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  • 1.
    Abate, Megersa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    de Jong, Gerard
    University of Leeds.
    Joint econometric models of freight transport chain and shipment size choice2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In freight transportation, decisions regarding the choice of transport mode (or chains of modes) and shipment size are closely linked. Building on this basic insight, in this paper we estimate and review various joint econometric models using the Swedish National Commodity Flow surveys. Robust parameter estimates from this exercise will be used to update the current deterministic Swedish national freight model system (the SAMGODS model) to a stochastic one.

  • 2.
    Abate, Megersa
    et al.
    World Bank.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    de Jong, Gerard
    University of Leeds.
    Baak, Jaap
    dSignificance.
    A disaggregate stochastic freight transport model for Sweden2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents estimation results for models of transport chain and shipment size choice, as well as an implementation of the estimated disaggregate models (for two commodity groups), in the context of the national freight transport model for Sweden. The new model is a disaggregate and stochastic (logit) model, whereas the existing Swedish national model is deterministic. One advantage of the new approach is that it bases the underlying behavior of shippers on a stronger empirical foundation (that is micro-data from the Swedish Commodity Flow Survey, CFS). Another advantage is that it overcomes a well-known disadvantage of deterministic models that lead to implausibly large responses to changes in scenario or policy variables. Although estimation and implementation of aggregate stochastic models were done before, in the context of a national freight transport forecasting model, we think this is the first implementation of disaggregate freight transport chain and shipment size models estimated on choice data for individual shipments, certainly in Europe. We carried out a number of model runs with both versions of the implemented model to compare elasticities and found that transport cost and time elasticities for tonne-km are smaller (in absolute values) in the disaggregate stochastic model than in their deterministic counterparts.

  • 3.
    Björketun, Urban
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Eriksson, Jan R
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jansson, Jan Owen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sandström, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Långväga interurbana inrikes flygresor: en studie av interregionala persontransporter1995Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Törnquist Krasemann, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nuvarande förutsättningar och försök med längre godståg mellan Gävle och Malmö2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The second sub-project of ELVIS demonstration project for longer and heavier freight trains aims to analyze the actual conditions for the use of longer trains and to evaluate the trial where a 730 metres long demonstration train (instead of a maximum of 630 metres) was operating between Gävle and Malmö 6–7 October 2012. One conclusion is that it is technically possible to operate trains that are longer than 630 metres but there are organizational barriers. To use the infrastructure more efficient, the project proposes the use of dedicated channels for longer freight trains in specific corridors as a temporary solution. The comparison of the demonstration train with up to 630 metres reference trains was hampered of that the central data describing the reference trains were difficult to access and partially uncertain. An important conclusion is that a better mapping of the current situation is needed in order to make reliable quantitative analysis. It was possible to compile information about the electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer of the demonstration train and the reference trains. However, it is difficult to quantify how the length of the train, the weight of the train, the speed, the number of stops etc. influence the electricity consumption one by one – both due to the quality of the data set and the fact that there is a quite large variation in electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer regardless which of the factors is studied. The impact of the topography and the length and weight of the train on the electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer can however be shown. The electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer of the demonstration train is generally lower than the consumption of the reference trains. It is possible, however, to conclude that electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer is generally not higher for longer trains, but it is impossible to say that consumption is generally lower. The literature and discussions with firms indicate that industry can reduce transport costs by using longer freight trains. However, economies of scale can only be exploited if locomotives traction capacity is not fully utilized today. It is obvious that the access to the rail infrastructure determine which train lengths and weights are commercially interesting. The electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer can possibly also reduced by using longer trains, but this cannot be stated without further notice. Running longer freight trains on a larger scale requires investments in tracks, terminals etc. The rough socio-economic calculations for the 750 metre long trains that have been carried out so far indicate that the investment costs are relatively modest. Though there is a need for analyzes for various train lengths as it is not obvious that the minimum length of 750 metres that is required for the TEN-T core network from 2030 is optimal.

  • 5. Carlén, Björn
    et al.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro universitet.
    Liu, Xing
    Örebro universitet.
    Lunander, Anders
    Örebro universitet.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Mellin, Anna
    Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Sorkina, Edith
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Landbaserade godstransporter, klimat och styrmedel: underlagsrapporter 1-102014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI notat 28-2014 contains the ten underlying reports which is the base for VTI report 831: “Land based freight transports, climate and policy – Summary report”. In VTI report 831, the researchers discuss greenhouse gas emissions from freight transport and how they could be reduced. They address these questions from several different angles. For example, they discuss the introduction of so-called green corridors and propose tools to solve the complex coordination problems that are associated with these corridors. Furthermore, there is a discussion on how to view the climate change impact from shifting road to rail or electrified vehicles on road.

  • 6.
    Christodoulou, Anastasia
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Gonzalez-Aregall, Marta
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lindé, Tobias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Cullinane, Kevin
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Targeting the reduction of shipping emissions to air: A global review and taxonomy of policies, incentives and measures2019In: Maritime Business Review, ISSN 2397-3757, E-ISSN 1548-1921, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 16-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and classify the various initiatives developed and implemented across the globe for the abatement of maritime air emissions.

    In this paper, an extensive survey of various sources was conducted, including the official reports of international and regional institutions, government policy documents, port authority websites, classification society pages, private firms’ sites and the academic literature. The initiatives were then categorized in accordance with the classification of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and analyzed using the SPSS Statistics software to give some insight into their frequencies and the interrelationships between them.

    This exploratory review resulted in the establishment of a comprehensive global database of initiatives encouraged by the whole range of shipping stakeholders and decision-makers for the reduction of shipping air emissions. According to the findings, economic incentives that provide motivation for the adoption of less environmentally damaging practices are the most commonly used initiative, followed by infrastructure investments and informative policies.

    The results provide implications for further research that include an in-depth analysis of ports’ policies, as well as an evaluation of initiatives applied on a large scale to map their emissions reduction potential for shipping.

    The main contribution of this paper is the identification and analysis of all the diverse initiatives implemented globally in a comprehensive way and its dealing with air pollution from shipping as a whole.

  • 7.
    de Jong, Gerard
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Tavasszy, Lori
    Delft University of Technology.
    Ben-Akiva, Moshe
    MIT.
    Recent developments in national and international freight transport models within Europe2013In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 347-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The past decade has seen many new freight transport models for use in transport planning by public authorities. Some of these models have developed new concepts, such as logistics modules, inclusion of transshipments, storage and sourcing and the determination of shipment size.

    This paper provides a review of the European literature on freight transport models that operate at the national or international level and have been developed since 2004. The introduction of elements of logistics thinking is identified as a common theme in recently developed models, and further worked out. Furthermore, ideas on what might be the next key developments in freight transport modelling are presented.

