Publications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 29 of 29
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Efterfrågan på tystnad: skattning av betalningsviljan för icke-marginella förändringar av vägtrafikbuller2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efterfrågan på tystnad från vägbullerexponering skattas i detta projekt baserat på båda stegen i en så kallad hedonisk modell. Vi använder data från sju olika kommuner runt om i Sverige. Baserat på efterfrågekurvan kan vi räkna ut betalningsviljor för icke-marginella förändringar i bullerexponering från vägtrafik. Dessa resultat har stor användning i samhällsekonomiska kalkyler inom transportsektorn. Våra skattningsresultat visar att betalningsviljan för en bullerreducering från 66 till 65 dB är 2211 kronor per individ och år och 477 kronor per individ och år för en bullerreducering från 56 till 55 dB. Resultaten visar ingen betalningsvilja för bullerreduceringar under 52,8 dB. För en bullerreducering från 66 dB till 52,8 dB och alla lägre bullernivåer är betalningsviljan 15 225 kronor. Denna summa är även kostnaden för att utsättas för 66 dB vägbuller per individ och år.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics LERNA Université Toulouse 1.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Traffic noise effects of property prices: hedonic estimates based on multiple noise indicators2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Valuation of traffic noise abatement based on hedonic pricing models of the property market has traditionally measured the noise as the equivalent, or another average, level. What is not captured in such a noise indicator is the maximum noise level of a vehicle passage. In this study, we incorporate the maximum noise level in the hedonic model letting the property price depend on both the equivalent noise level and the maximum noise level. Hedonic models for both rail and road noise are estimated. Data consists of characteristics of sold properties, property-specific noise calculation, and geographical variables.

    We use the hedonic approach to estimate the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for maximum noise abatement where we model the effect as the maximum noise level subtracted with the equivalent noise level. Furthermore, we control for the equivalent noise level in the estimations. The estimated results show that including the maximum noise level in the model has influence on the property prices, but only for rail and not for road. This means that for road we cannot reject the hypothesis that WTP for noise abatement is based on the equivalent noise level only. For rail, on the other hand, we estimate the marginal WTP for the maximum noise level and it turns out to be substantial. Also, the marginal WTP for the equivalent noise levels seems to be unaffected by the inclusion of the maximum noise level in the model. More research of this novel topic is requested though.

  • 3.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Estimating policy values for in-vehicle comfort and crowding reduction in local public transport2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 106, p. 453-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimates policy values for comfort, defined as getting a seat, and crowding reduction on board local public transport in Sweden. We use stated-preference (SP) data and present crowding as a mode-neutral crowding level among the standing travelers depicted in images presented to the respondents. We analyze whether there are differences in the willingness to pay (WTP) for comfort and crowding reduction among the three largest urban areas in Sweden. In general, we find no significantly different preferences for sitting and crowding reduction among the three urban areas. Still, the point estimates differ in some cases, indicating that there may be differences across the three urban areas, but the estimates have large confidence intervals that overlap each other. Also, these differences are likely to have resulted from mode-share differences and not from differences in preferences across the urban areas. Some significant differences are found among the modes, for example, a higher disutility of standing on a bus versus on a tram. These mode-specific estimates can be used as policy values for a given tram line or metro line. Nevertheless, we also pooled the data suggesting average WTP estimates for sitting and crowding reductions that can be used for national cost–benefit analysis policy in all large urban areas in Sweden where crowding on local public transport occurs. Importantly, analysis of heterogeneity and SP-design differences shows that the results are in line with empirical knowledge of the value of travel time savings.

  • 4.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Distributional effects of taxes on car fuel, use, ownership and purchases2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse distributional effects of four car-related tax instruments: an increase of the fuel tax, a new kilometre tax, an increased CO2-differentiated vehicle ownership tax, and a CO2-differentiated purchase tax on new cars. Distributional effects are analysed with respect to income, lifecycle category and several spatial dimensions.

    All the analysed taxes are progressive over most of the income distribution, but just barely regressive if the absolutely highest and lowest incomes are included. However, the variation within income groups is substantial; the fraction of the population who suffer substantial welfare losses relative to income is much higher in lower income groups.

    The two most important geographical distinctions are between rural and urban areas (including even small towns), and between central cities and satellites/suburbs; these spatial dimensions matter much more for distributional effects than for example whether an area is remote or sparsely populated.

