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  • 1.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys .
    Landscape heritage objects' effect on driving: a combined driving simulator and questionnaire study.2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 62, p. 168-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the literature, landscape (panoramas, heritage objects e.g. landmarks) affects people in various ways. Data are primarily developed by asking people (interviews, photo sessions, focus groups) about their preferences, but to a lesser degree by measuring how the body reacts to such objects. Personal experience while driving a car through a landscape is even more rare.

    In this paper we study how different types of objects in the landscape affect drivers during their drive. A high-fidelity moving-base driving simulator was used to measure choice of speed and lateral position in combination with stress (heart rate measure) and eye tracking. The data were supplemented with questionnaires. Eighteen test drivers (8 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 37 were recruited. The test drivers were exposed to different new and old types of landscape objects such as 19th century church, wind turbine, 17th century milestone and bus stop, placed at different distances from the road driven.

    The findings are in some respect contradictory, but it was concluded that that 33% of the test drivers felt stressed during the drive. All test drivers said that they had felt calm at times during the drive but the reason for this was only to a minor degree connected with old and modern objects. The open landscape was experienced as conducive to acceleration. No significant differences could be observed concerning the test drivers' gaze between old or modern objects, but a significant difference was observed between the test drivers' gaze between road stretches with faraway objects and stretches without objects.

  • 2.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Crash Barriers and Driver Behavior: A Simulator Study2013In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 874-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study examines how drivers experience a conventional W-beam guardrail (metal crash barrier) along both sides of narrow versus wider roads (single carriageway with 2 lanes) in terms of stress, feelings, and driving patterns and whether subjective experience concurs with the actual driving patterns captured by the quantitative data.

    Methods: The study used different methods to capture data, including the VTI Driving Simulator III (speed and lateral vehicle position) in conjunction with electrocardiogram (ECG) data on heart rate variability (HRV) and questionnaires (oral during driving and written after driving). Eighteen participants-8 men and 10 women-were recruited for the simulator study and the simulator road section was 10 km long.

    Results: Driving speeds increased slightly on the wider road and on the road with a crash barrier, and the lateral driving position was nearer to the road center on the narrower road and on the road with a crash barrier. The HRV data did not indicate that participants experienced greater stress due to road width or due to the presence of a crash barrier. Participant experience captured in the oral questionnaires suggested that road width did not affect driver stress or driving patterns; however, the written questionnaire results supported the simulator data, indicating that a wider road led to increased speed. None of the participants felt that crash barriers made them feel calmer.

    Conclusions: We believe that there is a possibility that the increased speed on roads with crash barriers may be explained by drivers’ sense of increased security. This study demonstrates that an experimental design including experience-based data captured using both a simulator and questionnaires is productive. It also demonstrates that driving simulators can be used to study road features such as crash barriers. It seems more than likely that features such as street lamps, signs, and landscape objects could be tested in this way. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 3.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Does the official strategy protect or destroy our cultural heritage?: corrosion of archaeological artefacts exposed to de-icing salt in Sweden2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    When new roads are built today, the Swedish official strategy is to leave in situ the cultural layers that are not directly affected by the road construction, rather than to excavate the entire layer even if it stretches outside the verge of the planned road. This strategy has its roots in the Act concerning Ancient Monuments and Finds and is built on the assumption that the soil layers protect the archaeological artefacts far better than the national archives and museum shelves. The cultural layers are looked upon as a national archive in situ. However, recently excavated metal artefacts generally exhibit greater deterioration than those excavated many years ago, implying that recent pollution is responsible for accelerating the corrosion. Unfortunately, the de-icing salt used in winter maintenance operations does not stay on the road surface, where it has its desired effects on traffic safety and accessibility, but is transported - by different mechanisms - to the sides of the road where it may have undesired effects on e.g. vegetation, soil and groundwater, and possibly also on archaeological artefacts (metal, wood, cloth, bone, leather etc). The mechanisms responsible for the roadside exposure to salt are influenced by many factors such as wind, road surface condition, topography and surrounding vegetation. In many cases the salt will spread several tens of meters from the road, and in the worst cases raised levels of salt may be found up to some hundred meters from the road. When transported by groundwater, salt may be moved very far and may reach cultural layers in discharge areas where the ground water reaches the soil surface layers. This paper describes the problem of exposure to de-icing salt and the possible corrosion of archaeological artefacts with reference to a literature review and suggests some ways in which the extent of the suggested problem can be investigated by field studies under semi-controlled conditions and by a GIS survey.

  • 4.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Uppföljning av miljökonsekvenser av svenska väg- och järnvägsprojekt2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppföljning av miljökonsekvenser har blivit allt vanligare sedan 1995. Det ständigt pågående utvecklingsarbetet med uppföljning av miljökonsekvenser, vid Vägverket och Banverket, visar många positiva resultat. Bland annat har flera genomgripande uppföljningsprogram tagits fram för några vägobjekt, även om enstaka uppföljningsformuleringar i miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar (MKB) och arbetsplaner/järnvägsplaner fortfarande dominerar.

    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI) har studerat ca 70 uppföljningsarbeten, producerade under 1990-talet, huvudsakligen från 1996 och framåt. Materialet har eftersökts vid Vägverkets regionkontor Sydöst, Väst och Mitt samt inom hela Banverket. Det har varit svårt och tidskrävande att få tillgång till relevant material. För att underlätta eftersökningen har dessutom en rad initierade personer vid Vägverkets regionkontor kontaktats.

    Några av de viktigare slutsatserna är att:

    • det sedan 1995 har blivit vanligare med uppföljningsformuleringar, 
    • uppföljning inte självklart omfattar såväl byggskede som tiden efter färdigställande,
    • uppgifter om före-data är ovanliga,
    • de vanligaste uppföljningsparametrarna är vatten, buller, djur och landskapsbild,
    • mätmetoder sällan anges,
    • kompetenskrav sällan anges,
    • fastställda statistiska krav sällan anges,
    • syftet med uppföljningen sällan anges, och att
    • kommunikation med olika aktörsgrupper såsom allmänhet är en ovanlighet.

    Det material som insamlats, även om det är magert, kommer att kunna användas som en utgångspunkt i såväl upprättande av en handbok för uppföljning i samband med MKB, som vid utvecklandet av ett informationssystem om uppföljning.

  • 5.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bedömning av skada på bevarandeintressen: en metodutveckling, huvudrapport2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Assessment of damage to heritage assets is often a weak element in

    environmental impact assessments (EIA). General method development is needed

    in this respect as support for the authors of analyses and descriptions for

    road projects. The task of the project Assessment of damage to heritage

    assets was to develop a method which can assess damage to protected areas for

    nature, culture or outdoor activities. The types of areas which have been

    studied are areas of national interest and Natura 2000 areas. The method has

    been developed with reference to a major review of e.g. Swedish, European and

    supranational handbook and educational literature, investigation material

    from infrastructure projects, and current guidelines and laws. The method is

    designed as a checklist which deals with a number of planning stages, i.e. a

    number of questions each of which must be answered before proceeding to the

    end of the checklist where an assessment - no damage, damage or pronounced

    damage - has to be made. At the same time, those completing the checklist

    must also answer a number of relevant questions in order to motivate their

    standpoint regarding the assessment of damage, both to themselves and to

    others. The method has been tested on a newly produced EIA and has been

    judged by external reviewers to work well.

  • 6.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bedömning av skada på bevarandeintressen: ett kunskapsunderlag inför en metodutveckling2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of damage to heritage assets is often a weak element in environmental impact assessments (EIA). General method development is needed in this respect as support for the authors of analyses and descriptions for road projects. The task of the project Assessment of damage to heritage assets was to develop a method which can assess damage to protected areas for nature, culture or outdoor activities. The types of areas which have been studied are areas of national interest and Natura 2000 areas.

    The study is based on a major review of e.g. Swedish, European and supranational handbook or educational literature, investigation material from infrastructure projects, and current guidelines and laws. From this review, the following aspects were highlighted: the environmental aspects which are listed as capable of being damaged, the way damage is assessed, the way environmental pressure, change in environmental state and related impacts are described, the evaluatory principles to be used, and the legal basis for the conservation of assets deemed worthy of conservation. These aspects have been used as building blocks in constructing a method.  

