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  • 1. Danial, Josef
    et al.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Jämförelse av flöde och hastigheter från två olika cykelmätningsutrustningar2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare cycle flows and speeds from two different cycle measurement equipment. The result has also been compared with the processed video data and manual counts. The measuring equipment are Viscando’s equipment OTUS3D and VTI´s TA-89. OTUS3D is a camera with 3D functionality, and it detects tracks and classifies these into different road user categories. TA-89 (where TA stands for Traffic Analyzer) is developed by VTI and is adapted for detecting both bicycles and motor vehicles. We also used a video camera from the OTUS3D system, to enable a manual calculation.

    The test site for the study is a pedestrian and bicycle path that crosses a ridge in Vallaskogen in Linköping. The area is located between the district of East Valla and campus. It is a fairly steep slope where the direction towards the campus is uphill and the direction to the East Valla / city center is downhill. Five days that did not include losses of flow were selected for the analyzes. The selected periods were 3 to 4 September (Saturday and Sunday) and 6 to 8 September (Tuesday to Thursday). In addition to this, we chose an hour with high flow and an hour with low flow where video processing was conducted. Furthermore, we used an hour and 50 minutes of manual counting.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Användning av MCS-data för skattning av ÅDT - Götebord: Etapp 22012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Användning av MCS-data för skattning av ÅDT - Stockholm: Etapp 22012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Årlig förändring av cykelflöden i Göteborgs stad: uppdaterad med 2014-års data2014Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    An analysis of cyclists' speed at combined pedestrian and cycle pathsIn: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In Sweden, cyclists, pedestrians, and moped riders share the space on combined pedestrian and cycle paths, and their speeds may differ greatly. Both actual speed and speed differences can potentially influence the number of accidents on the shared paths. As a starting point, this article studies the speed component and how cyclists' speed varies at pedestrian and cycle paths depending on the day, week, and year; road user composition; and road design.

    Methods: Three data sources were used: Existing measurements of cycle speed and flow in 3 different Swedish municipalities, Eskilstuna (1 site, January-December 2015), Linkoping (6 sites, 4 weeks in September-October 2015), and Stockholm (10 sites, 1-5 days in August-September 2015); complementary measurements of cycle speed and flow in Linkoping (4 sites, 1-10 days in August-September 2016) and Stockholm (1 site, only part of 2 days in August 2016) were also conducted within the project, in addition to roadside observations of bicycle types at the 5 new sites.

    Results: The average speed of cyclists on the paths varied between 12.5 and 26.5 km/h. As expected, the lower average speeds were found in uphill directions, near intersections, and on paths with high pedestrian flows. The higher speeds were found in downhill directions and on commuter routes. In all, 70%-95% of road users observed on pedestrian and cycle paths were cyclists, and 5%-30% were pedestrians. The most common type of bicycle was a comfort bike, followed by a trekking bike. Electric-assisted bicycles and racer bikes occurred at all sites, with proportions of 1%-10% and 1%-15%, respectively. The 2 sites with the highest proportion of electric-assisted bicycles and racer bicycles also had the highest average speeds. The differences in average speed throughout the day, week, and year could only be assessed at one of the sites. Only small differences were found, with the most noticeable being that the average speed was lower in January and February (13.8 km/h) compared to the rest of the year (15.3-16.1 km/h). The average speed was also lower during daytime (14.7 km/h) than during other parts of the day (15.4-15.8 km/h).

    Conclusions: The relationship between bicycle type and measured speed was not entirely clear, but the results suggest that paths with higher proportions of electric and racer bicycles have higher average speeds. There also appears to be a connection between average speed and the width of the distribution; that is, the higher the average speed, the wider the speed distribution. More research is needed on how speed levels and speed variance affect accident risk.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance. VTI.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Karlström, Jones
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Enhetlig metod för cykelflödesmätningar: en förberedande studie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an objective of increasing cycling nationally, regionally and in many Swedish municipalities. The extent of cycling can be followed up with either travel surveys (TSs) or by measuring the bicycle flow. The Traffic Analysis Authority was commissioned by the Government to develop and propose a uniform method for systematic measurements of bicycle traffic at a local and regional level and their report was published in January 2018. Bicycle traffic can be measured in different ways and the two most common methods are (1) measurements by counting bicycles (manually or with detecting equipment) in the street area or (2) travel surveys (TSs). In this report, we focus only on counting cyclists in the street area. Today, the methods of counting bicyclists are limited, and they do not enable estimations of kilometers travelled by bicycle per average day in a municipality.

