksstruktur med hjälp av enkätundersökningar. Undersökningarna syftar bl.a. till att avgöra om den pågående strukturomvandlingen, med allt fler externt lokaliserade stormarknader och ett uttunnat nät av butiker i bostadsområden, kan sägas vara samhällsekonomiskt effektiv. Att allt fler utnyttjar stora butiker i städernas ytterområden för sina dagligvaruinköp är ett välkänt faktum. Vad som däremot inte har blivit klarlagt är om individer i allmänhet anser att utvecklingen är positiv eller om det är någon annan utvecklingsinriktning som egentligen efterfrågas.

    Syftet med undersökningen är att kartlägga faktiska inköpsmönster och att beskriva och analysera hushållens preferenser angående dagligvaruhandelns utformning och strukturomvandling.

    En central forskningsfråga utgörs av om hushållens beteende verkligen avspeglar egentliga preferenser om hur dagligvaruhandeln borde vara utformad, eller om beteendet helt eller delvis påverkas av en uppgivenhet beträffande möjligheterna att med egna inköp påverka butiksnätets utformning. En närbesläktad problematik utgörs av skillnaden i preferenser mellan boende i samma bostadsområde. Om boende i samma område har vitt skilda uppfattningar om hur butiksnätet borde vara utformat, försvåras möjligheterna att åstadkomma effektiva lösningar som förmår att tillfredsställa efterfrågan.

    Den enkät som används har utformats för att ge svar på hur hushållen faktiskt handlar och vilka preferenser de har angående dagligvaruhandelns utformning. Inom ramen för den analys som presenteras här kommer fokus att riktas mot den andra frågeställningen, medan det faktiska inköpsmönstret beskrivs översiktigt.  

  • 18.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Invånarna i Sundsvall och trafiken i innerstaden: resultat från en enkätundersökning2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är viktigt att den avvägning som faktiskt görs när det gäller

    utformningen av en innerstad motsvarar den som invånarna efterfrågar. Det är

    dock förenat med vissa problem att ta reda på hur invånarna vill att trafiken

    ska utformas. Det finns ingen marknad där varje individ kan köpa den

    ”stadsmiljö” som han eller hon vill ha.

    Den enskilde individens användning av olika transportmedel och resvanor har

    heller ingen som helst effekt på situationen i stort. Så länge som det inte

    finns några garantier för att andra kommer att göra samma sak, finns det få

    anledningar för en enskild individ att försöka påverka stadsmiljön till det

    bättre genom att till exempel köra mindre bil i innerstaden.

    Detta innebär att kommunens stadsplanering måste ta ansvaret för trafikens

    utformning i centrum. Frågan är dock vilket beslutsunderlag som kommunen ska

    använda?

    En möjlighet är att utforma enkäter med olika alternativa utformningar eller

    scenarier och den vägen ta reda på hur efterfrågan ser ut, vilket är den

    metod som VTI-forskarna Tomas Svensson och Mattias Haraldsson valt för sin

    undersökning i Sundsvall som nu presenteras i ett VTI-notat.

    Utifrån fördelningen på de olika svarsalternativen i denna undersökning kan

    Sundsvallsbornas inställning till utformningen av innerstadens trafikmiljö

    sammanfattas på följande sätt: en tredjedel av de tillfrågade anser att

    dagens situation är tillfredsställande och tycker inte att en utveckling mot

    ökad eller minskad biltillgänglighet skulle leda till någon förbättring. En

    minoritet anser att innerstaden i högre utsträckning bör öppnas upp för

    ytterligare biltrafik. Två förhållandevis stora grupper av de tillfrågade som

    tillsammans utgör en majoritet, är för en utformning av innerstadens

    gatumiljö som är mer restriktiv när det gäller biltrafik än vad som är läget

    idag. Den ena gruppen stödjer långtgående förändringar där gatuutrymmet i

    princip helt tas över av fotgängare, cyklister och busstrafik och där privat

    biltrafik utgör ett undantag. Den andra gruppen förespråkar mer försiktiga

    åtgärder där bilar fortfarande tillåts trafikera ett antal av gatorna, men i

    lägre hastighet och på ett mer begränsat utrymme i jämförelse med dagens

    situation.

