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  • 1.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ad hoc-processen: hur används ledig kapacitet i järnvägsnätet?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After the Swedish Transport Administration’s adoption of next year's timetable in mid-fall each year, starts the so-called ad hoc process, i.e. requests for train paths that can use spare capacity in the network. VTI received in September 2015 Transport Agency's mission to deepen the understanding of the ad hoc-process, This “notat” reports that assignment. In light of the description that was made, the intention was to also find the measure of the importance of this process in relation to the process leading to adopting a final schedule. It has been found that the Transport Administration’s various information management systems are not designed to enable such a description.

    Thanks to a recent statistical tool, it is possible to observe that nearly 97 percent of the passenger trains booked into the annual timetable process, also actually run. This refers to two thirds of the timetable year 2015. The aim of the Transport Agency/Traffic analysis is to, in the near future, also report similar information about freight train. Behind this figure conceals both an outflow and an inflow of traffic that will be conducted in accordance with the timetable set out in the autumn of each year. However, there is no knowledge of when these changes are implemented, which is of great importance for assessing the degree of flexibility in the ad hoc process. This situation may change as a result of the Transport Agency as of the timetable relating to 2016 for the charges to cancel the allocated capacity. The fee will be higher the closer to the scheduled departure of the train the application is withdrawn. This can help improve the flexibility in the use of the track capacity not reserved in the annual timetabling process. Another consequence may be that the information on the process will improve.

  • 2.
    Alexandersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm school of economics.
    Hultén, Staffan
    Stockholm school of economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The liberalization of railway passenger transport in Sweden: outstanding regulatory challenges2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe Sweden’s recent reforms to open the railway passenger markets to entry, and to addresses four critical issues for the success of the reforms; the allocation of infrastructure capacity, the provision of maintenance and terminal facilities, the access to rolling stock and the provision of information and ticketing to travelers. The analysis shows that the legislation and regulatory tools that are needed to handle these challenges to a large extent remain to be developed.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Toulouse.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro Universitet.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Institute of Transport Economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Economic Analysis and Investment Priorities in Sweden's Transport Sector2018In: Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, ISSN 2194-5888, E-ISSN 2152-2812, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 120-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beginning as a planning tool within Sweden's national road administration some 50 years ago, benefit-cost analysis (BCA) has come to be a pillar of the national transport policy because of subsequent strategic choices made by the national parliament. These choices made it necessary to widen the analysis of costs to include also externalities and a foregone conclusion was that efficient investment priorities should be made based on BCA. But no one asked whether the political decision makers or the BCA models were up to that task. This paper reviews the institutional framework and practice of BCA in Sweden for transport infrastructure investment, and considers design issues that have been and still are debated, such as whether the discount rate should include a risk term and how to account for the marginal cost of public funds. A main concern with BCA results is the underestimation of construction costs, making transport sector projects look better than they are. Several ex post analyses have established that a higher NPV ratio increases the probability of being included in the investment program proposal prepared by the agency. The requirement to let projects undergo BCA seems to make planners trim project proposals by trying to reduce investment costs without significantly reducing benefits. This relationship is weaker among profitable projects. Moreover, there is no correlation between rate of return and the probability of being included in the final program, which is established on political grounds.

  • 4.
    Arvidsson, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Intelligenta försäkringar för person- och lastbilar2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Within the European Union there are annually about 1 300 000 accidents with physical injuries. Estimates indicate that accident costs add up to €160 billion, corresponding to 2 percent of the Union's GDP. On Sweden's roads alone 400-500 people are killed annualy and thousands are injured. Traffic accidents are, like in most other countries, one of the country's national health problems. Substantial resources are allocated to reduce the number of accidents and their consequences, once an accident occurs. The insurance industry is one part in this. The focus of this report is how insurance companies design their insurance premiums and the possibility to change this design in order to curb accident risks. Our starting point is that modern techniques makes it feasible to link the way in which the premium is calculated to actual behaviour. The fast development of in-vehicle "black box" technology provides prerequisits for observing driver behaviour and in particular speed relative to speed limits. By making speeders pay more than drivers that adhere to speed limits, the insurance system may affect average speed on the road network and consequently also the number and consequences of accidents. The report is made up of three parts. The first presents a review of international experiences of "Pay-as-You-Drive" and "Pay-as-You-Speed" applications. The second reviews technical aspects and the options available when selecting an appropriate solution. A third paper presents a blueprint for the way in which an insurance premium based on "Pay-as-You-Speed" could be designed in order to capture important incentive aspects of the system. It is suggested that the insurance industry should go ahead with the development of these techniques. It is, however, also acknowledged that the incentives of the industry may be insuffient to carry the implementation costs. Since society at large carries much more of the accident costs than the industry itself, this provides prima facie motive for government intervention in order to avoid a market failure. It is argued that the costs for establishing an open technical platform in vehicles and to organise the collection of data may be small relative to the potential benefits of the system.