  • 8.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys av rundvirkestransporter med 90-tonslastbilar: delprojekt inom Sammodalitetsprojektet2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to make a cost benefit analysis, showing how costs for truck transports of round wood would change if vehicles with a total weight of 90 tonnes were used instead of the 60-tonne vehicles that are currently in use. The analysis has two parts. First, costs per vehicle kilometre are presented for both vehicle sizes. This gives a good general view but does not take into account the various conditions with regard to road type, etcetera, that affect costs. Neither does it take into account that the amount of vehicle kilometres associated with round wood transports changes if larger vehicles are allowed. Therefore a scenario analysis is also performed. The basis for this analysis is simulations using the Swedish transport and logistics system Samgods. Flow estimates from Samgods are combined with road attribute data from the national road database (NVDB) to compute the total transport cost, including externalities. In these computations road type and other situation specific factors are taken into account. The scenario analysis is summarized by the total annual cost for road transports of round wood in Sweden. Due to the simulations the amount of vehicle kilometres are reduced by 21 percent if 60-tonne vehicles are replace by 90-tonne vehicles, given that the capacity of bridges is left without regard. In socioeconomic terms this equals cost reduction of 4 per cent of 163 million Swedish crowns annually. It should be kept in mind, though, that costs for improving bridge capacity, which is required for this scenario to be realized, are not included in the analysis. When 90-tonne vehicles are not allowed to pass bridges with limited bearing capacity, larger vehicles do not generally improve efficiency. There are however some important round wood transport routes where larger vehicles are possible to use without any measures to improve bridges.

  • 9. Jansson, Kjell
    et al.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    McDaniel, John
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Analys av konkurrensfrågor inom den långväga persontransportmarknaden med hjälp av simuleringsprogrammet VIPS1998Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Karlsson, Rune
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Trafikanalys.
    An outline for a validation database for SAMGODS2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new Swedish national goods transportation model, SAMGODS, has been developed through collaboration among Swedish transport authorities. As the model recently has begun to be applied to real world problems, the need for a validation database has increased. The purpose of such a database is to facilitate validations of the model. The current paper presents a pilot study to create a validation database for SAMGODS. The study focuses on two areas: available data sources that may provide validation data, and how to carry out the validation in practice. The latter is of particular importance since a large number of practical problems arise when matching SAMGODS output data with the validation data. Worth mentioning among the problems that arise are: the inhomogeneous structure of the data tables, the often differing aggregation levels between model output data and validation data, differing time periods, differing systems for commodity groups and elasticities not being immediately available from the SAMGODS data. Other complicating issues are handling of confidential data and the large quantities of data. In this report, a relatively detailed proposal for the design of a validation database is put forward. However, the proposed design is not limited to SAMGODS output data, but it is hoped to be sufficiently flexible to comprise also other goods transportation data from future regional or local models. One of the main ideas in designing the database has been to develop a uniform and flexible data table format in which all relevant data can be stored. This format greatly facilitates the matching between SAMGODS output data and the validation data. Other problems and associated possible solutions are thoroughly discussed.

  • 11.
    Karlsson, Rune
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Trafikanalys.
    Söderbaum, Fredrik
    Trafikanalys.
    Ado, Abboud
    Trafikanalys.
    Larsson-Wijk, Pia
    SWECO.
    Christian Udin, Udin
    SWECO.
    Valideringsverktyg och valideringsdata till godsmodeller2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with questions concerning validation of the Swedish national goods transportation model, Samgods. To some degree, also more general issues of validation are discussed. When developing transportation models it is essential to have independent data available that can be used for comparison, validation and calibration. The quality and availability of such data are obvious issues. It is a big advantage if these data cover many different aspects of the model results and are collected on a regular basis. In the report, a survey of data sources useful for validation purposes is presented. For each source of data, quality and availability is discussed. For statistical data, the method for collecting the data is described in some detail as well as uncertainties and access to the data that may be restricted due to privacy regulations. A special section in the report is devoted to investigating if present day intelligent transport systems (ITS) can provide data for validation purposes. Once the compilation of validation data is completed, many problems remain concerning the validation. In particular, there is a matching problem between the model output data and validation data. The many different table formats and aggregation levels for the data add to the complexity of this problem. A similar, but easier, problem is to compare output data from different versions of Samgods. Within the project a computer program has been developed that can be used for matching such kinds of datasets. The program, as well as a user manual for it, is included in the report.

  • 12.
    Krüger, Niclas A.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Precautionary and operative costs of freight train delays: a case study of a Swedish grocery company2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited knowledge about the valuation of reduced transport time variability for freight transports. This paper analyses a Swedish grocery company’s transports by shuttle train, as a case study. The distribution of the train arrival time is analyzed; it is shown that the 10 per cent worst delays contribute to more than half of the total train delays. Type and amount of the firm’s precautionary and operative costs are identified and calculated. It is shown that it is possible to get estimates for the cargo component of the VTTV (Value of Transport Time Variability) valid for the specific company based on the precautionary costs, the operative costs for delays and for the costs for cancellations separately or in combination. Further case studies are advocated in order to cover the whole freight transport market and study the differences between different segments of the market.    

  • 13.
    Krüger, Niclas A
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Fakhraei Roudsari, Farzad
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Spatial, Temporal and Size Distribution of Freight Train Delays: Evidence from Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how freight train delays are distributed with respect to size, location and time of their occurrence. Arrival delays are analyzed in detail using data covering all freight train departures and arrivals during 2008 and 2009 in Sweden. Moreover, the link between capacity usage and expected delay is analyzed using the fact that demand fluctuates on different time scales, especially due to the economic chock in 2009. Since the distribution of delays on different scales describe reliability and vulnerability in the rail transport system, the results have potentially important policy implications for rail investment appraisal

  • 14.
    Krüger, Niclas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jong, Gerard de
    Significance, Den Haag.
    Halse, Askill
    Transportøkonomisk Institutt, TØI.
    Killi, Marit
    Transportøkonomisk Institutt, TØI.
    Value of freight time variability reductions: results from a pilot study performed on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unreliable rail transports are the main contributor to the transport time variability. The Swedish Transport Administration registered around 40 000 delay hours in 2012, which corresponds roughly to 20 million tonne-delay-hours, given that 500 tonnes per train is assumed to be the average load. This figure is 10 times higher than the corresponding figure for road transports. Information about the reliability of the rail transports and how different policy measures influence i.e. the number and length of delays and or the risks for delays has been limited. The former has been improved in recent years but the latter is still a problem. The lack of underlying data is one reason why the recommended Value of reduced transport time variability (VTTV) have only been applied in a few rail infrastructure projects. Nevertheless, the industry complains about the extensive problems caused by train delays or cancellations and that the reduction of these problems is not taken into account in a proper way in the cost benefit analyses (CBA). Another question that is debated is how much more high value products would be transported by rail if the rail transports would be more reliable. The value of the outgoing goods transported by road (SEK 9.5 per kg) is about three times the value of the outgoing goods transported by rail or rail in combination with other modes (SEK 3.7 per kg). The Transport Administration are aware of the shortcomings and has among others funded this pilot study that studies different approaches to calculate the VTTV for the cargo transported. The following parts were carried out in the pilot study: • Part One presents the Stated preference studies (SP-studies) to calculate VTTS (Value of Transport Time Savings) and VTTV that have been carried out recently in The Netherlands and Norway. Part One also discusses to what extent the VTTV calculated in the Dutch and Norwegian SP-studies can be transferred to Sweden. It is shown that the VTTV calculated in the Dutch and Norwegian SP-studies in principle can be transferred to Sweden. However, empirical studies that are adjust with respect to the commodity mix, the transport distances, level of congestion etc. in Sweden are needed. • In Part Two three alternative approaches to calculate VTTV for Swedish rail freight transports are demonstrated, that to the best of our knowledge have not been implemented before o Precautionary costs approach, o COOP case study, o Stock market approach. The report includes a table that summarizes VTTV for goods carried by rail, calculated using the different approaches.