  • 19.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Invånarna i Örebro och trafiken i innerstaden: resultat från en enkätundersökning2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En enkät innehöll tre olika framtidsbilder för trafikens utformning i

    centrala Örebro skickades ut till invånarna i Örebro. Enkäten finns med som

    bilaga till rapporten. Närmare 17 (16,8) procent av de tillfrågade anser att

    centrala Örebro i högre grad än idag bör anpassas till biltrafik enligt

    alternativet Bättre framkomlighet och mer gatuutrymme åt bilarna i centrala

    Örebro. I detta alternativ utformas gatumiljön först och främst med tanke på

    god tillgänglighet för bilar och goda parkeringsmöjligheter med låga

    avgifter. Vissa bilfria zoner som gågator behålls, men i huvudsak medför

    alternativet att biltrafiken ges större utrymme, vilket innebär ökad

    biltrafik i innerstaden. Framkomligheten för fotgängare och cyklister

    försämras av mindre utrymme och tätare biltrafik. Lägre hastighetsgränser

    inom centrala Örebro är majoritetens val också bland de hushåll och individer

    som i stor utsträckning använder bilen i sitt dagliga liv. Därför är det mest

    intressanta resultat som följer av analysen, och som på ett tydligt sätt

    signaleras av det totala utfallet för huvudfrågan, att en stor majoritet av

    dem som kör och parkerar bil i dagsläget i centrala Örebro föredrar en

    omläggning av trafiken i innerstaden till förmån för cykel-, gång- och

    kollektivtrafik. Denna förändring ska göras på bekostnad av tillgänglighet

    för trafik och parkering med bil. Av de örebroare som trafikerar gatunätet i

    centrala Örebro med bil en genomsnittlig dag är en stor majoritet anhängare

    av de två framtidsbilder där utrymmet för biltrafik och bilparkering minskas.

    Detta resultat är ett kraftfullt stöd för diskussionen i inledningen av

    sammanfattningen och visar på behovet av den typ av undersökningar som

    redovisas här. En stor majoritet av invånarna i Örebro är anhängare av mindre

    biltrafik och bilparkering i centrala Örebro under förutsättning att den

    minskande tillgängligheten med bil samtidigt ger direkta positiva

    konsekvenser för möjligheterna att gå, cykla och åka med buss i samma område.

    En sådan omläggning av trafiken uppfattas av de flesta invånare i Örebro stad

    och kommun som att Örebro får ett bättre och mer attraktivt stadscentrum.

  • 20.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Konsekvenser av dagligvaruhandelns strukturomvandling: slutrapport2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural changes in retailing towards out-of-town establishments during the latest decades have profoundly affected the attractiveness of towns and cities and the urban transport system. Increasing car-usage and dependence, decreasing production of retail services in residential areas, degeneration of inner cities and costly revitalisation programs, reduced demand for public transport with negative consequences for quality, are some of the factors that can be observed and, in part, linked to the changes in retailing. Increasing access and usage of the car, in combination with a historic record of accommodating town planning, has enhanced the exploitation of scale economies within distribution firms. The research questions dealt with in this study concern the overall economic efficiency of grocery distribution systems in towns and cities. This main focus is tackled from two complementary perspectives: The construction of a spatial general optimisation model capable of evaluating the social costs associated with different distribution systems in urban areas and stated-preference studies with postal questionnaires to individuals with the aim to describe and analyse the demand for different services produced by grocery stores. It is plausible to assume that the ongoing trend towards more out-of-town stores and increasing car-dependence among consumers in grocery retailing will continue. The large economies of scale at firm level are of course a powerful force behind the structural changes. Moreover, the result from the model based cost analysis indicates that the total social distribution cost will decrease if the large stores increase their market share in typical Swedish cities. The cost savings in the firms will overcompensate for the costs associated with more participation from the households, as long as the street network is not severely congested. However, the result from the study also shows that there are efficiency problems in grocery retailing when the service production supplied by different types of stores is focused. The hypothesis that social dilemmas influence households' choice of store is supported by the results. The results also show that individuals living in the same residential area have different preferences about the demanded level of retailing service in the local surroundings. By using regression models, and other methods, it is possible to link the differences in preferences to socioeconomic background variables and actual purchasing behaviour.  