  • 5.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Distributional effects of taxes on car fuel, use, ownership and purchases2018In: Economics of Transportation, ISSN 2212-0122, E-ISSN 2212-0130, Vol. 15, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse distributional effects of four car-related tax instruments: an increase of the fuel tax, a new kilometre tax, an increased CO2-differentiated vehicle ownership tax, and a CO2-differentiated purchase tax on new cars. Distributional effects are analysed with respect to income, lifecycle category, and spatial dimensions. The analysed taxes are progressive over most of the income distribution, but barely regressive if the highest and lowest incomes are included. However, the fraction of the population who suffer substantial welfare losses relative to income is much higher in lower income groups. We also study revenue recycling schemes; when these are included, the combined effect of tax and recycling is progressive. Considering geographical differences; rural areas carry a larger burden of fuel and vehicle taxes than urban areas, and satellites/suburbs carry a larger burden than central cities. However, rural areas are affected remarkably similar regardless of where in the country they are located.

  • 6.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The value of commuting time in an empirical on-the-job search model: an application based on moments from two samples2013In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 45, no 19, p. 2827-2837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article estimates the Value of Commuting Time (VOCT) among Swedish males in an empirical on-the-job search model. It uses a large sample of employee-establishment linked data obtained from administrative registers. The sample lacks information on mode choice for the journey to work. We therefore estimate a mode choice model on another sample and use this model to link the administrative data to the relevant set of travel times, costs and distances. The VOCT is found to be 1.8 times the net hourly wage rate in the sample. The relatively high estimate results from a high VOCT among cohabiting men.

  • 7.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Karlström, Anders
    KTH, Sweden.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The value of time from subjective data on life satisfaction and job satisfaction: an empirical assessment2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares estimates of the value of commuting time, working time and household working time from empirical models of subjective assessments of life satisfaction and job satisfaction, respectively, to the corresponding estimates obtained from an empirical search model of the labour market. The results indicate that all three variables produce rather high estimates of the value of commuting time. The results regarding the value of working time differ more between the different outcome variables and it is only significantly different from zero in the model of life satisfaction. Perhaps less surprisingly, the estimate of the value of household working time is also only significantly different from zero in the model of life satisfaction in contrast to the models of job satisfaction and job durations where it is insignificantly different from zero. This paper compares estimates of the value of commuting time, working time and household working time from empirical models of subjective assessments of life satisfaction and job satisfaction, respectively, to the corresponding estimates obtained from an empirical search model of the labour market. The results indicate that all three variables produce rather high estimates of the value of commuting time. The results regarding the value of working time differ more between the different outcome variables and it is only significantly different from zero in the model of life satisfaction. Perhaps less surprisingly, the estimate of the value of household working time is also only significantly different from zero in the model of life satisfaction in contrast to the models of job satisfaction and job durations where it is insignificantly different from zero.

  • 8.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    An empirical on-the-job search model with preferences for relative earnings: how high is the value of commuting time?2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the average value of commuting time (VoCT) in an empirical on-the-job search model. A large Swedish sample of employee-establishment linked data obtained from administrative registers is used to this end. The sample contains detailed information on the individuals' place of residence and place of work and it is combined with information on travel times and travel distances in the road network. We use two empirical models of the individuals' utility function: a basic model and an augmented model. The latter introduces a set of variables intended to capture the effect of interpersonal comparisons of earnings and commuting times in the individual's utility function and on the estimated VoCT. The basic model suggests the average VoCT to be as high as 232 Swedish kronor (SEK) per hour, which is about two and half times higher than the net hourly wage rate in the sample. If we discard the effect of interpersonal comparisons of earnings and commuting time on job switching, the augmented model instead suggests a value of time of 94 SEK, which is more or less equal to the net hourly wage rate in the sample.

  • 9.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    The influence of public transport supply on private car use in 17 mid-sized Swedish cities from 1997 to 20112016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the impact of increased public transport supply on private car use using micro data on individuals from 17 mid-sized cities in Sweden. The data is obtained from Swedish administrative registers (tax and odometer), which exists for all Swedish adults and cars, and information of public transport supply, namely bus kilometres supplied.

    In a description of the data we see that that the increase of private Vehicle Kilometres Travelled (VKT) per inhabitant stagnate in the sample cities towards the end of the period 1997-2011. Our hypothesis is that changes in the supply of public transport is the main cause for this stagnation. The probability of owning a car and the demand functions for VKT are estimated. The principal finding is that private car use is reduced by increased supply of bus kilometres with an average elasticity ranging from -0.01 to -0.04. This effect is larger in peripheral areas and in larger cities. In small cities the effect is almost nil. We conclude that public transport has an effect on the private VKT of inhabitants but that the impact is relatively small and cannot be the main cause for the stagnating increase of private VKT per inhabitant in the sample cities.