  • 15.
    Landergren, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Berglund, Moa
    WSP.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Persson, Christer
    WSP.
    Waidringer, Jonas
    Logistic Landscapers.
    Andersson, Matts
    WSP.
    Flodén, Jonas
    Handelshögskolan vid Göteborgs Universitet.
    VTTV – Value of Transport Time Variability: Method development and synthesis. Value transfer, measurements, and decomposition of VTTV2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transporttidsvinster (TTS) och minskad transporttidsvariation (TTV) för gods-och passagerartrafik är viktiga nyttoposter i de samhällsekonomiska kalkylerna inom transportsektorn. Ett av antagandena som behöver göras är den monetära värderingen av TTS och TTV – VTTS och VTTV. Resenärers värderingar av dessa mått baseras oftastpå SP-studier (Stated Preference). VTTS för godstrafik baseras på kostnaden för kapitalbindningen i, och därmed värdet av, godset. I nuläget antas VTTV vara lika med det dubbla VTTS. Transportörers nyttor av minskad transporttid och transporttidsvariation beräknas som en del av transportkostnaderna (i andra poster i kalkylen). Detta projekt fokuserar på VTTV för godstransporter.

    Den här rapporten består av två delar. Kapitel 2, som är skrivet av WSP, Handelshögskolan vid Göteborgs Universitet och Logistics Landscapers, beskriver WP 4 som handlar om vilket mått som ska användas för transporttidens variation, vilka delar VTTV består av samt härleder en matematisk modell för att beräkna VTTV.

    Syftet med WP 4 var ursprungligen att kartlägga och utvärdera olika mått för transporttidsvariationen (TTV). Med mått menas enheten som används för att kvantifiera variationen, som exempelvis standardavvikelsen eller den genomsnittliga förseningen. En litteraturstudie har genomförts där använda mått i 22 tidigare samhällsekonomiska studier i Sverige ochutomlands listas. En slutsats av litteraturstudien är att många olika mått använts, vilka kan kategoriseras under

    • Standardavvikelse
    • Spridning (ofta i form av skillnad mellan percentiler)
    • Andel av sändningar som är försenade
    • Genomsnittlig försening (om försenad)

    Fördelar och nackdelar med de olika måtten diskuteras. En annan slutsats är att valet av mått sällan diskuteras i de genomgångna studierna, utan man verkar ha valt ett mått som passar undersökningsmetoden. Vidare har det undersökts om det används mått inom logistikbranschen som skulle kunna passa TTV inom samhällsekonomin. Slutsatsen är att dessa mått (eller indikatorer) är framtagna med andra syften och för användning på mikronivå (företag eller enskilda transportkedjor) vilket gör det svårt att tillämpa dem på makronivå. Dock finns ett behov av mått på en mesonivå som gör det möjligt att analysera förändringar i transportsystemet ur båda perspektiv – samhällets och enskilda aktörers.

  • 16.
    Lindgren, Samuel
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vad styr valet av trafikslag för godstransporter?: en kunskapsöversikt2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to compile and assess the research and knowledge base with regards to what determines the choice of mode from a business perspective. The literature review is based on grey research and scientific articles within transport economics and logistics.

    The literature identifies a range of factors that can potentially affect the decision-makers in their choice of transport mode. The factors that are reviewed in this survey are those that commonly occur within the literature and often deemed the most relevant.

    First, the influence of shipment attributes (value, damage sensitivity, time sensitivity, weight, density and volume) and transport distance are discussed. Surveys and behavioural studies show how the competitiveness of the transport modes depend on shipment attributes and transport distance. For certain shipments, the distance class and commodity type are such that it is only realistic to use a specific mode. Other factors that usually matter for the choice of mode will have little impact on the choice. The exact size of the contestable market is hard to measure, but it is likely that for a significant part of the goods flows on the freight transport market it is only realistic to use one specific transport mode.

    Second, the review analyses how the choice of mode is influenced by modal characteristics (transport cost, transport time, reliability, shipment frequency and damage risk). The importance of these characteristics vary across decision-makers, partly according to transport distance and commodity class, but is generally relatively low. In other words, the propensity to switch transport mode as modal characteristics change is relatively low. This may be due to the effects only measuring the impact in the short and medium term, that they are based on changes in a single factor holding other determinants constant or that the analysis miss how decision-makers actually weigh in modal characteristics in their choice of transport mode.

    Third, the review discusses how the firms’ choice of distribution and production strategies entails possibilities and limits for its choice of transport mode. This analysis identifies multiple factors that tend to facilitate the choice of multimodal transport chains and direct rail or sea transports. These factors mitigate the effect of multimodal transports’ disadvantages or facilitate the utilization of its advantages. Generally, this entails promoting shipments of larger volumes and economies of scale that can be utilized by rail and sea transports.

    Fourth, the transport contract and the relationship between buyers and sellers of transport services are investigated. The contract can facilitate or limit the choice of transport mode by distributing risk and limit the way the firms can perform their operations. A close cooperation between transport buyers and transport companies can make the parties more aware of this possibilities and problems that the transport solution entails.

  • 17.
    Lindé, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    An evaluation of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues in Sweden 1998–20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to present and analyze the development of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues in Sweden and the impacts of the system. A system differentiated for sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) was introduced in 1998. The implementation of the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) stricter SOx requirements in the Baltic and North Sea areas in 2015 made the SOx differentiation obsolete. In 2018 the system was replaced by a new fee system with different differentiation.

    The Swedish Maritime Administration (SMA) is responsible for determining and collecting the fairway dues and is also dependent on this income as an important source of funding for its activities. The amounts to be paid and the emission levels that are necessary to be eligible for a certificate that entitles discounts are stated in the SMA’s regulations on fairway dues. These regulations have changed over the years and to give an overview of these changes a presentation of regulations and found amendments is provided.

    Except for some early studies evaluating the first few years of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues, little has been done to evaluate the impact of the policy instrument that was in place for 20 years. The information found in previous studies, annual reports and available data provided by the SMA is compiled and analyzed to present the impacts of the fairway dues from 1998 to 2017.

    The numbers and characteristics of vessels with SOx and NOx reduction certificates are compiled from several sources. Abatement techniques and costs are discussed. Available estimates of reduced emissions from certified vessels are presented and analyzed. As far as possible, the costs and benefits for society of reduced emissions are compared and the contribution to fulfillment of environmental objectives is discussed. More emphasis is placed on the NOx differentiation since problems with high levels of NOx emissions remain whereas SOx emissions have declined substantially in the Baltic Sea, especially since the implementation of stricter IMO requirements.

