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  • 1. Adesiyun, Adewole
    et al.
    Bezuglyi, Artem
    Bidnenko, Natalya
    Laszlo, Gaspar
    Golovko, Sergyi
    Kraszewski, Cezary
    Krayushkina, Kateryna
    Kushnir, Olexander
    Kuttah, Dina K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Szpikowski, Miroslaw
    Andrezj, Urbanik
    Voloshyna, Iryna
    Vozniuk, Andrii
    Vyrozhemsky, Valeriy
    Short-term Research Visits2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Andren, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bergström, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    FUD rörande gång- och cykelvägar: en beskrivning av VTI:s kompetens och resurser2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The present report presents, partly, the collected VTI research on the "functional properties" of pedestrian and bicycle roads, and partly a survey of what has been done in this field outside of VTI. The term "functional property" has been interpreted in a broad sense, and basically everything connected with bicycle roads and bicycle traffic is included in the VTI literature review, which is the major part of the report. The operating environment analysis is made on the basis of the discussions from a seminar held at VTI, December 12, 2005, and complemented with literature reviews. The possibilities to build an instrumented vehicle for measuring bicycle roads, and the relevant properties of an evenness index, were discussed at the seminar. In the literature review, the research of VTI has been divided into five parts: traffic safety, maintenance and operation, mode choice, measurement of cycle flow, and the umbrella part "others". The research concerning traffic safety dominates, both at VTI and elsewhere. One of the conclusions from the project is that VTI should try to get funding to develop a measuring vehicle for cycleway surfaces. There is also a need to develop the unreliable methods used today (elastic tube and induction coil) to count bicycle traffic.

  • 3.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jacobsen, Jens Kr. Steen
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Berglund, Carl Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turistvägar och näringsutveckling: trafikantupplevelser och planeringskriterier2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    VTI and the Norwegian Institute of Transport Economics (TØI) have at the request of the Swedish Road Administration carried out a research and development project concerning tourist routes in Sweden. The project was done in two parts, one literature study with examples of how other countries work with tourist routes and one field study about the opinions of visitors and business operators along two Swedish tourist routes (the present publication). The two tourist routes which have been studied are Tourist Route Gränna-Ödeshög-Rök in the Counties of Jönköping and Östergötland, and Tourist Route Kullaberg in the County of Skåne. The study of the experiences of the business operators, the visitors' willingness to pay and a deepened analysis of the landscape was only done along the Gränna route. As for the experiences of the visitors the data for the two Swedish tourist routes have been compared with similar data from a Norwegian tourist route, Tourist Route Sognefjell.

  • 4.
    Bergström, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Cykeltrafik: en litteraturstudie med inriktning mot drift och underhåll2000Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bergström, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Cykling vintertid: väglagets betydelse för val av färdmedel1999Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bergström, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effects on cycling of road maintenance and operation2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Bergström, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hur kommunerna i Stockholms län arbetar med cykeltrafikfrågor: en enkätstudie2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under hösten 2001, påbörjade Vägverket Region Stockholm arbetet med att ta fram ett regionalt cykelprogram. Programarbetet utgår från Vägverkets nationella strategi för ökad och säker cykeltrafik. Det regionala programmet ska visa Vägverket Region Stockholms mål, strategier och åtgärder inom cykeltrafikområdet under åren 2002-2006. VTI arbetar på uppdrag av Vägverket Region Stockholm med att kartlägga och sammanställa fakta om cykeltrafiken i regionen. Brister behöver identifieras för att Vägverket ska kunna välja lämpliga insatser och sätta upp rimliga mål för cykeltrafikområdet inom regionen. Den här enkätstudien ingår som en del i VTI:s arbete med att bygga upp nödvändig kunskapsbas. Enkäten syftade till att få en uppfattning om det cykeltrafikrelaterade arbetet i kommunerna i Stockholms län, som underlag för Vägverkets framtagande av ett regionalt cykelprogram. I enkäten har kommunerna även givits tillfälle att lämna synpunkter på vilken roll de vill att Vägverket ska ta i det fortsatta arbetet med att få en ökad och säker cykeltrafik i länet.

  • 8.
    Bergström, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tema Vintermodell: olycksrisker under för-, hög- och senvinter2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om förekomsten av ett is-/snöväglag

    utgör en högre olycksrisk i början och slutet av en vinter, i jämförelse med

    själva "högvintern". Orsaken till detta skulle kunna vara, att förarna under

    högvintern är mer förberedda på och vana att hantera ett is-/snöväglag än vad

    de är i början och slutet av vintern. För att undersöka detta har

    olyckskvoter beräknats, för tre olika långa för- och senvinterperioder. Dessa

    olyckskvoter har sedan jämförts med olyckskvoten för motsvarande

    högvinterperiod. Längden på högvinterperioderna varierade för olika delar av

    landet. Olyckskvoterna uttrycks i antal olyckor dividerat med trafikarbetet,

    där olycksmaterialet omfattar samtliga polisrapporterade olyckor på det

    statliga vägnätet exklusive viltolyckor. Olyckskvotsberäkningarna har

    differentierats på de fem väglag, som förekommer vid polisens

    olycksrapportering: torr barmark, fuktig eller våt barmark, packad snö eller

    tjock is, tunn is eller rimfrost, lös snö eller snömodd, där de tre

    sistnämnda utgör is-/snöväglagen. Beräkningarna har även delats upp i sex

    driftstandardklasser A1-A4 samt klass B1-B2 och med landet indelat i fyra

    olika klimatzoner: Södra, Mellersta, Nedre norra och Övre norra Sverige. För

    att beräkna trafikarbetet per väglag har väglagsfördelningar, baserat på

    utförda observationer under vintersäsongerna 1993/94 t.o.m. 1996/97 samt

    årsdygnstrafikarbetet använts som underlag. Analyserna visar att

    olyckskvoterna för is-/snöväglag under före- och senvinterperioderna i nästan

    samtliga fall är högre än för motsvarande högvinterperiod. Olyckskvoterna var

    dessutom i de flesta fall högre under senvinterperioderna än under

    förvinterperioderna. Det visade sig också att ju kortare för- och

    senvinterperiod, desto högre var olyckskvoten i många fall. Dessa samband var

    tydligast för vägar i driftstandardklass B1 och B2.

  • 9.
    Bergström, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Variation in car accident risk during winter2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    At the beginning and end of a winter season, there is a greater risk of car accidents in ice and snow conditions than during mid-winter. This was found in this Swedish study where accident data for four winters was correlated to road condition data obtained through visual observations. The purpose of the study was to see how the car accident risk on ice and snow varies over the winter. To examine this, the winter season was divided into three periods: Early winter, Mid-winter, and Late winter. Accident rates were calculated for each period and the values for Early and Late winter were compared with the corresponding Mid-winter values. The accident rate (car accident risk) is here defined as the number of accidents divided by the vehicle mileage, where the accident data includes all the car accidents on Swedish state roads recorded by the police, during the winter seasons from 1993/94 through 1996/97, excluding collisions with wildlife. Accident rates were calculated for five different types of road condition assessed by the police: Dry bare ground, Moist or Wet bare ground, Packed snow or Thick ice, Black ice or Hoar-frost, and Loose snow or Slush, where the last three are ice and snow conditions. The vehicle mileage for each road condition was calculated on the basis of visual observations performed to monitor the road condition. The analyses show that icy and snowy road conditions constitute a greater risk during Early and Late winter periods than during Mid-winter. The reason for this could be that drivers are more likely to expect these kinds of road condition during Mid-winter than at the beginning and end of the winter season. Moreover, the accident risk is greater during Late winter than during Early winter, and the shorter the Early and Late winter period, the higher the risk.

  • 10.
    Bergström, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Winter maintenance standards on cycleways: Appropriate road condition for increased cycling during winter2002In: PIARC 2002 XIth International Winter Road Congress 28-31 January 2002 - Sapporo (Japan): Reprints from proceedings of oral presentations, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2002, p. 9-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    An analysis of cyclists' speed at combined pedestrian and cycle pathsIn: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In Sweden, cyclists, pedestrians, and moped riders share the space on combined pedestrian and cycle paths, and their speeds may differ greatly. Both actual speed and speed differences can potentially influence the number of accidents on the shared paths. As a starting point, this article studies the speed component and how cyclists' speed varies at pedestrian and cycle paths depending on the day, week, and year; road user composition; and road design.