  • 5.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    En granskning av information över tågförseningar år 20122014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to document the quality of data from the Swedish Transport Administration regarding train delays, in order to assess whether it can be used to deepen the understanding of the size of the delays and the conditions that generate delays. In order to limit the work we have only considered quarter 1 of year 2012. The overall impression is that the quality of the data has become much better. It is not obvious whether this is due to better reporting/insertion of data or if new methods to extract data from existing systems have been developed. It is also important to emphasize that with the increased knowledge of the data the possibilities to deal with some ambiguities that we earlier saw as inaccuracies in the material have increased. Our hope is that with data from year 2013 and onwards it should be possible to perform structured analyses of delays in the whole rail network in Sweden. As a first step towards analysing patterns of delays in the rail traffic we have presented a description of the delay pattern on the so called “Dalabanan”, i.e. the traffic between Mora/Falun/Borlänge and Stockholm, and also at “Uppsala-pendeln” between Uppsala and Stockholm.

  • 6.
    Bratt-Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholms universitet.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Kågeson, Per
    KTH.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Jättestor nytta, men ännu större kostnad2016In: Dagens NyheterArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Brännlund, Ulf
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    Linköping University.
    Nou, Andreas
    KTH.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Banverket.
    Railway Timetabling Using Lagrangian Relaxation1998In: Transportation Science, ISSN 0041-1655, E-ISSN 1526-5447, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 358-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel optimization approach for the timetabling problem of a railway company, i.e., scheduling of a set of trains to obtain a profit maximizing timetable, while not violating track capacity constraints. The scheduling decisions are based on estimates of the value of running different types of service at specified times. We model the problem as a very large integer programming problem. The model is flexible in that if allows for general cost functions. We have used a Lagrangian relaxation solution approach, in which the track capacity constraints are relaxed and assigned prices, so that the problem separates into one dynamic program for each physical train. The number of dual variables is very large. However, it turns out that only a small fraction of these are nonzero, wh ich one may take advantage of in the dual updating schemes. The approach has been, tested on a realistic example suggested by the Swedish National Railway Administration. This example contains 18 passenger trains and 8 freight trains to be scheduled during a day on a stretch of single track, consisting of 17 stations. The computation times are rather modest and the obtained timetables are within a few percent of optimality.

  • 8.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Harry, Flam
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mörth, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK. KTH.
    Infrastrukturbeslut måste grundas på samhällsekonomiska kalkyler2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-02-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Harry, Flam
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mörth, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK. KTH.
    Nästan alla stora byggen av järnvägar är olönsamma2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no Jan 28, 2016Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Trafikverkets modeller ger bra underlag2016In: Dagens IndustriArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. KTH.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro universitet.
    Kågeson, Per
    KTH.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholms universitet.
    Stoppa Ostlänken nu!2016In: Dagens Industri, no 3 augustiArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12. Carlén, Björn
    et al.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro universitet.
    Liu, Xing
    Örebro universitet.
    Lunander, Anders
    Örebro universitet.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Mellin, Anna
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Sorkina, Edith
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Landbaserade godstransporter, klimat och styrmedel: underlagsrapporter 1-102014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI notat 28-2014 contains the ten underlying reports which is the base for VTI report 831: “Land based freight transports, climate and policy – Summary report”. In VTI report 831, the researchers discuss greenhouse gas emissions from freight transport and how they could be reduced. They address these questions from several different angles. For example, they discuss the introduction of so-called green corridors and propose tools to solve the complex coordination problems that are associated with these corridors. Furthermore, there is a discussion on how to view the climate change impact from shifting road to rail or electrified vehicles on road.