  • 18.
    Lindé, Tobias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Cullinane, Kevin
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Evaluating the effects of Sweden's environmentally differentiated fairway dues2019In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 70, p. 77-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    • Evaluation of a globally unique system of environmentally differentiated fairway dues.
    • The evolution of the system and its effects are analyzed.
    • Emissions reductions achieved and associated abatement costs are estimated.
    • Costs and benefits for society are compared.
    • Abatement costs for both SOx and NOx substantially lower than value to society.
  • 19.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Freight transport, policy instruments and climate2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of policy instruments supposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from road freight transports may seem smaller than expected. Using insights from economics and contract theory, the paper sorts out the (possible) instances of market failure in the freight transport market; operator market power, asymmetric information split incentives, and public goods. The primary limitations of standard policy instruments are demonstrated to be linked to unobservable information. Some of these may be reduced but not eliminated as information technologies develop, making it possible to observe, verify and provide contract-relevant information to the uninformed parties. There is little reason to believe that possible market failures present major limitations to the efficiency of economic instruments geared toward protecting the climate, other than possibly in the short run.

  • 20.
    Meersman, Hilde
    et al.
    University of Antwerp.
    Ehrler, Verena Charlotte
    DLR Institute of Transport Research.
    Bruckmann, Dirk
    Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences.
    Chen, Ming
    TNO Transport and Mobility.
    Francke, Jan
    KiM Netherlands Institute for Transport.
    Hill, Peter
    Trafikverket.
    Jackson, Clare
    IVT Institute for Transport Planning and Systems.
    Klauenberg, Jens
    DLR Institute of Transport Research.
    Kurowski, Martin
    DLR Institute of Transport Research.
    Seidel, Saskia
    DLR Institute of Transport Research.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Challenges and future research needs towards international freight transport modelling2016In: Case Studies on Transport Policy, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2213-6258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advanced internationalisation of markets and production processes continuously adds to the complexity of supply chains. At the same time improving the sustainability of the related international freight transport processes and optimising their efficiency is becoming a topic of central relevance. International freight transport models are an important tool to simulate impacts of measures taken to achieve such improvements of transport processes. Yet, the requirements towards international freight transport models are complex: they need to include various modes of transport, they need to cover different industries and their dynamics, they need to consider seasonality of supply and demand of goods, demographic parameters, economic developments, technological developments including their impact on production processes and structures, and many other aspects. Furthermore, international freight transport models need to include freight flows within countries as well as freight flows between the considered countries.

    This paper discusses the challenges which need to be confronted when developing international freight transport models which are able to correspond to the described complexity of international freight transport. Furthermore, it maps out the most important research gaps which need to be addressed by international freight transport modelling research in order to ensure that the challenges identified are captured within the models developed to improve international freight transport.

  • 21.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Uppdaterad analys av transporteffekter av IMO:s skärpta emissionskrav: modellberäkningar på uppdrag av Sjöfartsverket2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has been commissioned by the Swedish Maritime Administration (SMA) to analyze the impact of the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) more stringent sulfur regulations, which will enter into force in 2015 in the Sulphur Emission Control Area (SECA) which includes North Sea, Baltic Sea and the English Channel. A similar analysis was conducted in 2009, but an update has been justified (due to that) since there is new information available and that the implementation is approaching. The current analysis is based on three investigation scenarios, selected by the SMA. These scenarios are simulated in the national freight model Samgods (test version of the new Samgods model), which is a cost minimizing model. An earlier version of Samgods was used in the analysis in 2009.

  • 22.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Internalisation of external effects in European freight corridors2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project was conducted upon a request from the Swedish Agency for Transport Analysis (Trafikanalys), with a governmental assignment to annually report the rate of internalisation per mode for passenger and freight transports. In its 2013 report, the Agency wishes to show examples of how the marginal costs and the internalising taxes and fees vary within and between European countries. With this background, VTI was given the assignment to analyse ten freight routes in Europe within the Narvik (Norway)–Naples (Italy), and Oslo (Norway)– Rotterdam (the Netherlands) corridors. The corridors were stated in the assignment from the Transport Analysis Agency. During the project, two reference group meetings were held with the following participants: Kenneth Wahlberg (Swedish Transport Administration), Stefan Back (TransportGruppen), Katarina Handel (Swedish Maritime Administration), Gunnar Eriksson (Transport Analysis), Rein Juriado (Vinnova) and Anders Ljungberg (our Transport Analysis contact). Further, Glenn Hakansson (former truck driver) helped out in selecting the routes for the road transports. The authors would like to thank all participants for their helpful comments.

  • 23.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Allocation of user benefits for international freight transports: in cost-benefit analysis2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to analyse when, if and how a transport cost reduction, following an infrastructure investment affecting international freight transports, should be allocated between countries in a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). In order to analyse this question, the project has been split into two stages. This first stage aims at presenting a more general picture of how the user benefits could be allocated according to the scientific literature, how recommendations on this issue are designed in other countries CBA guidelines, and whether this issue is treated in the planning process of transnational infrastructure projects. The available, but scarce, scientific literature indicates that the allocation of user benefits can have substantial effects on the profitability of infrastructure measures. Having studied CBA guidelines and CBAs of transnational infrastructure projects, the conclusion from our study is that to our knowledge, no other country has a well-founded allocation method that could be implemented in Sweden. Finally, the literature does not offer any strong recommendations or straightforward theoretical methods, with the exception of a first suggestion by Fosgerau and Buus Kristensen (2005).

  • 24.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Internalisation of External Effects in European Freight Corridors2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    External effects or externalities “consist of the costs and benefits felt beyond or ‘external to’ those causing the effect” (Anderson, 2006). In the case of transportation, the negative externalities (costs) can take the form of air pollution, noise and accidents. Since external effects do not have a market price, external effects are a form of market failure.Wear and tear of the infrastructure isexternal to individual drivers andoperators,and thus also includedin the analysis.

    External costs can be internalised in various ways e.g. through regulatory measures, technological development or taxes and charges. Some forms of taxation are more effective than others in internalising costs. For example, fuel tax is effective in reducing CO2emissions as it will tend to promote technological change to reduce emissions per kilometre travelled as well as reducing the kilometres driven. A fixed, undifferentiated annual tax on owning a vehicle will, on the other hand, be ineffective in relation to reducing CO2emissions. While it will have some impact on reducing vehicle ownership (and thus indirectly vehicle use), it will not affect kilometres driven by individual vehicles. In this paper the focus is on the “rate of internalisation”. This term is used to describe to what extent the marginal external costs, based on existing regulations and technology (e.g. the European Emission Trading Scheme and emissions classes for road vehicles), are compensated for through charges or taxes. Internalisation at a certain time is thus expressed as the ratio between average charges and taxes on the one hand, and marginal external costs on the other. In this case, a full rate of internalisation would imply that the transport companies are fully charged for the marginal negative effects caused by their transport. If the ratio is below 1, the taxes and charges levied are lower than the existing marginal external costs to society, i.e. there is an under-internalisation.

    The aim of this project is to study the rate of internalisation of external effects through taxes and charges in two European freight corridors during 2012; for road, rail, and sea transport, respectively.The study is based on two presumed freight corridors, between Norway (Narvik) and Italy(Naples), and between Norway (Oslo) and the Netherlands (Rotterdam).

    The analysis is further differentiated on a national level, where each country constitutes one segment of the transport.