  • 10.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar och buller från trafiken på det statliga vägnätet: kunskapsläget och tillgången på beräkningsunderlag i Sverige samt några beräkningsexempel2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2012, the Swedish government commissioned VTI to update the social marginal cost for using infrastructure for all modes of transport based on state-of-the-art knowledge in the research community. The task only involved state roads. In this report we present the data used and the results for the external costs of air pollution (exhaust emissions) and noise. We have used the Impact Pathway Approach to perform the calculations using Swedish data focusing on health. In these calculations we have placed particular emphasis on how the influence of population density in the vicinity of roads influence the results from these calculations. For noise we developed an exposure function based on the new EU-CNOSSOS model which accounted for the location of buildings close to a road while for air pollution we used results based on detailed calculations in the Stockholm area. The results, using updated input data from 2012 on kilometers driven, emissions factors from HBEFA etc., are in line with those presented in the EU handbook from 2014 “Update of the Handbook on External Costs of Transport” but lower than those currently used in analysis of transport investments in Sweden (the so called ASEK-values). An important reason for this is that we have used more detailed information on population exposure. We have also concluded that there are geographical differences in the external cost for air pollution between the north and the south of Sweden. For both air and noise emissions there is also a difference between urban and rural areas. Based on the results we conclude that there are a number of issues where further research is needed, for example the possible interaction of air pollution and noise on human health. There are also still questions regarding the dispersion of emissions and population exposure and how this varies between cities and within cities in Sweden, depending on for example meteorological conditions. For air pollution there is also the question of the formation of secondary pollutants and their dispersion pattern and if they contribute to an external environmental cost in addition to health. One particular source of emissions in Sweden is the used of studded tyres which contribute to very high concentration levels of particulate matter close to roads in springtime. Since the focus in this study was on state roads we have not addressed this pollutant in this report.

  • 11.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Liss, Viktoria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Regelförändringar i transportsektorn – effekter av omregleringar inom inrikesflyg, taxi, kommersiell tågtrafik och bilprovning2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Konkurrensverket (the Swedish Competition Authority) has commissioned the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) to provide an overview of the consequences of four regulatory reforms in the transport sector during the past 20 years. In brief, the following core observations are made. The market for domestic flights was opened for entry in 1991. After a few years with prices going both up and down, the last 10 years or so have seen prices increase much faster than the consumer price index. After a peak in 1990, patronage first stalled and has subsequently decreased. Much of this can be explained by a number of external changes, i.e. it does not seem to be directly related to the way in which the market is organised. The taxi market was deregulated in 1990. Prices for private users have subsequently increased at twice the speed of consumer prices; negotiated prices for tendered services providing disabled persons etc. with taxi services has not increased at the same pace. After the reform, the number of vehicles has increased by 22 per cent. As a result, waiting times have been reduced. The market for domestic railway services was opened for entry in late 2011. The degree of entry has since been small, and it is too early to see any consequences for ridership and prices of the reform. The annual, compulsory vehicle control was previously provided by a national monopolist. This market was opened for entry in 2010. While accessibility for consumers has improved slightly since some additional inspection sites have been established, it is too early to see any major consequences in terms of entry. The government is, however, partitioning the incumbent and gradually selling it on commercial terms.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Fyrstegsprincipen i praktiken: tre underlagsrapporter för Riksrevisionens granskning av transportpolitiken2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden’s parliament and its government have access to a number of means for implementing overarching policies, inter alia in the transport sector. There is a broad consensus that the four step principle should provide the basic logic for choice of appropriate means for implementation of a policy which is supposed to achieve political objectives at lowest costs to society at large.