  • 21.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hastighetsdämpande åtgärder och integrerad stadsplanering: en litteraturstudie2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    It has become more and more common among Swedish municipalities to implement traffic calming measures, with the aim to improve safety and functioning of the local transport system. A plethora of different measures and designs of physical constructions capable of controlling the speed of motorized vehicles can be found when consulting modern planning guidelines and new handbooks in traffic planning. This report compiles and discusses the literature in the fields of research that can be labelled as critical in the sense that increased knowledge is a necessary prerequisite if traffic calming and speed control constructions shall be used as important measures in integrated transport planning strategies. The areas of investigation that are discussed in the report are the following: - Design and content of transport strategies as a component in local planning - Acceptance and demand among individuals for different designs of the traffic system with focus on traffic calming - Traffic calming and consequences for retailing and other commercial activities in inner cities, together with inner city attractiveness and livability in general - The adaptation of traffic calming techniques to public transport and emergency services, and the opportunities to use traffic calming to enhance the competitiveness of public transport - Environmental impact with emphasis on exhaust and noise emissions The report is concluded with a discussion of the need for further research. It is necessary to find methods and procedures capable of sorting and ranking all the different approaches that are used when analyzing traffic calming and environmental consequences. The state-of-the-art in this field of research is unfortunately very difficult to describe. It is plausible to assume that the reason for this confusion is a large variation between different studies concerning measurement methods, and scope and limitations. But the main part of the discussion of further research is devoted to research that can support the achievement of a more integrated local planning directly. The areas of investigation that are put forward are the creation of general evaluation models designed to evaluate the entire spectrum of relevant measures in transport strategies and not exclusively dealing with special issues, systematic compilations and treatments of knowledge and experience in chosen countries and cities, increasing knowledge about local planning processes in Sweden, and analyzing the demand for different designs of urban transport systems. It is of course necessary both from a democratic and an economical point of view, that the design and performance of transport systems in towns and cities are supported by a majority of the inhabitants.

  • 22.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lugna gatan! och kommunen: trafikplanering i lokal tillämpning2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The ambitions concerning traffic safety increased when the Swedish parliament

    accepted the governmental white paper "vision zero" in October 1997.

    Consequently, a new supporting planning guideline for local traffic planning

    was needed and in July 1998 was the manual "Calm Streets!" published. The

    manual deals with the design of streets where different modes of transport

    are mixed in urban traffic systems and where vulnerable users confront a

    substantial risk to be injured in traffic accidents. The aim of this study is

    to describe and analyse how local agencies uses the manual in their traffic

    planning practice with focus on traffic calming measures and the realisation

    of targets concerning safety and security, environmental sustainability and

    accessibility. The municipalities in the study are Borlänge, Enköping, Gävle,

    Göteborg, Jönköping, Karlstad, Linköping, Växjö and Örebro. The major part of

    the municipalities has conducted a traffic net analysis in accordance with

    the intentions in the manual. There are, however, differences in traffic

    planning practice between the cities in the study. These differences are

    discussed with focus on the following topics: formulation of targets, traffic

    net analysis, principal redesign proposals and planning conditions. The

    influence of the new planning guideline and policy on local traffic planning

    is evident, and a process has been started where differences between the

    municipalities can be registered. In spite of these differences, it is clear

    that the development of local traffic planning practice is in line with the

    initial intentions behind the increased ambitions put forward in the white

    paper from the government. In order to enhance the on-going change in

    direction, the need for further research and development is discussed in the

    report. There is an evident need to perform more research about local traffic

    planning practice. This knowledge is of great importance for the development

    of new planning guides and planning tools. The net analysis that has been

    carried out by the local authorities as a part of the planning process in

    Calm Streets can be used as a platform for communication and dialog towards

    inhabitants and relevant organisations in the local setting. The net analysis

    describes and visualises the local transport system in an efficient way which

    must be used in the forthcoming planning and development, guided by the

    national targets for transport policy. This platform can work as a starting

    point for the construction of a local transport strategy with distinctive

    targets for the local transport system, communication and demand responses,

    and identified consequences of different measures situated in an integrated

    agenda. There is, therefore, an obvious need for accessible compilations of

    relevant measures.