  • 13.
    Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Börjesson, Maria
    Kungliga Tekniska högskolan.
    Mörth, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vart är vi på väg?: Systemfel i transportpolitiken2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Forsstedt, Sara
    et al.
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro Universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Yarmuchamedov, Sherzod
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Hur väl fungerar försäkringsbranschen?2015In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 6, p. 7p. 40-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomisk teori visar hur försäkringssystem kan bidra till ökad välfärd. Men den visar också att det finns gränser för hur mycket trygghet vi kan eller bör skaffa oss genom försäkringar. Med unika mikrodata undersöker vi i denna artikel ett antal frågeställningar om försäkringsmarknadens effektivitet. Resultaten har betydelse för förståelsen av hur informationsasymmetrier hanteras av försäkringsbranschen, samt underlag för vissa policyrekommendationer när det gäller trafiksäkerhet och fordonsförsäkringar.

  • 15.
    Hansson, Lars
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Stockholm University.
    A new Swedish Railroad Policy: Separation of Infrastructure and Traffic Production1991In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 153-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1988 the Swedish nationalized railway company was separated into two separate entities, the Swedish State Railways in charge of running rail transport and the National Rail Administration, responsible for investment in and maintenance of rail infrastructure. This paper describes institutional aspects of this new railway policy. It also specifies methodological and practical problems in the computation of social marginal costs for using rail as well as road infrastructure. It is furthermore made likely that present fuel charges on road vehicles, but not the new rail use charges, are insufficient to cover costs for infrastructure use.

  • 16.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Högskolan i Dalarna.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Högskolan i Dalarna.
    Nya bud: En ESO-rapport om auktioner och upphandling.2001Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Riksdagens roll i infrastrukturplaneringen: särtryck ur Trafikutskottet: planering av vägar och järnvägar - en uppföljnings- och utvärderingsstudie. Utredningar från Riksdagen 1104-6414; 2003/04:URD4, utgivare Sveriges riksdag, 20042004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten diskuteras förutsättningarna för, uppläggningen

    av och problemen med dagens arbete med att planera nya vägar och järnvägar.

    Fyra problemkomplex identifieras. (1) Spelreglerna inom sektorn är sådana att

    särintressen har starka skäl att argumentera för önskemål som stundtals kan

    stå i konflikt med samhällsintresset. (2) Planeringsprocessen fungerar inte

    på avsett sätt, exempelvis genom att det underlag som tas fram i ringa

    utsträckning används för att motivera de prioriteringar som görs. (3) Delvis

    som en följd av dessa problem genomförs idag investeringar med tveksam

    legitimitet; man överinvesterar i vägar och järnvägar samtidigt som viktiga

    problem inte hanteras. (4) Slutligen menar vi att man inte i tillräcklig

    utsträckning klargör vilken roll som investeringar i, och drift och underhåll

    av infrastruktur har i förhållande till andra styrmedel som lagar och

    förordningar, organisatoriska förändringar och skatter och avgifter. I

    synnerhet är så fallet när man vill komma åt konsekvenser av den ökade

    trafiken, ett område där infrastrukturåtgärder ofta är ett svagt styrmedel.

    Tre tankar kring institutionella förändringar formuleras.(a) För det första

    menar vi att man bör undersöka möjligheterna att öka kommunernas

    finansieringsansvar för investeringar som uppenbarligen har sin primära

    legitimitet i trafik inom kommunen. (b) För det andra bör planeringsprocessen

    reformeras. En del av detta kan vara att låta Trafikutskottet få en utökad

    roll i inriktningsplaneringen. (c) Och för det tredje bör man undersöka

    möjligheterna att säkerställa mera regelbundna uppföljningar och granskningar

    av sektorns verksamhet, exempelvis genom att tillskapa en oberoende

    granskningsmyndighet enligt samma mönster som inom arbetsmarknads-, bostads-

    och utbildningspolitikens område.

  • 18.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys: En introduktion till mikroekonomin2008 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok är en introduktion till den samhällsekonomiska mikroteorin och dess normativa del, välfärdsteorin. Författarna presenterar såväl klassiska teorier som nyare inslag som beteendeekonomi, spelteori och informationsekonomi. Boken visar även hur teorin kan användas för olika praktiska syften, t.ex. vid val av styrmedel, analys av konkurrensfrågor, upphandling och samhällsekonomisk lönsamhetsbedömning.