    In order to achieve a broad application, it is necessary to investigate the possible obstacles that exist to use the Traffic Analysis's proposal for a uniform method, and this will be done in the following steps, where step 1 is described in this report:

    1. A preparatory study: Suggest a set-up of a pilot study

    2. Conduct a pilot study to establish a uniform and systematic approach, and finally

    3. Determine the final uniform and systematic method.

    The purpose of the preparatory study presented in this report is to adapt the Traffic Analysis's proposal to a uniform method for estimating the kilometers travelled by bicycle per average day, based on municipal conditions. The preparatory study will also lead to a proposal for a pilot study in which the adapted method is tested, and issues related to delimitations and definitions can be decided. The pilot study will be carried out in a follow-up project with a number of municipalities. This will result in a final determination of a uniform method for estimating the kilometers travelled by bicycle per average day.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Planering av en regional resvaneundersökning i Östergötland: Samverkan mellan olika intressenter2016Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Rogerson, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector.
    Wahl, Charlotte
    Sweco.
    Ullberg, Martin
    Sweco.
    Adell, Emelie
    Trivector.
    Intressent- och behovsanalys för resvaneundersökningar: resultat från intervjuer och enkätundersökning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, national travel surveys are regularly carried out by Transport Analysis, a governmental agency. However, in the last decade travel survey studies have suffered with problems such as high rate of non-response, coverage, costs and reporting burden. Therefore, this project is underway aimed at investigating and proposing new methods for data collection on people’s mobility. The project is divided into five deliverables (work packages – WP), of which this report is the second one (WP2). The purpose is to carry out an analysis of stakeholders’ needs regarding future requirements of travel surveys. This includes identifying the questions that travel surveys can answer.

    Telephone interviews have been conducted with 20 stakeholder representatives and internet-based questionnaires were sent to 142 respondents (response 81 persons, response rate 57 percent). The stakeholders’ representatives were classified into three types of organizations: public sector, research organizations and other actors. Based on their own experience, an analysis has been conducted regarding what is requested from the national travel survey. The analysis show that key aspects of today’s and tomorrow’s travel survey users include (i) mode choice, (ii) trip purpose, (iii) how travel behavior changes over time, and (iv) how different groups travel. To be able to answer these questions, both individual and travel information are required.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Lindborg, Eva
    Trafikanalys.
    Adell, Emeli
    Trivector .
    Holmström, Andreas
    Trafikanalys.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector .
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys.
    Dahlberg, Lina
    Trivector.
    New Ways of Collecting Individual Travel Information: Evaluation of data collection and recruitment methods2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the project is to conduct a demonstration study that shows how two data collection methods that have been developed to collect travel survey data perform in the field, and how they perform compared with traditional TS (i.e., postal questionnaires and/or telephone interviews). The project is also intended to provide a better understanding of the ways in which different recruitment methods of respondents can be used so that future TS can be more cost effective.

    The two collection methods tested consist of a mobile app and an online questionnaire with a map to assist the respondents to identify travel destinations. Three recruitment methods were used, i.e., recruitment via random sampling, a web panel, and crowdsourcing. The portion of the random sample that received an online questionnaire was divided into two groups. Half the group was given no incentive, while the other half received a gift card worth SEK 100 after answering the questioner. Those who were recruited via a web panel and were to use the mobile app were rewarded in the form of a gift card worth SEK 100 if, at minimum, they made corrections to trips made on one day registered in the mobile app. A nonresponse analysis was performed of the random sample for both the online questionnaire and the mobile app. Cost estimates for each collection method and recruitment method were also performed, as were uncertainty estimates.