  • 23.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Parkering: politik, åtgärder och konsekvenser för stadstrafik2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This report is based on a literature review, compiled research and development results on how parking conditions affect transportation choices. The report also discusses parking as a planning area, measures in parking policies, consequences for urban transport and urban development, and the need for overall parking strategies and plans linked to the traffic and urban planning in general.

  • 24.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Invånarnas syn på den framtida trafiken i Helsingborgs stadskärna: resultat från en enkätundersökning2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large majority of people living in the city of Helsingborg are supporters of less car traffic and parking in the city centre, provided that the lower access for cars is instantly combined with better opportunities to walk, cycle and travel by bus in the same area. Most residents in Helsingborg think that such a change of traffic priorities makes Helsingborg a more attractive city to live in.

    The design of the transport system in urban centres should be based on a balance between different modes of transport that is in line with the inhabitants’ opinion. But there is no functioning market where this balance can be settled. Therefore, the municipal transport and urban planning must take responsibility for the design of traffic and priorities for different modes of transport in the city centre. The question is which information and knowledge that the municipality can use to make the right decisions when social dilemmas distort the possibility to interpret actual behaviour and revealed preferences as the actual demand? One alternative is to design surveys with different alternative scenarios and in that way find out people's perception, the method chosen for the study presented in this report.

    A questionnaire was sent to a sample of all inhabitants in the municipality of Helsingborg aged 18–75 years. The questionnaire contains three different scenarios for traffic design in Helsingborg urban core.

  • 25.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Invånarnas syn på den framtida trafiken i Lidköpings stadskärna: resultat från en enkätundersökning2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of the transport system in urban centres should be based on a balance between different modes of transport that is in line with the inhabitants’ opinion. VTI has made a study in the municipality of Lidköping to get the public opinion on traffic in the city center. A questionnaire was sent to a sample of all inhabitants in the municipality of Lidköping aged 18-–75 years. The questionnaire contains three different scenarios for traffic design in Lidköping urban core.

    Twenty six per cent of the respondents think that Lidköping city centre should be more adapted to car traffic following the scenario A) Better accessibility and more street space for cars in Lidköping city centre. In this alternative street design first and foremost cares for good access for cars and ample parking space with low fees.

    The alternative B) Lower speeds in Lidköping city centre has been selected by about 45 per cent. The inner city streets are still open to traffic to the same extent as today, but the space motor vehicles are permitted to use is less and the number of parking lots along the streets has been reduced.

    The even more car restrictive option C) a city centre with more street space for walking, cycling and buses has been chosen by 28 per cent of the respondents. People living in the area are allowed to drive on certain streets to and from parking spaces. Service vehicles such as taxis, vehicles for disabled people, goods deliveries, etcetera, may use certain streets with respect to the conditions of pedestrians and cyclists, and are allowed to use temporary parking spaces in the city centre at the designated locations.

  • 26.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Invånarnas syn på den framtida trafiken i Linköpings stadskärna: resultat från en enkätundersökning2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Traffic design in urban centres should be based on a balance between the access of individual motorists and road traffic impact on other traffic and on the urban environment in general. The municipal traffic and urban planning must therefore take responsibility for the design of traffic in the city centre. The question is which information and knowledge that the municipality will use? An alternative is to design surveys with different alternative visions or scenarios and in that way find out people's perception, which is the method chosen for the study presented in the report.

    A questionnaire was sent to a sample of all inhabitants in the municipality of Linköping aged 16-79 years. The questionnaire contains three different scenarios for traffic design in Linköping urban core.

