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  • 1.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Fotgängares värderingar av gångvägar2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this study is an inquiry by the Swedish Transport Administration to develop methods for benefit-cost analyses for pedestrians’ appraisals of their walking environment and how different improvements in the environment affect decisions to walk. The issues studied are: 1. What type of road do pedestrians prefer when they choose which route to walk? 2. What is the willingness to pay to get more attractive footpaths? 3. How many persons will start to walk if it is built more attractive footpaths? The third issue was unfortunately not possible to answer because of the low response rate in that part of the study. One result from the study is that individuals do not seem to prefer separated pedestrian and bicycle paths or completely secluded footpaths to the extent one might expect. The main thing seems to be that the walk takes place on a footpath of some sort and not along the roadside on a road with motor vehicles. The visibility seems to be very important for which route people choose to walk. Other attributes such as maintenance, distance to a road with motor vehicles and type of crossing was not nearly as important. Finally, it seems not impossible to investigate individuals' appraisals for various types of footpath attributes and choice of footpath using stated preference methodology. However, the interest in walking issues seems not to be high and many of the questions in the questionnaire seemed to be difficult to answer. To make it easier to clarify some of the ambiguities, future studies about pedestrian appraisals should involve some kind of interview methodology.

  • 2.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Life cycle assessment of a road investment: estimating the effect on energy use when building a bypass road2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the transport sector, major efforts have been concentrated on developing more fuel efficient engines and vehicles. However, the road infrastructure, its operation and maintenance also use energy and do have an effect on traffic fuel consumption and emissions. The objective of this study is to estimate the total energy use in a life cycle perspective of a road infrastructure investment and the impact of different phases of the roads life time. How the results are related to the transport objectives is also addressed.

    A life cycle assessment method is used to evaluate an infrastructure investment, including construction, operation, maintenance and traffic during 60 years. A small community is used as a case study where a bypass has been built and the result show that this investment will increase the total energy use by approximately 60 %, or 1 550 TJ compared to not building it. A major part of the increase is due to traffic, and since mostly fossil fuel is used there will also be an increase in greenhouse gas emissions. The result stipulates that the aspects of energy efficiency and reduction of greenhouse gases has not been accounted for in the planning or it has been considered as less important than other aspects, e.g. traffic safety and accessibility.

  • 3.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Life cycle assessment of a road investment: Estimating the effect on energy use when building a bypass road2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Eriksson, Gunnar
    et al.
    SMA.
    Gullne, Ulf
    SMA.
    Lindvall, Johny
    SMA.
    Karvonen, Tapio
    CMS.
    Saurama, Antti
    CMS.
    Göthe-Lundgren, Maud
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport.
    Allocation of infrastructure cost in the maritime sector2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable consists in principle of two parts; one part with a review of the literature around maritime infrastructure cost with a focus on fairways (section 3), pilotage (section 4) and ports (section 5) and another part with an in-depth study on the Baltic icebreaking fleet (section 6). Our main conclusion from the first part is that all these parts of the infrastructure (fairways, pilotage and ports) show significant economies of scale. A long run marginal cost pricing strategy will never recover the cost and a short run pricing strategy (including user costs) will have problems with cost recovery if the capacity utilisation is low. The pricing strategies observed seem to use numerous forms of two part tariffs and "Ramsey" pricing solutions to solve the cost recovery issue of the sector. The consequence of all these (small) deviations from marginal cost pricing should probably be further analysed. The second part deals with icebreaking and notes that icebreaking in open water is not charged for by any EU Member State. Still the case study reported in this paper shows that the operation is characterised by considerable marginal costs. Finally, a relevant question to address is to what extent there are justifications for European or international legislation on maritime charging in the light of economic theory. Obviously, it is useful to address different parts of the maritime infrastructure separately.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Carlén, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Förslag till Nationell plan för transportsystemet 2014–2025: kvalitetsgranskning av underlaget med fokus på samhällsekonomi2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In June 2013, the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) presented a proposal for a new plan for the development of the transport system between 2014 and 2025. This new national transport plan (NTP) was a result of a government commission received in December 2012. The agency Transport Analysis (Trafikanalys) has been commissioned by the government to review the proposal and the associated documents that form the basis for decision about the plan. VTI has assisted Trafikanalys in their review. VTI has mainly focused on the documents describing the so called overall impact assessment, including results from cost benefit analyses, for individual investments. VTI has also studied how the overall impact assessments for individual investments have been considered in the construction of the proposal for a new NTP. One important observation concerning the proposal for a new NTP is that descriptions and motivations for the overall priorities being made are absent. As a result, it is not possible to state whether or not the construction of the proposed NTP follows the given directions from the government. Further, VTI comes to the conclusion that the analyzed impact assessments for individual investments have had a small effect on the composition of the NTP. This is implied by the fact that the number of new investment measures that has been prioritized is extremely low. When it comes to the impact assessments and the cost benefit analyses for individual investments, VTI can see a development towards more comparable analyses by clearly stating used parameters, calculation values, etcetera, and by providing instructions on how to carry out the analyses and how to present the results, a development that is positive. However, despite these standardization efforts, VTI notes that the documentation varies between projects. Steps of the assessment are handled differently, for example there is a variation in how non-priced effects are handled in the analyses, and requested information is missing, for example requested information about which measures are not qualified for the analysis and if there exists any interdependence between the analyzed measure and other proposed measures in the NTP.