    Overall, the study shows that the mobile app registered significantly more trips per respondent than did the online questionnaire, while the distances travelled were comparable. There are several possible interpretations of this. One is that people who responded to the online questionnaire either forget about and/or combined short trips (particularly trips made for the purposes of leisure or shopping, and using the travel modes walking and car). One presumable explanation for this is that it is easier to confirm/correct the trips that the mobile app suggests than it is to recall and enter all trips in an online questionnaire. Another possible interpretation is that people responding to different data collection methods have different travel patterns. Yet another explanation is connected to technique issues regarding the different data collection methods.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Lindborg, Eva
    Trafikanalys.
    Adell, Emeli
    Trivector.
    Holmström, Andreas
    Trafikanalys.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys.
    Dahlberg, Lina
    Trivector.
    Nya sätt att samla in individuell resvaneinformation: utvärdering av insamlings- och rekryteringsmetoder2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom samverkansprogrammet Nästa generations resor och transporter, som Trafikanalys är huvudansvarig för, har man identifierat ett behov av att finna och utveckla nya lösningar för resvaneundersökningar (RVU:er). Bakgrunden till detta är bland annat sjunkande svarsfrekvenser med dagens metoder, vilket skulle kunna ge problem med representativiteten. Det anses som mycket angeläget att utveckla nya metoder för datainsamling för framtidens RVU:er, både på kort och lång sikt. Det övergripande syftet med projektet är att göra en demonstrationsstudie som visar hur två datainsamlingsmetoder som har utvecklats för att samla in resevaneundersökningsdata presterar i fält, samt hur de presterar jämfört med ”traditionell” RVU (postal enkät och/eller telefonintervjuer). Projektet syftar också till att få bättre förståelse för hur olika rekryteringsmetoder kan användas för att framtida RVU:er ska kunna bli mer kostnadseffektiva. De två insamlingsmetoder som testats är webbenkät med karta och mobilapp. Tre rekryteringsmetoder har använts och dessa är rekrytering via slumpmässigt urval, webbpanel och crowdsourcing. Den del av det slumpmässiga urvalet som fick en webbenkät delades in i två grupper. Halva gruppen fick inget incitament medan den andra halvan fick ett presentkort till ett värde av 100 kr. De som rekryterades via webbpanel och som skulle använda mobilappen, fick en belöning i form av ett presentkort till ett värde av 100 kr om minst en dags resor rättades i mobilappen. Det genomfördes en bortfallsanalys på det slumpmässiga urvalet för både webbenkät och mobilapp. En kostnadsuppskattning av respektive insamlingsmetod och rekryteringsmetod har också genomförts. Vi tog även fram osäkerhetsskattningar. Studien lokaliserades till Göteborgsregionen eftersom Göteborgs stad då genomförde en traditionell resvaneundersökning under samma period. Syftet med att välja samma område och period var att kunna jämföra våra mindre pilotundersökningar med resultaten från en större traditionell undersökning. Målpopulation var invånare mellan 16–84 år i 21 kommuner i Göteborgsregionen, dvs. samma som i Göteborgs stads undersökning.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Lindborg, Eva
    Trafikanalys.
    Adell, Emeli
    Trivector.
    Holmström, Andreas
    Trafikanalys.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys.
    Dahlberg, Lina
    Trivector.
    Nya sätt att samla in inviduell resvaneinformation: Utvärdering av insamlings- och rekryteringsmetoder2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom samverkansprogrammet Nästa generations resor och transporter, som Trafikanalys är huvudansvarig för, har man identifierat ett behov av att finna och utveckla nya lösningar för resvaneundersökningar (RVU:er). Bakgrunden till detta är bland annat sjunkande svarsfrekvenser med dagens metoder, vilket skulle kunna ge problem med representativiteten. Det anses som mycket angeläget att utveckla nya metoder för datainsamling för framtidens RVU:er, både på kort och lång sikt.

    Det övergripande syftet med projektet är att göra en demonstrationsstudie som visar hur två datainsamlingsmetoder som har utvecklats för att samla in resevaneundersökningsdata presterar i fält, samt hur de presterar jämfört med ”traditionell” RVU (postal enkät och/eller telefonintervjuer). 