    Methods: Three data sources were used: Existing measurements of cycle speed and flow in 3 different Swedish municipalities, Eskilstuna (1 site, January-December 2015), Linkoping (6 sites, 4 weeks in September-October 2015), and Stockholm (10 sites, 1-5 days in August-September 2015); complementary measurements of cycle speed and flow in Linkoping (4 sites, 1-10 days in August-September 2016) and Stockholm (1 site, only part of 2 days in August 2016) were also conducted within the project, in addition to roadside observations of bicycle types at the 5 new sites.

    Results: The average speed of cyclists on the paths varied between 12.5 and 26.5 km/h. As expected, the lower average speeds were found in uphill directions, near intersections, and on paths with high pedestrian flows. The higher speeds were found in downhill directions and on commuter routes. In all, 70%-95% of road users observed on pedestrian and cycle paths were cyclists, and 5%-30% were pedestrians. The most common type of bicycle was a comfort bike, followed by a trekking bike. Electric-assisted bicycles and racer bikes occurred at all sites, with proportions of 1%-10% and 1%-15%, respectively. The 2 sites with the highest proportion of electric-assisted bicycles and racer bicycles also had the highest average speeds. The differences in average speed throughout the day, week, and year could only be assessed at one of the sites. Only small differences were found, with the most noticeable being that the average speed was lower in January and February (13.8 km/h) compared to the rest of the year (15.3-16.1 km/h). The average speed was also lower during daytime (14.7 km/h) than during other parts of the day (15.4-15.8 km/h).

    Conclusions: The relationship between bicycle type and measured speed was not entirely clear, but the results suggest that paths with higher proportions of electric and racer bicycles have higher average speeds. There also appears to be a connection between average speed and the width of the distribution; that is, the higher the average speed, the wider the speed distribution. More research is needed on how speed levels and speed variance affect accident risk.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance. VTI.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Karlström, Jones
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Enhetlig metod för cykelflödesmätningar: en förberedande studie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an objective of increasing cycling nationally, regionally and in many Swedish municipalities. The extent of cycling can be followed up with either travel surveys (TSs) or by measuring the bicycle flow. The Traffic Analysis Authority was commissioned by the Government to develop and propose a uniform method for systematic measurements of bicycle traffic at a local and regional level and their report was published in January 2018. Bicycle traffic can be measured in different ways and the two most common methods are (1) measurements by counting bicycles (manually or with detecting equipment) in the street area or (2) travel surveys (TSs). In this report, we focus only on counting cyclists in the street area. Today, the methods of counting bicyclists are limited, and they do not enable estimations of kilometers travelled by bicycle per average day in a municipality.

    In order to achieve a broad application, it is necessary to investigate the possible obstacles that exist to use the Traffic Analysis's proposal for a uniform method, and this will be done in the following steps, where step 1 is described in this report:

    1. A preparatory study: Suggest a set-up of a pilot study

    2. Conduct a pilot study to establish a uniform and systematic approach, and finally

    3. Determine the final uniform and systematic method.

    The purpose of the preparatory study presented in this report is to adapt the Traffic Analysis's proposal to a uniform method for estimating the kilometers travelled by bicycle per average day, based on municipal conditions. The preparatory study will also lead to a proposal for a pilot study in which the adapted method is tested, and issues related to delimitations and definitions can be decided. The pilot study will be carried out in a follow-up project with a number of municipalities. This will result in a final determination of a uniform method for estimating the kilometers travelled by bicycle per average day.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Säkerhetseffekten av ökat cyklande: kartläggning av nuläget för att planera för framtiden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, cycling has been highlighted as a travel mode with many positive qualities. The documents of Swedish national strategy reveal a trend of an increased cycling. At the same time, it is important that the safety of cyclists must be improved so that an increased cycling does not contribute to more injuries and fatalities in accidents. To cope with the increased cycling without compromising the safety, there is fore example, a need for better understanding of the relationship between the cycling flow and the injuries in various traffic environments.

    In this project, three different studies were carried out to understand how the trend of cycling changes over time and how cyclists' injury risk is influenced by the cycling flow and the traffic environment. In the first study, a travel demand model has been developed that includes both mode choice and destination choice for cycling. In the second study, models for cyclists’ injury risks have been developed for different types of accidents and traffic environments. In the third study, interactions between different road users have been observed, to study how these are affected by the level of bicycle flow. Overall, the studies in this project have shown that bicycle flow is an important factor influencing cyclists’ accident risks. Higher bicycle flow corresponds to fewer interactions per cyclist and a lower risk of injury in a single bicycle accident as well as in a collision accident with motorised vehicles. We have also been able to demonstrate that it is possible to model travel choices and destination choice of cyclists and to develop models that describe cyclists’ injury risk. However, to provide better estimates, data with better quality are necessary for the model inputs, especially when it comes to the cycling and the description of cycling infrastructure.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST. NTF.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Cyklisters hastigheter: Kartläggning, mätningar och observation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different road users share space on pedestrian and cycle paths, and their speeds may differ greatly. Differences in speed can complicate the interactions between road users which in turn may cause incidents and accidents. The purpose of this project is to enhance the understanding of cycle speeds on the pedestrian and cycle paths and to understand how the cyclists adapt their speed to other road users and to the surrounding environment. Three different data collection methods were used: Previous measurements of cycle speed and flow in three different municipalities, Eskilstuna, Linköping and Stockholm (18 locations); new measurements in Linköping (4 locations) and Stockholm (1 location); and new observation studies of bicycle types at these locations.

    The average speed of cyclists on the paths selected varies between 15–25 kilometer per hour. As expected, the lower average speeds were found in the uphill directions, near intersections and in paths with high pedestrian flow. The higher speeds were found in downhill directions and on commuter routes. No general increase in cyclists’ speed was found between years, neither in mean speed nor in proportion of high-speed cyclists. However, bicycle flow has increased in many of the locations over the years. This implies that the number of cyclists holding a high speed, above 30 kilometer per hour, will be increased, even if the proportion of high-speed cyclists stays the same. This may mistakenly be interpreted as increased mean speed. About 70–95 percent of the road users observed on the pedestrian and cycling paths were cyclists and roughly 5–30 percent were pedestrians. An extremely small proportion were mopeds, 0.2 percent. The comfort bike was the most common type, followed by the trekking bike. The electric and racer bike occurred in all locations, but varied 1–10 percent respectively 1–15 percent. The relationship between the type of bike and the speed claim is not entirely clear, but cyclists on the electrical and racer bikes generally have higher speed claims.

  • 15.
    Gruhs, Pontus
    et al.
    Trafikverket.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Grönvall, Oscar
    Tyréns AB.
    Caesar, Karin
    Tyréns AB.
    Drift- och underhållsproblem vid trafiksäkerhets- och tillgänglighetsutformning: kunskapsinventering2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med projektet "Trafiksäkerhet & Tillgänglighet vs Drift & Underhåll" är att finna lösningar på de konflikter som finns mellan de utformningslösningar som vi idag betraktar som tillgängliga och trafiksäkra och de problem som dessa utformningar utgör för drift- och underhållsarbetet. Ur ett helhetsperspektiv kan man idag få bilden av att man kanske fokuserar för mycket på att det ska vara optimalt ur ett trafiksäkerhets- och tillgänglighetsperspektiv, vilket i vissa fall innebär att det blir omöjligt att klara driften. Det i sin tur innebär att utformningen varken blir säker eller tillgänglig under vissa förhållanden. Vårt mål är att hitta lösningar som kan anses som tillräckligt bra ur ett trafiksäkerhets- och tillgänglighetsperspektiv och som dessutom går att sköta och ge godtagbar standard året om.