  • 13.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Differences in the effects of fuel price and income on private car use in Sweden 1999-20082015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyse how the use of privately owned cars in Sweden varies across a number of background parameters including fuel price, disposable income, car purchase cost index, children over 18, employment and the car owners’ distance to work. These factors are analysed separately for men and women, individuals living in urban, rural and sparsely populated areas as well as disposable income quartiles. In particular the adaptation of car use of low income car owners in rural and sparsely populated areas to fuel cost and disposable income variations is analysed. Register data of the whole population in Sweden taken from the Swedish tax authorities for 1999-2008 as well as kilometre readings from the National Vehicle Inspection is used. This allows tracking individual changes in car use over ten years as well as to contrast car use in rural and sparsely populated areas to car use in urban areas. Car use is modelled with a dynamic panel data specification, permitting proper methods to deal with endogeneity problems. Small geographical differences in the sensitivity to variations in disposable income are found. For fuel cost on the other hand, there is a tendency towards higher price sensitivity in rural areas especially in the two lowest income quartiles. In sparsely populated areas, there is no higher sensitivity of fuel price compared to urban areas. The income elasticity of car use is fairly small and decreases with increasing disposable income. This latter finding is compatible with the hypothesis of car driving saturation in the rich countries around the world. The car travel elasticity with respect to fuel price is estimated to be between -0.2 and -0.4 in the short run. Here the pattern is as expected with decreasing fuel-price elasticity with increasing income.

  • 14.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. K2.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    The influence of demand incentives in public transport contracts on patronage and costs in medium sized Swedish cities2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective to reduce carbon emissions has inspired Swedish regional public transport authorities (RPTA) to adopt a goal of doubling public transport patronage from 2006 to 2020. Several measures have been used to achieve this goal. Increasing the public transport supply and increasing the share of contract payments tied to demand incentives are among them. The purpose here is to examine the effect of demand incentives on patronage in tendered bus contracts, controlling for other factors that affect public transport patronage, with panel data for 17 medium sized Swedish cities from 1997 to 2011. In the data for a subset of 10 cities from 2000 to 2011 the number of trips increased by 36 percent, the supply of bus kilometers by 38 percent, the revenues per boarding with 49 percent and the total costs with 106 percent.

    The analysis does not find any statistically significant effects of demand incentives on either patronage or costs. In the demand models, only the effect of the price variable is significant and has the expected sign. In the cost models, all control variables have the expected signs and most are significant. Surprisingly, the estimate of the coefficient of the output variable bus kilometers is not significant. These results indicate that the combination of limited freedom for operators to influence important variables that determine demand and the demand incentives that were used during the observed period, were insufficient to give statistically significant effects.

    Contrary to the assumption that appears to underlie the recommendations of a subcommittee of the Swedish Public Transport Association current demand incentives appear to be ineffective. This suggests that a revision of the recommendations for the design of public transport contracts may be called for.

  • 15.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Algers, Staffan
    TP mod AB.
    Habibi, Shiva
    Chalmers.
    Sedehi Zadeh, Noor
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Long-term responses to car-tax policies: distributional effects and reduced carbon emissions2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the long-term effects on the car fleet and welfare distribution of three car-related policy instruments intended to reduce CO2 emissions: increased fossil-fuel taxes, an intensified bonus-malus system for new cars, and increased mandated biofuel blending. The effects on the car fleet are analyzed in terms of energy source, weight, and CO2 emissions. Distributional effects are analyzed in terms of income and geographical residence areas. The increased fuel taxes reduce CO2 emissions by 36%, mainly through less driving of fossil-fuel cars. The intensified bonus-malus system for new cars reduces CO2 emissions by 5%. Both these policies shift the car fleet toward increased shares of electric vehicles and increased average weight. Increased mandated biofuel blending has no estimated effect on the car fleet unless prices increase differently from in the reference scenario. The two first policy instruments are weakly progressive to slightly regressive over most of the income distribution, but barely regressive if the highest income group is also included. The fraction of each population group incurring substantial welfare losses is higher the lower the income group. In the geographical dimension, for all policies the rural areas bear the largest burden, small cities the second largest burden, and large cities the smallest burden. The burden in the long term versus the short term is lower for high-income earners and urban residents.

  • 16.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Benefits of noise measure in train commuting suburbs: a comparison of Swedish guidelines and WHO recommendations2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we compare different valuation functions for a noise abatement measure in an exploitive train commuting suburb in Sweden. The benefits are estimated with different functions focusing on Swedish guidelines and recent WHO recommendations. The results show that the willingness-to-pay-based estimates of the Swedish guidelines are much lower than the estimates based on WHO guidelines. The main reason for the higher benefit estimates with WHO recommendations is the discontinuous valuation function that leaps from 0 to about 5000 SEK at 49 dB, whereas the Swedish guidelines does not include any corresponding discontinuity in its valuation function. Furthermore, the WHO recommendations are sensitive to night exposure as the cost of sleep disturbance is dominating. These different results of the monetary benefits illustrate the importance of including only established impact functions and valuation functions, and carefully apply them when noise-abatement benefits are calculated.