  • 25.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Regress - en god idé i järnvägssektorn?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has been commissioned to analyze the preconditions for, and possible consequences of introducing the possibility of regress in the railway industry. Regress refers to the possibility of anyone that is stricken by financial consequences of train delays caused by someone else, to reclaim these costs. Introducing a system of this nature would not increase costs to the industry but would transfer costs to the culpable party. To the extent that operators and the infrastructure holder adjusts the way in which activities are implemented, the risk for delays may shrink which in the long run may reduce prices and tariffs. A substantial part of the report is spent on the systems currently in place for registering delays and their consequences. It is demonstrated that the infrastructure holder runs a sophisticated system of this nature. The shortcomings of this system, which includes quality problems with registering the cause of delays and in particular shortcomings with respect to the possibility to register trains that are cancelled an/or rerouted, will most probably have to be rectified irrespective of the presence of a system with regress. The data collection system would then be appropriate also for handling regress. Most delays are small, resulting in limited consequences only for affected parties. The consequences of few major disturbances may however, be substantial, but it has not been feasible to make cost estimates of these costs.

  • 26.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Fungerar godstransportmarknaden effektivt?: ekonomisk analys av energieffektivisering av godstransporter2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large share of Sweden’s aggregate use of energy is used in the transport sector, a third of which is used for freight transport purposes. Excluding the recent downturn in the business cycle, traffic and therefore also the use of energy, increases year by year. Against this background the present report provides a qualitative discussion of three aspects of the market for freight transport which may indicate that this development is not compatible with an efficient use of resources. A first possible reason for the increase in traffic, and thereby the increasing use of energy and other resources, can be related to the external effects of heavy traffic. It is well known that heavy vehicles wear the roads down, that they generate accident risks noise and congestion and also that the use of fossil fuel results in emissions. There are no guarantees that the transport industry automatically takes these effects into account in their decision making. The use of economic instruments is one possibility for internalising these effects. The review however demonstrates that current charges on users of railway infrastructure as well as taxes on fuel are insufficient for representing these costs. Even with conservative assumption the fuel tax should be doubled while track user charges on freight should increase with even more. The report also comprises a discussion about whether other (potential) market failures may affect the growth of transport volumes. To the extent that a (transport) corporation is able to control the price on some part of the market, there may be reason to break up this (local) monopoly. But even if a monopoly would not be eliminated, there are few indications that a welfare enhancing policy – should it be implemented – would not reduce the use of energy. The risk is rather that an unrestricted monopoly would lead to too small transport volumes. The industry is characterised by specific contracts between buyers and sellers of transport services.

  • 27.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effekter av investeringar i transportinfrastrukturen: En översikt av tyskspråkig litteratur1994Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Erfarenheter av internationellt godsmodellarbete2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    National freight model development and application in Finland, Norway, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands and within the EU has been compiled. This has been done based on questions formulated by the Swedish government agency Transport Analysis. The questions address infrastructure planning, work with the freight models and current development. The responses for the other countries were compared to the Swedish situation, where the Swedish Transport Administration is responsible for the transport forecasts, cost benefit analysis and the development of methods and models.

    The review revealed several parallels in terms of need for analysis in the considered countries and the EU. The fact that the same types of fees and regulations are discussed is not surprising given that requirements are determined at the EU or global level. When it comes to infrastructure planning, different countries focus on different aspects according to their geographical location etc. All countries produce aggregated transport forecasts, however, not all countries have the same practice for detailed flow forecasts that are required for cost benefit analysis (to rank projects). In Finland, for example, there are no detailed transport forecasts for the whole country as in Norway and Sweden.

    Most of the input data used in the national freight models are derived from transport statistics and economic statistics that are EU-regulated. It is unique for Sweden that three national Commodity Flow Surveys have been carried out. This means more data are collected in Sweden than in most other countries. As we understood, however, the access to data for model development is not assured as before, when SIKA was responsible for both statistics and transport models.

  • 29.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Godstransporter i samhället - GODIS: ett temaprojekt vid VTI2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of the project Freight transport in society (GODIS) is to formulate a basis for a research and development (R&D) program at VTI. The report is based on six areas: (1) Estimation of marginal external costs and design of policy measures. (2) Transport demand models. (3) Socio-economic calculations. (4) Competition and financing. (5) Local and regional transport. (6) Consequence analysis. The assessment of the future need for R&D is based on today's problems, trends, R&D programs, interviews and own assessments. We choose a subjective approach that is mainly based on the authors' experience in transport analyses and investigations. It is remarkable that knowledge about volume and structure of freight transport and the possibilities to influence transport are limited despite of the importance of transport as part of the economy and that it causes large problems for society. Politics are to a high degree made at an European level. One consequence is that it is becoming more important to adapt to the directives of the European Union (EU) than to develop national policies. Also within R&D, it is more important to relate to European recommendations. There is also a need to develop cross-border tools for analysis. We derive the following conclusions for the issues above: (1) The design of infrastructure fees, their interplay with other policy measures and impacts inside and outside the transport sector have to be studied further. (2) Long term relations between freight transport and the rest of the economy (incl. needs for regional disaggregations and dynamic models). (3) Principles for cross-border and intermodal freight transport, calculation values and impact relationships require development. (4) The question to what extent competition between transport solutions and operators is effective has to be studied further. (5) General tools have to be adopted and specific measures developed at the local and regional level. (6) The access to data is a precondition for R&D and other analyses and investigations in the sector.

  • 30.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Koncept: Godstransportcentrum Güterverkehrszentrum (GVS) - idé, planer och erfarenheter i olika tyska städer1993Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Organization of pilot and icebreaking in the Nordic countries and update of the external costs of sea transports in Sweden: a report in SAMKOST 32018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government has commissioned VTI to review current knowledge of the external costs for all modes of transport. This report is the third part of the government commission (Samkost 3), it addresses sea transports where the access to data and the knowledge level is generally lower than for the land-based modes. One finding in the government commission 2016 (Samkost 2) was that the possibilities to apply the external cost estimates for pricing are rather limited in the existing organizational structures. This report comprises two parts. Part 1 addresses the organization models of piloting and icebreaking in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The Nordic countries have chosen different organization models to provide these services that can influence the capacity and service levels, the cost structure, the cost effectiveness and the pricing of the services. Part 2 updates the costs of pilot and icebreaking services and the external costs related to traffic safety, greenhouse gases and air pollution caused by sea transports in Swedish waters from Samkost 2 (2014 prices and valuations) to Samkost 3 (2017 prices and valuations). The calculated total external costs per year are lower in Samkost 3 than in Samkost 2: about five percent in the low alternative and about ten percent in the high alternative. This implies that the internalization is about 100 percent which is higher than in Samkost 2. The external costs caused by the transports in international waters are probably are internalized to a low extent and national and international policies are needed to reach e.g. national and international climate objectives.