  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Optidrift: optimerad vinter- och barmarksdrift för bättre luftkvalitet2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Operation of streets and roads, in addition to accessibility and safety, also affects environmental aspects such as air quality. Measures such as sanding and salting affect the content of inhalable particles (PM10) in the air. On the other hand, operational measures that are made to reduce the suspension of particles in the spring can have an effect on the winter operation, because the salt solutions used also act as de- and anti-icing agents. The project has investigated the possibilities of optimizing street operations from these aspects, with a focus on air quality. In various activities, views and experiences were gathered about problem images and solutions from industry, road managers and practitioners. A road dust sampler, WDS II, was developed. Evaluations of the effect of different coil and cleaning variants on the road dust load showed that a positive effect of the methods requires that there is relatively much dust on the road surface. Optimization tests showed that good forecasting of dust binding is important for a good result. A criteria-based analysis showed that no optimization of the dust binding occurred during the project period. Overall, the project's original goal of being able to propose an optimized street operation in a district in Stockholm has not been achieved, mainly due to current operating contracts and of the high priority of the environmental quality objective (PM10) and accessibility in the city. On the other hand, Optidrift has identified success factors and problems with the street operation, resulting in increased knowledge about the street operations' effects on dust load and air quality, and developed useful evaluation methods and scenario analyzes useful in continued work on improving and optimizing winter and barge operations.

  • 17.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Kan dubbdäck på cykeln minska singelolyckorna?: friktionstester av cykeldäck i VTI:s stationära däckprovningsanläggning2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to define a useful methodology for comparing the ice grip of different bicycle tyres and to perform initial measurements. The long term objective is to set up recommendations to winter cyclists regarding bicycle tyres based on measurements performed according to the defined methodology. Measurements were done on smooth slippery ice using two regular (non-studded) bicycle tyres and four studded tyres of different brands and models. The tests were carried out in the VTI tyre test facility (TTF). The TTF is a unique indoor flat track machine for tyre tests on ice or asphalt pavement. This construction enables measurement of frictional forces under controlled conditions both when braking and steering. The TTF has been used for several years when testing tyres for both passenger cars and heavy vehicles, but to be able to test bicycle tyres some modifications of the equipment were necessary. The defined test method proved to be suitable for comparing studies. The measurements showed that studded tyres improve the grip on ice compared to regular bicycle tyres, but there can be differences in performance between different types of studded tyres. A larger number of studs is not necessarily related to a better grip on ice. When braking with locked wheel the frictional forces measured, were up to 2.5 times higher with a studded tyre compared to a non-studded tyre. In addition, studded tyres generally generate greater frictional forces when steering on ice compared to non-studded tyres. In general, a lower tyre pressure slightly increases braking and steering forces, but an optimal tyre pressure might be necessary in order to achieve the best possible performance from a studded bicycle tyre. Based on the results so far, cyclists should be recommended to use studded tyres when cycling during winter conditions. With an improved grip on ice and a better braking stability, there are safety benefits to be made.

  • 18.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Mätning av cykeldäcks friktionsegenskaper som underlag för simuleringsstudier2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project measurements of a bicycle tyre on an asphalt surface have been carried out in the VTI stationary tyre testing facility, in order to provide slip curves describing friction properties of the tyre. The measurement results have then been used to obtain tyre parameters for simulation purposes. The following tyre parameters have been measured: cornering stiffness, camber stiffness, brake slip stiffness and lateral relaxation length.

    The tested tyre generated a maximum friction level of approximately 1.0 on the asphalt. Typical values of the tyre parameters were: normalized cornering stiffness 0.3; standardized camber stiffness 0.01; standard brake slip stiffness 250. Compared to the few previously published measurements on bicycle tyres, cornering stiffness was generally about 50 percent higher than previously reported. The values for camber stiffness correspond well to the values shown by a racing tyre study but are 25–50 percent lower than the values measured on more normal tyres in another study. For brake slip stiffness there are no previous measurements to compare with. Measurement of the lateral relaxation length was unfortunately affected by problems with the measuring equipment and we could not determine the relaxation length with the desired accuracy. From the measurements, we estimate the relaxation length to 200–300 mm for the tested tire, which is a factor 2–3 to greater than reported in the only earlier study that measured relaxation length for bicycle tyres.

  • 19.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Cykelcentrum för långsiktighet och excellens: redovisning av regeringsuppdrag2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and new knowledge are important parts in achieving the government’s goal more and safer cycling contributing to a sustainable society and a high quality of life throughout the country. VTI was therefore assigned to compile and analyse the needs in cycling research and analyse how cycling research in Sweden can be coordinated and strengthened. The results are presented in this report giving examples of issues related to cycling that need to be scientifically strengthened through basic as well as applied research. This includes, for instance, the practical integration of cycling in traffic- and urban planning and knowledge on effective measures where special needs, prerequisites and barriers in groups of existing and potential cyclists are considered. Research describing cause and effect relationships regarding the design, construction, operation and maintenance of cycling infrastructure is required in order to carry out socioeconomic evaluations of cycling measures. Decisions also need to be based on research in order to prioritise between various types of measures and motivate measures to decision-makers. This also applies to information and campaigns.

    To generate cause and effect relationships, cycling and cycling accidents need to be better followed up, and a more detailed description of the cycling road network is required. Moreover, traffic models for cycling need to be developed, and more research about the actual bicycle and its equipment is required. Overall, there is a great need for long-term knowledge building and competence provision, increased coordination of cycling research and a more efficient distribution and application of research findings. To fulfil these needs and create better prerequisites for more research on cycling, it is of great value that a national knowledge centre for cycling research and education has been established at VTI in Linköping, Sweden. At the cycling research centre, the following important tasks should be carried out: Long-term knowledge building, connecting research and problem owners, coordinating research and development, gathering and distributing knowledge, developing technical resources, measurements and measurement methods.

  • 20.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Cykelvägars drift- och underhållsstandard: intervjuer med 13 cykelkommuner2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This study gives an insight into the routines and regulations for cycleway maintenance in Sweden, based on interviews with employees in 13 municipalities with relatively high amount of bicycle traffic. The study is part of a project, "service levels of cycleways", with the purpose of improving cycleway maintenance in order to promote cycling. In general, for cycleway construction, the municipalities follow the technical description of road constructions from the Swedish Road Administration. However, for maintenance of cycleways, the municipalities have their own requirements. Budget restraints are usually determining the requirements and limited means are considered to be the major obstacle to provide a high service level. Yet, cycleways are given priority and are maintained at the highest service level in most municipalities. Thawing and freezing, resulting in slush followed by icy ruts and slipperiness, is considered to be the most difficult condition to handle in cycleway maintenance, as well as providing good quality surfaces in view of cyclists' sensitivity to even minor defects. Cycleway surface conditions are monitored through visual inspections only. The public is considered to be an important resource in detecting cycleway defects, and their remarks are systematically registered. The most common complaints regard broken glass or slipperiness.

  • 21.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Cykelvägars standard: en kunskapssammanställning med fokus på drift och underhåll2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the final report within the research project "Service levels of cycleways" with the purpose of finding the characteristics of an attractive cycleway, and specifying how to maintain cycleways in order to promote cycling. The report is based on literature reviews and summarizes also the studies conducted in the project including interviews with employees in Swedish municipalities, focus group studies with cyclists, as well as test and evaluation of a method for measuring the surface evenness of cycle paths.

    The maintenance service level of cycleways is important in order to raise the status of the bicycle as a mode of transport. In Sweden more than 70% of bicycle accidents are single vehicle accidents and 40% of those are maintenance related. Skid control is the most important maintenance measure for the safety of cyclists, while snow clearance is crucial for travel time and accessibility. Surface unevenness as well as grit, broken glass, etc. also affect the safety of cyclists, but are more crucial for their comfort and travel time.

    Requirements and recommendations are based on experience and common knowledge rather than on the effects for cyclists, and it is usually the requirements for roadways as well as budget restraints, that set the limits. In consequence, there is a difference in the maintenance service level perceived by cyclist compared to the one declared by the road administrators.