  • 17.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Commuting time changes following residential relocations and job relocations2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on empirical analysis of commuting time changes for workers who relocate residence, relocate job, or combine both residence and job relocation. A large register data set of individuals on the Swedish labor market, including travel times, is studied. Workers are not necessarily seeking to decrease their commuting time when they relocate job and/or residence. In fact, the average commuting time is longer after a relocation than before, thus suggesting that workers trade between a better job, a better residence and commuting time. The paper also presents results from a set of econometric models suggesting that commuting time changes differ substantially with respect to socio-economic characteristics as well as with respect to the part of the distribution of commuting time change that is analyzed.

  • 18.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Hypothetical bias and certainty calibration in a value of time experiment2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is the first to analyze hypothetical bias in a willingness to pay for time context as well as the first to test certainty calibration of the value of time. Hypothetical and real actions are compared in an experimental setting where the subjects are given an offer to leave the experiment in advance by paying a given amount of cash. The results show a weak tendency of positive hypothetical bias in the willingness to pay for value of time, though this effect is not different from zero at conventional significance levels. However, certainty calibration, by using the information from a follow-up question where the subjects are self-stating their preference certainty of their hypothetical choice, provides evidence of a significant positive hypothetical bias for non-certain subjects whereas this bias is eliminated for certain subjects.

  • 19.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Is stated preference certainty individual-specific?: an empirical study2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The somewhat ad-hoc method of certainty calibration, based on self-stated preference certainty follow-up questions, has been found to be a successful method of eliminating or reducing hypothetical bias in stated preference studies. But is the preference certainty really context dependent, or do some subjects tend to always state themselves as certain regardless of the context, i.e. is the preference certainty dependent on a systematic unobservable individual-specific effect? This question is empirically analyzed in this paper using data where a preference certainty question follows a hypothetical willingness to pay question, in two different contexts. Estimated bivariate probit models provide no evidence for systematic individual-specific answers to the preference certainty follow-up questions of different contexts. Since there is no support for a randomly self-stated preference certainty either, this result is deemed to increase the credibility of certainty calibration.

  • 20.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Is the intertemporal income elasticity of the value of travel time unity?2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the intertemporal income elasticity of the value of travel time (VTT) and test whether it differs from one. The empirical analysis is performed on Swedish revealed preference data, where voluntary job changers' individual wage premium for commuting time changes is used as an estimate of VTT. The panel structure of the data implies the opportunity to use a lagged net income variable on individual level to estimate the income elasticity in an intertemporal way. The result does not support an intertemporal income elasticity of VTT that is different from one and this result is robust over several different empirical specifications. Hence, the policy implication of this study is in contrast to a recent recommendation by an EU-financed project, Heatco, which propose an intertemporal income elasticity of 0.7.

  • 21.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Algers, Staffan
    Willingness to accept commuting time for yourself and for your spouse: empirical evidence from Swedish stated preference data2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Swedish stated preference data is used to derive estimated values of commuting time (VOCT). Both spouses in two-earner households are individually making trade-offs between commuting time and wage; both with regard to their own commuting time and wage only, as well as when both their own commuting time and wage and their spouse's commuting time and wage are simultaneously changed. Thus, we are able to compare how male spouses and female spouses value each other's commuting time. When only ones own commuting time and wage are attributes, the empirical results show that the estimated VOCT is plausible with a tendency towards high values compared to other studies, and that VOCT does not differ significantly between men and women. When decisions affecting commuting time and wage of both spouses are analyzed, both spouses tend to value the commuting time of the wife highest. For policy implications, this study provides additional support for the practice of valuing commuting time higher than other private travel time. In addition, if VOCT were to be gender specific, the value might be higher for women than for men in two-earner households.

  • 22.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Estimating non-marginal willingness to pay for railway noise abatements: application of the two-step hedonic regression technique2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we estimate the willingness to pay for railway noise abatements based on the effect of railway noise on property prices. We estimate both steps of the hedonic regression technique on a large data set of different Swedish regions which contains detailed information about railway noise along with socioeconomic characteristics for each property/household. The estimated demand relationship suggest welfare gains for a 1 dB reduction of railway noise as; 1240 SEK per individual and year at the baseline noise level of 71 dB, and 661 SEK at the baseline noise level of 61 dB. Below a noise level of 49.09 dB, individuals have no willingness to pay for railway noise abatements. In policy, these results can be used for cost benefit analysis and to derive marginal costs for infrastructure charges.