    Samhällsekonomisk teori och metod kan användas för att analysera många frågor. Denna teori utvecklades ursprungligen för att förklara marknaders funktion men används idag för att studera alla slags samhällsinstitutioner – t.ex. organisationer, lagar och avtalsformer. Med hjälp av samhällsekonomisk analys kan man både förklara dessa institutioner och hur väl de fungerar, i synnerhet deras effektivitet.

  • 19.
    Hylen, Bertil
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Marknadsanalys av höghastighetsbanor i Europa2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    On 4th April 2005 Banverket (Swedish rail infrastructure manager) commissioned VTI to carry out a market analysis of High Speed Rail Lines in Europe. The analysis should serve as an important input in the further planning of the Götalandsbanan (Stockholm-Jönköping-Göteborg) and Södra Stambanan. (Stockholm-Malmö). High Speed (HS) in this report refers to ? 250 km/h. An important part of the work has been to present relevant comparisons between Götalandsbanan and similar lines in other countries. Sweden has more passenger rail traffic as measured in passenger km compared to other countries. Götalandsbanan is intended to serve the heart of Sweden with 3-3½ million inhabitants. The population served by the HS line in Spain for example is similar but in many other cases the population is several times larger. Furthermore the assumed travel distances along Götalandsbanan are similar to such distances abroad where rail has been able to compete successfully with air travel.

  • 20.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    An Experimental Comparison of Track Allocation Mechanisms in the Railway Industry2003In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 353-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of railway tracks is a scarce commodity that is, by nature, more complex than many other commodities. This paper presents results from a series of economic testbed experiments on the performance of different auctioning mechanisms for allocating track capacity between competing users. The auction mechanism will not only decide the price, it also serves to define the commodities (the particular departure–arrival time slots) demanded, and selects which of these are sold. Four combinations of pricing and stopping rules are compared. Realised allocations are very efficient for all four combinations and also generate approximately equal revenue. The research provides input for the process of re-regulating an industry undergoing profound institutional change.

  • 21. Johansson, Elly-Ann
    et al.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Upphandling av komplexa projekt: en förstudie av Södra länken2002Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vägverket upphandlar byggnation av nya vägar i konkurrens och låter privata

    entreprenörer eller den egna produktionsenheten utföra arbetet. Denna process

    är inte problemfri. Exempelvis kännetecknas byggsektorn av lägre

    produktivitetsutveckling än övrig inhemsk industri. Bara ett fåtal svenska

    företag har kapacitet att utföra stora entreprenader vilket begränsar

    konkurrenstrycket i branschen. Därtill kommer att upphandlingar av större

    projekt kan skilja sig från upphandlingar av mindre format. Södra länken i

    Stockholm är som Sveriges hittills största vägtunnelbygge ett exempel på en

    sådan stor upphandling. Projektet är också komplext i flera dimensioner; det

    består av olika delprojekt med starka inbördes kopplingar men som upphandlats

    var för sig. Vissa delar av byggkostnaderna kan också vara genuint svåra att

    bedöma i förväg. Syftet med denna förstudie är att med utgångspunkt från

    detta specifika fall söka identifiera eventuella problem vid upphandlingar av

    stora och komplexa anläggningsprojekt. Det har emellertid inte varit möjligt

    att dra några entydiga slutsatser av kvantitativ natur från förstudien.

    Huvudskälet är att arbetet med många projekt fortfarande pågår och att

    kostnadsuppföljningar endast kunnat göras i några enstaka fall. Inga

    jämförelser har heller kunnat göras inom förstudiens ram med andra stora

    projekt.

  • 22.
    Johansson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    An Economic Analysis of Track Maintenance Costs2004In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 277-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The costs for maintaining different track units are analyzed using Swedish and Finnish railway data for the years 1994-1996 and 1997-1999, respectively. To derive insights on the logic of spending on track maintenance, the analysis is based on few a priori assumptions about underlying structures. We provide indications of scale economies in track maintenance with respect to traffic load and calculate a policy-relevant derivative value, i.e. the marginal cost of track use. The paper points to the type of data that has to be compiled in order to implement a recent Directive of the European Commission in a consistent way.