  • 6.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Dickinson, Joanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Viklund, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport.
    Dahlberg, Staffan
    Stockholm.
    Rebound effects of energy efficiency measures in the transport sector in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rebound effects represent the difference between anticipated or projected energy savings and the real energy saving in relation to, for example, implemented policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency. Rebound effects in the transport sector may counteract policy measures so that goals related to energy or emissions are not achieved, or achievement is greatly delayed. This comprehensive report examines the presence of rebound effects within the transport sector and while the aim was to provide a full review of the issue, for some transport areas it was not possible to find any studies on rebound effects. Those areas are identified as having knowledge gaps. We summarize the literature for rebound effects for passenger vehicles, technological developments, freight transports, public lighting, aviation, waterborne transports and for indirect, economy-wide effects, and also discuss rebound effects in aspects of environmental awareness and in the transport and community planning. The existing literature suggests that rebound effects exist to varying degrees and that there is a high risk of energy efficiency measures transferring transport energy savings into other transport modes, sectors or energy services. Consequently, rebound effects should be included when calculating whether Sweden will reach its climate and energy goals.

  • 7.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Sjömil: sjöfart, miljö och ekonomi2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview of the environmental impact of shipping. The environmental issues covered in this report are airborne emissions from the combustion of bunker fuel, oil spills, introduction of alien species through ballast water, discharges of toxic chemicals into the marine environment from anti-fouling systems and waste, shoreline erosion and dismantling of ships. This is followed by a presentation of various policy measures that exist today and seek to limit the environmental impact of shipping, at local, national, EU and international (International Maritime Organization, IMO) level. Furthermore, instruments that are under discussion within the EU and IMO, e.g. a maritime emission trading scheme, are presented. Finally, further research questions with socio-economic relevance are suggested based on the material presented in this report. The questions under consideration are as follows: Guidelines for the calculation and valuation of maritime externalities, analysis of policy instrument impact on the emission dispersion, the design and consequences of an emission trading scheme for carbon dioxide as well as carbon dioxide differentiated fairway dues.