  • 7.
    Antonson, Hans (red.)
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportrelaterad miljökvalitet: rapport från workshop den 10-11 september 20012001Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 10–11 september 2001 möttes 31 representanter från departement, myndigheter, forskningsfinansiärer och forskarsamhället på Scandic hotell Hasselbacken i Stockholm för att lyssna till föredragningar om och diskutera kring begreppet transportrelaterad miljökvalitet.Initiativet till workshopen togs av VTI (Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut) genom en delansökan i en bred ansökan kallad Tema miljökvalitet ställd till Vägverket, Banverket och KFB.Workshopens syfte var att diskutera begreppet miljökvalitet i relation till transportsektorn och att rekognosera intresset för bildandet av ett nätverk för transportrelaterad miljökvalitet. För att underlätta urvalsarbetet och göra workshopen hanterbar inbjöds ett antal gäster från departement, myndigheter, forskningsfinansiärer och forskarsamhället som alla hade relevanta kunskaper och erfarenheter inom området.

  • 8.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Klimatanpassning av vägkonstruktion, drift och underhåll2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global climate change is a reality and affecting society and transport systems. Climate change adaptation of transport systems will make the means of transportation more resilient and decrease the risk and magnitude of disruptions. Generally, climate change adaptations in road construction, operation and maintenance will need relatively large changes, but there is a shortage of the specific knowledge required as to what steps need to be taken, when and where, before measures can actually be implemented. Since climate change effects vary among Sweden's climatic zones, the impact of climate change on the road behavior and longevity is extremely difficult to predict. The need for winter maintenance in Sweden will generally decrease due to the warmer climate. Ploughing frequency will probably decrease as well, but preparedness should not be reduced too much since occasions with more extreme instances will increase. In order to succeed in making the road transport system resilient to climate change, we conclude that there is a need to develop more knowledge about the impact on the road infrastructure system as well as the operation and maintenance of the system including how to adapt through different types of variable and flexible climate adaptation measures and the effects of extreme weather events.

  • 9.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure.
    The impact of climate change on the use of anti- and de-icing salt in Sweden2012In: Transportation Research Circular: Winter Maintenance and Surface Transportation Weather, 2012, p. -10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The future needs for winter maintenance will probably be influenced by the climate change in different ways in different parts of the world. As Sweden is a country with several climate zones, the influence of climate change on winter maintenance will therefore differ between regions within the country. To understand the influence of climate change on the future needs of salt consumption in winter maintenance, modeled road weather data were calculated in the IRWIN project (a joint research project through ERA-NET ROAD funded by the 6th Framework Program of the European Commission), where climate change scenarios from ECHAM5 (the fifth generation of the European Centre Hamburg Model general circulation model from the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology) were combined with field data from the road weather information system in Sweden.

    These modeled road weather data were used in project KLIVIN (the study presented here) in three Swedish regions (Gothenburg, Stockholm, and Sundsvall) and was combined with the Swedish winter severity index in order to calculate the trends of future salt needs. In this study the needs of salt for each of the three investigated regions were calculated in 30-year periods between 1970 and 2100. The results show that salt use related to snowfall will decrease in all three regions, while the salt use related to temperature will increase in the northernmost region (Sundsvall) and show a small decrease in the two other regions (Gothenburg and Stockholm).

  • 10.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    De-icing salt and roadside environment: Strategies for impact analyses2002In: PIARC 2002 XIth International Winter Road Congress 28-31 January 2002 - Sapporo (Japan): Reprints from proceedings of oral presentations, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2002, p. 8-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Impact of de-icing salt on roadside vegetation: A literature review1998Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Winter maintenance and the roadside environment2013In: Ekologija severnych territorij: materialy meždunarodnogo kongressa : 17-20 janvarja 2013 g., 2013, p. 171-175Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Patterns of residual salt on road surface: Case study2005In: Transportation Research Circular E-C063: Sixth International Symposium on Snow Removal and Ice Control Technology, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council , 2005, p. 602-608Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    A field study was performed in order to investigate the patterns of residual salt on a road surface and the mechanisms involved in transporting the salt off the road into the roadsides. The residual salt was measured in nine segments across a road and repeated in 2-24 hour intervals, depending on the road surface conditions. The results will be implemented in a winter maintenance management model under development by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). The results showed clearly that the vehicles are important for redistribution of the salt from the wheel paths. A light snowfall increased the salt content in the roadway, probably because of redistribution of salt from outside the road border lines by passing vehicles due to increased wetness. The amount of residual salt in the wheel paths could be modeled rather well using an exponential function, where the amount of salt was depending on the accumulated number of vehicles after each salting occasion. A model constant was suggested to be related to the road surface conditions.

  • 14.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The environmental sub-model of the Swedish Winter Model from real world data to a modelled scenario2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    The use of salt in the winter maintenance operations has both desired and undesired consequences. Many studies have been made regarding different environmental problems related to road salt. Most of the studies regarding salt damaged vegetation have however been concerned with the concentration of sodium and chloride in plant tissue, an indicator not very useful for the road administrator. The main purpose of the environmental sub-model of the Swedish Winter Model is to increase knowledge regarding the relationship between salting (amount, method, technique and timing) and the roadside exposure at different distances. Given known or assumed dose-response relationships for certain types of vegetation, the damage can also be modelled. And, by setting a cost for this damage, at least parts of the environmental costs can be estimated. Since the model works in a high time-resolution (one hour) during the winter season, it can be used to test scenarios where for instance the maintenance regulations, the traffic composition or the climate have changed.

  • 15.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    The environmental sub-model of the Swedish Winter Model: updated algorithms for the description of salt damage to roadside environment2010In: Sustainable winter service for road users: 13th international winter road congress, Paris: La Défense , 2010, , p. 9Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling the impact of the use of chemical anti-/deicing on the roadside environment requires knowledge of the roadside exposure to salt, the vulnerability or dose-response relationship of the modeled environmental subjects and, preferably, the “cost” of the following impacts. The results presented in this paper are the first tentative test runs of the environmental sub-model of the Swedish Winter model. The environmental cost will in this case study be the cost for vegetation damage larger than a chosen accepted level of damage, and a cost for groundwater protection installations. The total environmental cost in this small case study will roughly be between 1.5 and 2.5 MSEK.

  • 16.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Winter model: roadside salt exposure under different weather conditions2008In: Surface transportation weather and snow removal and ice control technology, Washington DC: Transportation Research Board, TRB , 2008, p. 159-170Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental model is a submodel in the Swedish winter maintenance management system, the Winter Model. The Winter Model will make it possible to assess the most important effects and their monetary value of changes in winter maintenance strategies and operations in Sweden. The effects are assessed for road users, road administrators, and the environment. Modeling the impact of the use of chemical anti- and deicing on roadside environment requires knowledge of the roadside exposure to salt, the vulnerability or dose-response relationship of the modeled environmental subjects and, preferably, the “cost” of the following impacts. In this paper, research results from some recent field studies are used to illustrate how the transport mechanisms responsible for the roadside exposure to deicing salt is working under different weather conditions. In order to improve the current model describing the roadside exposure to salt for even better prediction, the occurrence of plowing actions is also suggested to be incorporated into the model. Further it is suggested that, if also the presumably small depositions of dry salt aerosol particles on larger distance are to be described, the transport mechanism of dry salt crystals, breaking up into small airborne fragments and transported by the wind is also to be incorporated into the model describing the roadside exposure to deicing salt. The results in this paper are beeing incorporated into the Swedish Winter Model.