  • 23.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Värdering av komfort och minskning av trängsel i kollektivtrafiken: en sammanfattning2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a Swedish summary of: Björklund, G. & Swärdh, J-E. (2015). Valuing in-vehicle comfort and crowding reduction in public transport. CTS Working Paper 2015:12. http://swopec.hhs.se/ctswps/abs/ctswps2015_012.htm

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for comfort, i.e. to get a seat, and crowding reduction on board local public transport in Sweden, including the modes metro, tram, commuter train, and local bus. We use data from a stated preference-study conducted in the three largest urban areas of Sweden. Respondents were recruited both during a trip and from a web panel. The stated preference-questions consisted of four attributes: travel cost, travel time, seating or standing during the trip, and crowding level. Crowding level was illustrated by pictures showing different number of standing travelers per square meter

  • 24.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Estimation of the marginal cost for road noise and rail noise2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the marginal cost of road noise and rail noise in Sweden. We use the impact pathway approach (IPA) where traffic noise exposure implies an impact on individuals, which in turn is related to monetary valuation of these outcomes.

    Our data consists of noise calculations and number of exposed individuals at different noise levels. We further use monetary valuations of noise disturbances based on property market differentials. Finally, impact functions of negative health outcomes due to noise exposure, and monetary valuations of these negative health outcomes, are used.

    The empirical results show that the marginal costs of traffic noise are highly dependent on the number of exposed individuals and the vehicle type. The overall conclusion is thus that differentiation of the marginal costs is essential, as the noise exposure varies strongly with the population density, and that different vehicle types contribute very differently to the noise emissions. Furthermore, road noise marginal costs are positively influenced by the speed limit and the traffic volume. Nevertheless, the sensitivity with respect to traffic volume is not very substantial. For rail noise marginal costs, there is no effect of traffic volume on the estimated marginal cost.

    In addition, the marginal costs for road noise are estimated separately for different times of the day. These results show that day times have the lowest marginal costs despite the largest traffic volume. Highest marginal costs are mostly estimated for evening but also in some calculations for night time. Sleep disturbances may not be captured in our analysis however, but a sensitivity analysis, including a separate function for sleep disturbance, shows that night time marginal costs are consistently the highest.

  • 25.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Principdiskussion kring LCC-kalkyler för väginvesteringar2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current study, we analyze how the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) should involve LCC analysis in their activities regarding road investments. The basis for the study is the LCC analysis and its similarities and differences compared to cost-benefit analysis (CBA), where the latter for a long time has been an important part of STA’s decision basis for infrastructure measures.

    We have made three important observations in our analysis. First, a generic observation is that LCC analysis should be used as a complement to CBA but preferably on a more detailed level to choose between different technical solutions. This implies that LCC analysis may, and should, be treated as a decision basis to conduct measures with a given operational function in an efficient way.

    Furthermore, another observation is the risk for not conducting the efficient amount of maintenance, partly due to the lack of resources, but also since the maintenance measures and infrastructureinvestment measures are based on different, politically decided, budget constraints. Also, the budget process within the organization makes it difficult to optimize for the complete life cycle. Both these issues are organizational, that only can be solved on the governmental level or within STA with directions regarding the investment measures to conduct and which decision basis to rely on.

    In addition, we have observed methodological differences between LCC analysis and CBA considering the road-user costs in connection to disturbances of planned road maintenance. Our view is that these costs should be included in an LCC analysis and our analyze confirm the observation of Eriksson and Edelman (2014), namely that a relatively high traffic volume leads to that measures with a small maintenance requirement in the future in general will have a lower life cycle cost.