  • 8.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Creutzer, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    SJÖSAM – sjöfartens samhällsekonomiska marginalkostnader: förstudie inom SAMKOST2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report was to analyse which marginal costs are relevant and how they should be considered for maritime transports. The report is a pre-study for the sub-project Maritime transports’ socioeconomic marginal cost (Sjösam) within VTI’s governmental assignment on socioeconomic marginal costs in the transport sector (Samkost). The report focus on following marginal costs; infrastructure wear and tear, air pollution, greenhouse gases, noise, safety, and other marine externalities (i.e. water pollution, sedimentation pollution, erosion and loss of habitat and biodiversity). A clear picture that arises from the literature study is that it’s mostly the maritime transports’ emissions of air pollution and greenhouse gases that have been studied. It is also mainly for those two externalities that marginal costs have been estimated. The results from the literature study have given the following conclusions: • The marginal costs we suggest should be considered for updates are pilotage, ice breaking, air pollution and greenhouse gases, based on their relative size in Sweden. • More research, beyond the scope of this project, is needed before it’s possible to state if the marginal costs of noise and marine impact are relevant or not for maritime transports from a marginal costs perspective. • The literature on maritime safety suggests relatively low marginal costs. But more aspects than just life and health, which are the only effects considered in the current Swedish CBA guidelines (ASEK), constitute large costs for maritime accidents (e.g. environmental costs and costs for the industry). Therefore we considered this area to be a prioritized research field. • For some external effects it’s very difficult to calculate the risks since they are very low, such as invasion of alien species and large oil spills, but can lead to large consequences. It’s still important to assess the impact from maritime transport on these issues to locate the relevant impact sources and how it’s possible to estimate the external costs in safe systems where the probability for an accident is very low. • Differentiation is viewed as relevant for ice-breaking (both time and geographically) and air pollution (geographically). For air pollution and greenhouse gases a differentiation depending on type of ship is also relevant. • Marginal cost associated with ports should be treated separately, and for maritime transports the marginal costs should be limited to the ones related to the ships operation. Ports, like other terminals, are nodes for several modes of transports and the marginal costs of ports should not be allocated only to the maritime transports, but rather added to a transport chain.

  • 9.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Health effects of transport emissions: a review of the state of the art of methods and data used for external costs calculations2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose is to provide a background for a discussion concerning the methods and values used in cost-benefit analysis in Sweden for air pollutions', from traffic, impact on human health and the research needs in this area. We provide an overview of the current state of the art of models used for and input needed for external cost calculations of the health impacts. The calculations are not straightforward and depend on the collaboration between several research disciplines. In the ExternE projects, which have been used as a reference point in this study, there are still uncertainties concerning which pollutants to take into consideration. Regarding the health impacts, we have recapitulated some of the main conclusions in a review by the American Heart Association (2010). They state that e.g. the following issues need further research: the importance of ultrafine particles, what constituent parts make traffic related air pollution more harmful than PM2.5 in general and the importance of coarse particles.

  • 10.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Medfinansiering av transportinfrastruktur: blev det mer och bättre?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One objective during work with Sweden’s 2010–2021 investment program was to induce local and regional, both public and private, contribution to the financing of investment projects. In this way, it would be feasible to enhance the total volume of spending on new roads, railways and waterways.

    The present report demonstrates that the government has met this objective. It is, however, not straightforward to establish how much extra resources that have been made available. In this report the problems with using different sources and different definitions are highlighted.

  • 11.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Frivilliga klimatåtgärder på den svenska godstransportmarknaden: en intervjustudie2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This interview study asks both buyers and providers of road freight transport about measures to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, their costs and effects. The interviewed companies have been selected among companies with explicit climate strategies. The results show that the companies are implementing several voluntary climate measures, but that the companies' own data are insufficient to assess whether they take on significant costs to achieve emission reductions. Further, the information is not enough to assess if the measures result in significant reductions of emissions compared to companies without explicit strategies. We conclude that more credible communication might be able to increase transport buyers' willingness to pay more for less climate impact of transportation.

  • 12.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Rydhed, Hanna
    Stena Renewables.
    Swedish ports' attitudes towards regulations of the shipping sector's emissions of CO22011In: Maritime Policy & Management, ISSN 0308-8839, E-ISSN 1464-5254, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 437-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shipping is increasing today along with the sector's emissions of greenhouse gases. The awareness of the emissions has increased the pressure for regulations of the shipping industry. Regulating the sector is far from simple due to the complexity of the market and the evasive characteristics of the industry. We know from studies of road pricing that attitudes among stakeholders are important for a successive policy implementation. The objective of this paper is to capture the Swedish ports' attitudes towards regulations of the shipping sector's emissions of CO2. This has been done by conducting a survey among commercial ports in Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the first study of this kind. Our analysis indicates that ports in Sweden are generally positive towards an implementation of regulations to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the shipping industry. The ports where most positive towards CO2 differentiated port due (97%), followed by a technical standard (92%), CO2 taxation (84%) and EU ETS (The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme; 74%).