  • 17.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Johansson, Eva-Lotta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Airborne spreading and deposition of de-icing salt: A case study1999Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Johansson, Eva-Lotta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Factors regulating the air-borne spreading of pollutants from roads1998Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Riehm, Mats
    Institutionen för Mark- och Vattenteknik, KTH.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), KTH.
    Road surface wetness as affected by evaporation, surface runoff and traffic splashing2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Road surface wetness governs the fate of pollutants on the road surface. The wetness is also important for estimating the risk of ice formation during winters. The road surface water is affected by evaporation, run-off and traffic induced splash and spray. Increased knowledge of how these processes govern the road surface water and how they could be modelled would help to improve the possibility to abate problems with raised levels of air pollutants, as well as traffic safety issues by facilitating optimization of the use of anti- and de-icing chemicals. The aim of this study was to use a modeling tool in order to differentiate between three processes governing the loss of wetness from the road surface within a cross section of a road during two different climatic scenes (winter and spring). Two new measurement techniques were used for detailed measurements of road surface wetness across a road to validate the model. It could be concluded that the changes in wetness on the road can be simulated from general simple weather and traffic information. Furthermore, the wetness across the road is very heterogeneous and can be described by a distribution of regulating parameter values. The presented model application has a potential for real time application on roads and within a region and also for predictions of future conditions by using weather forecast data.

  • 20.
    Dahl, Andreas
    et al.
    Lund University, Div Ergonom & Aerosol Technology.
    Gharibi, Arash
    Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University.
    Bohgard, Mats
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University.
    Ljungman, Anders
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Traffic-generated emissions of ultrafine particles from pavement-tire interface2006In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 1314-1323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a road simulator study, a significant source of sub-micrometer fine particles produced by the road-tire interface was observed. Since the particle size distribution and source strength is dependent on the type of tire used, it is likely that these particles largely originate from the tires, and not the road pavement. The particles consisted most likely of mineral oils from the softening filler and fragments of the carbon-reinforcing filler material (soot agglomerates). This identification was based on transmission electron microscopy studies of collected ultrafine wear particles and on-line thermal treatment using a thermodesorber. The mean particle number diameters were between 15-50 nm, similar to those found in light duty vehicle (LDV) tail-pipe exhaust. A simple box model approach was used to estimate emission factors in the size interval 15-700 nm. The emission factors increased with increasing vehicle speed, and varied between 3.7 x 10(11) and 3.2 x 10(12) particles vehicle(-1) km(-1) at speeds of 50 and 70 km h(-1). This corresponds to between 0.1-1% of tail-pipe emissions in real-world emission studies at similar speeds from a fleet of LDV with 95% gasoline and 5% diesel-fueled cars. The emission factors for particles originating from the road-tire interface were, however, similar in magnitude to particle number emission factors from liquefied petroleum gas-powered vehicles derived in test bench studies in Australia 2005. Thus the road-tire interface may be a significant contributor to particle emissions from ultraclean vehicles. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Denby, Bruce R.
    et al.
    The Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET).
    Ketzel, M.
    Aarhus University.
    Ellermann, T.
    Aarhus University.
    Stojiljkovic, A.
    Nordic Envicon Oy.
    Kupiainen, K.
    Nordic Envicon Oy.
    Niemi, J. V.
    Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority (HSY).
    Norman, M.
    Environment and Health Protection Administration of the City of Stockholm.
    Johansson, C.
    Stockholm University,.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sundvor, I.
    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU).
    Road salt emissions: A comparison of measurements and modelling using the NORTRIP road dust emission model2016In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 141, p. 508-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    De-icing of road surfaces is necessary in many countries during winter to improve vehicle traction. Large amounts of salt, most often sodium chloride, are applied every year. Most of this salt is removed through drainage or traffic spray processes but a certain amount may be suspended, after drying of the road surface, into the air and will contribute to the concentration of particulate matter. Though some measurements of salt concentrations are available near roads, the link between road maintenance salting activities and observed concentrations of salt in ambient air is yet to be quantified.

    In this study the NORTRIP road dust emission model, which estimates the emissions of both dust and salt from the road surface, is applied at five sites in four Nordic countries for ten separate winter periods where daily mean ambient air measurements of salt concentrations are available. The model is capable of reproducing many of the salt emission episodes, both in time and intensity, but also fails on other occasions.

    The observed mean concentration of salt in PM10, over all ten datasets, is 4.2 μg/m3 and the modelled mean is 2.8 μg/m3, giving a fractional bias of −0.38. The RMSE of the mean concentrations, over all 10 datasets, is 2.9 μg/m3 with an average R2 of 0.28. The mean concentration of salt is similar to the mean exhaust contribution during the winter periods of 2.6 μg/m3. The contribution of salt to the kerbside winter mean PM10 concentration is estimated to increase by 4.1 ± 3.4 μg/m3 for every kg/m2 of salt applied on the road surface during the winter season. Additional sensitivity studies showed that the accurate logging of salt applications is a prerequisite for predicting salt emissions, as well as good quality data on precipitation. It also highlights the need for more simultaneous measurements of salt loading together with ambient air concentrations to help improve model parameterisations of salt and moisture removal processes.

  • 22.
    Denby, Bruce Rolstad
    et al.
    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU).
    Sundvor, Ingrid
    The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU).
    Johansson, Christer I.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Pirjola, Liisa H.
    Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences.
    Ketzel, Matthias
    Aarhus Universitet.
    Norman, Michael A.
    Environment and Health Protection Administration of the City of Stockholm.
    Kupiainen, Kaarle J.
    Nordic Envicon Oy.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Kauhaniemi, Mari
    Finish Meteorological Institute (FMI).
    Omstedt, Gunnar
    SMHI.
    A coupled road dust and surface moisture model to predict non-exhaust road traffic induced particle emissions (NORTRIP). Part 2: Surface moisture and salt impact modelling2013In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 81, p. 485-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-exhaust traffic induced emissions are a major source of airborne particulate matter in most European countries. This is particularly important in Nordic and Alpine countries where winter time road traction maintenance occurs, e.g. salting and sanding, and where studded tyres are used. Though the total mass generated by wear sources is a key factor in non-exhaust emissions, these emissions are also strongly controlled by surface moisture conditions. In this paper, Part 2, the road surface moisture submodel of a coupled road dust and surface moisture model (NORTRIP) is described.

    We present a description of the road surface moisture part of the model and apply the coupled model to seven sites in Stockholm, Oslo, Helsinki and Copenhagen over 18 separate periods, ranging from 3.5 to 24 months. At two sites surface moisture measurements are available and the moisture sub-model is compared directly to these observations. The model predicts the frequency of wet roads well at both sites, with an average fractional bias of -2.6%. The model is found to correctly predict the hourly surface state, wet or dry, 85% of the time. From the 18 periods modelled using the coupled model an average absolute fractional bias of 15% for PM10 concentrations was found. Similarly the model predicts the 90'th daily mean percentiles of PMio with an average absolute bias of 19% and an average correlation (R-2) of 0.49. When surface moisture is not included in the modelling then this average correlation is reduced to 0.16, demonstrating the importance of the surface moisture conditions. Tests have been carried out to assess the sensitivity of the model to model parameters and input data. The model provides a useful tool for air quality management and for improving our understanding of non-exhaust traffic emissions.

  • 23.
    Eram, Michel
    et al.
    Vejdirektoratet,.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Thordarson, Skuli
    Vegsyn/Vegagerdin.
    Lysbakken, Kai Rune
    Statens vegvesen.
    Modelling Residual Salt -– MORS2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Bruk av salt på vinterveger er et viktig virkemiddel for å oppnå best mulig sikkerhet og framkommelighet på vinteren, samtidig som salting kan ha negative effekter på miljø, biler og vegutstyr. Veg- og trafikkmyndighetene i de nordiske landene har derfor et behov for å optimalisere saltbruken ved å holde et lavest mulig saltforbruk men fortsatt kunne nå målene med hensyn på framkommelighet og trafikksikkerhet. Et tiltak for å kunne optimalisere saltbruken er å utvikle et operasjonelt verktøy som kan forutsi varigheten av et salttiltak under ulike vegforhold. En kan dermed unngå unødvendig salttiltak og redusere risikoen for glatt veg på grunn av for lite salt. NordFoU-prosjektet Modelling Residual Salt (MORS) har som mål å utvikle en modell for utviklingen av restsaltmengde under ulike forhold. Danmark, Sverige, Island og Norge har deltatt i prosjektet. For å kunne følge restsaltutviklingen under kontrollerte forhold har det blitt gjennomført feltforsøk på en testbane ved Bygholm, Horsens (Danmark). På en lukket bane har blitt gjennomført salttiltak og deretter målt restsaltutviklingen og sentrale parametere med og uten trafikk. Målingene har skjedd med både manuelle målemetoder og automatiske målinger (Vaisala Rosa-system). Ved gjennomføringen av feltforsøkene har prosjektet møtt noen utfordringer. Det opprinnelige asfaltdekket på testbane var ujevnt, hadde mye sprekkdannelser og manglet tverrfall. Banen måtte derfor reasfalteres. Etter reasfaltering har det vist seg at teksturen på vegoverflaten er for lav til at prosjektet kan være sikre på at resultatene er fullt ut representerbare for ordinære veger. Ut fra feltforsøkene ble det også oppdaget installeringen av vegbanesensorene var helt avgjørende for målekvaliteten. Etter andre feltforsøk måtte derfor en del av vegbanesensorene reinstalleres. Utfordringene knyttet til gjennomføringen av feltforsøkene har gjort at prosjektet ikke har kunnet nå alle må slik opprinnelig skrevet i prosjektplanen. Hvordan restsaltmengden utvikler seg ette et salttiltak vil påvirkes av mange prosesser. For å få en oversikt over de antatte prosesser og parametere bak disse er det blitt prinsipiell massebalansemodell. I alt ni prosesser er blitt identifisert og bak disse en rekke faktorer. For videre modellutvikling en forenkling har vært nødvendig. Ut fra feltforsøkene har det blitt konkludert med at det er to prosesser som er svært viktige for restsaltutviklingen; avrenning og «splash og spray» (sprut pga. trafikk). Modellen som har blitt utviklet basert på innsamlet data tar for seg disse to prosessene.