  • 22.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Cyklisters syn på cykelvägars standard: fokusgrupper i Umeå och Linköping2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This study describes the significance of various road related factors for cyclists' accident risk, accessibility, comfort and decision whether or not to cycle. Four focus group meetings with cyclists from Linköping and Umeå were held, following an interview guide with six principal areas: avoidance of obstacles, the cycle ride takes longer than necessary, or longer than usual/planned, increased stress, safety risk, and the decision whether or not to cycle. Apart from the principal areas in the interview guide, the participants' comments were grouped under the categories maintenance, geometric design, other road users, traffic rules and other matters. For the safety risk, other road users and geometric design appeared to have the greatest significance, as well as shortcomings in maintenance. Exercise and wellbeing were the chief reasons to cycle. Maintenance is also significant for the decision to cycle, mainly in the winter, but this chiefly applies on the part of those who regularly cycle in their daily decision. To promote cycle traffic it is essential to enhance the competitiveness of the cycle by improving accessibility and making travel times shorter for cyclists. This mainly requires a direct and continuous cycle path network. Maintenance of high standard has a more immediate effect on accessibility during short periods, and it is important in retaining the existing cyclists.

  • 23.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tema Vintermodell: olycksrisker och konsekvenser för olika olyckstyper på is- och snöväglag2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to augment the Accident Risk Model (within the Winter Model) with accident risk and the consequences of different types of accident, in order that the costs of accidents in icy and snowy road conditions may be calculated. We have calculated the accident risk by dividing the nutuber of accidents by vehicle mileage for the winters of 1993/1994 through 1996/1997. In this study, we have grouped accidents into four types: single-vehicle accidents, head-on collisions, rear-end collisions and other accidents. For all accident types the accident risk is higher on icy and snowy roads than on dry bare roads. Head-on collisions and single-vehicle accidents have the highest relative accident rates, with accident risks that are more than ten times higher in snowy and icy road conditions. For single-vehicle accidents, it is the thin ice/hoar frost that is the main cause of this great increase. Generally, the consequences of head-on collisions are more serious on roads with snow and ice than on dry bare roads in the wintertime, while for single-vehicle accidents the consequences are less serious. We have calculated the consequences by dividing the nutuber killed, severely injured and slightly injured by the total number of accidents. For these calculations, accident data for all winters during the whole of the 1990s have been used.

  • 24.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    The importance of winter maintenance for cyclists2010In: Sustainable winter service for road users: 13th international winter road congress, Paris: PIARC , 2010, , p. 10Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Single bicycle accidents represent more than 70% of all bicycle accidents in Sweden and the biggest influencing factor is slippery surfaces, mainly caused by ice and snow. In addition, the winter maintenance service level is significant for the accessibility of cyclists and for their decision to cycle or not. According to road maintenance administrators the most difficult conditions to manage in cycleway maintenance is thawing and freezing, resulting in slush followed by icy ruts and slipperiness. In this paper, winter maintenance of cycleways will be discussed from various perspectives, based on several studies performed at VTI. The effects on safety related to winter maintenance is estimated using accident data based on reports from hospital emergency rooms. In total, almost 18 000 bicycle accidents were analysed. The paper will also present the opinion of cyclists concerning the importance of the winter road condition for their perceived safety, their travel time, etc. The results are based on focus group studies performed in two Swedish cities with different climate and daylight conditions. The cyclists’ opinion will also be compared to the perception of road maintenance administrators. Road maintenance administrators from 13 different municipalities in Sweden have been interviewed.

  • 25.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Varmsandning på gång- och cykelvägar: Utvärdering i Umeå av för- och nackdelar med metoden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the safety of cyclists and pedestrians the winter maintenance service level needs to be improved and there is a need for skid control measures that are effective and, at the same time, reduce the amount of grit spread during the wintertime. Warm wetted sand, a method were the sanding material is mixed with hot water while spreading and were the sand adheres to a cold surface through a process of melting and freezing, could be the solution. In this study, the applicability of using warm wetted sand on walkways and bike paths has been evaluated in Umeå municipality during the winters of 2010/11 and 2011/12. Comparing measurements of friction clearly showed higher levels of friction improvements and with a longer duration when using warm wetted sand for skid control on walkways and bike paths compared to traditional dry sand. The study also showed that the number of actions can be reduced when using warm wetted sand instead of traditional dry, and it is therefore possible to reduce the amount of grit spread. The method was most effective on sections with on-street-cycling were the road condition more often is thick ice. The apprehension that the method might create an uneven surface uncomfortable for cyclists was not perceived. The maintenance operators had, on the other hand, noticed that when spreading warm wetted sand on soft packed snow an uneven surface might occur, if the warm sand melts through the top layer of the snow surface. The main problem with the method is the freezing of the sand material in the hopper and the spreader, due to the high amount of fine graded particles in the sand mixture. The results are not promising enough to motivate an investment in equipment for skid control on walkways and bike paths only, but with a multi-purpose use it gets more cost effective.

  • 26.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sopsaltning av cykelvägar: för bättre framkomlighet och säkerhet för vintercyklister2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sopsaltning av cykelvägar är en metod som skulle kunna bidra till en högre standard på cykelvägarna vintertid. Med metoden kan man undvika problematiken med rullgrus. Några svenska kommuner arbetar i dag med att sopsalta cykelvägar. VTI har gjort utvärderande mätningar av sopsaltning i Stockholms stad som sedan vintern 2013/2014 tillämpar metoden ganska omfattande. De utvärderande mätningarna som VTI har gjort på uppdrag av Stockholms stad finns kortfattat beskrivna i detta häfte.

  • 27.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sopsaltning av cykelvägar i teori och praktik: erfarenheter från utvärderingar i svenska kommuner2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To encourage people to cycle during winter and at the same time reduce the number of single bicycle crashes, a high winter maintenance service level is needed. Traditionally in Sweden, ploughing and gritting is used for winter maintenance of cycleways and footways. In recent years, a method using a front-mounted power broom for snow clearance and salt for de-icing (commonly called “sweepsalting”) has become popular for winter maintenance of cycleways in Swedish municipalities. Linköping was the first municipality to test the method, already in 1999. Today, municipalities from Umeå in the north to Malmö in the south are applying the method with a variation in methods, equipment and strategies. In this project earlier research has been complemented with detailed field studies in Linköping and Stockholm, theoretical knowledge as well as practical experiences from several Swedish municipalities. The objective has been to provide a better understanding regarding pros and cons of “sweep-salting” as well as the equipment, methods and strategies appropriate under various conditions. The studies presented in this report show that when working successfully, the sweep-salting method creates a bare surface with higher friction than traditional ploughing and gritting. Measures must be done in time and the operating speed adjusted according to the prevailing conditions. In mild weather brine is sufficient, but with lower temperatures and heavy snowfall larger amounts of salt is needed and pre-wetted or dry salt must be used. For the method to work properly, the bicycle path construction should be of good condition without cracks or other damages in the surface. The equipment for sweep-salting needs to be further developed for a higher efficiency.

  • 28.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sopsaltning av cykelvägar: utvärdering av försök i Stockholm vintern 2013/20142016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under vintern 2012/13 testade Stockholms stad några olika utrustningar för sopsaltning på utvalda cykelvägar i Stockholm och sedan vintern 2013/14 pågår en mer omfattande tillämpning av metoden på några utvalda cykelstråk viktiga för arbetspendling. Väglagsobservationer visar tydligt att sopsaltningen resulterat i ett bättre väglag än traditionell plogning och sandning. Resultaten redovisas i detta notat. Målsättningen inför vintern 2013/14 var att hålla en mycket hög standard på de utvalda cykelstråken. Under hela vintersäsongen skulle förarna köra sina sträckor i princip varje vardag, oavsett om det behövdes någon vinterväghållningsåtgärd eller inte. I början av vintern skulle sopningen bidra till att göra cykelstråken fria från smuts, kvistar, nedfallna löv etc. Vid risk för halka skulle det också saltas, så länge temperaturen var över -12°C. Vintern blev som helhet mycket mild, det snöade endast vid ett fåtal tillfällen och i de flesta fall bara måttliga snömängder. Det innebar att det aldrig fanns något behov av att gå över till plogning och sandning utan metoden med sopsaltning var tillämpbar hela den aktuella vintern. Väglagsobservationer visar tydligt att sopsaltningen resulterat i ett bättre väglag än traditionell plogning och sandning. Det har i princip alltid varit barmarksförhållanden på de sopsaltade stråken, även då det varit snö och is på cykelstråk som inte saltats. VTI:s mätningar visar också att friktionen i genomsnitt varit betydligt högre på de sopsaltade stråken jämfört med de stråk som inte saltats. VTI:s friktionsmätningar visar emellertid att friktionen kan variera ganska mycket längs de sopsaltade cykelstråken. Medan ”orörda” delar av stråken har mycket god friktion, kan skador i beläggningen, indrag av snö från osaltade stråk, korsningar, vägmarkeringar och brunnslock uppvisa en låg friktion.