  • 32.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Samhällsekonomiskt underlag för hamnpolitiken2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report contains a review of the transport policy issues and the economic literature relating to ports, including connections on the seaward and landward side. The prerequisites for a efficient port policy are discussed as well as the supporting documentation needed and sought after and the extent to which the literature provides answers to the policy issues. The emphasis is on Sweden and the EU. Policy issues and the literature are analysed on the basis of four areas: 1) control of ports, 2) regulation policy with respect to competition, 3) investment policy and 4) pricing. The review shows that there are unresolved policy issues. Academic research takes up many issues of relevance for port policy, although it is often processes rather than scientific articles that lead to answers to the issues. Many findings are situation-specific and there are few comparative studies. Research contributions come from the whole world, although the number of contributions from Swedish and Nordic researchers and studies of Sweden/the Nordic countries is limited. In the case of Sweden, a need has been identified to develop intermodal social cost-benefit analyses. Competition-related issues reoccur in several of the policy areas examined. We therefore also see a need to analyse competition in the different markets.

  • 33.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Sammanfattning av resultat, erfarenheter och lärdomar från ELVIS demonstrationsprojekt för längre och tyngre tåg2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ELVIS demonstration project aims to analyze how rail freight transports can be performed more efficient. Hypotheses are that the transport efficiency can be improved by using longer and heavier freight trains and by implementing energy-related measures, and that there may be additional benefits for the firms and the whole society such as better utilization of the track capacity. This report summarizes the results and experiences from the three previously produced sub reports. The first sub report contains an inventory of the previously conducted investigations and trials with longer and heavier freight trains. The second sub report describes the current conditions and evaluates the use of a 730 meter long train (instead of the current maximum train length of 630 meters) for the transport of paper rolls about 900 kilometers from Gävle to Malmö. The third sub report refers to timber transports on rail. The experiment with higher axle loads could not be implemented as planned. Instead it was tested how the electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer can be reduced by using longer trains (18 instead of 16 cars) on the about 200 kilometres long route between Mora and Gävle. In terms of both energy efficiency and overall efficiency for the rail transports researchers, companies and the Transport Administration concluded that there is a big need to secure the quality secure the data that is produced. This applies to information about electricity consumption and the factors that possibly affect electricity consumption per (gross) tonne-kilometer, i.e. the train length, the gross weight of the train, number of stops, speed, the driving style, topography and so on. The ELVIS project initiated a follow-up project that aims to compile and analyze the Transport Administration’s various databases in this area. The project will provide answers to questions such as what data the various databases contain, how data is collected and stored, for what purpose the data is collected and used, the extent to which data is quality assured and how data from different databases can be linked together.

  • 34.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Sjöfartens policyrelevanta samhällsekonomiska marginalkostnader2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to identify and as far as possible, quantify the policy-relevant (external) short-term marginal social costs of the use of the national maritime infrastructure and the external costs that maritime transport cause. The (internal) marginal costs of personnel, fuel, depreciation, etcetera are not calculated.

    The marginal social costs related to the maintenance of the fairways and congestion are assessed to be negligible and knowledge regarding noise and other marine external costs are considered too limited to be able to quantify the relevant marginal social costs. The marginal social costs related to piloting and icebreaking are based on data from the Maritime Administration for 2014 (piloting), and 2010−2015 (icebreaking). The marginal social costs of air pollution (at the regional level) caused by passenger and cargo ships as well as pilot boats and icebreakers, have been derived by calculating the fuel consumption and the amount of emissions and applying the Impact Pathway approach. The costs of greenhouse gases are, as for the other modes of transport, based on Carlén (2014). The calculation of the marginal social costs of accidents is based on the Swedish Transport Agency’s accident database for the period 1985−2014 and the monetary values of deaths and injuries recommended by the Swedish CBA guidelines. Different needs for development are identified.

    The Maritime Administration’s revenues of pilot fees and fairway dues in 2014, cover 76 percent, respective 90 percent of the calculated marginal social costs of pilotage, icebreaking, accidents, air pollution (at the regional level) and greenhouse gases. We see a need to study in detail how the cost estimates can be used to make the policy measures for maritime transport and in the entire transport sector more efficient.

  • 35.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Uppföljning av avregleringen av godstrafiken på järnväg2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden, Germany, Great Britain and the Netherlands were among the first EU countries that deregulated their rail freight markets in the mid-1990s. In 2007 the international rail freight market was opened. Given that all EU countries have committed themselves to deregulate their rail markets both the Swedish and European perspective are addressed.

    The analysis of the Swedish market has been carried out by analyzing research and investigating reports, statistics, operators' annual reports and interviews. The limited review for the other countries is based solely on literature and statistics.

    The market has been positively affected, although there are not several equal players. Real and threatening competition has contributed to improved cost efficiency and innovations. From about 2004, the market has become more international. It is necessary to analyze trends in various submarkets. The newly established operators run exclusively combined road/rail transports and system-transport, i. e. separated flows with relatively low risk levels. There are no major barriers to competition on the Swedish rail freight market. Several obstacles are related to cross-border transports. A major consolidation is going on the rail freight market. There is reason to follow up the development in the market for rail freight traffic in Sweden and in Europe.

  • 36.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utveckling av infrastruktur på kontinenten1994Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Vad skulle en likabehandling av transportslagen innebära för näringslivets transportval: exemplifiering för några varuslag och relationer2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In CTS Working Paper 2011:14 it is shown that the balance between road, rail and sea transports for long distance freight transports in, to and from Sweden in 2015/16 would shift in favour of road transports. The result follows the prediction that the sea transport costs increase slightly less than rail transport costs if the government gives all modes an equal liability for external costs and applies the same funding model for all modes. The current report analyses based on a literature review and interviews with shippers how the changed transport costs would influence mode choice. It is shown that the companies are price sensitive, independently of the mode of transport. The transport costs (per tonkm) for sea and rail are low when economies of scale are realised. But there is a trade-off between low transport costs and high frequencies. Transport chains that make use of economies of scale for sea and rail transports often contrast to “small scale chains” that go via the nearest port. The role of the forwarders is crucial when it comes to transport solutions that affect several shippers as consolidation of goods volumes or usage of unbalanced flows. Preferences to change to other modes differ between different sectors and between inbound and outbound transports etc. The overall picture is that shippers and forwarders’ preference to use sea transports instead of land transports is limited. The existence of economies of scale in different parts of the transport system and the shippers’ demand of many departures can be seen as hinder for small scale sea transports through the many ports on the Swedish coastline.

  • 38.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Valuation of transport time savings and improved reliability in freight transport CBA2013In: Freight Transport Modelling / [ed] Moshe Ben-Akiva, Hilde Meersman, Eddy Van de Voorde, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013, 1, p. 299-318Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to show how freight transport time savings (VTTS) and reduced variability in transport time (VTTV) are valuated in cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and to discuss alternatives. The chapter suggests a structure of the benefit components where VTTS compromises the reduction in (a) transport resources required for a given service VTTS (T), (b) capital tied up in goods while transported VTTS (G) and (c) goods users' opportunity costs VTTS (O). VTTV (T) and (b) users' opportunity costs VTTV (O).

    Normative and behavioral approaches are applied to determine VTTS and VTTV. The VTTS definition differs between countries: Sweden, Norway, Germany and the United Kingdom calculate VTTS (T) based on market prices, the Netherlands use an all encompassing VTTS derived from SP data. Sweden and Norway are the only countries that use VTTS to denote only VTTS (G). Only the Netherlands, Sweden, and Norway apply preliminary VTTV in their CBA.