  • 24.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Karlsson, Bo O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Tema miljörisker: miljörisker och trafikanters beteenden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles the results from the project Theme Environmental risks. More specifically, the project concerned how different transport related environmental risks influence different road users and how their behaviour influence the environment. The project aimed at preparing for interdisciplinary research about environmental risks at VTI. The project was divided into three parts. The first subproject aimed at compiling literature about transport related environmental risks from psychological and economic perspectives, and in the second subproject a willingness to pay study was outlined where both economic and psychological principles were considered. In the third subproject, a simulator study was outlined. The focus was to study environmental effects of driving under controlled circumstances in the driving simulator. The report is divided into two parts. In part 1, the results from the literature review and the proposal for a willingness to pay study are described (subproject 1 and 2). This part is written in English. Part 2 contains a project outline for a simulator study in the form of an research project application (project 3). This part is written in Swedish.

  • 25.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Cha, Yingying
    KTH.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys and Stockholm University.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH.
    Particles in road and railroad tunnel air: sources, properties and abatement measures2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High levels of air pollution are a common problem in both road and railroad tunnels. Sources and emission processes however differ significantly, as reflected by aerosols physical and chemical properties. As particle concentrations and properties affect exposure of and health effects for people on platforms and in vehicles, effective ways to reduce emissions and exposure are important. This study aims to improve the knowledge of the differences between PM10 in the rail and road tunnel environments, their sources and the possibilities to address problems with high particulate levels. Measurement campaigns were carried out at Arlanda Central, a railroad tunnel station below Arlanda airport and in Söderleden road tunnel, a road tunnel in central Stockholm.

    The results show large differences in concentration levels, size distributions and in composition of the particles. The railroad tunnel aerosol consisted of coarse particles with high iron content, while the properties of the coarse particles in the road tunnel were strongly influenced by whether the road surface was wet or dry. In wet conditions, concentrations were relatively low and iron and sulfur dominating elements, while silicon, potassium, calcium and iron from suspension and road wear dominated during dry conditions. The content of elemental carbon, most likely from the pantograph, were unexpectedly high in the railroad tunnel. An older type of train with a large proportion of mechanical brakes were suggested to be responsible to the main particle emissions in the railway tunnel. The report concludes with a discussion and proposals for action against particle sources in the various underground environments.

  • 26.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Sjövall, Billy
    SLB-analys.
    Utvärdering av städmaskiners förmåga att minska PM10-halter2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project three road sweepers' effect on PM10 concentrations in ambient air and on the road surface has been tested. Two studies have been carried out; one in street environment at Sveavägen in central Stockholm, Sweden, and one with controlled trials at Barkarby airport.

    The tests at Sveavägen showed that the sweepers' effect on total PM10 concentrations was small. In particularly favourable meteorological conditions, however, significant decreases in the local PM10 contribution of up to 20% could be found. Sweeper A contributed more often to elevated PM10 concentration during drive-by than sweeper B, while sweeper B more frequently contributed to elevated NOx levels. The dust depot on the road surface proved difficult to evaluate. In sweeper A's road stretch was, however, the main depot along the roadside, while it was greatest along the road center in sweeper B's stretch.

    Tests at Barkarby showed that sweeper B, under dry conditions (sweeper A was deleted) managed to clean up an applied material to about 85-95% (slightly lower for PM10). In moist conditions (sweeper B was deleted) the efficiency of sweeper A was slightly over 40% for the entire material, while significantly lower (approx. 5%) for PM10. Sweeper C, which only took part in the moist test, cleaned approximately 99% of the applied material and the efficiency for PM10 was the same.

    Overall, this project shows that road sweepers can contribute to decreased concentrations of PM10 in environments where road dust suspension is an important source of particulate matter, but also that sweeping technology and sweeping strategy need to be developed to work well under different meteorological conditions.

  • 27.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Modeling the exposure of roadside environment to airbone salt: Case study2005In: Transportation Research Circular E-C063: Sixth International Symposium on Snow Removal and Ice Control Technology, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council , 2005, p. 296-306Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A field study was performed in order to investigate the relationships between the salt use, the mechanisms affecting the salt emission, dispersion and the salt exposure in a modeling approach. The salt was collected on gauze filter salt vanes at distances of 2.5 m to 100 m from the road, allowing a time resolution of 30 minutes to 24 hour exposure time. The results will be implemented in a winter maintenance management model under development by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). The results showed that the roadside exposure to airborne salt is strongly related to the wind direction. The road conditions of packed snow and thin ice seemed to temporarily abate the roadside exposure by capturing the salt on the road surface. Even at a distance of 100 m from the road a positive relation of the wind sum and chloride deposition showed on days with strong winds. The modeling approach indicate the importance of residual salt, traffic, road surface characteristics, and wind for roadside exposure but also that there are several aspects of these variables that need further investigations.

  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Slitagepartiklar från vägbeläggningar med gummiinblandad bitumen: jämförelser med referensbeläggning2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dubbdäcksslitage av vägbeläggningar orsakar emissioner av inandningsbara partiklar (PM10) vars tillåtna halt i omgivningsluften är reglerad enligt en miljökvalitetsnorm. Ett sätt att minska partikelemissionen är att anpassa beläggningarnas egenskaper. Föreliggande projekt har undersökt betydelsen för partikelbildningen av inblandning av gummi från bildäck i två beläggningars bitumenfas. Undersökningen genomfördes i VTI:s provvägsmaskin där två gummiinblandade beläggningar av olika konstruktion (GAP11 och GAÖ11) och en referensbeläggning (ABS11) undersöktes. De bildade partiklarnas halter och storleksfördelningar studerades.

  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bennet, Cecilia
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Wear particles from road pavements with rubber mixed bitumen: comparison with reference pavement2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studded tyre wear of road pavements causes emissions of inhalable particles (PM10). Allowed concentration of PM10 is regulated by an EU directive which is implemented in an environmental quality standard in Sweden. One way of reducing pavement wear particles is to adjust the properties of the road pavement. In the present project the effect on particle emission from mixing milled tyre rubber into the pavement bitumen has been investigated. Tests were made by the VTI road simulator using two pavement constructions containing rubber (GAP11 and GAÖ11) and one reference pavement (ABS11). GAP=GAR (Gap Graded Asphalt Rubber), ABS=SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) and GAÖ=OGAR (Open Graded Asphalt Rubber). The concentrations and size distributions of the emitted particles were measured.

    The results show that GAP11 causes lower PM10 concentrations (in this laboratory environment 20–25%) than the reference pavement ABS11, while the GAÖ11 does not differ from the reference. Size distributions show that PM10 has a bi-modal distribution with two mass maxima at 4–5 and 7–8 μm. GAP11 decreases the mass size distribution mainly in the finer mode, while GAÖ11 seems to affect mainly the coarser mode. Ultrafine particles are emitted during all tests and have number distribution maxima at around 20–30 nm. These particles are formed in the interaction between tyre studs and pavement and/or tyre rubber. Higher speed generates higher concentrations of ultrafine particles.