  • 29.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sopsaltning av cykelvägar: utvärdering av försök i Stockholm vintern 2014/152016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inför vintern 2013/14 fick VTI i uppdrag av Stockholms stad att utvärdera tillämpningen av sopsaltmetoden för vinterväghållning av ett antal prioriterade cykelstråk i Söderort och Västerort. I detta notat sammanställs de mätningar som gjordes under vintern 2014/15. Sopsaltmetoden innebär att en sopvals används för att röja bort snön från vägytan och att halka bekämpas med saltlösning eller befuktat salt. Eftersom försöken 2013/14 ansågs lyckade så utökades det sopsaltade cykelvägnätet till det dubbla och totalt 12 mil cykelväg sopsaltades under vintern 2014/15. I januari 2015 var det relativt stora nederbördsmängder vilket satte metoden på prov. Uppföljningen har under båda vintrarna bestått av stickprovsvisa mätningar i ett antal utvalda punkter som representerar olika typmiljöer och olika sopsaltmetoder/-utrustningar. Där har friktionen, väglaget, saltfördelningen och saltmängderna studerats. Dessutom har åtgärderna följts upp med förarprotokoll och väderdata. I samband med de stora nederbördsmängderna i januari, blev det problem med isbildning på de sopsaltade cykelstråken i Stockholm. Vid kraftig fukttillförsel eller nederbörd sker en utspädning av saltet vilket kan leda till en uppbyggnad av isbark. Vid dessa tillfällen skulle man alltså ha behövt lägga en större saltmängd för att undvika isbildning. Vinterns utvärderingar antyder att problemen med isbildning tycks vara värst på gångbanor med höga fotgängarflöden. En lärdom är att om isbark väl uppstått, är det bättre att snarast gå över till att sanda istället för att försöka få bort isbarken med salt – naturligtvis beroende på rådande väderförhållanden och vad prognosen säger. Vid omslag till varmare temperaturer kan man riva/ploga bort isbarken och återigen övergå till sopsaltning.

  • 30.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sopsaltning i Karlstad: utmaningar och möjligheter2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta notat innehåller en analys över tänkbara för- och nackdelar med sopsaltning på cykelvägar i Karlstad. Stadens läge och klimat talar för att sopsaltning av cykelbanor skulle kunna vara en användbar metod vid vinterväghållning. Många städer gör nu satsningar för att andelen resor som sker med cykel ska öka även vintertid. En vinterväghållningsmetod som vuxit kraftigt är sopsaltmetoden där en sopvals röjer bort snön och halkan bekämpas med saltlösning eller befuktat salt. På så vis undviker man att sand ansamlas på cykelbanorna, men i gengäld sprider man mer salt. VTI fick i uppdrag av Karlstad kommun att analysera tänkbara för- och nackdelar med sopsaltning på cykelvägar i Karlstad och ge rekommendationer för en eventuell fortsatt tillämpning av metoden. Analyserna bygger på teoretiska samband och en kartläggning av genomförda åtgärder under vintern 2014/2015. Åtgärderna har kopplats till rådande väderförhållanden genom analyser av data från Trafikverkets vägväderinformationssystem, VViS. Forskarna har också beaktat allmänhetens synpunkter genom att ta del av genomförda enkäter, Facebook-inlägg och ärenden inkomna till kommunens kundcenter rörande vinterväghållning av gång- och cykelvägar.

  • 31.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Cykelvägars friktion: mätningar i fält i jämförelse med cykeldäcks friktion på olika underlag i VTI:s däckprovningsanläggning2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Skidding is a common cause for cyclists getting seriously injured in traffic. Neither requirements nor prescribed friction measurement methods for cycleways have been based on the performance of bicycles. There is therefore a need for increased knowledge regarding the friction characteristics of bicycle tyres and the traction between a bicycle tyre and the road surface under different conditions. In this project we have compiled measurements with VTI's portable friction tester, PFT, on cycleways with a variety of road conditions. To relate the PFT friction values to the friction of bicycle tyres, we have also made comparative measurements with bicycle tyres in VTI's stationary tyre testing facility. These show a very good match between the PFT friction values and the maximum lateral friction available for a bicycle tyre. This means that the PFT friction values recorded on cycleways can also be said to represent the friction that a bicycle tyre would perform on the same surface. Our friction measurements on cycleways show that the skid resistance is affected by the road condition, the road surface material, as well as road markings and manhole-covers. Ice and snow cause a significantly lower friction level than at bare conditions. Differences in road conditions mean that different types of cycling infrastructure and different winter maintenance methods result in different friction levels. This means that there may be large variations in friction along one and the same cycle route. The surprise effect and thus the accident risk can then be great. Not only snow, ice and grit, but also leaves, clay and other dirt on the surface might lead to a reduced skid resistance. For the safety of cyclists, it is important to inform about where a slippery condition can occur and to adjust anti-icing actions, road design and construction according to that knowledge.

  • 32.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Utvärdering av sopsaltning på cykelstråk i Stockholm vintern 2016/172017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Stockholm, cycling as a mode of transport is promoted, especially for commuting. Public transport as well as the roadway network has reached capacity during peak hours and cycling is considered to be an advantageous alternative, since there are environmental and health benefits to gain. To encourage people to cycle during winter and at the same time reduce the number of single bicycle crashes, a high winter maintenance service level is needed. Using salt for skid control of bicycle paths could be one solution, although it has its drawbacks and difficulties. In recent years, a method using a frontmounted power broom for snow clearance and salt for de-icing (commonly called “sweep-salting”) has become popular for winter maintenance of bicycle paths in Sweden.

    In 2013 the city of Stockholm decided to try the “sweep-salting” method and evaluate its potential to improve the service level on bicycle routes for commuting. To optimize and develop the method, VTI has performed field studies every winter since 2013. These studies have included measurements of friction, road condition observations, measurements of residual salt on bicycle path surfaces, salt deposition at the side of bicycle paths, maintenance protocols and interviews with maintenance operators. Since all studies were done in field, in a real-life environment, the experimental work was designed according to the winter maintenance routines of the municipality and other prevailing conditions and circumstances. This report presents the results from the evaluation of the winter of 2016/2017.

    The evaluations show that when working successfully, the sweep-salting method creates a bare surface with higher friction than traditional ploughing and gritting. Measures must be done in time and the operating speed adjusted according to the prevailing conditions. In mild weather brine is sufficient, but with lower temperatures and heavy snowfall larger amounts of salt is needed and pre-wetted or dry salt must be used. For the method to work properly, the bicycle path construction should be of good condition without cracks or other damages in the surface. Otherwise, it is difficult to clear the surface with the broom as snow and water can be trapped in potholes and cracks, eventually creating ice patches. A sufficient drainage from the surface is also crucial as every contribution of water will dilute the salt amount on the path with a following risk of creating a slippery surface. Narrow passages and obstructing design features cause difficulties when clearing the snow, resulting in a need of larger amounts of salt to prevent icy conditions. Clearing the surface from snow and water is crucial to get a good result with the method.

  • 33.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Statistik över cyklisters olyckor: faktaunderlag till gemensam strategi för säker cykling2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 153 cyclists were killed between 2007 and 2012, while more than 44,000 were so badly injured that they were admitted to A&E departments. 8,400 of the injured cyclists were seriously injured and 1,100 very seriously injured. Half the serious injuries are injuries to the arms and shoulders. About 90% of all cycling accidents in which cyclists are seriously injured happen in urban areas. Eight of every ten cyclists seriously injured sustained their injuries in single-bicycle accidents, and just over one-tenth in bicycle-motor vehicle accidents. The majority, 69%, of cyclists killed, lost their lives in collisions with motor vehicles, usually cars. Given what are judged to be the underlying causes of bicycle accidents, improved ice removal and winter tyres for bikes are considered to be the measures with the biggest potential for reducing the number of cyclists seriously injured, as well as the use of a cycle helmet and a protective jacket and trousers. Other important accident prevention measures are the removal of loose grit, good surface maintenance and adjusted kerbstones, followed by segregated cycle paths, safe bicycle crossings/overpasses and the removing of fixed objects on and beside the cycle path. Many serious injuries to cyclists can also be avoided by remedy deficiencies on the bicycle or its equipment. The most important measures for reducing the number of cyclist fatalities are increased helmet use and the prevention of collisions with motor vehicles or a reduction of the violence of such collisions by means of segregation, safe bicycle crossings/overpasses, emergency brakes and/or an external air bag on cars, and, for lorries, a warning system alerting drivers to the presence of cyclists in the “dead angle”. The analyses presented in this report were undertaken on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration, and forms part of the work to devise a policy strategy for safe cycling.