  • 23.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    The allocation of transport infrastructure in Swedish municipalities: welfare maximization, political economy or both?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of transport infrastructure projects to include in the National Transport Infrastructure Plans in Sweden is often said to be motivated by the weighing of cost against social benefits. Examining the projects that are included in the Plans, it is clear, however, that not all projects have positive net present values, and are therefore more costly to build than the benefits they create. This paper studies alternative models that might explain the choice of projects. Two political economy models, the district demand and the swing voter with lobbying, are tested, and a model that accounts for the spatial distribution of the projects, as well as the possibility that priorities are based on welfare concerns, is estimated. No support is found for the political economy models. What explains investment volume is the existence of CBA results for a project, which may indicate that welfare benefits have an impact, as do the spatial spillovers from a project’s benefits and lobbying, especially by the municipalities concerned.

  • 24.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nääs, Ola
    Finansiering av vägväsendet: en internationell överblick2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att ge en översiktlig bild över hur vägväsendet finansieras i olika delar av världen. Till följd av betydande luckor i det statistiska materialet är det svårt att skapa en sammanhållen bild vad vägar kostar och hur de finansieras i världens olika länder. Ett huvudskäl till dessa problem är att olika länder har olika principer för att fördela kostnader och skatteintäkter mellan olika administrativa nivåer, dvs. central, regional/delstatlig och lokal/kommunal nivå. Med detta i minne ger denna rapport ett urval av översiktlig information som sannolikt ändå klargör huvuddragen i väghållningens finansiering. I rapporten görs en åtskillnad mellan finansiering av hela vägnät och finansiering av enskilda projekt. Den bild som träder fram är att bensinskatten är den dominerande intäktskällan från beskattning av vägtrafiken i vägnäten. I många länder står bensinskatten för över hälften av de intäkter som vägtrafiken genererar. Fordonsrelaterade skatter, dels årliga och dels i samband med inköp, står för vardera nästan en femtedel av intäkterna. Tullvägar och årliga brukaravgifter (vignetter) utgör en mindre del av intäkterna, kanske kring 6 % i genomsnitt.

  • 25.
    Link, Heike
    et al.
    DIW, Berlin.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Infrastructure2005In: Measuring the Marginal Social Cost of Transport / [ed] Chris Nash & Bryan Mattews, Elsevier, 2005, 1, p. 49-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Lunander, Anders
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Taking the Lab to the Field: Experimental Tests of Alternative Mechanisms to Procure Multiple Contracts2004In: Journal of Regulatory Economics, ISSN 0922-680X, E-ISSN 1573-0468, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 39-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of the paper reports the results from a sequence of laboratory experiments comparing the bidding behavior for multiple contracts in three different sealed bid auction mechanisms; first-price simultaneous, first-price sequential and first-price combinatorial bidding. The design of the experiment is based on experiences from a public procurement auction of road markings in Sweden. Bidders are asymmetric in their cost functions; some exhibit decreasing average costs of winning more than one contract, whereas other bidders have increasing average cost functions. The combinatorial bidding mechanism is demonstrated to be most efficient. The second part of the paper describes how the lab experiment was followed up by a field test of a combinatorial procurement auction of road markings.

  • 27.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    A comparison of unit price and fixed price contracts for infrastructure construction projects2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s dominant mechanism for infrastructure project tendering is the Unit Price Contract (UPC). While the winning bidder retains risk related to the unit price bids submitted, the Principal carries all risk related to misspecification of the activities required for having a project build. This paper reviews the microeconomic foundations for this contracting procedure and identifies situations where an alternative mechanism, Design - Build (DB) contracts, may be preferable. DB leaves the bulk of project risk with the agent and therefore requires bidders to hedge against unpleasant surprises in the implementation by increasing the demand for compensation for undertaking the job. It is argued that DB should not be used if the number of bidders is expected to be large; this is a means for reducing the duplication of design costs. Moreover, DB projects should be complex with respect to the number of sub-tasks required for construction and it should be feasible to substitute one input for another. This is a way for society to benefit from the agent’s superior information about alternative implementation techniques and relative input prices. The projects should moreover not include too many unobservable quality features and the risks for geotechnical problems should be manageable.