    All in all, the results indicate a lowering effect on PM10 emissions caused by GAP11, while the GAÖ11 does not seem to lower the emissions as compared to the reference pavement ABS11.

  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lunden, Eva
    Dahl, Andreas
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Johansson, Christer
    Jonsson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    NanoWear: nanopartiklar från slitage av däck och vägbana2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Particles from road and tire wear have in recent years come to the fore as an important and relatively unexplored contribution to air particulate pollution. Mechanically generated wear particles are relatively coarse (>0.5 microns), but in controlled trials in VTI's road simulator it has been found that an ultra-fine fraction (< 100 nm) of particles is formed from tyre and pavement wear. This project was initiated to identify the source of these nanoparticles. The results show that the nanoparticles of the size 30-50 nm occur only from tests with studded tyres. One of the two tested Nordic unstudded winter tyres produced an even finer particle fraction (<10 nm), while the other unstudded winter tyre type did not give rise to nanoparticles. Tests with summer tyres did not result in the formation of nanoparticles. It is clear that the fine particle fraction contains higher relative concentrations of sulphur, which is present at relatively high levels in both bitumen and tyres. It is unclear whether the ultrafine particles formed from studded tyre wear of road pavement in the road simulator also occur in real traffic. If so, this may affect the assessment of health effects from different traffic related particle sources.

  • 31.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dahl, Andreas
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Ljungman, Anders
    Lindbom, John
    Rudell, Bertil
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Inandningsbara partiklar från dubbdäcksslitage av vägbana: egenskaper och inflammatoriska effekter i mänskliga luftvägsceller. utdrag ur WearTox-projektet (VTI rapport 520)2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aims of this project have been to describe PM10 from studded tyre wear and to study their inflammatory effects in human airway cells. The VTI circular road simulator has been used to generate "clean" wear particles from two different pavements; asphalt concrete (ABT) and stone mastic asphalt (ABS), with granite respectively quartzite as the main stone materials. The advantage of using the road simulator is that the contribution from other sources can be minimised. During the project time, the project was expanded also to study particle generation by non-studded winter tyres (friction tyres) and two kinds of winter sanding agents, namely washed crushed stone and unwashed natural sand in combination with both studded and friction tyres. Most of these parts of the project are presented in VTI report 520. The results show that pavement wear by studded tyres generates about 40-50 times as much PM10 as that by friction tyres, but also that the ABT pavement generates several times more PM10 than the ABS pavement. The size distribution within PM10 has a maximum around 3-4 ?m and more than 95 % of the mass is larger than 1 ?m. PM10 is totally dominated by fresh stone material. A fraction of very small particles, with a number concentration peak at around 30-40 nm, was also discovered. Their origin is unknown, but since the number distribution shifted depending on which tyre type was used, a possible origin is the tyres. In the cell studies the inflammation potential of the wear particles was compared with PM10 from Hornsgatan in Stockholm and PM10 from a Stockholm subway station. Later on in the project, diesel particles were made available for comparison. The cell study results show that PM10 from the ABT pavement is at least as inflammatory as diesel particles and more inflammatory than PM10 from the subway. The PM10 from Hornsgatan generally had the highest potential, but PM10 from the ABT pavement was often in parity. This despite the fact that the Hornsgatan PM10 were the only particle sample where endotoxin could be detected. Endotoxin causes an additive effect in studies of inflammation potential. PM10 from the ABS pavement generally had a lower potential than PM10 from the ABT pavement.

  • 32.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dahl, Andreas
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Ljungman, Anders
    Lindbom, John
    Rudell, Bertil
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Inandningsbara partiklar från interaktion mellan däck, vägbana och friktionsmaterial: slutrapport av WearTox-projektet2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    The aims of this project have been to describe PM10 from studded tyre wear and to study their inflammatory effects in human airway cells. The VTI circular road simulator has been used to generate "clean" wear particles from two different pavements; asphalt concrete (ABT) and stone mastic asphalt (ABS), with granite respectively quartzite as the main stone materials. The advantage of using the road simulator is that the contribution from other sources can be minimised. During the project time, the project was expanded also to study particle generation by non-studded winter tyres (friction tyres) and two kinds of winter sanding agents, namely washed crushed stone and unwashed natural sand in combination with both studded and friction tyres. The results show that pavement wear by studded tyres generates about 40-50 times as much PM10 as that by friction tyres, but also that the ABT pavement generates several times more PM10 than the ABS pavement. The size distribution within PM10 has a maximum around 3-4 ?m and more than 95 % of the mass is larger than 1 ?m. PM10 is totally dominated by fresh stone material. A fraction of very small particles, with a number concentration peak at around 30-40 nm, was also discovered. Their origin is unknown, but since the number distribution shifted depending on which tyre type was used, a possible origin is the tyres. In the experiments using sanding material, the unwashed natural sand caused the highest PM10 concentrations. Friction tyres on natural sand caused higher concentrations than studded tyres on washed crushed stone. Studded tyres generated more PM10 than friction tyres but the difference was not as large as when no sanding material was used. In the cell studies the inflammation potential of the wear particles was compared with PM10 from Hornsgatan in Stockholm and PM10 from a Stockholm subway station. Later on in the project, diesel particles were made available for comparison. The cell study results show that PM10 from the ABT pavement is at least as inflammatory as diesel particles and more inflammatory than PM10 from the subway. The PM10 from Hornsgatan generally had the highest potential, but PM10 from the ABT pavement was often in parity. This despite the fact that the Hornsgatan PM10 were the only particle sample where endotoxin could be detected. Endotoxin causes an additive effect in studies of inflammation potential. PM10 from the ABS pavement generally had a lower potential than PM10 from the ABT pavement.

  • 33.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Dahl, Andreas
    Avdelningen för ergonomi och aerosolteknik, Institutionen för designvetenskaper, Lunds tekniska högskola, Lunds universitet.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Avdelningen för ergonomi och aerosolteknik, Institutionen för designvetenskaper, Lunds tekniska högskola, Lunds universitet.
    Ljungman, Anders
    Avdelningen för yrkes - och miljömedicin , Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköpings universitet.
    Lindbom, John
    Avdelningen för yrkes - och miljömedicin , Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköpings universitet.
    Rudell, Bertil
    Avdelningen för yrkes - och miljömedicin , Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköpings universitet.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Avdelningen för kärnfysik, Fysiska institutionen, Lunds tekniska högskola, Lunds universitet.
    WearTox: effekter på alveolmakrofager och epitelceller av slitagepartiklar från vägbana och däck2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under slutet på 90-talet genomfördes mätningar av luften partikelhalter i sex svenska städer där syftet var att studera vilka halter som förekommer i gatu-, respektive taknivå och studera partiklarnas ursprung (Areskoug m. fl. 2001). Något förvånande visade det sig att den tydligt dominerande källan till partiklar i gatunivå under vinterhalvåret då halterna är som högst, inte är avgasrelaterade partiklar utan härrör från slitage av vägbana, däck och bromsar. Slitage av vägbanan orsakad av dubbdäcksanvändning bidrar mycket starkt till partikelhalterna, men även vintersandningen är en bidragande orsak. Den nyvunna kunskapen om slitagepartiklarnas betydelse för partikelhalterna kräver ökad kunskap om vilka faktorer som styr bildningen, om partiklarnas egenskaper, om deras eventuella betydelse för hälsoeffekter och om vilka åtgärder som kan bidra till att sänka bidraget.

    Projektet WearTox är ett av de första som Vägverket initierade för att fylla dessa kunskapsluckor. Projektet har utförts av VTI i samarbete med Lunds universitet och Linköpings universitet.

    Syftet med projektet har varit att studera den toxiska potentialen hos slitagepartiklar från beläggning och däck hos exponerade mänskliga luftvägsceller. slitagepartiklarnas fysikaliska, kemiska och morfologiska egenskaper. Under arbetets gång tillkom önskemål om karaktärisering av ytterligare kombinationer av däck vägbana och även från försök med sandad vägbana. Dessa tilläggsbeställningar inkluderade dock inte toxikologiska studier utan begränsade sig till karaktäriseringen av partiklarna.