  • 27.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköpings universitet.
    Kollektivtrafik som verktyg för regional utveckling: en kunskapsöversikt2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to improve knowledge and decision making for more efficient use of public transport as a development tool. The discussion is based on the state of knowledge in public transport-related economic research with a focus on local and regional development and accessibility and mobility. The report is mostly a research review of published research, primarily from research on public transport economics and planning dimensions. The economic research on regions and cities high-lights a number of conditions described as central to economic growth in post-industrial economies. Examples of such conditions are the importance of agglomerations and clusters, differentiation and specialization, the service sectors´ growing importance for employment, regional innovation systems and last but not least, the ability of cities and regions to be attractive and offer residents good living conditions. One important implication of this is that the economic transformation towards growth and development is becoming more and more dependent on the availability of dense physical space. Therefore, cities and regions will be drivers of growth. All these conditions can be linked to opportunities for travel, transport, mobility and accessibility. This in turn means that public transport can be linked to these driving forces for economic development in terms of mobility and accessibility in general, but also more directly to the characteristics that public transport has in relation to other modes of transport. Public transport has a high capacity with a relatively limited demand for space. Therefore, public transport can be used to achieve the dense clusters which are prerequisites to exploit agglomeration economies, to realize economies of scale and contribute to favourable production conditions for the growing service sector. It is our opinion that a much stronger strategic dimension is needed in the planning of public transport. What matters are transport system development, operation and management, and how public transport should be used as a tool for regional development aimed at sustainable growth. In planning, several changes, measures and quality levels should be evaluated and applied perspectives must be wider than to focus solely on infrastructure investments. From the discussion follows that the spatial dimension is becoming increasingly important for economic development. Urban development, regional context, and how land use and transport interact should be lifted into the core of public transport planning. Regardless of the level of resources allocated to public transport, it is important that the resources are used to the best advantage. If sustainable economic development is prioritised, planning and governance of public transport should be changed in the direction discussed in the report.

  • 28.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Beslut om hastighetsgränser: prioriteringar, avvägningar och aktörer i regionala beslutsprocesser2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report concerns the results of phase two of the research project "Speed issues on a regional level". Phase 2 describes and analyzes the concrete decision-making concerning the setting of speed limits. The study is based primarily on interviews with official representatives from the relevant authorities and private individuals as well as examination of documentation of a number of cases of contested speed limits as indicated by applications to the County Board. The study is primarily limited to the County of Östergötland but also concerns relevant relations within the broader Swedish Road Administration (SRA) region consisting of five counties, as well as relations with the national level. The results show that all participating agencies give a stronger priority to car traffic mobility than to the private citizens' perceived safety and security in cases where residents contest speed limits on specific stretches of road. It is clear from the study that SRA has dominant direct control over decisions about speed limits despite the fact that it is the County Board that takes the formal decisions on local traffic regulations. The two goals or priorities that are balanced against each other in actual decisions about changing speed limits are mobility and road safety. The interviewed individuals typically view the County Administrative Board's rejection of their applications for lowering speed limits as incomprehensible. They do not accept that their perceived security risk is not accounted for and that road mobility is prioritised by the officials. Based on the findings of the study, various issues for further research are discussed, issues that also provide input in discussions about how to develop and improve current decision making models in the context of changing speed limits. This study suggests that there is a need to develop the decision making model and the decision-making system that guides decisions on changes in speed limits. Speed limits are not currently assessed on the basis of an overall transport policy target perspective. The interview responses show that many of the officials involved, and even private citizens who have applied for reduced speed limits, call for a broader "safety and security review" process that involves more policy measures than speed limits.

  • 29.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Johannes
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Integrerad planering och kollektivtrafik: ny spårvägslinje i Norrköping2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Changing the modal split in urban transport systems towards an increasing

    share for public transport is generally seen as a necessary prerequisite for

    sustainability. However, it is not an easy task to improve the

    competitiveness of public transport with only traditional system internal

    measures, e.g. fares, vehicle design, comfort, safety. There is a strong

    assumption that efficient public transport systems demand a supportive and

    integrated urban planning. Measures such as car restrictions, traffic

    priorities, high densities in residential areas, "anti-sprawl" policies etc,

    are important if the target is to create a more competitive alternative to

    the private car in urban settings. In Sweden there is a growing awareness at

    the national political level that integrated planning is a measure that must

    be used to reach the targets associated with the very ambitious environmental

    policy. But there is a lack of ideas and knowledge about the existing

    obstacles to integrated planning at the local level in the present system.

    This report will discuss the results from a research and development project

    with the focus on integrated planning. In the Swedish middle-sized city of

    Norrköping, an extension of the already existing tramway network was explored

    in the project. The extension was conceptualised as a transport solution and

    a city renewal project, bringing new life and economic vitality to older city

    districts. The results clearly indicate that integrated planning, i.e.

    combining traffic and town planning, is a tool with a very strong capability

    to change the present situation in cities into something substantially

    different. But this can not be done without a far-reaching reorganisation and

    an institutional renewal of local planning and policy procedures, which

    includes the relations between local, regional and national levels in the

    political and planning system.