  • 13.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Sorkina, Edith
    Göteborgs universitet.
    The role of contractual and non-contractual relations between transport buyers and providers, in an environmental context2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe the relationship between transport buying companies and carriers, with a focus on the transport contracts in Sweden for land based transports. Based on the aim of this study, the following research questions have been defined: How can contracts be categorized? What is the average duration and flexibility of the transport contracts to external changes? and Which environmental related elements are commonly regulated in the contracts? Based on a literature review and interviews with people on strategic positions in the transport industry, we have conducted a web-survey. In addition to contractual agreements the survey also tried to capture the relation on environmental issues, as well as the experienced logistics performance over time. Results from the survey indicates that the suggested contract categorisation from the literature was not well known by the respondents, the average duration of contracts was 1-2 years and the majority of contracts includes a fuel clause, but not many environmental requirements. Further, the analysis indicates that companies with long term contracts set environmental requirements to a larger extend and that there is a positive significant relation between the companies’ environmental work with in the transport operation and their perception of an improved logistics performance, both in terms of quality and cost.

  • 14.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ståhle, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Omvärlds- och framtidsanalys: längre och tyngre väg- och järnvägsfordon2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has previously shown that there are socio-economic benefits of using longer and heavier road vehicles than the rest of the EU, i.e. 25.25 metres and 60 tons are permitted. The aim of the Co-modality project is to investigate the consequences of using even longer and/or heavier road and railway vehicles. This first subproject aims to answer which dimensions and weight limits with regards to road and railway vehicles that the Co-modality project should investigate further as well as the effects. A literature review has been conducted and to capture the views of Swedish stakeholders and transportation experts, a questionnaire survey was conducted. The respondents were invited to a hearing, too. The reason for the survey was to establish which road and railway vehicles would be in demand year 2030. The results show that no extreme changes are expected and that volume capacity was requested to a further extent than weight. For road vehicles, it is mainly a question of continuing to build on the European Modular System that combines different standardised load carriers. It allows member states to have different dimensions to those in other EU countries. For railway vehicles the demand is mainly for longer trains, but also heavier. Road safety, infrastructure, congestion, environment and transportation economy are the aspects that we identified as relevant for longer and/or heavier road and railway vehicles.

  • 15.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Uppdaterad analys av transporteffekter av IMO:s skärpta emissionskrav: modellberäkningar på uppdrag av Sjöfartsverket2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has been commissioned by the Swedish Maritime Administration (SMA) to analyze the impact of the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) more stringent sulfur regulations, which will enter into force in 2015 in the Sulphur Emission Control Area (SECA) which includes North Sea, Baltic Sea and the English Channel. A similar analysis was conducted in 2009, but an update has been justified (due to that) since there is new information available and that the implementation is approaching. The current analysis is based on three investigation scenarios, selected by the SMA. These scenarios are simulated in the national freight model Samgods (test version of the new Samgods model), which is a cost minimizing model. An earlier version of Samgods was used in the analysis in 2009.

  • 16.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Internalisation of external effects in European freight corridors2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project was conducted upon a request from the Swedish Agency for Transport Analysis (Trafikanalys), with a governmental assignment to annually report the rate of internalisation per mode for passenger and freight transports. In its 2013 report, the Agency wishes to show examples of how the marginal costs and the internalising taxes and fees vary within and between European countries. With this background, VTI was given the assignment to analyse ten freight routes in Europe within the Narvik (Norway)–Naples (Italy), and Oslo (Norway)– Rotterdam (the Netherlands) corridors. The corridors were stated in the assignment from the Transport Analysis Agency. During the project, two reference group meetings were held with the following participants: Kenneth Wahlberg (Swedish Transport Administration), Stefan Back (TransportGruppen), Katarina Handel (Swedish Maritime Administration), Gunnar Eriksson (Transport Analysis), Rein Juriado (Vinnova) and Anders Ljungberg (our Transport Analysis contact). Further, Glenn Hakansson (former truck driver) helped out in selecting the routes for the road transports. The authors would like to thank all participants for their helpful comments.