  • 34.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dahl, Andreas
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Inandningsbara partiklar i järnvägsmiljöer2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Airborne particles from railroad traffic have been identified as an air pollution problem mainly in tunnel environments. As a result of the introduction of the environmental quality standard for inhalable particles in Sweden 2005, the interest in railroad particle pollution has increased. The present report focuses on the variation of PM10 (inhalable particles) in some railroad environments under and above ground, the way these relate to traffic and on the particles' size distributions and elemental composition. The results show that particle concentrations in above ground railroad environments do not exceed the environmental quality standard during the campaigns. Diurnal mean values of PM10 range between 19 to 25 microg/m3. On the contrary, the diurnal mean concentrations on the platforms of the underground stations Arlanda Central and Arlanda South are far above the limit value (237 and 88 microg/m3 respectively) and clear diurnal and weekly patterns in PM10 concentration, co-fluctuating with traffic, can be identified. The particle mass size distribution has an obvious peak around 5-7 ?m at Arlanda C, and slightly smaller, 2-3 microm, at Arlanda S. The concentrations of both PM10 and ultrafine particles (< 0,1 microm) vary a lot depending on different trains. Especially the ultrafine particles seem to be emitted from certain trains, but it has not been possible to identify the source of these particles. The elemental composition of the particles in the tunnel environments was dominated by iron (84 % and 74 % respectively in Arlanda C and Arlanda S), but also other metals, like Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and Sb (only at Arlanda C) have relatively high concentrations. The tunnel measurements also give some interesting results regarding possible measures against high particle concentrations. Washing of the tunnel walls and floor was carried out on two consecutive nights, but it had no noticeable results on particle concentrations. This implies that a dominant proportion of the particles is directly emitted rather than resuspended. On certain nights, the concentrations of all particle size fractions sank to very low levels, lasting till the morning traffic began. This implies effective self ventilation during these hours. Measurements in several different environments on Stockholm central station show that PM10 vary several tens of microg/m3. Activity, related to both traffic and people, increases particle concentration. The highest concentrations were measured inside the waiting hall. Nevertheless, the concentrations on the platforms were generally at least as high as in the busy street environment outside the station. During a railroad travel, the PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations were generally low, but increase at stops and, most prominently, on entering the Arlanda airport railroad tunnels. The PM2,5 proportion is considered high, contributing to approximately 50-80 % of PM10. The sources of railroad emitted PM10 are likely to be rails, wheels and brakes, but a source apportionment has not been accomplished in this project.

  • 35.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2016/20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, Stockholm City has been working to reduce the impact of road dust through improved and specific street operations to reduce particulate levels in the air. Since its inception, effects on dust load and air quality have been investigated by VTI and SLB-analys at the Environmental Management in Stockholm. Specific measures have mainly included dust binding with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and vacuum cleaning with a Disa-Clean sweeper. The air quality measurements show that the environmental quality standard for PM10 is maintained for the fourth year in a row in Stockholm, which is partly due to operational measures. Additional daytime dust binding could be shown to lower the daily average PM10 concentration by 6%, while blockwise CMA treatment could not be shown to have any clear effect. Road dust load, measured as DL180 (road dust less than 180 μm), tend to have increased slightly compared to the previous season, especially in between the wheel tracks. The repaving of Folkungagatan has resulted in heavily increased dust load levels, but also lower PM10 levels than previous seasons. Evaluation of the possibilities for optimizing dust binding shows that several days with exceedances in autumn are missed, while several days in January are treated with CMA without an actual need to reach the limit value. Higher precision with forecast-based measures is needed to further optimize the efforts.

  • 36.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2017–20182019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The City of Stockholm has been working since 2011 on reducing, through improved and specific street operations, the suspension of road dust to the air. Since the start, the effects on both dust storage and air quality have been followed up by VTI and SLB-analys. Specific measures have included mainly dust binding with calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and vacuum cleaning (Disa-Clean). However, the vacuum sweeper has not been used this season. The air quality measurements show that the environmental quality standard for PM10 is met for the fifth year in Stockholm, but the levels are higher than the previous year. Road dust loads measured as DL180 (road dust less than 180 μm) have generally increased, which has been the development since the 2014–2015 season. The Folkungagatan, which had a new pavement in 2016, still has high road dust volumes, but also lower PM10 levels than before the pavement change. The evaluation of the possibilities of optimizing the dust binding shows that CMA is often used even though the PM10 levels were not at risk to be exceeded. May was particularly dry and several PM10 exceedances could then have been prevented with CMA, but the measure ends in April due to risk of low friction. Higher precision with, for example, forecast-based measures would probably be beneficial for optimizing the efforts.

  • 37.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Franzén, Lars
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rudell, Bertil
    Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping.
    Föroreningsnedfall från järnvägstrafik2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and health hazards, caused by exposure to particulate matter, have received increased attention in recent years. Railways can also be a source of particulate matter, which has been highlighted for instance where problems with dusting along railways have been reported. This is the case especially in built-up areas where the railway traffic has to reduce its speed before stations. Examples of the problems are odours in the surroundings and dust deposition onto parked vehicles, damaging car finishes. The dust is in this case assumed to have its origin in the brakes, wheels, rails, and electric conductors but may also be caused by resuspension of the wear particles of the same origins which had been deposited on the railway embankment.

    In this study three field sites were established for thecollection of deposition using funnels and bottles, complemented by verticalfilters at the same positions in order to collect airborne particles. Alsothe peat samples were collected at one site in order to study theaccumulation of pollutants in the railway surroundings. The length of eachmeasuring period was about two weeks, and a total of nine measuring periodswere performed.  In order that the results may be generalized to be valid for the entirerailway network, more detailed knowledge of the mechanisms involved in thewear and spreading of the metals is required. 

  • 38.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Dahl, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Studies of wear particles using the VTI road simulator/particle generator2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    The high costs of maintenance related to pavement wear have caused many countries to prohibit the use of studded tyres. In Japan and Norway, regulations have also been based upon the health aspects of the road dust. In Japan studded tyres are prohibited and in Norway, restrictions have been placed on the use of studded tyres in some larger cities. In Sweden, wear particles from pavements, tyres, brakes and winter sanding/salting, have received a lot of attention the last few years. The reason for this is that measurements have shown that these particles are the main reason that the upcoming environmental quality standard for inhalable particles (PM10) will not be reached in many cities. The problem mainly occurs during dry episodes in winter and early spring and is mainly a result of studded tyre use and winter maintenance. A lot of new knowledge about wear particles is needed in order to develop cost-effective measures to deal with them. A great advantage is the possibility to study aerosols from each source both separately and in different combinations in a controlled environment. At VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute) a road simulator (PVM), previously used for pavement and tyre wear studies, is used as a wear particle generator. The PVM can be equipped with different pavements and tyres and even friction materials such as sand can be applied. The PVM can be used at speeds up to 70 km/h and the pavement can be dry or wet. Also the temperature in the hall can be regulated below zero degrees centigrade. In this paper some results from the WearTox project will be presented. The production of PM10 from two pavements worn by studded tyres and friction tyres has been studied as well as the physical and chemical properties of the wear particles produced.