    Different VTTS and VTTV constructions make the transfer of results difficult. It is found that the savings in transport resource costs VTTS (T) can be calculated with help of engineering formulae. Provided that the VTTS can be limited to VTTS (G), where market-based approaches can be used, and VTTS (O). The incorporation of VTTV in CBA requires further development of the valuation methods. The use of information of the trade-off between transport costs and inventory costs is one promising approach. Hopefully lessons can be learned from the Dutch and Norwegian SP studies for VTTS and VTTV. A better understanding of the opportunity costs is needed.

  • 39.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Värdering av minskad transporttid och minskad variation i transporttid för godstransporter: förstudie2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This pre-study on behalf of the Swedish Road and Rail Administrations addresses the values for time savings and improved reliability in freight transport in the cost benefit analyses (CBA). - Values of transport time savings (VTTS)' are assumed to be related to a) shorter use of transport resources, b) less unproductive use of goods in transport, c) lower opportunity costs for example for standstill of production. "Value of transport time variability (VTTV) relates to a) reduction of transport resources required to ensure a given service level and b) reduced stocks or opportunity costs. Sweden appears to be the only country which uses VTTS to denote only the benefits related to goods. The analysis of actual Swedish investment calculations shows that industry's benefits related to VTTS and VTTV are not fairly treated. Recommendations to Swedish decision makers are: - to clarify the general structure of CBA in which estimates of VTTS and VTTV are used, - to use existing mechanisms in the Swedish logistics model to calculate transport demand and costs for the transport resources and to develop the missing mechanisms separately, - to perform Revealed Preference-studies, i.e. to analyse the possibilities to use data from the Swedish Commodity Flow Survey, - to carry out a thorough assessment of the coming Dutch Stated Preference-study, - to develop methods to valuate reliability, - to improve the knowledge about the components related to opportunity costs.

    Alternative URL: http://fudinfo.trafikverke t.se/fudinfoexternwebb/Publikationer/Publikationer_001201_001300/Publikation_001 206/R683.pdf

  • 40.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Värdering av tidsvinster och högre tillförlitlighet för godstransporter2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The working group for cost benefit analysis (CBA) guidelines in transport (ASEK 5) has asked VTI to propose research in the field of freight values of time and reliability in the longer term and to suggest value of time and reliability in the short term. This report relates to the longer view, the short-term recommendations are reported in Annex 1. The project has been carried out by literature studies and through interviews with representatives for public agencies and researchers in Sweden and elsewhere.

  • 41.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Why do CO2 Emissions from Heavy Road Freight Transport Increase in Spite of Higher Fuel Prices?2016In: Energy and Environment, Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2016, p. 259-276Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter analyzes why CO2 emissions from heavy road freight transports increase in spite of higher fuel prices. Swedish time series data for 1990-2011 are analyzed with the help of indicators. The logistic efficiency and the energy efficiency improved, especially in the 1990s due to the allowance of heavier trucks. Since then, no major efficiency gains have been realized. Potentially cost-effective technologies exist but technical, institutional and financial barriers reduce the incentives for the transport firms to implement these.

    Split incentives caused by contract structures or ownership patterns can impede the employment of the technologies. If fuel savings are realized, rebound effects can appear that cancel out improved energy efficiency. Deeper knowledge of the impacts of policy measures is required in order to understand why CO2 emissions increase despite increased fuel prices. A better understanding of the model simplifications in the Swedish national model Samgods is also needed, as well as an analysis of what is required to better mirror the contracts that exist.

  • 42.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Why do CO2 emissions from heavy road freight transports increase in spite of higher fuel prices?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses why CO2 emissions from heavy road freight transports increase in spite of higher fuel prices. Swedish time series data for the period 1990-2011 are analyzed with help of indicators. The logistic efficiency of the road transports improved especially in the 1990-ties due to the allowance of heavier trucks. Also the energy efficiency increased during that period. Since then there have been improvements but no major efficiency gains have been realized. Today potentially cost effective technologies exist to further reduce the CO2 emissions from heavy road freight transport. However, technical, institutional and financial barriers reduce the incentives for the transport firms to imply these.

    Split incentives caused by contract structures or ownership patterns can impede the employment of these technologies, as the firms that invest in the technologies have little incentive to do so. If fuel savings are realized rebound effects can appear that cancel out improved energy efficiency. The internalisation of the social marginal costs can lead to modal shifts to less carbon intensive modes, but shippers minimize their total costs and take into account quality aspects when choosing transport solutions. There are obstacles for the increase of the share of non-fossil energies in form of access to raw material, infrastructure for vehicles that can use the alternative fuels etc. On the national and international road freight transport markets staff costs are often more important than taxes and fees.

  • 43.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Why do CO2 emissions from heavy road freight transports increase in spite of higher fuel prices?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses why CO2 emissions from heavy road freight transports increase in spite of higher fuel prices. Swedish time series data for 1990-2011 are analyzed with help of indicators. The logistic efficiency and the energy efficiency improved, especially in the 1990-ties due to the allowance of heavier trucks. Since then no major efficiency gains have been realized. Potentially cost effective technologies exist but technical, institutional and financial barriers reduce the incentives for the transport firms to imply these. Split incentives caused by contract structures or ownership patterns can impede the employment of the technologies. If fuel savings are realized rebound effects can appear that cancel out improved energy efficiency. Deeper knowledge of the impacts of policy measures is required in order to understand why CO2 emissions increase despite increased fuel prices. A better understanding of the model simplifications in the Swedish national model Samgods is also needed as well as an analysis of what is required to better mirror the contracts that we observe in reality.

  • 44.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Landergren, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Elanvändning för längre och tyngre tåg: sammanfattning av resultat, erfarenheter och lärdomar från ELVIS-demonstrationsprojekt2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ELVIS demonstration project aims to analyze how rail freight transports can be performed more efficiently. Hypotheses are that the transport efficiency can be improved by using longer and heavier freight trains and by implementing energy-related measures, and that there may be additional benefits for the companies and the society such as better utilization of the track capacity. This report summarizes the results and experiences from the three previously produced sub reports. In terms of both energy efficiency and overall efficiency for the rail transports researchers, companies and the Transport Administration concluded that there is a big need to secure the quality of the data that is produced. This applies to information about electricity consumption and the factors that possibly affect electricity consumption per (gross) tonne-kilometer, i.e. the train length, the gross weight of the train, number of stops, speed, the driving style, topography etc. The ELVIS project initiated a follow-up project that aims to compile and analyze the Transport Administration’s various databases in this area. The project will provide answers to questions such as what data the various databases contain, how data is collected and stored, for what purpose the data is collected and used, the extent to which data is quality assured and how data from different databases can be linked together. In the context of three case studies, Gävle-Malmö, Holmsund–Skövde och Mora-Gävle, several experiments with different explanatory variables were conducted. With regard to the different conditions and priorities in the case studies and experiments, it is difficult to make direct comparisons. Some general conclusions with respect to the use of electricity can be drawn, for example: • The trains’ weight (in tonnes) and length (number of wagons) affect the electricity consumption per tonne-kilometer in the trials where this is tested. • In some trials there is evidence that there are economies of scale, i.e. that the electricity consumption per tonne-kilometer decreases with increased train weight. • The train driver's driving style (feed back of electricity etc.) affects the energy consumption. This can be seen clearly in the trial Mora–Gävle.