  • 34.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Söderström, Liselott
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Varedian, Maria
    Vecturia.
    Hur mycket cyklas det i din kommun?: rekommendationer för uppföljning av målen om en ökad cykeltrafik med hjälp av resvaneundersökningar och cykelräkningar2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att följa upp och utvärdera effekter av olika åtgärder som syftar till att styra transportsystemet i riktning mot ökad hållbarhet, är det nödvändigt med metoder för att mäta effekterna. Ett effektmål som ofta preciseras i arbetet mot ett hållbart transportsystem är ökad gång– och cykeltrafik. Syftet med denna skrift är att ge en översiktlig sammanfattning av rekommendationer för uppföljning av cykeltrafiken. Skriften är en sammanfattning av forsknings– och utvecklingsprojektet Mått och mätmetodik för uppföljning av gång– respektive cykeltrafik.

  • 35.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance. VTI.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Taavo, Ellen
    Stockholms stad.
    Sopsaltningens effekt på cykeltrafiken: en analys av cykelflöden och olyckor i Stockholm2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A winter maintenance method for cycleways becoming widespread in Sweden is “sweep-salting”. The method entails a front-mounted power broom for snow clearance and brine, pre-wetted or dry salt for de-icing. Traditionally in Sweden, ploughing and gritting is used for winter maintenance of cycleways and footways. At VTI the sweep-salting method has been evaluated in several research studies, focusing on the method, equipment and strategies in order to give recommendations regarding the implementation of the method. In the study presented in this report, this research has been complemented with analysis of accident data from Strada, from 2013 through 2017 and the winter seasons 2012/13–2017/18, including cyclists, pedestrians and moped riders as well as cycle flow measurements from Stockholm, with the objective to evaluate the effects of sweep-salting on cyclists.

    All in all, our analyses of bicycle flow measurements from Stockholm show that sweep-salting contributed to increase the winter cycling. The analyses of accident data indicate that sweep-salting has also contributed to reduce the number of accidents due to skidding. Since the sweep-salted cycle routes are generally important for commuting resulting in relatively high cycle flows, it is likely that the accident risk per cyclist is lower after sweep-salting has been introduced. However, the available data was not extensive enough to quantify the effects. Nevertheless, it is clear that sweep-salting has not led to an increased accident risk. Fall accidents among pedestrians represent the major part of the accidents due to skidding and they occurred mainly on sidewalks in the inner city. We have also analysed weather data from VViS stations located along the road network around Stockholm and from one of SMHI's weather stations in Stockholm.

  • 36.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Cyklisters singelolyckor: analys av olycks- och skadedata samt djupintervjuer2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this project was to study single bicycle accidents, to see how these can be avoided and how the injuries due to these can be alleviated. The in-depth studies of fatal accidents by the Swedish Traffic Administration, and hospital reported accidents in the database Strada have been analysed. The focus was on the single bicycle accidents resulting in death or serious injury, and the data for 2007-–2011 were included. In addition, 32 seriously injured cyclists were interviewed about the accident in which they had been involved. Of all the cyclists who need emergency treatment, eight out of ten had been injured in a single accident. In addition, on average five cyclists were killed every year in a single bicycle accident. In all, during the five-year period studied, 125 cyclists were killed. Of the 1,274 seriously injured in single bicycle accidents, 27 per cent can be related to operation and maintenance, 20 per cent to road design, 27 per cent to cyclist-bicycle interaction, 15 per cent to the behaviour and state of the cyclist, and 11 per cent to the interaction of the cyclist with other road users. Older age groups are involved to a greater extent than the young, in both the fatal accidents and the serious accidents – more than 40 per cent among those killed and seriously injured were 65 or older. The serious injuries among older people are characterised by injuries to the hips. In other respects, head injuries dominate among the seriously injured cyclists, and head injuries were the cause of death in 70 per cent of single bicycle accidents.

  • 37.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wehtje, Philip
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Cykling bland barn och unga: en kunskapssammanställning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling among children and young adults has decreased, resulting in negative effects on their health and independent mobility. The Swedish government has commissioned VTI to review and compile knowledge on plausible reasons, based on literature reviews, contacts with relevant players and analyses of travel surveys and accident statistics. The statistics showed that the number of individuals who cycle has decreased, whereas the cycled distance remains unchanged. Above all, recreational cycling among children and young adults has decreased, which could be explained by longer distances to recreational activities, more parents working full-time and children’s everyday lives having become more institutionalised. Cycling to school has also decreased. Among other things, families being able to choose what school the children attend has resulted in greater distances between the home and the school. Other reasons include households owning more cars, changes in the way children play and communicate, and inadequate actual and perceived safety conditions along cycle lanes combined with parents’ perceptions of their children’s highway skills. Cycling has been partially replaced by car journeys, but mainly by walking and use of public transport. Cycling has decreased the most among older children. As they have primarily replaced cycling by public transport, one explanation could be that more of them are offered free bus passes. There is a great commitment and competency among various players regarding cycling among children and young adults. However, there is a great need for better coordination and for actions and measures taken to be systematically evaluated.

  • 38.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå tekniska högskola.
    Caesar, Karin
    Tyréns .
    Drift och underhåll av tillgänglighetsåtgärder i tätort. För ökad tillgänglighet och bibehållen säkerhet året om2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to identify the difficulties associated with carrying out the operation and maintenance of road safety and accessibility measures and to find possible solutions. The focus has been on design in urban areas, with the emphasis on accessibility measures for vulnerable road users, especially handicapped. The project has included a literature review, interviews with municipal operational and planning staff, expert seminars, and a questionnaire survey among all municipalities in Sweden. These studies show that there is reason to examine detailed design from an operational and maintenance perspective, especially at pedestrian crossings. The difficulty lies in finding a balance between road safety, accessibility and aesthetics, and to carry out maintenance and operation within the budgetary restrictions. The studies unambiguously show that manual operations should be avoided, since work which must be carried out by hand is poorly or not at all performed. What is accessible to all in the summertime is thus not accessible to all during winter conditions. All uses of slabs and brick pavers increase the need for maintenance since they easily become uneven and weeds grow in the joints. The tactile slabs are also difficult to clean, and are worn down in use and thus gradually lose their function. Other design details which are difficult to service is the directional edge guiding a visually impaired person across the street from a pedestrian crossing, and the 0.9-1.0 m wide ramp down to carriageway level to make it easier for the physically disabled to cross a street. It seems to be especially difficult to service the raised edge in the central refuge, and it is therefore a measure which many municipalities have decided to omit. The possibility to use smaller vehicles in snow clearance has been investigated with the conclusion that at the present this is not an option. There is a lower limit to vehicle size, with regard to both capacity and stability. On the other hand, increase of the ramp width up to 1.5 m could solve the problems and the raised edge in the central refuge could be replaced by three rows of domed slabs. In order to retain accessibility and road safety in all conditions, operational issues must be considered in the planning and design stage, and operational routines and methods need to be adapted to the new design details.