  • 39.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Jonsson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Vägbeläggningars damningsbenägenhet2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2005 Sweden has an environmental quality standard for inhalable particles (PM10), based on an EC directive. In Sweden, road dust is an important local source of norm exceedance, which has highlighted the negative effects of studded tyres, but also initiated research and development for other ways to reduce the formation and distribution of road dust to our ambient air. More than 100 000 tons of road pavement is worn each season. Some of this material is PM10 from the start, while other material has the potential to be ground down by the traffic to PM10. Reducing road pavement dust formation propensity is therefore a potential measure studied in this project. Eight surfaces of SMA-type (stone mastic asphalt) were tested in the VTI road simulator for particle formation to determine both the impact of the largest stone size and the influence of rock material properties. As a complement to analyze the impact of technical properties of different stone materials, data from nine additional pavements tested in other projects were used. The results show that larger largest stone size generally leads to lower particulate emissions and that the stone material Nordic ball mill value is a useful measure for estimating a stone material dust formation propensity. In the pavements with 11 mm largest stone size, the Nordic ball mill value can explain 70% of the variation in PM10 at 50 km/h. The results are not conclusive, suggesting that some material may be more sensitive for changes in the largest stone size than others. Elemental analysis shows that particles larger than about 1 micron are completely dominated by elements originating in the aggregates of the pavement. Sulfur, which may originate from tyres and/or bitumen is usually a significant contribution to particles below 1 micron, while zinc, which can be traced to tyre rubber, is found in relatively small amounts mainly in the coarser fractions. Special tests in the Norwegian part of the project show that increased studded tyre percentage increases particle formation and that when non-studded winter tires and summer tires are tested on one of the Norwegian pavements, this results in about 15 times lower PM10 concentrations than with use of studded tyres and a higher proportion of fine particles. In all tests with studded tyres also ultrafine particles are formed. The source is still unknown, but tests with the porphyry pavements result in higher concentrations than for quartzite and mylonite pavements.

  • 40.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hultqvist, Bengt-Åke
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Slitage av och partikelemissioner från betongbeläggning2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to study wear and the formation of inhalable particles from concrete coating, concrete coating with mixed in titanium dioxide (TiOmix) and from a reference asphalt (SMA16) under controlled conditions in the VTI road simulator (PVM). All coatings used the same rock material, a granite with ball mill value 6. Wear tests showed that the TiOmix wore most, due to the poor strength properties caused in manufacturing the slabs. The asphalt was initially more worn than the concrete, but after about 250 000 rounds in the PVM it was at the same wear rate as the concrete. Particle formation was higher for the concrete that that of the asphalt. PM10 from concrete contained substantially more calcium than PM10 from asphalt, indicating that the cement in the concrete is an important particle source. Ultrafine particles emitted, after initial high emissions at any speed increase, to a lesser extent from the concrete and TiOmix than from asphalt. The concentrations of PAHs are lower in samples from concrete coating, which may indicate that a part of the PAHs are derived from bitumen. However, the difference may also be due to different PAH content from the tires used.

  • 41.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Håkansson, Karsten
    Geo Innova.
    Lindeberg, Johanna
    SGI.
    Nilsson-Påledal, Sören
    SGI.
    Järnvägens föroreningar - källor, spridning och åtgärder: en litteraturstudie2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föroreningar i järnvägsmiljön är dels förknippade med trafikens mer eller mindre diffusa utsläpp, dels mer påtagliga föroreningar, förknippade med behandling av banvallar för att till exempel förhindra att syllar ruttnar och att banvallen växer igen. Under senare år har partikelbildningen från tågtrafik särskilt uppmärksammats, främst då i tunnelmiljöer där halten av inandningsbara partiklar (PM10) visat sig kunna vara mycket höga.

    Föreliggande rapport är en internationell litteraturstudie med syftet att sammanställa och syntetisera befintlig kunskap om källor till, spridning av och åtgärder mot järnvägens föroreningar, samt att utifrån denna diskutera åtgärders effektivitet. Studien tar inte upp punktutsläpp i samband med olyckor och fokuserar generellt på eldriven järnvägstrafik.

    De viktigaste järnvägsrelaterade föroreningarna identifieras som inandningsbara partiklar, bekämpningsmedel, PAH:er och metaller. Förutom en genomgång av kunskapsläget kring dessa föroreningar har ett antal kunskapsluckor inom området identifierats. Mer övergripande studier av järnvägens föroreningar och hur deras spridningsmönster ter sig i luft, mark och vatten saknas helt i litteraturen. För vattenrecipienter och andra känsliga miljöer som kan påverkas av järnvägens föroreningar eller för järnvägssträckor där emissionerna kan förväntas vara betydande är sådana studier befogade. Studierna skulle kunna ge en bild av hur emission, spridning och exponering i olika medier hänger samman. En viktig kunskapslucka är bildning, egenskaper och eventuella hälsoeffekter av partiklar från järnvägstrafik. Inandningsbara partiklar i vår omgivningsluft bedöms idag som ett av våra viktigaste hälsorelaterade miljöproblem. Ökad kunskap om järnvägens bidrag till halter och hälsoeffekter i olika miljöer samt vilka åtgärder som kan vidtas för att minska bidraget är därför central.

  • 42.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mätning av luftkvalitet vid TestSite E182015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of air quality (PM10 and NOx (NO and NO2)) were made during the period 2013-03-16 to 2014-03-26 at TestSite E18, situated along the E18 highway between Västerås and Enköping. At TestSite E18 continuous measurements of traffic (eastbound direction) and meteorology are made. On the site, optical equipment for measuring road wetness was used during the campaign. The main purpose of the surveys is to create a data base for a highway traffic environment, which can be used for modeling air quality and calculation of exposure and health effects at a later stage. The results show that the concentrations do not exceed the relevant EQS. PM10 and NO2 are highest during the spring and autumn and lower in the summer period. The correlations between PM10 and nitrogen oxides are high in spring, low in summer and moderate in autumn and winter, suggesting that the summertime sources for PM10 at TestSite E18 are essentially others than traffic. Road surface moisture reduces PM10 levels strongly during spring when road dust is a major particle source. On a daily basis nitrogen dioxide and PM10 concentrations follow traffic variation, but with a clear secondary minimum at midday for nitrogen oxides. TestSite E18 generates large amounts of traffic and meteorology data, which can be used to analyze the correlation between these factors and air pollution at the site, and provide appropriate data for input to as well as validation of emission models.

  • 43.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2015–20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, Stockholm has made special efforts to reduce PM10 levels in the city. The efforts mainly include dust binding with CMA (calcium magnesium acetate) and vacuum suction with a powerful dry vacuum suction machine. This report summarizes effects on particulate matter and road dust storage, as the actions taken by Stockholm City during the 2015–2016 season and discusses how measures can be further improved. The limit value for the environmental quality standard was not exceeded for the 2015–2016 season for the third consecutive year, but the number of days with PM10 levels over the environmental quality standard was higher than in the previous season, which had a record low number of exceedances. The evaluation of daytime dust binding was complicated by the fact that the CMA was also used on the reference street, which caused to much uncertainties to provide quantitative analysis of its effect this season. Block-wise dust binding and vacuuming could not be evaluated due to dust contamination from a construction site. The dust load on the streets varies from a few g/m2 to about 250 g/m2 depending on the street and season and is highest during the winter (Dec–Jan). A trend towards lower dust loads is broken this season on several streets, which may be due to the damper streets in spring. Analyses made on the connection between dust load, PM10 and impacting factors, as well as a condition-based calculation method suggests that dust binding in spring is important for keeping the levels down, while dust binding in autumn and winter is more often “unnecessary” (the levels would probably not have exceeded the limit value also without dust binding).

  • 44.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM), Stockholms universitet.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys, Miljöförvaltningen, Stockholms stad.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2012–20132014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is exceeding the limit values in the EU air quality directives and an important cause is the high concentrations of inhalable particles (PM10) that occurs during winter and spring. Wear of road pavements and winter operation like sanding are important sources for these high concentrations. The city of Stockholm has the largest air quality problems due to many badly ventilated street canyons with high traffic flows. Since 2011 an intensified mitigation work is intended to reduce PM10 concentrations. In this work, some streets are used as test streets for different measures and the resulting PM10 concentrations are compared to concentrations on un-treated reference streets. The results of the season 2011–2012 showed that dust binding with CMA (calcium magnesium acetate) was the most effective measure, while cleaning with an advanced sweeper with vacuum, could not be proven to give any reducing effects on PM10. The trials have been extended with two more test sites during the season 2012–2013, presented in this report. The reason for this was to be able to evaluate a new kind of vacuum sweeper, which does not use water and therefore can be used also during sub-zero conditions. The results show that dust binding with CMA is still the most effective method to reduce high PM10 concentrations resulting from road dust suspension and that the effect can be seen also the day after treatment. Cleaning the streets with the new vacuum cleaner could not be shown to give a significant reduction of PM10 concentrations, even though samples showed that the machine actually picked up fine particles. As during the previous season, the amount of road dust has been sampled and analyzed. The road dust depot increases during winter and reaches a maximum in early spring but is very low in the beginning and at the end of the winter season. This shows the importance of pavement wear and winter operation measures for the road dust depot. The dust binding effect is reflected in higher dust amounts with finer particle size distributions on the treated streets. As CMA might give reduce friction, friction measurements were performed, but no friction problems could be detected. Road surface texture was detected and this indicate that texture is an important parameter for the size of the road dust depot and therefore also for the dust suspension potential.