  • 30.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Aktörers syn på hastighetsgränser i en region: ett arenaperspektiv2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Parliament passed the government bill “Vision Zero and the traffic safe society” (prop. 1996/97:137) in October 1997. However, the real development of traffic safety has not been in line with the prioritized goal. The current goal for safe traffic is a reduction to 270 fatalities during the year of 2007. The only measure that realistically could be effective for reaching this goal is a reduction in speed limits combined with an effective surveillance. A more ambitious use of the speed limit system as a tool for increased traffic safety requires knowledge about how speed limits are designed and set in the existing system. The purpose of this study is to describe and analyse regional actors’ perspectives on speed limits on roads in a specific region. The point of departure is a geographical limitation, the Swedish county of Östergötland, as well as an analytical framework, the arena perspective, which together are used to define relevant actors actively involved in planning and decision-making processes. The purpose is reached by describing and analysing how these actors conceptualise their work with speed and speed limits on the roads, as well as the context in which this work takes place. The analysis clearly shows that there is a common view on priorities and goals among local politicians, administrators at the Regional Development Council, and planners at the Swedish Road Administration. This alliance gives priority to relatively high speed limits and high road capacity for car traffic. These priorities are to a large extent shared by traffic engineers at the Swedish Road Administration. The view that there is an urgent need to intensify efforts to improve traffic safety is shared by traffic safety engineers at the Swedish Road Administration and local traffic planners at the municipalities. Other actors that are interviewed in the study are not positioned in the same straight-forward manner between different transport policy priorities. The planners at the County Administrative Board describe their dependency on the Swedish Road Administration’s competence. The police authorities only consider speed and speed limits as a question of surveillance. The firms in the study are very dependent on overriding institutional “rules of the game” on the market that define the prerequisites for competition between different firms. The functioning of the road transport system and speed limits are external factors that every actor on the market has to cope with. Further research should focus on the actors’ actual everyday practice in handling issues related to speed limits, i.e. how the actors actually meet, negotiate, deal with conflicts and make decisions in the everyday planning and decision-making processes in which they take part.

  • 31.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    The Politics of Speed: Local and regional actors' views on speed limits, traffic safety and mobility in Sweden2014In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 43-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most European countries, the often difficult policy process of setting and implementing speed limits on specific roads is delegated to public administration on local and regional levels. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the perspectives and priorities of regional actors, specifically planners and elected officials within public administration, concerning their everyday work in setting speed limits within a Swedish county. The analysis indicates significant conflicts among actors with regard to the priorities, politics and goals that should guide the setting of speed limits on regional and local roads. Some groups of actors support a mobility perspective that gives priority to relatively high speed limits in the interests of accessibility and mobility. This perspective is, however, in sharp contrast to the views of other actors, who share a commitment to improve traffic safety through lower speed limits, thereby adopting what can be called a traffic safety perspective. The paper concludes with a discussion of the politics and power relations among actors and their implications for our understanding of decision-making on the issue of speed limits.

  • 32.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Svensson, Helena
    Vectura.
    Det nya hastighetsgränssystemet: regionala beslutsfattares syn, problembilder och förväntningar2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008 and 2009 the Swedish Road Administration (SRA) introduces new speed limits based on a more flexible system. This means that the current speed limits are supplemented with 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 km/h. The limits should be gradually adjusted according to how safe the road is and the degree of violence that the human body can withstand following a mistake. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of regional actors' view on the new speed limit system, i.e. their problems, expectations of what the system should be able to achieve as well as views on how the implementation process has been performed so far. The changes that have been addressed in the study are those included in phase 1 of the introduction of the new system, i.e. changes in the speed limits on the national road network. The data were collected through interviews with representatives of the respondents, i.e. municipalities, regional development councils/regional cooperative bodies, county police and county administrative boards. To get a spread of interviews across the country three different regions were selected; the interviews were carried out in Skåne, Västra Götaland and Västerbotten. In each region approximately seven interviews were done and the material thus comprises a total of 21 completed interviews. In addition to interviews all the written opinions which were submitted to the SRA in the three regions in phase 1 have been used as research material in the study.

1 - 32 of 32
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