  • 28.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Kan det bli mer effektivt med totalentreprenad?2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ordning på torpet2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Freight transport, policy instruments and climate2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of policy instruments supposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from road freight transports may seem smaller than expected. Using insights from economics and contract theory, the paper sorts out the (possible) instances of market failure in the freight transport market; operator market power, asymmetric information split incentives, and public goods. The primary limitations of standard policy instruments are demonstrated to be linked to unobservable information. Some of these may be reduced but not eliminated as information technologies develop, making it possible to observe, verify and provide contract-relevant information to the uninformed parties. There is little reason to believe that possible market failures present major limitations to the efficiency of economic instruments geared toward protecting the climate, other than possibly in the short run.

  • 31.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Medfinansiering av transportinfrastruktur: blev det mer och bättre?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One objective during work with Sweden’s 2010–2021 investment program was to induce local and regional, both public and private, contribution to the financing of investment projects. In this way, it would be feasible to enhance the total volume of spending on new roads, railways and waterways.

    The present report demonstrates that the government has met this objective. It is, however, not straightforward to establish how much extra resources that have been made available. In this report the problems with using different sources and different definitions are highlighted.

  • 32.
    Nash, Chris
    et al.
    Univ. of Leeds.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Link, Heike
    DIW, Berlin.
    Comparing Three Models for Introduction of Competition into Railways2013In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 191-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares three European countries with long experience of competition in rail transport— Britain, Sweden, and Germany. Given the nature of the reforms undertaken, we would expect theBritish approach to be the most successful, with Sweden next and Germany least successful. But anexamination of subsidy levels and trends in passenger and freight traffic finds that Germany has theslowest growth in public financial support for its railway, as well as the lowest increase in fares. Whiletraffic growth is faster in the other countries, it is not clear that reforms there have provided bettervalue for money.

  • 33.
    Nash, Chris
    et al.
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Link, Heike
    DIW, Berlin, Germany.
    Comparing three models for introduction of competition into railways: is a Big Wolf so Bad after all?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the experience of three European countries with long experience of competition in rail transport – Britain, Sweden and Germany. Britain is characterised by complete separation of infrastructure from operations, competition either for or in the market for the entire passenger network, open access for freight with two large operators and several smaller ones, strong regulation and careful attention to financial incentives. Sweden also has complete vertical separation, competitive tendering for all subsidised services, open access for freight and now also for commercial passenger services. Regulation, although now strengthened, is not as tight as in Britain. At the other extreme, Germany still has the dominant operator and the infrastructure company as subsidiaries to the same holding company, the regulator has had repeated disputes regarding their powers and – although there is some tendering of subsidised passenger services and open access for commercial passenger and freight – the incumbent still dominates the market. According to the general expectations of theoretical reasoning, we would expect the British approach to be the most successful in achieving an efficient, competitive rail system, with Sweden next and Germany least successful. But an examination of subsidy levels and trends in passenger and freight traffic finds that Germany has the slowest growth in public financial support for its railway as well as the lowest fares. Both Britain and Sweden have had faster growth in public financial support than Germany, although this has mainly been in infrastructure renewal and enhancement, and there has been debate as to the adequacy of current infrastructure spending in Germany. On most measures, Britain has lower absolute levels of financial support than Germany as well as faster traffic growth. Sweden clearly has much higher financial support, although this may be the result of low population density. Thus on balance it is not clear that the reform process has worked better in the other countries than in Germany, despite initial expectations. Further in depth research on the reasons for these changes in financial support and traffic levels would be needed to reach a more conclusive answer.