  • 45.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    SLB-analys.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2013–20142015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, intensified efforts are made to reduce levels of PM10 in Stockholm, where the problems are extensive. This report includes the results and evaluation of the measures taken during the winter season 2013–2014. The lowest PM10 levels since records began in Stockholm, were measured during the season and the limit values for the environmental quality standard is managed by a wide margin, which at least partially can be attributed to the intensified measures. The winter was unusually mild and snow-free and this has probably contributed to that, the typically large quantities of road dust that accumulates on the road surface in winter were able to leave the system through suspension, cleaning and drainage without high particulate levels resulting. During dry periods, frequent dust binding has helped to suppress high PM10 levels. The usually sharp PM10 peak in spring did not appear to the same extent as previous years. The block-wise CMA (calcium magnesium acetate) treatment was shown to provide additional reducing effect on PM10 levels, while the CMA + KF (potassium formate) treatment did not appear to have any impact. The measurements of the road dust load show the same seasonal fluctuations as in previous years, with large amounts during winter and early spring and lower in fall and late spring. All streets, except Hornsgatan, show a gradual decrease of road dust load over the three seasons with available data. The proportion of particles smaller than 10 microns in the dust increases from autumn to winter and decreases again in the spring. The organic proportion varies between 10 and 20 per cent by weight of DL180 (dust load less than 180 μm)and also exhibit a seasonal variation, where the proportion is higher in autumn and lowest in early spring. In a specific evaluation of the cleaning machine, a reduction of the road dust load could be observed.

  • 46.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet. Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2014–20152016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, intensified efforts are made to reduce the levels of PM10 in Stockholm. This report presents results and evaluation of the efforts made during the winter season 2014–2015. The season has the lowest PM10 concentrations and the lowest number of exceedances of the environmental quality standard for PM10 since measurements started in Stockholm in 2000. Calculations using the NORTRIP model shows that both increased dust binding, reduced use of studded tires, lower background concentration and differences in meteorology are all factors that contributed to reduced levels from 2013 to 2015. Treatment with CMA + KF (potassium formate) did not appear to give any impact on PM10 levels, while block-wise dust binding gave an additional, but not significant, positive effect.

    The dust load on the road surface has a declining trend in all streets except Hornsgatan over the past three years and has, as in previous seasons, a seasonal variation with large amounts in winter and early spring and low in October and May. Detailed measurements showed a strong variation in the dust load across streets, with large accumulations outside the driving lane. Road surface texture is considered to play an important role in the accumulation of dust as it affects both the suspension from traffic, as well as the ability to clean off the dust. The report provides, based on the season’s results, combined with data on measures and meteorology, some suggestions for how measures can be improved and also provides examples of how additional needs or unnecessary efforts can be retrieved from the existing data.

  • 47.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM), Stockholms universitet .
    Norman, Michael
    SLB-analys, Miljöförvaltningen, Stockholms stad.
    Driftåtgärder mot PM10 på Hornsgatan och Sveavägen i Stockholm: utvärdering av vintersäsongen 2011–20122012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several Swedish cities have problems with complying with the environmental quality standard for inhalable particulate matter in air (PM10). Stockholm has a number of problematic traffic environments with narrow street canyons and high traffic flows, where the limit values are exceeded practically every year. An important source for PM10 is road dust forming from wear of road pavements and use of winter sanding. Different measures have been tested to mitigate the particle concentrations but to reach the limit values, no single measure is enough, but needs to be combined. During the winter 2011–2012, the city of Stockholm has tested a combination of measures, including dust binding with CMA, powerful street sweeping and street flushing with water to, if possible, reach the PM10 limit values. During the season, 31 applications of CMA, 25 road sweepings and 42 road flushes, were conducted. The results show that the number of PM10 directive exceedances on both streets were considerably fewer than on the reference streets. The single measure having a significant effect, though, was dust binding with CMA, while sweeping and flushing did not reduce PM10 concentrations. The road dust depot increased during the winter months on the test streets and reached a maximum in March, during the most intense dust binding efforts. An obvious relationship between road surface texture and road dust depot could be identified. The ion content on the street surfaces reflected the use of road salt (NaCl) and CMA

  • 48.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jonsson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Damningsminimerad vinter- och barmarksdrift: mått, medel och strategier2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A great deal of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) problems in Sweden has been shown to result from wear particles from traffic, but also from winter sanding. The problem with high concentrations of PM10 thus originates in traffic safety and accessibility measures during winter. At the end of the winter season, the need for street cleaning increases and usually the highest levels of PM10 occur then. Road dust can be mitigated in several ways. For example, it is possible to adjust road surfaces so that they produce less amount of particles. Quality, quantity and handling of sand can be adjusted. To prevent suspension of particles from the road surface, they might be cleaned away or bound to the surface using dust-binders. Resulting problems concerning PM10 are thus connected to sources, road user behaviour, weather conditions and winter road operator actions. This project therefore aims at the following: - to survey the measures that are important for a road pavement's dust forming properties. - to provide a knowledge overview of the impact of various operational measures against inhalable particles. - to develop and evaluate an instrument collecting road dust to evaluate the potential of dust from various pavements to formulate policy proposals for dust minimised road operation of the Swedish road network.

    Alternative URL: http://fudinfo.trafikverket.se/fud infoexternwebb/Publikationer/Publikationer_001201_001300/Publikation_001257/R701 .pdf

  • 49.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Jonsson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Road dust and air quality in Sweden2008In: Surface transportation weather and snow removal and ice control technology, Washington DC: Transportation Research Board, TRB , 2008, p. 187-196Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years it has become evident that wear particles from road pavements, tires, brakes, and road maintenance strongly contribute to episodes with very high concentration of inhalable particles (PM10) in outdoor air. These episodes normally occur during dry periods in winter and spring when accelerated wear and particle production occurs due to the use of studded tires and winter gritting. A lot of new knowledge about wear particles is needed in order to develop cost-efficient measures to deal with them. A great advantage is the possibility to study aerosols from each source both separately and in different combination in a controlled environment. At VTI (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute) a road simulator, previously used for pavement and tire wear studies, is used as a wear particle generator. Measurements of PM10 in the road simulator hall have been used to study the influence of pavement properties, tire type, and vehicle speed on pavement wear. In several cities in Sweden, different winter maintenance chemicals (e.g., calcium magnesium acetate and magnesium chloride) have recently started to be used as dustbinders in springtime in order to abate the dust problem. Also other measures aiming at abating road dust concentrations are under way, including reduced studded tire use and speed reductions. In this paper compilations of results from several recent research projects and field case studies will be presented. Different pavements, tires, winter maintenance abrasive material, as well as measures like reduced studded tire wear and chemical dustbinding are discussed.

  • 50.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Jonsson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ferm, Martin
    IVL Svenska miljöinstitutet AB.
    Effekter av dammbindning av belagda vägar2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhalable particles from road dust is a health problem and a major cause of the environmental quality standard for particles in outdoor air not being reached in Sweden. Formation of road dust along paved roads in the Nordic countries is largely related to the use of studded tires and winter operation of highways, such as sanding and salting. To reduce dust suspension chemical dust control is sometimes used, meaning that a chemical solution is sprayed onto the road which is thus kept moist and dust is prevented from whirling up. Mainly, chloride salts are used, but also more environmentally friendly alternatives have been tested. All are stated to operate for dust control, but some problems have arisen with friction reduction, which have contributed to the uncertainty surrounding their use. The purpose of this report is to investigate which dust control agents that have the best effect, while not compromising road safety by reducing friction. A literature survey on the effects of dust control agents was made prior to field trials in this study. This survey is annexed to this report. In the field experiments four dust binders were tested; calcium chloride (CaCl2), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) and sugar solution on a road south of Linköping.

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