  • 17.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Allocation of user benefits for international freight transports: in cost-benefit analysis2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to analyse when, if and how a transport cost reduction, following an infrastructure investment affecting international freight transports, should be allocated between countries in a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). In order to analyse this question, the project has been split into two stages. This first stage aims at presenting a more general picture of how the user benefits could be allocated according to the scientific literature, how recommendations on this issue are designed in other countries CBA guidelines, and whether this issue is treated in the planning process of transnational infrastructure projects. The available, but scarce, scientific literature indicates that the allocation of user benefits can have substantial effects on the profitability of infrastructure measures. Having studied CBA guidelines and CBAs of transnational infrastructure projects, the conclusion from our study is that to our knowledge, no other country has a well-founded allocation method that could be implemented in Sweden. Finally, the literature does not offer any strong recommendations or straightforward theoretical methods, with the exception of a first suggestion by Fosgerau and Buus Kristensen (2005).

  • 18.
    Mellin, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Internalisation of External Effects in European Freight Corridors2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    External effects or externalities “consist of the costs and benefits felt beyond or ‘external to’ those causing the effect” (Anderson, 2006). In the case of transportation, the negative externalities (costs) can take the form of air pollution, noise and accidents. Since external effects do not have a market price, external effects are a form of market failure.Wear and tear of the infrastructure isexternal to individual drivers andoperators,and thus also includedin the analysis.

    External costs can be internalised in various ways e.g. through regulatory measures, technological development or taxes and charges. Some forms of taxation are more effective than others in internalising costs. For example, fuel tax is effective in reducing CO2emissions as it will tend to promote technological change to reduce emissions per kilometre travelled as well as reducing the kilometres driven. A fixed, undifferentiated annual tax on owning a vehicle will, on the other hand, be ineffective in relation to reducing CO2emissions. While it will have some impact on reducing vehicle ownership (and thus indirectly vehicle use), it will not affect kilometres driven by individual vehicles. In this paper the focus is on the “rate of internalisation”. This term is used to describe to what extent the marginal external costs, based on existing regulations and technology (e.g. the European Emission Trading Scheme and emissions classes for road vehicles), are compensated for through charges or taxes. Internalisation at a certain time is thus expressed as the ratio between average charges and taxes on the one hand, and marginal external costs on the other. In this case, a full rate of internalisation would imply that the transport companies are fully charged for the marginal negative effects caused by their transport. If the ratio is below 1, the taxes and charges levied are lower than the existing marginal external costs to society, i.e. there is an under-internalisation.

    The aim of this project is to study the rate of internalisation of external effects through taxes and charges in two European freight corridors during 2012; for road, rail, and sea transport, respectively.The study is based on two presumed freight corridors, between Norway (Narvik) and Italy(Naples), and between Norway (Oslo) and the Netherlands (Rotterdam).

    The analysis is further differentiated on a national level, where each country constitutes one segment of the transport.