  • 34.
    Nash, Chris
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Smith, Andrew
    University of Leeds.
    Crozet, Yves
    Laboratoire Aménagement, Économie, Transports.
    Link, Heike
    German Institute for Economic Research.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    How to liberalise rail passenger services?: Lessons from european experience2019In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 79, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the experience of Europe's three most liberalised railways - Sweden, Germany and Britain - in opening-up rail passenger services to competition by means of competitive tendering, and seeks to draw lessons for countries that are just starting the process, such as France. It also comments on experience of competition in the market in these and other countries (this form of competition has been taken furthest in other countries - notably Italy and the Czech Republic, as well as on a single route in Austria). The paper fills an important gap in the literature - that has so far focused on econometric modelling of the impact of rail reforms - by considering how competition can best be introduced in practice. This investigation is important and timely given the requirements of EU legislation (4th Railway Package)which will require competition to be introduced into passenger rail services (by 2020 for commercial services, and 2023 for public transport contracts) across the whole of the EU. It finds evidence that competitive tendering has helped increase demand for and reduce subsidies to the rail passenger sector, but that there are many decisions that have to be taken as to how it is to be implemented. Short gross cost contracts may work well for regional services where the tendering authority takes the lead in planning and marketing such services. If services where ticket revenue recovers a larger share of costs – “more commercial services” – are to be tendered, long net cost contracts may make more sense. An alternative is to leave them operated by the incumbent but with open access for competitors to enter the market. Two particular issues face countries starting on the liberalisation process. Firstly, if existing rolling stock is owned by the incumbent rather than the franchising authority or an independent company; that remains a major barrier to entry. The second is the position of existing staff. If new operators are required to take them on at existing wages and conditions; that is a barrier to improved efficiency, but for new operators to recruit their own staff may also be problematic, particularly where the pace of change is fast.

  • 35.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    University of Dalarna.
    Allocation of track capacity: Experimental Evidence on the Use of Priority Auctioning in the Railway Industry1999In: International Journal of Industrial Organization, ISSN 0167-7187, E-ISSN 1873-7986, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 1139-1162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allocation of track capacity concerns multiple users facing demand indivisibilities, running trains over an inelastic supply of railway tracks. The paper suggests a Vickrey-type mechanism to handle incentive aspects of this technically complex optimisation task. Here, the price for operating a train will correspond to the bids foregone by other operators who are pushed off their preferred routes. The paper reports the results of 11 experimental markets using variations of this mechanism where each market includes up to 10 trading periods, and subjects bid for routes over a highly stylised railway network. The experiments generated solutions that capture 90–100% of potential benefits.

  • 36.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Banverket.
    Behövs mer infrastruktur?1990In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 8, p. 777-780Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Citytunneln. Beslutsprocess och beslutsunderlag: Appendix 3 i Nya vägar till vägar och järnvägar (Riksdagens Revisorer 2000/01:5)2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Congestion and scarcity in scheduled transport modes2015In: Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Transport Economics and Policy / [ed] Chris Nash, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 134-153Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion is a familiar concept within the road sector, first and foremost since it provides a very hands-on and frequent experience for many drivers. Analytically, congestion is an external effect within the collective of drivers in so far as the marginal driver causes extra time for those already in the system without necessarily taking this into account. This is the basis for a proactive policy towards congestion, designed in order to ascertain an optimal mix of pricing and investment principles to handle the imbalance between supply of and demand for roads. The meaning of congestion, in modes where scheduling is a prerequisite for operations, differs from the definition of congestion in the road sector. There are furthermore both similarities and differences in the way in which congestion manifests itself when comparing different scheduled modes. In the railway sector the presence of high demand means that there are not tracks available to cater for the wishes of all railway operators, or that some must adjust their demand for access in order to cater for the demand from one or more other operators. As a consequence, services may not commence without operators having been allocated a slot long before a train is about to leave. We will characterise this as a scarcity problem which is solved by constructing a timetable that can be advertised to travellers well beforehand.

  • 39.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Effektivitet i järnvägsunderhåll: vad vet vi?2015In: 2014/15:RFR3: Trafikutskottets offentliga utfrågning om järnvägens vägval, 2015, p. 92-95Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    En modell för produktivitetsanalys av väginvesteringar2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry’s productivity performance, measured on an aggregate level, is dismal compared to other industries. Despite a substandard performance, no reasons have been established. One explanation is that disaggregate data facilitating a deeper analysis of the development has not been available. A huge share of the construction industry consists of infrastructure construction and maintenance. All infrastructure activities of this nature is competitively tendered. This provides the basis for the recommendation given in the present study for – first – how to measure productivity, or equivalently cost efficiency, and – second – to provide scope for analyzing any (positive, or more probably negative) performance trend. To be specific, the idea is to use the tendered contracts or possibly the documented outcome of each contract, or even both, to develop our understanding of the development of productivity. Within the scope of this proposal, focus is on Design-Bid-Build (DBB) contracts (utförandeentreprenader). One particular aspect of DBB contracts is that a construction assignment is based on a detailed Bill of Quantities (BoQ). This document describes in great detail precisely which activities an entrepreneur is supposed to implement and also the quantity of each. Having implemented the BoQ results in a piece of infrastructure without the contract necessarily has described the nature of the road or railway to be built. The recommended method for measuring productivity development is to use Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). This approach has been developed over a long period of time and applied in a number of different sectors of the economy. It has, however, never been tested on infrastructure investment projects. The idea is to test SFA in full scale on a number of similar road investment projects and to use the BoQ’s and associated bid prices for measuring performance both on a cross section sample of projects and subsequently also over time.