  • 39.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ljungblad, Hanna
    Koucky & Partners (K&P).
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Zajc, Anna
    Koucky & Partners (K&P).
    Vägarbeten på cykelvägar: kunskapssammanställning och problembeskrivning2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using interviews, literature studies and accident analyses, the researchers have gathered knowledge concerning present-day procedures in connection with road works on cycle paths and how they may conceivably affect cyclists in terms of accessibility, comfort and safety. Nine out of ten cycling accidents relatable to road works occurred in urban areas, and the most common causes are: the cyclist falling off when encountering cables, hoses, pipes etc. laid across the cycle path; loose gravel, stones or dirt from the road works; high and/or unmarked edges; large potholes, ditches or other irregularities. The cyclists’ accessibility is adversely affected by all types of obstacle which road works can amount to, and above all by diversions. The cyclists’ perceived comfort is negatively affected by surface irregularities, mud, gravel and dirt which are frequently occurring in connection with road works. All in all, the studies in this project reveal a need for better knowledge and awareness as to how cyclists should be treated in connection with road works. Road authorities perceive the importance of devising working procedures which will cater to cyclists’ need of safe, passable routes even during construction processes. The big issue to them is the best way of doing this. To construction contractors the main question is rather what priority this issue has in relation to the other demands road works are subjected to. The existing guidelines appear insufficient, with their sweeping terms and woolly language, they show insufficient consideration for the circumstances and needs of cyclists. In addition, there is a lack of clear examples showing how cyclists are to be treated in practice. There is also a need for marking and fencing materials to be adapted for use on cycle paths, both for the sake of better understanding and with a view to reducing the risk of accidents.

  • 40.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Varedian, Maria
    Vectura.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Söderström, Liselott
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Uppföljning av gång- och cykeltrafik: utveckling av en harmoniserad metod för kommunal uppföljning av gång- respektive cykeltrafik med hjälp av resvaneundersökningar och cykelflödesmätningar2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second and last report in a project financed by the Swedish Traffic Administration, with the objective to propose a harmonised method for monitoring the proportion of pedestrian and cycle traffic. The method should be used for local monitoring in Swedish municipalities to be able to make comparisons over years and between towns, regions or the country as a whole. The project began with a survey and analysis of the present method of estimating travel by walking and cycling, both in and outside Sweden. This work was described in the first report on the project, VTI Report No 686 (Niska et al., 2010). In this report, method and results of analysis of some municipal travel surveys, cycle counts and other considerations resulting in the harmonised method are presented. In the harmonised method, the basic unit ?the proportion, represented by cycle traffic, of all trips which have their origin and destinations in the municipality on weekdays?, is used. In order to collect data for the basic unit, the recommendation is that a municipal travel survey should be performed in the autumn every five years with the help of a written questionnaire consisting of 1-2 pages with background questions, and a simple and self-explanatory travel diary. All movements with an errand at the destination, on the day of survey, should be registered in the travel diary. The sample should consist of at least 1 500 inhabitants of the municipality aged between 16-75 years. Cycle counts can be used for identifying long term trends and for the planning and monitoring of specific measures on individual routes, but usually not for estimating the change in cycling from one year to another. In the report, a number of practical hints are given as to how measuring sites should be selected, when and for how long the measurements should be made, and the requirements that may be specified for the equipment in use. In addition, a summary is given of what should be documented and what should be borne in mind in drawing up the report.

  • 41.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ahlström, Petra
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Söderström, Liselott
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Metoder för skattning av gång- och cykeltrafik: kartläggning och kvalitetsbedömning2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarises the needs for, and the procedures applied in, estimating the share of total travel represented by pedestrian and cycle traffic, and comprises an analysis of existing data in the form of travel surveys and flow measurements. Different methods are compared, and the significance of the differences between the methods for monitoring pedestrian and cycle travel is discussed. Both the method as such with its definitions and limitations, and the quality of the various phases in its implementation, play a part. This has consequences in comparisons between different places and also for monitoring over time. Most local authorities have some type of target with regard to cycle traffic, while target formulations for pedestrian traffic are less frequent. To increase the cycling share of total travel is the most common target, however, seldom followed up, and the numbers of cyclists at certain points are measured instead. Travel surveys and traffic flow measurements measure different things, and may draw different conclusions. The measurements may show that people cycle more than ever before, while travel surveys show that the cycling share is decreasing. Both conclusions may be right, and they reflect the importance of the methods employed, and also of the units. The unit "share" is made up of more components than pedestrian and cycle traffic as such, and depends above all on the total travel. It is therefore not only the proportions that are of interest but, for example, also the number of journeys per person.

  • 42.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Mobilapp för mätning av cykelvägars ojämnheter: en studie av möjligheterna2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the researchers have investigated the possibilities of measuring irregularities on a cycle path with the aid of the accelerometers in smartphones. Smoothness is an important parameter for describing the functional state of the cycle infrastructure. Measurements and methods of measurement objectively describing functional status are needed so that interaction effects can be identified and functional requirements which take the needs and circumstances of cyclists into account can be defined. Objective measurements of functional status can also be fed into maintenance planning, choice of action and monitoring of action outcomes. Using mainly field studies, we have evaluated a mobile app developed at VTI for measuring surface smoothness. Cyclists have collected quantitative data with the VTI app, using a phone fitted to the handlebars and were also asked to rate their subjective perception of comfort when riding over different surfaces. The results show that the acceleration values recorded with the VTI app vary from one measurement to another but that it is possible, on the basis of these values, to distinguish between surfaces of differing quality. However, the observed acceleration values hinge on the mobile phone used, the cyclist’s lateral positioning and speed etc. The results of measurements with the VTI app tally quite well with the cyclists’ subjective ratings of the ride quality of different surfaces. This project presents results from the project CyCity Theme C - Dp10 and a project from the Swedish Road Administration, Evaluation of ways to monitor cycle path condition with a smartphone. CyCity Theme C - Dp10 is part of the Vinnova-funded research programme CyCity. One conclusion is that there are good prospects of supplementing the BikeRoute cycle planning tool, devised within CyCity, by gathering data with the VTI app describing the smoothness of cycle paths using the VTI app. The VTI app is not yet applicable for crowdsoursing, but valuable when gathering data under controlled settings and is worth developing further for measuring the status of cycle path surfacing.

  • 43.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mätmetoder för tillståndsbedömning av cykelvägar: en kunskapsöversikt2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This is a review of existing knowledge in indices and measuring methods for assessing the condition of cycle paths. The review is to serve as the basis for any further work that VTI may carry out in this area. The condition of the road surface is of significant importance for the comfort and accident risk of cyclists. Objective methods are needed to measure the condition of cycle paths so that the effects of operational and maintenance measures may be studied, and to set up measurable performance requirements. Presently, such methods are not used on cycle paths in Sweden. Instead, manual damage surveys and visual inspections are made; these may provide a lot of detailed information but are subjective and time consuming. Several methods for condition assessment of motor roads do exist, but they do not satisfactorily reflect the impression of cyclists regarding the road surface, and are often made using equipment that can damage the cycle path. There are also a number of hand drawn, lightweight equipments available, but they are both time and resource consuming.

  • 44.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Gustafsson, Mika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Jämnhetsmätning på cykelvägar: utveckling och test av metod för att bedöma cyklisters åkkvalitet baserat på cykelvägens längsprofil2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Condition assessment of cycle paths is important for planning and prioritising maintenance measures. In order to promote cycling the assessment methods need to be related to cyclists' needs and not only to the technical condition of the cycle path. Objective measuring methods are essential in order for measurable performance requirements to be specified regarding the needs of the cyclists. For the riding comfort of cyclists, the surface evenness of the cycle paths is probably the parameter that has the greatest importance.

    In this study, a method for measuring the surface evenness of cycle paths has been tested and evaluated. The method is based on measurement of the cycle path's longitudinal profile using laser sensors. Several measurements were made on cycle paths in Malmö. In order to associate the measurements with the riding quality perceived by cyclists, cyclists were asked to assess their impression of the surface of some test sections of variable quality. There were large individual differences in the assessments of the cyclists, but it was nonetheless possible to make a distinction between assessments of the different sections.

    In order to describe surface evenness a straight edge model was used. Analyses showed that 0.5 m was the length of the straight edge that yielded the best correlation between measured value and the assessment of the cyclists. Because of the limitations in the measuring method used, only unevenness with wavelengths varying from approximately 20 to 50 cm were assessed. It is probable that unevenness of smaller wavelength also have great significance for the cyclists' riding quality, which implies that macro and mega textures should also be measured.

  • 45.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    Cykelfaktorer som påverkar huvudskador: simulerade omkullkörningar med cykel i VTI:s krocksäkerhetslaboratorium2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project, single bicycle crashes have been simulated in the VTI crash safety laboratory. Crash tests including bicycles are scarce and when performed they usually simulate collisions with motor vehicles, although earlier studies have shown that cyclists are more frequently injured in single bicycle crashes. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of bicycle design and speed on the head impact when suffering from a single bicycle crash, and the possibility to study this using crash tests. In order to do that, two bicycle crash scenarios were simulated: “a sudden stop” and “sideways dislocation of the front wheel”; using four different bicycle types: a “lady’s bicycle”, a commuter bicycle, a recumbent and a pedelec; at two speeds: 15 and 25 kilometer per hour. In addition, sideway falls were performed with a bicycle standing still. All tests were done with a Hybrid II 50 percentile crash test dummy, with acceleration measurements in the head, placed in the saddle of the bicycles.

  • 46.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Arvidsson, Björn
    Rese - och Turistnäringen i Sverige.
    Evanth, Katarina
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hvitlock, Nina
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundin, Jan
    Rese - och Turistnäringen i Sverige.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Wennberg, Hanna
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Hållbara turistresor inom Sverige: hinder och möjligheter för resor med tåg och buss2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to analyze the conditions for the transfer of passengers from private car to public transport, primarily train and bus to, from and within a number of tourist destinations in Sweden. The goal was to develop a basis for planning for sustainable tourism. The study included an analysis of opportunities to travel by public transport, travel time and travel costs, interviews with tourists and other stakeholders, an analysis of measures, and it results in some general guidelines for planning for sustainable tourism. The possibilities to travel by public transport, travel time and travel costs to, from and within three summer destinations (Astrid Lindgren's World, the Kingdom of Crystal, Öland) and two winter destinations (Åre, Funäsdalen) were analyzed for three different categories of tourists (families with children, couples, four adults) . This showed that overall is possible to travel to the destinations studied without a private car. The conditions travelling with public transport, however, differ greatly between the different destinations. Travel time by train or bus in comparison with travelling by car was not too different for most combinations of points of departure and destinations. In some cases, however, when the point of departure was a smaller place, not located along a major railroad, the journey by train and/or bus could be both long and require many transfers. In those cases public transport is hardly an alternative to traveling by private car. The total travel cost for travelling by train or bus was in almost all cases fairly level with travelling with private car, it but could also be significantly higher. The cost for travelling by public transport was also relatively higher in comparison with private car for parties with two or more people, and in those cases the cost was sometimes seen as an obstacle. The travel opportunities within the various destinations appears to be the biggest obstacle for convincing more people to choose to travel by public transport to and from tourist destinations, particularly in summer when travel requirement in general are higher. The options for travelling within the destinations vary considerably, but are generally better in the winter destinations. In Åre the ski bus, for example, is a good option for travelling between the various ski resorts. The tourist’s views of travelling by public transport is also much more positive for journeys to winter destinations than to summer destinations, which can largely be explained by the smaller travel requirements within these destinations. In the case of families the view that it is difficult to attract families with young children to travel by public transport emerged. There may be several reasons for this, the handling of luggage being one important issue. Many also suggested that there is a need to make it easier to find information about public transport options and alternatives as well as to reserve and book tickets. Package reservations were highlighted as an interesting alternative. Many saw information searching regarding the trip components such as accommodation, flights, transfer, lift passes etc. as problematic and would appreciate a service where everything was in one place. In addition it is not easy to get an overview of pricing for both travel and accommodation. Proposals were also put forward that one way to attract to travel by public transport is to highlight the added value that it entails.

  • 47.
    Schepers, Paul
    et al.
    Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, Delft, The Netherlands .
    Agerholm, Niels
    Aalborg University.
    Amoros, Emmanuelle
    IFSTTAR, Université de Lyon.
    Benington, Rob
    Public Health (Bristol).
    Bjørnskau, Torkel
    TØI Institute of Transport Economic.
    Dhondt, S.
    de Geus, Bas
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Hagemeister, Carmen
    Technische Universität Dresden.
    Loo, Becky P. Y.
    University of Hong Kong.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    An international review of the frequency of single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) and their relation to bicycle modal share2015In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 21, no E1, p. e138-e143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to study cyclists’ share of transport modes (modal share) and single-bicycle crashes (SBCs) in different countries in order to investigate if the proportion of cyclist injuries resulting from SBCs is affected by variation in modal share. A literature search identified figures (largely from western countries) on SBC casualties who are fatally injured, hospitalised or treated at an emergency department. Correlation and regression analyses were used to investigate how bicycle modal share is related to SBCs.

    On average, 17% of fatal injuries to cyclists are caused by SBCs. Different countries show a range of values between 5% and 30%. Between 60% and 95% of cyclists admitted to hospitals or treated at emergency departments are victims of SBCs. The proportion of all injured cyclists who are injured in SBCs is unrelated to the share of cycling in the modal split. The share of SBC casualties among the total number of road crash casualties increases proportionally less than the increase in bicycle modal share. While most fatal injuries among cyclists are due to motor vehicle–bicycle crashes, most hospital admissions and emergency department attendances result from SBCs. As found in previous studies of cyclists injured in collisions, this study found that the increase in the number of SBC casualties is proportionally less than the increase in bicycle modal share.

  • 48.
    Thulin, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    TEMA Cykel - skadade cyklister: analys baserad på sjukvårdsregistrerade skadade i STRADA2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study was to describe the accident and injury situations associated with cyclists. The study was based on information obtained from STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition), including the descriptions and details of the events leading up to the accidents. Travel data from the Swedish national travel survey was also utilised, enabling the risk situation for cyclists to be assessed. The most common accidents among cyclists were single accidents, accounting for 72% of all cyclists injured. Next most common, with 17%, were accidents involving motor vehicles, followed by accidents between cyclists, with 8%. The biggest influencing factor in the cause of single accidents was slippery surfaces, stated as a contributory cause in 23% of the accidents. Snow and ice were the main causes but loose grit, from winter maintenance, was also frequently given as a reason. Kerbstone edging, uneven road surfaces, collisions with temporary or permanent objects were also stated as the cause of many single accidents. Alcohol influence was another common contributory cause. The risk of being injured as a cyclist in traffic was as likely for both male and female genders. The highest risk groups were those of the young and the elderly.

  • 49.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Möller, Staffan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bergström, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gaunt, Hanna
    Tema Vintermodell: Etapp 12005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ice and snow on roads and streets cause problems for road-users, requiring maintenance actions such as snow-ploughing, salting and sanding. Such actions influence road safety, accessibility, vehicle costs and the environment, involving heavy expenses for the road administrators. Consequently, it is important to develop effective strategies and methods for maintenance actions and to produce knowledge of the effects of different winter standards for road users and road administrators, as well as society in general. The aim of this project is to create a Winter Model (Winter Maintenance Management System, WMMS). The project began in 2001 and has financial support up to 2005. This report is a summary of the achievements in stage 1, during 2 001 to 2003. Stage 2 will be carried out in 2004 to 2005.

  • 50.
    Wallman, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Möller, Staffan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Berglund, Carl Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Bo O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tema Vintermodell: etapp 2, huvudrapport2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the Winter Model is to estimate and put a value on the most important impacts of the strategies and measures in winter road management for road users, road management authorities and society at large. The main report itself is a summary of the reports that describe the submodels in the Winter Model. The hub of the model is the Road Condition Model which, on the basis of weather data, undertaken road management measures and traffic, calculates road conditions hour by hour during the winter season. The Road Condition Model controls calculations in the effect models: Accident Model, Accessibility Model, Vehicle Cost Model, Environment Model and Model for Road Management Costs. The Accident Model calculates accident rates, accident types and consequences, all coupled with different road conditions and their duration. The Accessibility Model calculates the effect of different road conditions on mean speeds and trip times. The Vehicle Cost Model calculates the costs of fuel consumption and corrosion due to road salt. The Environment Model calculates the impacts on roadside vegetation due to road salt. The Model for Road Management Costs calculates both the direct costs of the measures and the costs of damage to, and wear of, road surfacing, road markings etc as a result of road management measures.

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