  • 19.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK. Havs- och vattenmyndigheten.
    Effects of more stringent sulphur requirements for sea transports2015In: Transportation Research Procedia: Current practices in transport: appraisal methods, policies and models – 42nd European Transport Conference Selected Proceedings, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 8, p. 125-135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008 the International Maritime Organization (IMO) decided on more stringent requirements from 2015 for airborne emissions of sulphur dioxide from sea transports in the sulphur emission control areas (SECA). The European SECA comprises the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. The paper contains an overview of the European studies that have been carried out to investigate the impacts of IMO's more stringent sulphur requirements. All studies were carried out after IMO's decision in 2008 (which means that the decision was taken based on other reasons). The studies focus on different aspects but all of them estimate how IMO's stricter requirements will affect the sea transport costs. The Swedish impact studies are described in particular: in the 2009 study the national transport model Samgods was used and in 2013 both the Samgods model and the agent-based simulation model Tapas. Impacts on the choice of transport chains, routes and ports are calculated. The results indicate that shippers to some extent can reduce the increase in transport cost by transferring flows from the Swedish east coast to the Swedish south and west coast, the Norwegian coast and the land-based route via Denmark. Modal back shifts from sea to rail and road occur. These shifts are modest, especially if higher prices for diesel and higher rail track fees are assumed on top of more stringent sulphur requirements in the SECA. One important question is to what extent the increases in costs that are due to more stringent requirements can be compensated for by improved efficiency of the transports, such as the exploitation of economies of scale.

  • 20.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lord, Nicklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transporteffekter av IMO:s skärpta emissionskrav: modellberäkningar på uppdrag av Sjöfartsverket2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The Swedish Government has commissioned the Swedish Maritime Administration to assess the consequences of the new rules for airborne emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from maritime transport, adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in October 2008. On behalf of the Swedish Maritime Administration, the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) has shed light on whether the IMO's more stringent emission requirements in the SOx Emission Control Area (SECA - covering the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, and the English Channel), will lead to transfer of freight transport from maritime to other modes of transport. Model calculations have been made with the aid of the new national Samgods logistics model Version 2.0 for three of the alternatives examined by the Swedish Maritime Administration.

  • 21.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Konsekvensanalyser av förändrade farleds- och lotsavgifter: studie på uppdrag av Sjöfartsverket2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In our impact analysis we have assumed the changes of the fairway dues and pilot fees which the Swedish Maritime Administration is planning. We have divided these into the following steps: - 1. Increased fairway dues (the Swedish fairway dues consist of two parts: one is based on the ships’ gross tonnage and the other part on the amount of cargo loaded/unloaded. A ten percent increase is assumed for the part based on the gross tonnage and a 25 percent increase for cargo defined as low valued) and a five percent increase for the pilot fees in 2011. - 2a. Increases according to point 1, and a pilot fee increase by another five per cent in 2012. - 2b. Increases according to point 2a and a pilot fee increase by another five per cent in 2013. - 3. Increases according to point 2b and the planned increases of the rail user charges in Sweden. - 4. Increases according to point 1 and the planned increases of the rail user charges in Sweden. The basis for the analysis consists of a literature review, including previous model based analyses of changed costs for maritime transports and a number of transport examples that have been collected in cooperation with the Inquiry of the competition conditions for shipping under the Swedish flag. Focus is on the short-term consequences for the transport industry and cargo owners.

  • 22.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Svensk godsstudie baserad på nationell och internationell litteratur: internationell expose - persontransporter: inom uppdraget att kartlägga potentialen för överflyttning av transporter mellan trafikslag2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has been commissioned by SIKA to carry out a goods study as well as an international survey of transfers of passenger transport with the aim of reducing the climate impact. The goods study is based on national and international literature, complemented by a discussion meeting with representatives of the business sector, research sector and public authorities. The international survey is based on literature. Economic instruments, correctly designed, are cost-effective in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Railway investments are not a climate measure but should be carried out if they are socially efficient. There is a great potential for reducing emissions within the respective mode of transport. The largest transfer potential for goods transport is within long-distance lorry transport to combined rail-road transport. Several impediments such as inefficient use of the railway infrastructure and unclear responsibility for combi terminals can limit the measures. Insufficient flexibility and co-operation among transport purchasers and companies can have similar effects. Several measures are often combined for passenger transport to reduce car use and provide incentives to use public transport, cycle or walk. Reductions in travelling time are mainly discussed in the case of high-speed trains. Impediments for the introduction of instruments include political resistance as well as the difficulty of changing travel habits. Measures such as improved accessibility and more efficient cars may also counteract transfer to more climate-friendly modes of transport. The climate policy goal is not transfer but the reduction of the climate impact.