  • 45.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Berell, Håkan
    McDaniel, John
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Långa och tunga lastbilars effekter på transportsystemet: redovisning av regeringsuppdrag2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige tillåts lastbilar i inrikestrafik som är upp till 25,25 meter långa och 60 ton tunga. Detta skiljer sig från EU-normen, där lastbilar som regel inte är längre än 18,75 meter och väger maximalt 40 ton. Näringsdepartementet har gett VTI i uppdrag att studera vilka samhällsekonomiska konsekvenser avvikelsen har medfört för Sverige samt beskriva konkurrensytan mellan väg- och järnvägstransporter. Effekterna på transportkostnader för näringslivet, avgas- och bulleremissioner, vägslitage, tidsfördröjning för bilister samt trafiksäkerheten har beräknats. En mycket stor andel av godstransporterna på väg utförs med fordon som överskrider EU-normen. Att krympa fordonsstorleken skulle leda till stora samhällsekonomiska förluster. Framför allt är det transportkostnaderna som ökar, men det skulle även uppkomma betydande kostnadsökningar inom områdena trafiksäkerhet, avgasemissioner och bulleremissioner. I utredningen konstateras att det är svårt, åtminstone på kort sikt, att åstadkomma överflyttningar mellan väg och järnväg. Detta beror delvis på att järnvägens kapacitet är högt utnyttjad.

  • 46.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Berell, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    McDaniel, John
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    The effects of long and heavy trucks on the transport system: report on a government assignment2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trucks up to 25.25 metres in length and weighing up to 60 tonnes are permitted in domestic traffic in Sweden. This deviates from the EU standard, according to which trucks are not to be longer than 18.75 metres or weigh more than 40 tonnes. The Swedish Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications has commissioned VTI to study what economic consequences this deviation has had for Sweden and to describe the competition interface between road and rail transport. The effects on transport costs for business, exhaust and noise emissions, road wear, time delay for motorists and road safety have been estimated. A very large proportion of freight transport by road takes place by vehicles that exceed the EU standard. Reducing vehicle size would lead to large economic losses. Transport costs would increase in particular, but significant cost increases would also occur in the areas of road safety, exhaust emissions and noise emissions. It is noted in the study that it is difficult, at least in the short term, to bring about transfers between road and rail. This is due, in part, to high rate of utilisation of the railway capacity.

  • 47.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Näringslivets perspektiv på Europeiska kommissionens förslag om TEN-T och Connecting Europe Facility: regeringsuppdrag2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The suggested guidelines for the proposed Trans European Network – Transport (TENT) comprise two levels: a comprehensive-network and a core network. The purpose of the networks is amongst others to offer infrastructure services that support user needs, are efficient, safe and sustainable, support the introduction of new technologies and bring Europe together.

    The Swedish government has commissioned the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) to analyze to what extent the proposed TEN-T corridors are consistent with the Swedish foreign trade flows and needs of the Swedish industry. VTI has carried out the project by compiling foreign trade statistics and the transport flows generated by the foreign trade as well as transport forecasts that have been carried out for Sweden and the Baltic Sea region. Furthermore, companies with large export and/or import flows have been interviewed about their views on the TEN-T proposal. VTI has also used the referral responses that the Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications received regarding the TEN-T proposal.

  • 48.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Abate, Megersa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Konkurrensyta land–sjö för svenska godstransporter2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims to investigate the competition between road and rail transports on one hand and the sea transports on the other. Shippers choose different unimodal or multimodal transport chains to carry various types of goods in, to and from Sweden. Transport prices are a key factor when choosing the transport chain. Sea transport prices are set on the world market and fluctuate more than prices for road and rail transports. Imbalances in transport flows also affect the intermodal competition, in particular for transports to/from mainland Europe. According to the statistics the modal split, measured in tonne-kilometers on Swedish territory (including a stretch along the coast) has been relatively constant since 1990. Nearly 40 percent of the tonne-kilometers are carried out by road, nearly 40 per cent by sea and a bit more than 20 per cent by rail. Sweden had so far by definition not inland waterway transports. Simulations with the national Swedish freight model Samgods with ten percent lower on-route costs for vessels indicate different adaptations for different commodity groups. The tonne-kilometers by sea performed on the Swedish territory are expected to increase by about two per cent if all 33 commodities are included. However, for Cement, lime and building materials and Pulp, paper and paper waste increases of almost ten percent are computed. On the other hand, no significant changes in demand are calculated for i.e. Crude oil, which is carried exclusively by sea today. As expected, more competition between the land-based modes and sea transports is calculated for international transports than for domestic transports. If all commodities are included, the largest increases for sea transports are calculated along the Eastern coast (southern part), the Southern coast and through the Kiel Canal. Sea transports are also calculated to increase along the coast in the North of Sweden and to/from Gothenburg on the Western coast. Reductions are expected to occur for both road and rail. The authors emphasize that the results should be seen as indicative.

  • 49.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Sowa, Victor
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Översiktlig strukturanalys för sjötransporter2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the report is to analyze trends and specific events that could affect trade flows, the transport system, the sea transport volumes and the fee revenues of the Swedish Maritime Administration in 2020. In three parts the researchers have described the developments that affect the revenues of the Swedish Maritime Administration. The first part discusses present trade flows and how these are expected to develop, the second part addresses the developments in the transport system and the third part the past development of loaded and unloaded tonnes goods and the number of calls in the Swedish ports and their expected continued development. Loaded and unloaded tonnes and number of calls are the basis for the fairway dues and pilot fees levied by the Swedish Maritime Administration and therefore linked to their revenues. The researchers reviewed the literature, compiled and analyzed historical data, carried out interviews with shippers from different industries and applied a simple statistical approach to forecast the development up to 2020. Both the interviews and the statistical approach suggest that the future of freight volumes in the Swedish ports will be roughly constant with current levels or slightly increasing. The number of calls in the ports is expected to decline to 2020.

  • 50.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Effects of Longer Lorries and Freight Trains in an International Corridor between Sweden and Germany2014In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 188-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of enabling the use of longer road vehicle combinations and/or longer trains in an intermodal freight corridor that extends from central Sweden to the Ruhr area in Germany are studied. Transports are designed based on the smallest vehicle dimensions in the transport chain, currently 18.75 m for trucks in Germany and 650 m for trains in Sweden. The question that is investigated is whether/how the transport system can be improved by using longer vehicles for road transports, rail transports or both. Ten scenarios are simulated with the help of the Swedish national freight model, Samgods. In Scenario Road 1 it is assumed that 25.25 m-long trucks are allowed on the entire road corridor (that also includes a ferry link). It is further assumed that the longer trucks can access the road corridor in Germany via terminals. In Scenario Rail 1, 750 m-long freight trains can be operated in the rail corridor that goes via Jutland/Denmark. In the combined Road 1 + Rail 1 scenario it is assumed that both longer trucks and longer trains can be used in the corridor. The effects on the freight flows, modal split, logistics costs and CO2 emissions are studied and rough socioeconomic analyses are carried out.

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