  • 41.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    En reformerad tidtabelläggning: Bilaga till Järnvägsutredningen (SOU 2003:104)2003Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42. Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Fördelning av bankapacitet: Bilaga 13 till Ökad konkurrens på järnvägen (SOU 1993:13)1993Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43. Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Infrastrukturplanering: en process i behov av institutionella reformer2002In: Skattemiljarder i trafikpolitiken: till vilken nytta? / [ed] Swedenborg, Birgitta, SNS förlag, 2002Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    University of Stockholm.
    Investment Decisions in a Public Bureaucracy: A Case Study of Swedish Road Planning Practices1991In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 163-175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Järnvägskonkurrens: på riktigt eller bara på låtsas?1994In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 21-30Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Kollektivtrafik utan styrning2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns goda skäl för att tro att en kollektivtrafikförsörjning på helt kommersiella villkor skulle resultera i ett mindre omfattande utbud och högre priser än vad som är samhällsekonomiskt effektivt. Kollektivtrafikförsörjningen bör därför hanteras i politiska församlingar, och i Sverige är detta en uppgift för kommuner och län som samordnar sina resurser inom den gemen-samt ägda trafikhuvudmannen, en i varje län eller region. Sedan ett tjugotal år upphandlas huvuddelen av denna trafik i konkurrens. Konkurrensutsättningen innebar sannolikt kostnadsbesparingar och kan därför betraktas som en lyckad reform. Tre aspekter på verksamheten i branschen bildar bakgrunden till studien. En aspekt är att kollektivtrafikens resandeökning har stagnerat. I vissa regioner har antalet bussresenärer till och med minskat i absoluta tal. Samtidigt ökar hela tiden kostnaderna för trafiken. Den andra bakgrundsfaktorn är att marknaden från och med 2012 öppnas för etablering av kommersiella företag samtidigt som trafikhuvudmannaverksamheten omorganiseras. Och ett tredje för-hållande är Fördubblingsprojektet som drivs av representanter för både beställare och utförare med syfte att till år 2020 ha fördubblat antalet resenärer jämfört med 2006. Om den utveckling som upp-mättes mellan 2005 och 2009 fortsätter kommer resandet att ha fördubblats år 2022 till en kostnad som är nästan dubbelt så stor som i dag. Ingenting talar för att den förestående marknadsöppningen kommer att förändra denna utveckling.

  • 47.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Kollektivtrafik utan styrning2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Konkurrens på och om marknaden för persontrafik med tåg: svenska erfarenheter2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A paper documenting the organisation of rail passenger services in England, Germany and Sweden was published in 2013; cf. Nash et al (2013). During 2016, the Centre for Regulation in Europe (CERRE) commissioned a follow-up study, examining the experience to date in these markets, and identifying lessons to be learned from them which may be applied to markets yet to undergo liberalization (such as France). The present paper was drafted to provide an update of Swedish data and this note has translated the text to make it available to a broader domestic audience. The final version, Liberalisation of Rail Passenger Services, is edited by Chris Nash and is available at http://www.cerre.eu/publications/liberalisation-passenger-rail-services.

  • 49. Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Kost­nader och produktivitet inom järnvägssek­torn: Kapitel 4 i Översyn av rörelse- och tillsynsregler för kollektiva försäkringar. Betänkande av Kollektivförsäkringsutredningen (SOU 1998:7)1998Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50. Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Kostnadsansvar och avgiftssystem1985Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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