  • 23.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hylen, Bertil
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jong, Gerhard de
    Bucci, Pietro
    Priselasticiteter som underlag för konsekvensanalyser av förändrade banavgifter för godstransporter: del A av studie på uppdrag av Banverket2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The National Rail Administration is analysing how different levels and designs of freight rail user fees influence the demand for rail transport. Changes in demand are calculated with the help of price elasticities. These elasticities are mainly related to the total transport costs, where rail user fees are one part. The Swedish rail user fees (that include different components for wear and tear, safety etc.) are among the lowest in Europe and correspond to about five percent of the freight transport costs. In our literature review, we did not find studies explicitly related to elasticities for freight rail user fees. The elasticities that we found have transport costs (or prices) as independent variable and the majority has tonne-km as dependent variable. The elasticities lie in the range of -0.9 to -1.7. Regardless if one calculates the demand effect in tonnes, tonne-km or train-km in principle all elasticities in the literature are higher in absolute terms than 0.4, which is the elasticity that the National Rail Administration applies today for all commodity groups and train types.

  • 24.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Hylén, Bertil
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Trafikanalys.
    Kartläggning av godstransporterna i Sverige2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes VTI’s contribution, assigned by Transport Analysis, to a project commissioned by the Swedish government on freight transport in Sweden. The focus of this report is to generate a knowledge base and an analysis of the present situation of freight transport in Sweden. Furthermore, the project includes how statistics and knowledge in this area can be further developed

  • 25.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Analys av effekter av IMO:s skärpta svavelkrav: modellberäkningar på uppdrag av Trafikanalys2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the governmental agency Transport analysis VTI has analysed the consequences of the stricter sulphur regulations for marine fuel with the Swedish national freight transport model Samgods. The base scenario has been compared with, in total, 18 analysis scenarios developed by Transport analysis. The reason for the large amount of scenarios is the fact that both the technical and the economic development (related to the sulfur directive) is uncertain and needs to be taken into consideration. The results show that the demand for sea transports on the Swedish territory (in tonne-km) is indicated to be rather inelastic. In scenario High 1 the sea tonne-km are calculated to decrease by 0.7 billion (about 2%) due to 40–76 per cent higher sea transport costs (depending on type of ship) all other costs kept unchanged. For rail, the tonne-km are increasing maximum by 0.9 billion (about 4%). This is the case for scenario High 3 with the highest assumed increase for sea and road transports. The results for rail should be interpreted as potential increases since the model does not take into account capacity restrictions. For road, the tonne-km are calculated to decrease in Sweden with a maximum of 0.6 billion (about 2%) in the scenarios Low 3 and Low 3B. In this report changes in freight flows, tonnes per route and mode, are illustrated in maps showing the difference between the base scenario and the different analysis scenarios. For road, the overall pattern is indicating a redirection of the volumes from the ports along the Swedish east coast to ports on the Swedish west coast and to the ferry lines in the south. Finally, the results should be interpreted with caution since they are based on a test version of the Samgods model. However, we still believe that the results on an overall level seem to be reasonable.

  • 26.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Externa kostnader och avgifter för fem svenska, gränsöverskridande godstransporter2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: For five international freight relations with origin or destination in Sweden, a total of fifteen alternative transport chains have been studied:

    - Case 1: Container transport from Hamburg to Eskilstuna

    - Case 2: Trailer transport from Düsseldorf to Smedjebacken

    - Case 3: Transport of sawn timber from Norrköping to Rochefort

    - Case 4: Transport of steel from Borlänge to Benelux

    - Case 5: Container transport from Gävle to Hamburg

    The analysis comprises a) the marginal external costs of the transports, b) the federal infrastructure charges and taxes paid and c) the degree to which external costs are internalized. Road, rail and sea are included separately or in combination in the alternative transport chains. Assumptions are made concerning vehicle and vessel sizes, utilization rates and routes. The description refers to the situation in autumn 2012.

1 - 26 of 26
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