    Finally, our recommendation is that LCC analysis has an important role within STA when aiming for efficient design of infrastructure measures. However, it is of importance to develop the LCC methods and, especially, eliminate the organizational barriers for implementing LCC as a way for efficient measures

  • 26.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Landergren, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Elanvändning för längre och tyngre tåg: sammanfattning av resultat, erfarenheter och lärdomar från ELVIS-demonstrationsprojekt2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ELVIS demonstration project aims to analyze how rail freight transports can be performed more efficiently. Hypotheses are that the transport efficiency can be improved by using longer and heavier freight trains and by implementing energy-related measures, and that there may be additional benefits for the companies and the society such as better utilization of the track capacity. This report summarizes the results and experiences from the three previously produced sub reports. In terms of both energy efficiency and overall efficiency for the rail transports researchers, companies and the Transport Administration concluded that there is a big need to secure the quality of the data that is produced. This applies to information about electricity consumption and the factors that possibly affect electricity consumption per (gross) tonne-kilometer, i.e. the train length, the gross weight of the train, number of stops, speed, the driving style, topography etc. The ELVIS project initiated a follow-up project that aims to compile and analyze the Transport Administration’s various databases in this area. The project will provide answers to questions such as what data the various databases contain, how data is collected and stored, for what purpose the data is collected and used, the extent to which data is quality assured and how data from different databases can be linked together. In the context of three case studies, Gävle-Malmö, Holmsund–Skövde och Mora-Gävle, several experiments with different explanatory variables were conducted. With regard to the different conditions and priorities in the case studies and experiments, it is difficult to make direct comparisons. Some general conclusions with respect to the use of electricity can be drawn, for example: • The trains’ weight (in tonnes) and length (number of wagons) affect the electricity consumption per tonne-kilometer in the trials where this is tested. • In some trials there is evidence that there are economies of scale, i.e. that the electricity consumption per tonne-kilometer decreases with increased train weight. • The train driver's driving style (feed back of electricity etc.) affects the energy consumption. This can be seen clearly in the trial Mora–Gävle.

  • 27.
    Yarmukhamedov, Sherzod
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Marginal cost of road maintenance and operation: Swedish estimates based on data from 2004 to 20142016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we estimated the marginal costs of road operation and maintenance by using the cost function approach with Swedish road network data from 2004 to 2014. The results of this study suggest a marginal cost of 0.07 SEK per vehicle kilometre for maintenance and operation of gravel roads, but none for paved roads. The data consist of traffic volume, costs, and road attributes for the Swedish national road network. The observational unit is the road maintenance delivery unit (MDU), and there were 109 such MDUs in Sweden in 2014. We estimated models separately for paved road operation and maintenance, gravel road operation and maintenance, and winter road operations. In paved road maintenance, reinvestment is excluded.

    The data are given in panel format and the models are estimated with random effects. A logarithmic functional form has been used, and this means that the estimated parameter can be interpreted as an elasticity. This elasticity together with the average cost yields the marginal cost. The results of this study suggest a marginal cost of 0.07 SEK per vehicle kilometre for maintenance and operation of gravel roads. The estimated marginal cost for winter road operation is less than 0.01 SEK per vehicle kilometre, and this marginal cost estimate is statistically significant. We do not find a statistically significant marginal cost for maintenance and operation of paved roads.

    Our estimates of marginal costs for road maintenance and operation are generally lower compared to previous Swedish estimates. An important reason for this is that the definition of an MDU has changed over time, but we used the current classification for each year of data in this report. The lack of a significant marginal cost for paved roads is most likely explained by the fact that reinvestment costs were not included in our analysis. We have tested other model specifications to check the robustness of our results. The estimates are robust with respect to different time periods, the choice of measure of traffic volume, and new explanatory variables, except in the case of the gravel roads.

  • 28.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginalkostnad av tågbuller2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En del i projektet Jäsmage är att bestämma marginalkostnaden för buller från olika typer av järnvägsfordon. Arbetet är uppdelat i två delar; att bestämma hur stor samhällskostnad en förändring i bullernivå innebär och att utgående från denna värdering beräkna vad kostnaden blir för en extra marginell fordonspassage vid olika sträckor. Denna rapport behandlar den andra delen. Arbetet inleddes under 2009 och kommer dels att rapporteras i december 2010, dels resultera i en artikel som är klar för vetenskaplig granskning under början på 2011.

  • 29.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Noise charges for Swedish railways based on marginal cost calculations2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an effort to calculate marginal costs for railway traffic in Sweden using 1) standardised and already well established methods for calculating noise and 2) valuations of noise based on hedonic regression. The main point is that the marginal costs are calculated using well established methods used for other purposes (urban planning for the noise method and cost benefit analysis for the noise values), the combination of these methods requires knowledge in both transport economics and acoustics but apart from that no new methods need to be developed. The results show large variations over the network explained mainly by the large variations in population density. It is necessary to include similar variations in a charging system in order to gain the full benefits of internalizing the noise cost.

1 - 29 of 29
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf