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  • 1.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Matstoms, Ylva
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turbell, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Child safety in cars: Literature review2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study child safety in cars, international literature was reviewed with respect to road vehicle transportation for children, with the focus being on the age up to 12 years. The review included literature in English and Swedish. Furthermore, the review was limited to focus on results from Australia, the U.K., the USA and Sweden. To ensure that all children are protected as passengers in cars, several aspects needed to be considered.

    Within this study, the focus was, hence, on legal aspects and recommendations, traffic fatalities and serious injuries, the safety consequences for children due to the car development (airbags (SRS) and installation systems), use and misuse of child restraint systems (CRS) regarding medical, technical and user aspects, measurements for improvements, e.g. campaigns and, finally, children with disabilities. The review focused mainly on literature from 1990 until today. The main conclusions were that:

    • Available statistics show that rearward facing CRS is a good preventive measure to take for enhancement of traffic safety.
    • Impacts from the in-safety development of cars on choosing and mounting safety devices for children were found to be a crucial issue.
    • Children exposed to an airbag deployment can be fatally injured, despite being seated in an approved child restraint system.
    • In Sweden and the U.K. the level of child restraint usage among infants and small children was found to be at least 95% in the front seat and approximately at the same level in the rear seat. Even though the levels of usage in several countries were high, the level of misuse was alarmingly high (90%).
    • The road transportation of children with disabilities was found to be complex and insufficiently described in the literature.
  • 2.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Barn i bil - socioekonomiska faktorer: litteratur- och enkätstudie2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to identify relationships between no use/misuse of safety belt/child restraints and socio-economic aspects. The conclusions from the study will provide a basis for the future development of information and campaigns to increase the correct use of restraints. The study consisted of two parts: a literature review and a questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 2,010 parents of children aged 2 months–9 years. The response rate was about 70 per cent. The level of misuse among small children was lower than among older children and lower in the family car compared with the overall situation. Parents who neglected to use the safety belts themselves were more likely to be careless in ensuring that the child used recommended restraint. The results also indicated that parents who were more likely to act in contradiction with rules and recommendation concerning use of restraints were also more likely to allow their children to travel without safety belts.

  • 3.
    Ekström, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Förekomst av alkohol och droger hos förare av lastbil och buss som varit inblandade i dödsolyckor och olyckor med svåra personskador2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge about the presence of alcohol, drugs and medicine among drivers of trucks or busses involved in fatal accidents and accidents with severe injuries. The study is based on material from two different databases, the Swedish Transport Administrations in-depth study database and the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (Strada), owned by The Swedish Transport Agency. The survey of the presence of substances and background variables such as gender, age and type of accident among drivers under influence is presented in this study and based on accidents that occurred 2008–2015. The study includes 614 fatal accidents from the in-depth study database and 3381 accidents with severe injuries from Strada.

    For fatally injured drivers of trucks and busses in the in-depth database presence of alcohol was found in 15 percent, illegal drugs in 6 percent and medicine in 9 percent. Compared to the corresponding figure for drivers of cars, the presence of alcohol is lower, whereas the presence for illegal drugs and medicine, is at the same level. The presence is much lower when studying all drivers of trucks and busses involved in fatal accidents disregarding the drivers level of injury. The presence of alcohol among the drivers were 2 percent and 1 percent for illegal drugs respectively medicine. There are though differences between the type of vehicle driven. Among drivers of lighter trucks 16 of 156 drivers (10%) had presence of alcohol and/or illegal drugs. For drivers of trucks 4 of 369 (1%) and drivers of busses 0 of 96 drivers (0%) where under the influence of alcohol and/or illegal drugs.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    An analysis of cyclists' speed at combined pedestrian and cycle pathsIn: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In Sweden, cyclists, pedestrians, and moped riders share the space on combined pedestrian and cycle paths, and their speeds may differ greatly. Both actual speed and speed differences can potentially influence the number of accidents on the shared paths. As a starting point, this article studies the speed component and how cyclists' speed varies at pedestrian and cycle paths depending on the day, week, and year; road user composition; and road design.

    Methods: Three data sources were used: Existing measurements of cycle speed and flow in 3 different Swedish municipalities, Eskilstuna (1 site, January-December 2015), Linkoping (6 sites, 4 weeks in September-October 2015), and Stockholm (10 sites, 1-5 days in August-September 2015); complementary measurements of cycle speed and flow in Linkoping (4 sites, 1-10 days in August-September 2016) and Stockholm (1 site, only part of 2 days in August 2016) were also conducted within the project, in addition to roadside observations of bicycle types at the 5 new sites.

    Results: The average speed of cyclists on the paths varied between 12.5 and 26.5 km/h. As expected, the lower average speeds were found in uphill directions, near intersections, and on paths with high pedestrian flows. The higher speeds were found in downhill directions and on commuter routes. In all, 70%-95% of road users observed on pedestrian and cycle paths were cyclists, and 5%-30% were pedestrians. The most common type of bicycle was a comfort bike, followed by a trekking bike. Electric-assisted bicycles and racer bikes occurred at all sites, with proportions of 1%-10% and 1%-15%, respectively. The 2 sites with the highest proportion of electric-assisted bicycles and racer bicycles also had the highest average speeds. The differences in average speed throughout the day, week, and year could only be assessed at one of the sites. Only small differences were found, with the most noticeable being that the average speed was lower in January and February (13.8 km/h) compared to the rest of the year (15.3-16.1 km/h). The average speed was also lower during daytime (14.7 km/h) than during other parts of the day (15.4-15.8 km/h).

    Conclusions: The relationship between bicycle type and measured speed was not entirely clear, but the results suggest that paths with higher proportions of electric and racer bicycles have higher average speeds. There also appears to be a connection between average speed and the width of the distribution; that is, the higher the average speed, the wider the speed distribution. More research is needed on how speed levels and speed variance affect accident risk.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance. VTI.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Karlström, Jones
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Enhetlig metod för cykelflödesmätningar: en förberedande studie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an objective of increasing cycling nationally, regionally and in many Swedish municipalities. The extent of cycling can be followed up with either travel surveys (TSs) or by measuring the bicycle flow. The Traffic Analysis Authority was commissioned by the Government to develop and propose a uniform method for systematic measurements of bicycle traffic at a local and regional level and their report was published in January 2018. Bicycle traffic can be measured in different ways and the two most common methods are (1) measurements by counting bicycles (manually or with detecting equipment) in the street area or (2) travel surveys (TSs). In this report, we focus only on counting cyclists in the street area. Today, the methods of counting bicyclists are limited, and they do not enable estimations of kilometers travelled by bicycle per average day in a municipality.

    In order to achieve a broad application, it is necessary to investigate the possible obstacles that exist to use the Traffic Analysis's proposal for a uniform method, and this will be done in the following steps, where step 1 is described in this report:

    1. A preparatory study: Suggest a set-up of a pilot study

    2. Conduct a pilot study to establish a uniform and systematic approach, and finally

    3. Determine the final uniform and systematic method.

    The purpose of the preparatory study presented in this report is to adapt the Traffic Analysis's proposal to a uniform method for estimating the kilometers travelled by bicycle per average day, based on municipal conditions. The preparatory study will also lead to a proposal for a pilot study in which the adapted method is tested, and issues related to delimitations and definitions can be decided. The pilot study will be carried out in a follow-up project with a number of municipalities. This will result in a final determination of a uniform method for estimating the kilometers travelled by bicycle per average day.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Planering av en regional resvaneundersökning i Östergötland: Samverkan mellan olika intressenter2016Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Säkerhetseffekten av ökat cyklande: kartläggning av nuläget för att planera för framtiden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, cycling has been highlighted as a travel mode with many positive qualities. The documents of Swedish national strategy reveal a trend of an increased cycling. At the same time, it is important that the safety of cyclists must be improved so that an increased cycling does not contribute to more injuries and fatalities in accidents. To cope with the increased cycling without compromising the safety, there is fore example, a need for better understanding of the relationship between the cycling flow and the injuries in various traffic environments.

    In this project, three different studies were carried out to understand how the trend of cycling changes over time and how cyclists' injury risk is influenced by the cycling flow and the traffic environment. In the first study, a travel demand model has been developed that includes both mode choice and destination choice for cycling. In the second study, models for cyclists’ injury risks have been developed for different types of accidents and traffic environments. In the third study, interactions between different road users have been observed, to study how these are affected by the level of bicycle flow. Overall, the studies in this project have shown that bicycle flow is an important factor influencing cyclists’ accident risks. Higher bicycle flow corresponds to fewer interactions per cyclist and a lower risk of injury in a single bicycle accident as well as in a collision accident with motorised vehicles. We have also been able to demonstrate that it is possible to model travel choices and destination choice of cyclists and to develop models that describe cyclists’ injury risk. However, to provide better estimates, data with better quality are necessary for the model inputs, especially when it comes to the cycling and the description of cycling infrastructure.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST. NTF.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Cyklisters hastigheter: Kartläggning, mätningar och observation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different road users share space on pedestrian and cycle paths, and their speeds may differ greatly. Differences in speed can complicate the interactions between road users which in turn may cause incidents and accidents. The purpose of this project is to enhance the understanding of cycle speeds on the pedestrian and cycle paths and to understand how the cyclists adapt their speed to other road users and to the surrounding environment. Three different data collection methods were used: Previous measurements of cycle speed and flow in three different municipalities, Eskilstuna, Linköping and Stockholm (18 locations); new measurements in Linköping (4 locations) and Stockholm (1 location); and new observation studies of bicycle types at these locations.

    The average speed of cyclists on the paths selected varies between 15–25 kilometer per hour. As expected, the lower average speeds were found in the uphill directions, near intersections and in paths with high pedestrian flow. The higher speeds were found in downhill directions and on commuter routes. No general increase in cyclists’ speed was found between years, neither in mean speed nor in proportion of high-speed cyclists. However, bicycle flow has increased in many of the locations over the years. This implies that the number of cyclists holding a high speed, above 30 kilometer per hour, will be increased, even if the proportion of high-speed cyclists stays the same. This may mistakenly be interpreted as increased mean speed. About 70–95 percent of the road users observed on the pedestrian and cycling paths were cyclists and roughly 5–30 percent were pedestrians. An extremely small proportion were mopeds, 0.2 percent. The comfort bike was the most common type, followed by the trekking bike. The electric and racer bike occurred in all locations, but varied 1–10 percent respectively 1–15 percent. The relationship between the type of bike and the speed claim is not entirely clear, but cyclists on the electrical and racer bikes generally have higher speed claims.

  • 9.
    Flannagan, Carol. A. C.
    et al.
    University of Michigan.
    Bálint, András
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Klinich, Kathleen. D.
    University of Michigan.
    Sander, Ulrich
    Autoliv Research.
    Manary, Miriam A.
    University of Michigan.
    Cuny, Sophie
    Centre Européen d’Etudes de Sécurité et d’Analyse des Risques.
    McCarthy, Michael
    TRL (Transport Research Laboratory).
    Phan, Vuthy
    Centre Européen d’Etudes de Sécurité et d’Analyse des Risques.
    Wallbank, Caroline
    TRL (Transport Research Laboratory).
    Green, Pauk E.
    University of Michigan.
    Sui, Bo
    Autoliv Research.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Fagerlind, Helen
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Comparing motor-vehicle crash risk of EU and US vehicles2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the hypotheses that passenger vehicles meeting European Union (EU) safety standards have similar crashworthiness to United States (US) -regulated vehicles in the US driving environment, and vice versa. The first step involved identifying appropriate databases of US and EU crashes that include in-depth crash information, such as estimation of crash severity using Delta-V and injury outcome based on medical records. The next step was to harmonize variable definitions and sampling criteria so that the EU data could be combined and compared to the US data using the same or equivalent parameters. Logistic regression models of the risk of a Maximum injury according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale of 3 or greater, or fatality (MAIS3+F) in EU-regulated and US-regulated vehicles were constructed. The injury risk predictions of the EU model and the US model were each applied to both the US and EU standard crash populations. Frontal, near-side, and far-side crashes were analyzed together (termed "front/side crashes") and a separate model was developed for rollover crashes.

    For the front/side model applied to the US standard population, the mean estimated risk for the US-vehicle model is 0.035 (sd = 0.012), and the mean estimated risk for the EU-vehicle model is 0.023 (sd = 0.016). When applied to the EU front/side population, the US model predicted a 0.065 risk (sd = 0.027), and the EU model predicted a 0.052 risk (sd = 0.025). For the rollover model applied to the US standard population, the US model predicted a risk of 0.071 (sd = 0.024), and the EU model predicted 0.128 risk (sd = 0.057). When applied to the EU rollover standard population, the US model predicted a 0.067 risk (sd = 0.024), and the EU model predicted 0.103 risk (sd = 0.040).

    The results based on these methods indicate that EU vehicles most likely have a lower risk of MAIS3+F injury in front/side impacts, while US vehicles most likely have a lower risk of MAIS3+F injury in llroovers. These results should be interpreted with an understanding of the uncertainty of the estimates, the study limitations, and our recommendations for further study detailed in the report.

  • 10.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Alkohol, droger och läkemedel hos omkomna personbilsförare: år 2005–20132015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that drunk drivers constitute a large traffic safety problem and a number of Swedish studies have been conducted about this group of drivers. Much less is known about drivers that are impaired by drugs or medicines and the aim of this study is to improve the knowledge about the presence of such substances in killed drivers of passenger cars. The study is based on 1143 drivers of passenger cars that were killed in accidents during 2005–2013. Only medicines that include narcotic substances are included since other types of drugs supposedly have very limited influence on the ability to drive. Medical substances were found in 8.3 per cent of the drivers and drugs in 6.1 per cent. In comparison, alcohol was prevalent among 21.8 per cent of the drivers. More than one type of substance (alcohol, drug or medicine) were found in 5.4 per cent of the drivers. The following conclusions can be drawn from the study:

    A significant difference was found in the number of drivers who were tested positive for drugs or medicines between those who had a BAC-level over 0.2 ‰ (18.5 %) and those who had a BAC-level of 0 (10.5 %). There were no significant difference with respect to drugs and medicines between drivers with low (0.2–0.6‰) and high BAC-level (≥0.6‰).

    • THC (cannabis) is the most prevalent drug among drivers that are also influenced by alcohol, followed by amphetamine. For drivers that are not influenced by alcohol, amphetamine is more common than THC.
    • Opioids are equally common among drivers who have taken only medicines and drivers who have combined medicines and illegal drugs. Sedatives are instead more common among those who also have taken drugs while it is very uncommon to combine illegal drugs and hypnotics.
    • An analysis of background variables show that drivers who had alcohol or drugs in their blood differ from sober drivers in several respects (age, gender and time of accident) while those who had taken medicines were quite similar to the sober drivers.

    The three groups also differ from each other, which makes it important to treat the groups separately in case of for example, countermeasures.

  • 11.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Förekomst av droger och läkemedel hos förare i dödsolyckor: Utvärdering av datakvalitet2014Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Förstudie om antal alkoholutandningsprov i trafiken2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antal alkoholutandningsprov som utförs varje år har minskat med drygt 50 procent mellan år 2010 och 2015. I den här PM:et belyses frågan om antal alkoholutandningsprov och dess betydelse för rattfylleriets omfattning. PM:et ska ses som ett underlag för fortsatta diskussioner om polisens övervakning men även om vilken ytterligare forskning som behövs inom området. Underlaget baseras på tre delar: (i) en jämförelse mellan antal utandningsprov som görs i Sverige och antalet i andra länder, (ii) en jämförelse av subjektiv och faktisk upptäcktsrisk baserat på data från ESRA–projektet (European Survey of Road Users’ Safety Attitudes) och (iii) en sammanställning av aktuell forskning på området.

    Uppgifter om antal utandningsprov saknas i många länder men en jämförelse har kunnat göras mellan Sverige och 13 andra europeiska länder. Resultaten visar att Sverige var det land bland dessa som år 2010 utförde flest prov per invånare. År 2015 var det sex länder som utförde fler prov per invånare än vad Sverige gjorde

    Litteraturgenomgången visar att om man ökar antal prov leder det till en högre subjektiv upptäcktsrisk vilket i sin tur leder till en högre allmänpreventiv effekt. Det behövs dock mer forskning om vilken nivå på övervakningens omfattning som ger bäst avvägning mellan polisens resurser och antal rattfylleribrott.

    Andra faktorer som till exempel sociala normer är också viktiga. Resultat från ESRA-studien visar bland annat att det är väldigt få som kör rattfulla i Sverige även om den subjektiva upptäcktsrisken är ganska låg jämfört med flera av de andra länderna. En slutsats av det är att det behövs mer forskning om de specifika förhållanden som gäller i Sverige. Senast det gjordes någon större studie om rattfylleriövervakningens effekter i Sverige var i början på 1990-talet. Idag sker en stor del av forskningen i USA och Australien och dess grannländer och det är svårt att direkt översätta dessa resultat till svenska förhållanden.

  • 13.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Prognosmodeller för antal dödade i vägtrafiken: en utvärdering av Poissonregression med seriellt korrelerade residualer2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Probability models play an important role when analysing and forecasting time series of the number of fatalities in road traffic accidents. This report presents a study of a method of analysing time series of count data that also can account for serial correlation. The method is a development of traditional Poisson regression where overdispersion and serial correlation is modelled by a latent process. The aim of the study was partly to test how the method worked in practice, partly to study the importance of considering possible serial correlation in the data. The method was tested both for the total number of killed road users and the number of killed road users divided in the following six categories: car occupants (drivers and passengers in passenger cars, lorries, and busses), motor-cyclists, mopedists, cyclists, pedestrians, and others.

  • 14.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Riskkurva för alkohol: studie baserad på omkomna personbilsförare i Sverige2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of a driver to be killed or injured in a crash increases considerably under the influence of alcohol. The risk increases with increased alcohol concentration. In this study, a risk curve for car drivers representing Swedish conditions has been calculated. The curve shows the risk of being killed in a car crash given a specific alcohol concentration, relative to the corresponding risk of a sober driver. The results show that the estimated relative risk is about 12 times in the lowest concentration interval, 0.2–0.4 per mille. The relative risk then increases considerably with increased alcohol concentration and is almost 1,300 times for the interval 2.2–2.4 per mille. The analyses also show that the estimated risk differs between daytime and nighttime. The risk curves are similar for low concentrations but the curve representing nighttime driving increases faster than the curve representing daytime driving. For example, the estimated relative risk is about 3,300 times at night when the alcohol concentration is between 2.2 and 2.4 per mille. The calculations are mainly based on in-depth studies of fatal car crashes and data from police controls.

  • 15.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: registerstudie2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1 January 2012, there is a permanent alcohol interlock program for drink driving offenders in Sweden. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program, that is voluntary and applies to all types of driver's licenses. The program includes both a one-year and a two-year alternative. The two-year program applies to offenders that have committed a severe drink driving offence (BAC ≥ 1 g/L, the legal limit in Sweden is 0.2 g/L), have an earlier offence within the previous five years, or have the diagnosis alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence. All others are assigned to the oneyear program.

    The interlock program has been evaluated in three studies: a register based study, a questionnaire study, and an interview study. The results from the register based study is presented in this report, while the other studies have been published earlier. Results and conclusions from all three studies will be summarized in an upcoming final report.

    The aim of the study was to estimate the participation rate in the program, and to follow both participants and non-participants during the time in the program or the time without a driver’s license, respectively. The study is based on data from the Swedish road traffic register and a case management system, both administrated by the Swedish Transport Agency. The effectiveness of reducing recidivism in drink driving during the program have been shown in previous studies and are not evaluated here.

  • 16.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utvärdering av projektet Nationell samverkan mot alkohol och droger i trafiken enligt Skelleftemodellen: kvantitativ uppföljning av processen2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In 2003, the Swedish Road Administration initiated a project entitled The Joint National Action against Drunk and Drugged Drivers according to the Skellefte Model The aim of the project was to spread an initiative that began in Skellefteå to the rest of Sweden. According to the Skellefte Model, anyone taken into custody for drunk driving is quickly offered help for any alcohol or drug problems they might have. The way it works is that, at the time of the arrest, the police make an offer of an interview with social services or the addiction treatment system. If the individual agrees, the interview is conducted, and treatment is then offered if it is deemed necessary. The model is based on a voluntary approach, and the individual can decline further contact at any time. For each case, a form is created that follows the person. The form provides background information such as age and gender, as well as information as to whether the suspect accepted or refused the offer, and whether he or she is participating in the interview and treatment process. The results from a study based on an analysis of these forms are presented in this report. Forms from cases in which the suspects have refused contact with social services or the addiction treatment system are retained solely by the police. We have consequently collected forms from both the police and social services/addiction treatment systems. Forms were collected between 1 January 2008 and 30 June 2008. The police send in 2,132 forms from 16 counties. Social services and addiction treatment systems send in 845 forms from 17 counties. In some cases social services and the addiction treatment system had come into contact with the suspected drunk driver by some means other than the police form. For instance, individuals who refuse the police offer may change their mind and initiate such contact themselves. A special form, prepared by VTI, has been used for such cases.

  • 17.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Engström, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The composition and use of the Swedish car fleet: Formulation of a forecasting system2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Model-based forecasts of future emissions are important tools for finding

    strategies to reach the Swedish transport policy objective concerning effect

    on climate and air pollution. In order for the calculated emissions to reflect

    the actual situation, input data on kilometrage, vehicle types and vehicle

    ages must be representative of the region of interest. High-quality forecasts

    of these variables are therefore of great importance when estimating future

    emissions. This report proposes a forecasting model system for the

    compositions and use of the Swedish car fleet, based on experiences from

    existing models in the literature. The system operates on two levels, an

    aggregated (national or regional) level and a disaggregated (household or

    personal) level. Forecasts of the total number of cars and total kilometrage

    are provided from the aggregated models whereas the disaggregated models

    provide the distribution of cars of different types and ages and the

    distribution of kilometrage over the same classification of cars. These

    results are then combined to give the final outcomes: the number and

    kilometrage of cars of different types and ages.

  • 18.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Prognosintervall för antal allvarligt skadade i vägtrafikolyckor2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of seriously injured road users is used both as an indicator of traffic safety trends in Sweden and in more specific studies of, for example, different road user groups. A seriously injured person is defined as a person who suffers injuries that lead to permanent medical impairment of at least 1 percent. The term very seriously injured is used as a complement and is defined correspondingly but refers to injuries that lead to permanent medical impairment of at least 10 percent. In practice, the level of impairment is not known at the time of the accident, and therefore the number of seriously and very seriously injured persons are forecasted. The basis for the forecasts are Strada, the national database for road traffic accidents in Sweden, and a method developed by Folksam (a Swedish insurance company) that estimates the risk that a person’s injuries will lead to permanent medical impairment in the future. The aim of this study is to present the size of the uncertainty of the forecasts for different subpopulations such as geographical areas, roads user groups, age and gender. The uncertainty of the forecasts is illustrated as forecasting intervals. It became clear during the study that derivation of the intervals was relatively easy for the case with one injury per person but considerably more difficult when the persons had a combination of several injuries. Therefore, the width of the intervals was determined using simulation instead of theoretical calculations.

  • 19.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Alkohol och droger i trafiken - var står vi idag?2012In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 89, no 6, p. 471-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rattfylleri är ett av de största trafiksäkerhetsproblemen i Sverige. I den här artikeln ges en översikt över den senaste tidens forskning vad gäller problemets omfattning, attityder till att köra rattfull och de åtgärder som erbjuds. Genomgången, som avser svenska förhållanden, visar att vi har mer kunskap om rattfylleri med avseende på alkohol än med avseende på droger. Forskningen visar att alkoholrattfylleri är ett större trafiksäkerhetsproblem än drograttfylleri men att även drograttfylleri är förenat med stora risker. Det är därför viktigt att förbättra kunskapen om droger i trafiken. Det är också viktigt att beakta att det bakom många rattfylleribrott finns människor med missbruksproblem och att rehabilitering därför bör ingå som en del av trafiksäkerhetsarbetet.

  • 20.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Drink drivers' views of a voluntary alcohol interlock program for drink driving offenders in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A permanent alcohol interlock program was introduced in Sweden in 2012. The program is voluntary and makes it possible for drivers that are apprehended by the police to keep their driver’s license if they install an alcohol interlock in their vehicle. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program and it applies to all types of driver’s licenses. The duration of the program is one or two years, depending on the severity of the drink driving offence. A previous study showed that about 30 percent of all drivers that had their license withdrawn due to drink driving applied for and was granted participation in the program, 10 percent were assigned to the one-year program and 20 percent to the two-year program. Moreover, the age groups 35–44, 45–54 and 55–64 have the highest participation rates (in relation to the total number of drink drivers), about 35 percent, while the youngest (≤24) and oldest (≥75) have participation rates of about 20 and 10 percent, respectively.

    The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge of the drink drivers’ views of the program, both participants and those who chose not to participate. More specifically, we were interested in why they have chosen or not chosen to participate in the program and their views on the application process, doctor visits and the handling of the interlocks. We also wanted to know if their health and drinking habits had changed after the drink driving offence.

  • 21.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Kartläggning av personskadeolyckor med fyrhjulingar på väg2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien har varit att kartlägga fyrhjulingsåkare som skadats i olyckor som skett på väg under perioden 2003–2013. Mer specifikt har syftet varit:

    • att beskriva egenskaper hos de skadade och andra omständigheter kring olyckan så som ålder, kön, misstanke om rattfylleri och hjälmanvändning
    • att, utifrån olycksbeskrivningen, analysera vad som orsakade olyckan
    • att analysera hur olyckans svårhetsgrad beror av generella egenskaper hos fordonet, vägen och föraren
    • att kartlägga vilka delar av kroppen som skadas.

    Kartläggningen har baseras på både polisrapporterade och sjukhusrapporterade olyckor i Strada och totalt har 1039 personer studerats.

  • 22.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Participation Rates in a Voluntary Alcohol Interlock Program for Drink Drivers in Sweden2016In: 21st International council on alcohol, drugs and traffic safety conference T2016: Conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After a long trial period, an alcohol interlock program was permanently introduced in Sweden in 2012. Participation in the program is voluntary and the duration of the program is one or two years, depending on the severity of the drink driving offence. An evaluation of the program during the trial period showed a participation rate of about 11%. Aim: The main aim of the study was to estimate the participation rate in the interlock program and evaluate if the changes made from the trial period had led to increased participation. Reasons for denied participation and the time between the drink driving offence and decision about participation in the program were also studied.

    A sample of about 3600 drivers who had their license withdrawn due to drink driving was investigated. The data includes age and gender, information about the drink driving offence and the application process.

    The participation rate in the permanent program is about 30%. The age group with the highest participation is drivers between 35 and 64 years old with about 35% participation. Moreover, the participation rate of drivers with BAC > 1 g/L is almost twice as high as the rate for drivers with BAC < 1 g/L.

    The study shows that the participation rate has increased from about 11% in the trial period to about 30% in the permanent program. Thus, the attempt of increasing the rate has been successful.

  • 23.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Rapportering från ett samverkansprojekt för bättre rattfylleristatistik: förslag till pilotstudie av rattfylleriets omfattning2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    The most important contribution to improved knowledge of the prevalence of drink-driving in Sweden is a sample survey where drivers are tested at randomly selected sites and time points. The prerequisites for such a study have been investigated in this project, which has been conducted in collaboration with the head of the traffic police in three counties (Södermanland, Östergötland and Örebro) and representatives from the National Board of Forensic Medicine. The main aim of the study was to propose a method of how to conduct the survey; a proposition of a pilot study is presented here. Other issues regarding the statistics from random breath tests, police reports from road traffic accidents, and driving under the influence of other drugs than alcohol is also discussed. The aim of the pilot study is partly to find out the prevalence of drink-driving among the car drivers in the selected counties, partly to test the methodology suggested in this report. It is not possible in practice to investigate the whole road network and to cover all hours of the day. Therefore, a number of limitations are suggested. Both the urban and rural network is limited to the most frequently used roads. All days a week will be observed, but the working hours of the traffic police restricts the study to the time between 7 and 23. About 95 percent of the total traffic volume is produced within this time frame. The study will be spread out during a whole year in order to cover all seasons. The total sample size is set to 25,000 tests. This number is set in consideration of the police capacity.

  • 24.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Rattfylleriets omfattning bland svårt skadade förare: En skattning baserad på polisens misstanke2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultaten i den här studien visar att bland de förare som misstänks för påverkan av alkohol eller annat ämne enligt Strada så har detta också bekräftats i 65 procent av fallen (konfidensintervall: 54-76 %). Detta framkommer när registreringen i Strada jämförts med uppgifter i olycksmaterial som erhållits av polisen. I resterande fall är det många gånger okänt om föraren varit rattfull eller inte och därför kan endast en miniminivå av andel rattfulla skattas.

    Andel rattfulla bland de svårt skadade personbilsförarna skattas till minst åtta procent. Motsvarande andel för motorcykelförare och mopedförare är sju respektive tio procent. Resultaten är alltså av samma storleksordning för alla dessa fordonsslag. Vidare visar resultaten att andel rattfulla bland de svårt skadade är högre på natten än på dagen och högre i singelolyckor än i kollisionsolyckor.

    Man kan också konstatera att polisen endast i mycket begränsad utsträckning verkar utnyttja den möjlighet som finns att begära blodprov från förare som varit inblandade i en trafikolycka, även om ingen misstanke om rattfylleribrott finns.

  • 25.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Skattning av rattfylleriets omfattning: metodfrågor och datakvalitet2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Drink-driving is one of the largest traffic safety problems in Sweden and a number of measures are taken to reduce the problem. However, drink-driving is only one of many problems and in the process of prioritising among traffic safety measures, different problems are assessed in relation to each other. It is therefore important to know the extent of the problem. The aim of this study has been to describe and examine different sources that are connected to drink-driving, and for each source elucidate methodological issues and data quality. Furthermore, the aim has been to assess the different sources' potential of estimating the extent of drink-driving in the general driving population. The results of the evaluation reveal data quality problems and inadequate reporting. Moreover, the task of estimating the size of the drink-driving problem is associated with a number of methodological difficulties. A number of suggestions for improving the present statistics are given at the end of the report.

  • 26.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ceder, Gunnel
    Rättsmedicinalverket, Linköping.
    Kronstrand, Robert
    Rättsmedicinalverket, Linköping.
    Förekomst av droger och läkemedel i trafik i Sverige: resultat från EU-projektet DRUID2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of illicit drugs and medicines in the driving population, i.e. among drivers on the road, was 2.5 per cent between the years 2006 and 2011 in Sweden. The prevalence of alcohol, illicit drugs and medicines among drivers killed in traffic the same years was 31.2 per cent. In comparison with other countries in the EU project DRUID, Sweden has the highest proportion of negative results, i.e. drivers without the presence of alcohol, drugs or medicine. This applies to both drivers on the road and drivers killed in traffic.

    The studies that form the basis of this report have been performed within the project DRUID - Driving under the influence of drugs, alcohol and medicine, which is a project within the EU's Sixth Framework Programme, which lasted five years (2006-2011). This report presents two sub-studies from the DRUID project. The aims of these studies were: - to study the prevalence of illicit drugs and medicines in the driving population (study among drivers on the road). - to study the prevalence of alcohol, illicit drugs and medicines among killed drivers (study of killed drivers).

    In the study among drivers on the road, saliva samples were collected. Toxicological results were analysed from 6,199 drivers in Södermanland, Örebro and Östergötland out of 10,223 drivers of passenger cars and vans that were stopped by the police in March 2008- February 2009. In the study of killed drivers we have toxicological results from 157 fatalities out of 178 drivers of passenger cars and vans that were killed in traffic accidents in 2008.

  • 27.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: Sammanfattande slutrapport2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since January 1, 2012, there is a permanent alcohol interlock program for drink driving offenders in Sweden. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program. The interlock program has been evaluated in three studies: a register-based study, a questionnaire study, and an interview study. This final report summarizes results and conclusions from all three studies.

    The aim of the evaluation was to estimate the participation rate, but also to increase the understanding of why one chooses or does not choose to participate and to study the individual's experience of the program. The results from the studies show that:

    • The participation rate of the program was about 30 percent.
    • Both participants and non-participants in the interlock program experienced an improved health when they were asked a while after the drink driving offence and they also reported areduced alcohol consumption.
    • The largest barrier to increase the participation rate in the program is the cost, but there arealso other reasons that prevent drivers to apply.
    • Many participants experienced shortcomings in the information from the Transport Agency,both regarding the application process and regarding the mandatory parts of the program.
    • About 31 percent of the participants in the two-year program had the diagnosis alcohol abuseor alcohol dependence.
  • 28.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Impact of Nonresponse and Weighting in a Swedish Survey2007In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 1993, p. 80-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from travel surveys, together with traffic monitoring programs, serve as a basis for policy decisions and evaluations. Correct interpretation of the survey results is therefore of vital importance, and the impact of different sources of error needs to be investigated. This paper presents a study of nonresponse errors in a Swedish travel survey. Survey methodologists have addressed the problem of nonresponse for a long time, and several methods have been developed to reduce possible bias. Particularly common are different weighting methods based on auxiliary information. However, the performance of these techniques is based on how well the chosen auxiliary variables can explain the response behavior. The aims of the present study were to (a) investigate whether the mobility of nonrespondents differs from the mobility of respondents and (b) determine whether weighting reduces possible nonresponse bias. A weighting technique called calibration was used. The travel survey was based on a mail questionnaire, and the response rate was about 53%. Nonrespondents were contacted by telephone and asked a selected number of questions from the original questionnaire. Results show that mobility did differ between respondents and nonrespondents for some of the travel modes. The effect of calibration was generally small and inconsistent; the bias was reduced in some cases and increased in others. Nevertheless, calibration is recommended if procedures for calculating the weights are readily available.

  • 29.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Varedian, Maria
    Vectura.
    Rattfylleriets omfattning: en metodstudie i Södermanlands, Örebro och Östergötlands län2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This report presents the results from a study with the aim of estimating the prevalence of drink driving in three Swedish counties, as well as testing the used method in practice. Data was collected by the police that conducted breath tests of drivers of passenger cars and light trucks on randomly selected road sections. The planned sample size was 25,000 drivers, but due to missing data, 22,937 drivers were finally used in the calculations. The study was conducted between 7 am and 11 pm all days of the week during the period June 2006 to May 2007. The estimated prevalence of drink driving is 0.24 % (0.15 %; 0.32 %) where the numbers in parenthesis is a 95 per cent confidence interval. The results show significant difference in the prevalence of drink driving between men and women (0.32 and 0.04 per cent). Differences between different age groups are also present; the prevalence is lower for youngest group (16-34 years) than for the two other groups (25-64 years and over 65 years). Drink driving also turned out to be more prevalent in the morning than in the afternoon/evening, 0.62 against 0.11 per cent. In general, the method worked well, but a few things need to be changed in a future study. For example, we must ensure that the control sites are safe for the policemen also in the dark and in bad weather. It is also necessary to discuss how the police can get sufficient resources to conduct the survey.

  • 30.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hellsten, Helena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Krockkuddar i bilen: konflikt mellan barns och vuxnas säkerhet?2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parents who transport their children in passenger vehicles have to face several questions of how to restrain the child properly and where to place the child. It is difficult to give unambiguous answers to these questions since a number of factors must be considered. The safest place for a child, given that a crash occurs, may not be suitable for other reasons. If you as a driver are alone in the car with a small child, you may want to place the child in the front passenger seat so you will be able to watch over it. The safety equipment of the vehicle is another important factor. The centre rear seat position can be a good place for a somewhat older child on a booster, but this requires that the position is equipped with a lap/shoulder belt and a head restraint. Since children should not be placed in front of an airbag that aims at protecting adults, the issue of transporting children have become even more complicated with the recent introduction of passenger side airbags. If you, nevertheless, want to place the child in the front passenger seat, the airbag must somehow be deactivated. A study of how the conflict between children and airbags are treated by different participants is presented in this report

  • 31.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Co-operation between police and social treatment services offering treatment to drink and drug drivers: experience in Sweden2011In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe and analyze a measure that has been introduced in Sweden with the objective of quickly offering treatment for the alcohol or drug problems suspected drink or drug drivers may have. The goal of the measure is that every suspected drink or drug driver shall, as soon as apprehended by the police, be offered contact with the social services or the dependency care and treatment service, which can offer a consultation and, if needed, suitable treatment.

    Method: Interviews and questionnaire surveys, as well as forms that describe the treatment received by each individual case.

    Results: About 20 percent of all those who receive the offer from the police accept contact with the social services or the care and treatment service, and approximately 40 percent of these also attend the consultation. There is a favorable fundamental attitude to the method among the participating authorities. However, some shortcomings in application are revealed. One example concerns drug drivers who are offered contact with the social services or the care and treatment service to a considerably lesser extent than drink drivers. Another neglected group are the people who are at first suspected of drink driving but are later found to have an alcohol concentration below the legal limit. Compared with those who have an alcohol concentration above the legal limit, this group is offered contact to a lesser extent and also have a lower propensity to accept the offer.

    Conclusions: The results indicate a strong support for the method from involved authorities, but participation could be improved by giving more attention to neglected groups.

  • 32.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Matstoms, Pontus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kjellman, Per
    Förslag till metod för uppskattning av trafikarbete: underlag till utvärdering av miljöavgifter i Stockholm. förstudie2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I augusti 2004 fick VTI i uppdrag av Gatu- och fastighetskontoret i Stockholm (GFK) att lämna förslag på en konkret metod för uppskattning av trafikarbetet i Stockholm. Föreliggande rapport redovisar resultatet av denna förstudie. Vid utvärderingen av försöket med miljöavgifter kommer förändringen av den totala trafikens omfattning (trafikarbetet) i Stockholms län och Stockholms innerstad att vara av centralt intresse. Att exakt ange trafikarbetets storlek, och dess förändring, är i praktiken inte möjligt. Det skulle kräva registrering av alla fordonsrörelser inom det studerade området. Istället måste metoder för uppskattning av trafikarbetet användas. I rapporten har två sådana metoder beskrivits och analyseras utifrån behovet av trafikmätningar och den noggrannhet som kan förväntas i beräknade uppskattningar. Baserat på de analyser som genomförts inom ramen för denna förstudie föreslås att trafikarbetet i Stockholms län uppskattas med den modellbaserade metoden enligt avsnitt 3.

  • 33.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tjernkvist, Mats
    Matstoms, Pontus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Skattning av trafikarbetet i Stockholms innerstad och Stockholms län: underlag till utvärdering av Stockholmsförsöket2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    As a part of the evaluation of the Stockholm trials, the traffic volume in April 2005 will be compared with the traffic volume in April 2006. The results from the before study is presented in this paper. The total number of vehicle-kilometres produced within the inner city of Stockholm and in Stockholm County was estimated, both for the morning rush hour period (between 6 am and 9 am) and the full twenty-four hours. Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays were here regarded as weekdays. The estimated traffic volume includes all motor vehicles, except mopeds and motorcycles. The estimation of the traffic volume in the inner city is based on a survey where traffic flow has been observed at randomly selected road sites. The results are presented with 95 per cent confidence intervals.

    Weekday 2 185 000 km +/- 153 000 km

    Morning rush hour 387 700 km +/- 31 900 km

    The corresponding estimates for the County are calculated with a model-based method where the results have been adjusted to observed traffic flow. This method does not provide confidence intervals; therefore, only estimates of the total number of vehicle-kilometres are presented.

    Weekday 24 320 000 km

    Morning rush hour 5 235 000 km

  • 34.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. VTI.
    Förslag på metod för att mäta den subjektiva upptäcktsrisken med avseende på rattfylleribrott2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det här projektet har varit att föreslå en metod för att utvärdera förändringar i polisens arbetssätt med avseende på rattfylleriövervakning. Huvudsakligen handlar det om att mäta den subjektiva upptäcktsrisken, men utvärdering av polisens arbetssätt och kommunikation föreslås också. Det finns två viktiga delar i polisens strategi för övervakning: kontroller och kommunikation. Den sammantagna effekten av detta behöver utvärderas men man bör även titta på de olika delarna var för sig. I detta pm föreslås därför en utvärdering med tre olika delstudier. För var och en av delstudierna förutsetts att man gör både före- och eftermätningar i dels det område där arbetssättet förändras och dels i ett kontrollområde. Vi är dock medvetna om detta är en ideal situation som kanske inte är möjlig i praktiken. Om en utvärdering kommer att genomföras kan därför förslaget behöva modifieras för att passa de förutsättningar som då råder. De tre olika delstudierna är: Delstudie 1: Utvärdering av polisens implementering Den här delstudien är uppdelad i två nivåer där syftet med nivå 1 är att studera hur polisen ändrat sitt arbetssätt och syftet med nivå 2 är att studera vad som fungerat bra och mindre bra i implementeringen från polisens perspektiv. Nivå 1 är nödvändig för att tolka resultatet av övriga delar i utvärderingar och nivå 2 är en fördjupad utvärdering. Exempel på data som föreslås samlas in är: var och när kontroller genomförs, resultatet av kontrollerna samt informationsspridning till allmänheten. Dessutom föreslås intervjuer med poliser på olika befattningar som deltagit i implementeringen. Delstudie 2: Enkätstudie För att mäta den subjektiva upptäcktsrisken hos förare i allmänhet föreslås en enkätstudie där ett frågeformulär skickas ut via post till ett slumpmässigt urval ur körkortsregistret eller befolkningsregistret (frågorna ska också kunna besvaras som en webbenkät). Målgruppen är personer som har körkort för minst en typ av motorfordon och som också framfört något fordon det senaste året. Ett förslag på utformning av en enkät med 14 frågor har tagits fram. Två frågor behandlar den subjektiva upptäcktsrisken, en som avser upptäcktsrisk på en övergripande nivå och en som avser upptäcktsrisk i fem specifika situationer. Resten av enkäten består av bakgrundsfrågor och frågor om bland annat riskmedvetenhet, normer, om man själv eller någon man känner har blivit stoppad i en kontroll och om man fått information om kontroller via media. Delstudie 3: Utvärdering av kommunikation i sociala medier Syftet med den här delstudien är att bedöma hur väl polisen lyckas nå ut med sitt budskap. Vi föreslår att man samlar in följande typ av information: omfattningen av polisens aktiviteter på sociala medier, spridning, innehåll och karaktär på kommentarerna. Det huvudsakliga syftet med utvärderingen är att mäta subjektiv upptäcktsrisk hos förarpopulationen och jämföra om den har förändrats före och efter att polisen har genomfört förändringar som rör rattfylleriövervakningen. För att uppnå syftet är det nödvändigt att genomföra åtminstone nivå 1 i delstudie 1 (utvärdering av polisens implementering) och delstudie 2 (enkätstudie). Övriga delar är dock också mycket viktiga för att förstå helheten och vi förordar därför att alla delar i utvärderingen genomförs.

  • 35.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Injured motorcyclists in Sweden: Where do the crashes occur and what factors influence the injury severity?2018In: Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA 2018, April 16-19, 2018, Vienna, Austria, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends in traffic fatalities show that the development for motorcyclists has fallen behind other road users. It is therefore crucial to improve traffic safety for this road user group. The study analyses where in the road network motorcyclists are injured and whether injury severity differs between parts of the network. Injury severity is also examined in relation to other variables such as age, gender, and motorcycle engine performance (i.e., power-to-weight ratio). The results indicate that motorcyclists, relatively more often than passenger car occupants, are injured on low-volume roads that are not subject to any major safety improvements. It is therefore crucial to also encourage other safety measures targeting rider behaviour and vehicle safety. Moreover, analyses of injury severity indicate that, in multiple-vehicle crashes involving motorcycles, the odds of being killed or severely injured are lower on roads with median barriers (i.e., motorways and 2+1 roads) than on two-lane roads.

  • 36.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Skadade motorcyklister: en analys av var i vägnätet som motorcyklister skadas och skadornas svårhetsgrad2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the study was to examine where on the road network motorcyclists are injured. Accidents involving four-wheelers (ATVs, quad bikes) have also been studied, although to a lesser degree. The study is based on police reported injury accidents in Sweden during the period 2003–2012. The results show that motorcyclists, to a greater degree than car occupants, are injured within built-up areas. The same is not true for drivers of four-wheelers. Injury patterns are distributed in the same way as for car occupants between built-up and non built-up areas. Killed and severely injured motorcyclists are overrepresented in accidents at intersections when compared to occupants of passenger cars. The opposite is true for injured four-wheeler drivers who are overrepresented on road sections. The exposure of motorcycle traffic on different parts of the road network is largely unknown. It is therefore, in general, not possible to calculate injury risks. However, when compared to other roads, there seems to be an increased risk of being killed or severely injured on roads with a 70 km/h speed limit.

  • 37.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ringdahl, Rasmus
    Linköpings universitet.
    Utvärdering av hastighetsmätningar med blåtandssensorer: jämförelse med data från MCS (Motorway Control System)2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to compare vehicle speed measurements using Bluetooth detection with radar measurements from a Motorway Control System (MCS). Of particular interest was to evaluate whether the method could be used in before-after studies of road safety measures such as speed cameras or other speed reducing measures.

    The results from the study show that:

    • The penetration rate varies between 12 and 16 percent depending on the site and whether it is a weekday or weekend.

    • Bluetooth measurements provide stable results with respect to average vehicle speed at diurnal level. Comparisons with MCS data show that the results of the two methods follow each other well and the difference between methods is about the same from day to day.

    • Speed measurements with Bluetooth sensors are judged to be sufficiently reliable, on the evaluated road type, to be used in before-after studies of various road safety measures.

  • 38.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kvalitetsgranskning av TSU92-, en undersökning om resvanor: en studie av urvalsfel, bortfallsfel och mätfel2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    TSU92- is a travel survey that started in 1992 with the aim to increase the knowledge of travels made by unprotected road-users. The survey is still focused on these groups, but questions of other transport modes are also included. An evaluation of the quality of the survey is presented in this report and measures to improve the quality are suggested. The study is limited to sampling errors, nonresponse errors, and measurement errors. The evaluation has been conducted as three separate studies. The aim of the study of sampling errors was to establish variance formulae for estimating the size of the errors and to calculate these variances. The aim of the study of nonresponse error was to examine whether respondents and nonrespondents differ with respect to travel habits and, to examine whether calibration reduces possible nonresponse errors. Calibration is a weighting method that are used to compensate for nonresponse. A follow up study of the nonrespondents was conducted to answer these questions. The aim of the study of measurement errors was to examine the extent of the problem with incorrectly filled-in questionnaires, and to try to understand how respondents think when the answer the questions.

  • 39.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Cassani, Mirella
    KITE.
    Amantini, Aladino
    KITE.
    Lai, Frank
    University of Leeds.
    Kecklund, Lena
    MTO Säkerhet AB.
    Arvidsson, Marcus
    MTO Säkerhet AB.
    Results from the analysis and input to the development and validation of the statistical models2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of Deliverable 5.1 of the ITERATE project is to present results of analyses made of the data collected in the ITERATE WP4 driving simulator experiments. The ITERATE WP4 driving simulator experiments consisted of train and car driving experiments carried out on a portable car/train driving simulator platform and in full scale car and train driving simulators. The analyses conducted and presented in this deliverable consist of hypothesis testing, cluster analysis and development of a procedure for estimation of parameters of relationships in the WP6 UMD simulation model. Findings from the analyses show that country was found to be an important factor in both the car and train driving experiment. Significant effects of the factor workload were also established in many of the events analysed. The conclusion of comparisons between the data collected in the portable and full scale simulators is that the ITERATE portable driving simulator platform is a suitable tool to studying underlying factors controlling driver behaviour at least for the car diving. However, there were differences between the portable and full scale train simulators. These differences have to be considered in later stages of the project. The next step within the ITERATE project is to estimate relevant relationships in the WP6 UMD simulation model based on the findings of the analyses presented in this deliverable. The analyses presented will also be important as inspiration for other studies outside of the present project with the ITERATE driving simulator dataset as an important source of data.

  • 40.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Wallhagen, Susanne
    NTF.
    Drink drivers’ views of a voluntary alcohol interlock programme for drink driving offenders in Sweden2019In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 124, p. 210-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A permanent alcohol interlock programme was introduced in Sweden in 2012. The programme is voluntary and allows drink driving offenders to keep their driving licenses if they install alcohol interlocks in their vehicles. The duration of the programme is one or two years, depending on the severity of the drink driving offence. This study aims to improve our knowledge of drink drivers’ views of the programme, among both participants and those who chose not to participate. These views were collected through paper questionnaires mailed to the drink drivers’ residences. Of 1550 questionnaires mailed to participants and 1492 to non-participants, 689 and 408 were completed, for response rates of 45% among participants and 28% among non-participants. For participants who were employed or had their own business (n = 513), the main reasons for choosing the alcohol interlock were the need to operate a vehicle at work (69.6%, 95% CI: 65.6–73.6%) and to get to/from work (69.4%, 95% CI: 65.4–73.4%). For those not working (n = 153), the main reasons for participating were that the driving license was required to have a social life and meaningful leisure time (79.7%, 95% CI: 73.3–86.2%) and for shopping (65.4%, 95% CI: 57.7–73.0%). For non-participants, the main reasons for not applying were programme costs (64.4%, 95% CI: 59.5–69.3%), being afraid of being considered alcoholics (37.1%, 95% CI: 32.2–42.1%), and doing well without a license (26.5%, 95% CI: 22.0–31.0%). The results also indicate improved health after the drink driving offence. The largest improvement was found in participants in the two-year programme, in which the proportion of respondents who felt good or very good increased by 39.4% (95% CI: 34.2–44.5%) compared to before the drink driving offence.

  • 41.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kronstrand, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Förslag till förbättringar av rattfylleristatistiken i Sverige: underlag till uppdrag att förbättra beskrivningen av vägtrafikolyckornas hälsopåverkan2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In June 2006, the Swedish Road Administration was mandated by the Government to improve the description of the health effects of road traffic accidents. Under the terms of this mandate, a proposal was to be made as to how the recording of alcohol and drug related accidents can be improved, and how sample surveys of the prevalence of drivers under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs should be performed. This note describes the data used for these parts of the mandate. One common condition for both these parts is that possible screening methods for drivers under the influence of narcotics should be studied. In order to measure the proportion of traffic mileage travelled by drink/drug drivers, the investigation should be organised as a statistical sample survey where the police check drivers at sites selected at random. As regards selection in time, it may be reasonable to use quota sampling. In the present situation, we do not consider that it is possible to carry out regular surveys of drug driving. If the regulations are amended so that routine controls can be performed, and if the police begin to use screening instruments for drug tests, regular surveys can be performed. These surveys can then be integrated with the investigations regarding alcohol, by requiring the stopped drivers to give samples for both alcohol and for drugs.

  • 42.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kontrolldiagram för månadsvis uppföljning av antal dödade i vägtrafiken2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The number of fatalities in road traffic accidents and the number of fatal accidents are important indicators of the traffic safety situation. The monthly values are, however, difficult to interpret due to large random fluctuations. The aim of this project have been to develop methods that facilitates analysis and interpretation of these data. Control and prognosis charts are presented in the report. The control charts have an upper and a lower limit, and a value outside these limits can be interpreted as a real departure from the prevailing level. Control charts for monthly values are useful to determine if the outcome a specific month is unusually high or low. These diagrams are, however, not good at detecting small changes during a longer time period. They are therefore complemented by charts of the total number of fatalities from the beginning of the year. Prognosis charts are included as a complement to the control charts. These charts are based on so called ARIMA models and can be used for data with autocorrelation. At the beginning of each calendar year, prognosis and prognosis intervals are calculated for the entire year. An outcome outside the prognosis intervals is interpreted as a change in the prevailing pattern. Prognosis charts are applied to twelve-month moving sums of the number of fatalities.

  • 43.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Alcohol- and drug-related fatal accidents in Sweden: where do they occur?2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This conference paper presents an accident study investigating where fatal alcohol- and drug-related accidents occur with respect to traffic environment (i.e., urban versus rural), road type, speed limit, annual average daily traffic flow, and road category. The study uses data from in-depth studies of fatal accidents and from the Swedish National Road Database. Accident data from the 2006–2009 period are used.

    The results indicate that the proportion of all fatal accidents that are alcohol-related is about the same on urban (21%) and rural roads (23%). However, the proportion of alcohol-related fatal accidents is higher on ordinary roads (i.e., two-lane single carriageways with no central reservation or median barrier; 23%) than on other types of rural state roads (11%). On ordinary roads, alcohol-related fatal accidents are more common on roads with speed limits of 60–70 km/h (35%) than on roads with speed limits of 80–100 km/h (14%) and more common on second- and third-class county roads (32%) than on roads in other categories (less than 20%). The alcohol-related accident risk follows the same pattern, i.e., the accident risk is highest where the proportion of alcohol-related accidents is highest.

     It was also found that the distribution of drug-related fatal accidents among various parts of the road network is more similar to the distribution of fatal accidents involving sober drivers than to alcohol-related fatal accidents. The present results can be used by the police in strategic planning of the surveillance. 

  • 44.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Analys av rattfylleriolyckor: var och när sker olyckorna?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Minor roads shouldn’t be left unattended by the police when surveying drink-driving and extensive surveillance is needed during nighttime. These are the main conclusions of a VTI study concerning where and when alcohol-related traffic accidents occur.

    The results of the study show that the proportion of alcohol-related fatal accidents of all accidents is about the same on urban and rural roads. Moreover, the proportion of alcohol related accidents is larger on ordinary roads, i.e. two-lane single carriageway with no central reservation, than on other road types on rural state roads.

    Within the ordinary roads, alcohol-related accidents are more common on roads with speed limit 60-–70 km/h than on roads with speed limit 80-100 km/h and more common on second-class and third-class county roads than on other road categories. A similar pattern is seen in the results for severe accidents, but the differences with respect to speed classes and road categories are not as pronounced as for fatal accidents.

    The results also show that 52 per cent of the alcohol related fatal accidents occur between 10 pm and 7 am and that the accident risk is considerably higher during the night than during the day. Drivers under the age of 25 are found in 53 per cent of all alcohol related fatal accidents during the night but only in 14 per cent during the morning and 10 per cent during the afternoon.

  • 45.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Rattfylleri vid färjelägen: Analys av data från polisens bevisinstrument2014Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Utvärdering av alkolås efter rattfylleri: enkätstudie2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A permanent alcohol interlock program for drink drivers came into force on 1 January 2012. The Swedish Transport Agency is responsible for the program that applies to all types of driver's licenses. The program includes both a one-year and a two-year alternative. The two-year program applies to offenders that have committed a severe drink driving offence (BAC > 1 g/L, the legal limit in Sweden is 0.2 g/L), have an earlier offence within the previous five years, or have the diagnosis alcohol use disorder or alcohol dependence. All others are assigned to the one-year program.

    Several aspects of the alcohol interlock program are evaluated at VTI. This report presents the results of a survey in which 1,100 questionnaires were answered by both participants and non-participants. The response rate was 45 percent of the participants in the interlock program and 28 percent of the non-participants. The average age of the respondents was just over 50 years, with marginal differences between participants and non-participants. The proportion of women among the respondents in the program was 13 percent, compared to 20 percent of the respondents without alcolock.

    It is possible to apply for a license with the alcolock condition directly after the drink driving offence and the withdrawal of the driver’s license. On average, it took little more than three months from the drink driving offence until the respondent received his or her conditioned license in the one-year program, and little more than five months for respondents in the two-year program. This time depends on how long after the drink driving offence the participants made their application, but there is also a request for faster processing times at the Transport Agency.

  • 47.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Droger och mediciner: är det ett problem i svensk trafik?2012In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 89, no 6, p. 480-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkohol i kombination med bilkörning är ett relativt väl utforskat område men när det gäller andra ämnen är kunskapen bristfällig. Syftet med den här studien är att kartlägga omfattningen av illegala droger och mediciner i svensk trafik. Resultaten visar att alkohol är det största problemet ur trafiksäkerhetssynpunkt men att det också finns stora olycksrisker förknippade med illegala droger. Även användning av mediciner medför förhöjda olycksrisker men tolkningen av dessa resultat försvåras av att vi inte vet om medicinerna använts enligt läkares förskrivning eller ej. Här behövs mer forskning för att utreda vid vilken användning mediciner blir ett problem i trafiken.

  • 48.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Tunga lastbilars däckanvändning och olycksrisk vintertid2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, it is today regulated that winter tyres must be used on the drive axle of heavy vehicles (total weight in excess of 3,500 kg) during the winter season period, December 1 to March 31, in case of winter conditions. This requirement is based entirely on accessibility, and it is considered that winter tyres on the drive axle provides better conditions for heavy vehicles to go forward in icy and snowy conditions. Previous accident risk studies have not been able to demonstrate that the use of winter tyres instead of summer tyres for heavy vehicles in winter could lead to reduced risk of accidents. In Norway and Finland, the regulations on tyre use for heavy vehicles in winter time has recently been revised. Prior to a discussion of possible regulations in Sweden on winter tyres also on other axles, there is reason to update the previous accident risk studies. The purpose of this study has been to calculate the risk of accidents on ice/snow conditions for comparison between summer and winter tires for heavy trucks. The study was performed according to the method previously used in the VTI studies conducted in 2000 and 2008. This meant that two questionnaires were sent out by the end of the winter 2015/2016. One survey to analyse the vehicle mileage on ice/snow conditions with different combinations of tires, and one questionnaire directed solely to the vehicle owners whose vehicles according Strada during the winter season have been involved in an injury accident. Accident risk calculations were limited to vehicles with a total weight of 16 tons.

  • 49.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ceder, Gunnel
    National Board for Forensic Medicine, Linköping.
    Woxler, Per
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Kronstrand, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning.
    Effects of d-amphetamine on simulated driving performance before and after sleep deprivation2012In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 222, no 3, p. 401-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stimulant drugs are commonly abused and also used to promote wakefulness, yet their effects on driving performance during sleep deprivation have not been thoroughly researched in experimental studies. The aims were to assess the effects on fundamental driving parameters during simulated driving of two doses of d-amphetamine and further to assess the interaction between d-amphetamine and sleep deprivation. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment including 18 healthy male volunteers was conducted. The participants felt more alert when taking a dose of d-amphetamine than when taking placebo, and the effect was stronger for the higher dose. However, the data did not show any evidence that taking d-amphetamine prevented the subjects from becoming successively sleepier during the night. A significant main effect of the dose was found for three out of the five primary indicators where the lower dose led to improved driving. These indicators were crossing-car reaction time, and coherence and delay from a car-following event. Regarding sleep deprivation, a main effect was found for four of the primary indicators and three of the secondary indicators. The results showed overall impaired driving with respect to standard deviation of lateral position and delay in reaction time when the sleep-deprived conditions were compared to the alert condition. We found no interactions between dose and sleep deprivation for any of the performance indicators. Our results suggest that administration of d-amphetamine does not compensate for impairment of driving due to fatigue. The positive effects of 10 mg were not further improved or even sustained when increasing the dose to 40 mg.

  • 50.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utvärdering av projektet Nationell samverkan mot alkohol och droger i trafiken enligt Skelleftemodellen: syntesrapport2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Skellefte Model is a project whose purpose is to reduce the number of repeated drunk driving offences by improving cooperation between the police, social services, addiction treatment systems, county administrative boards, public prosecutors, judges and the criminal justice system. The project's key concept is that suspected drunk drivers must come into contact with municipal social services or be taken care of by the county council addiction treatment system as quickly as possible, and preferably within 24 hours after being apprehended and questioned by the police. The evaluation indicates that the Skellefte Model is socio-economically beneficial. A majority of those who are working in the project also believe that the model works well, but that there are numerous problems, such as administrative problems and routines, a need to better embed the model among administrators, etc. The evaluation also shows that there is room for improvement in the handling of drugged drivers. The results differ greatly from county to county. The inter-county differences are likely due to factors such as when the project began and discrepancies in terms of the application of routines, motivation and embedment among employees. They may also be attributable to some extent to the fact that some aspects of the Skellefte Model are being applied in different ways and adapted to disparate local and regional conditions.

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