    Projektet syftar också till att få bättre förståelse för hur olika rekryteringsmetoder kan användas för att framtida RVU:er ska kunna bli mer kostnadseffektiva. De två insamlingsmetoder som testats är webbenkät med karta och mobilapp. Tre rekryteringsmetoder har använts och dessa är rekrytering via slumpmässigt urval, webbpanel och crowdsourcing.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Liu, Chengxi
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Säkerhetseffekten av ökat cyklande: kartläggning av nuläget för att planera för framtiden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, cycling has been highlighted as a travel mode with many positive qualities. The documents of Swedish national strategy reveal a trend of an increased cycling. At the same time, it is important that the safety of cyclists must be improved so that an increased cycling does not contribute to more injuries and fatalities in accidents. To cope with the increased cycling without compromising the safety, there is fore example, a need for better understanding of the relationship between the cycling flow and the injuries in various traffic environments.

    In this project, three different studies were carried out to understand how the trend of cycling changes over time and how cyclists' injury risk is influenced by the cycling flow and the traffic environment. In the first study, a travel demand model has been developed that includes both mode choice and destination choice for cycling. In the second study, models for cyclists’ injury risks have been developed for different types of accidents and traffic environments. In the third study, interactions between different road users have been observed, to study how these are affected by the level of bicycle flow. Overall, the studies in this project have shown that bicycle flow is an important factor influencing cyclists’ accident risks. Higher bicycle flow corresponds to fewer interactions per cyclist and a lower risk of injury in a single bicycle accident as well as in a collision accident with motorised vehicles. We have also been able to demonstrate that it is possible to model travel choices and destination choice of cyclists and to develop models that describe cyclists’ injury risk. However, to provide better estimates, data with better quality are necessary for the model inputs, especially when it comes to the cycling and the description of cycling infrastructure.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST. NTF.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Cyklisters hastigheter: Kartläggning, mätningar och observation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different road users share space on pedestrian and cycle paths, and their speeds may differ greatly. Differences in speed can complicate the interactions between road users which in turn may cause incidents and accidents. The purpose of this project is to enhance the understanding of cycle speeds on the pedestrian and cycle paths and to understand how the cyclists adapt their speed to other road users and to the surrounding environment. Three different data collection methods were used: Previous measurements of cycle speed and flow in three different municipalities, Eskilstuna, Linköping and Stockholm (18 locations); new measurements in Linköping (4 locations) and Stockholm (1 location); and new observation studies of bicycle types at these locations.

    The average speed of cyclists on the paths selected varies between 15–25 kilometer per hour. As expected, the lower average speeds were found in the uphill directions, near intersections and in paths with high pedestrian flow. The higher speeds were found in downhill directions and on commuter routes. No general increase in cyclists’ speed was found between years, neither in mean speed nor in proportion of high-speed cyclists. However, bicycle flow has increased in many of the locations over the years. This implies that the number of cyclists holding a high speed, above 30 kilometer per hour, will be increased, even if the proportion of high-speed cyclists stays the same. This may mistakenly be interpreted as increased mean speed. About 70–95 percent of the road users observed on the pedestrian and cycling paths were cyclists and roughly 5–30 percent were pedestrians. An extremely small proportion were mopeds, 0.2 percent. The comfort bike was the most common type, followed by the trekking bike. The electric and racer bike occurred in all locations, but varied 1–10 percent respectively 1–15 percent. The relationship between the type of bike and the speed claim is not entirely clear, but cyclists on the electrical and racer bikes generally have higher speed claims.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Vintervädrets betydelse för att fotgängare skadas i singelolyckor2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of the winter weather on injuries in single-pedestrian accidents have been studied using data from the Swedish emergency hospitals, and from the Swedish Transport Administration’s information system on roads weather. We have studied the winter seasons 2008/2009 until 2013/2014. The study’s purpose was to examine the weather that was prevailing at the time of the pedestrian injury and during the 24 hours before the accident. Two populations of single-pedestrian accidents have been analysed; all who have reported that slippery surface due to snow or ice was a contributing cause of the injury; all who have been injured in urban areas in the four selected municipalities: Umeå, Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. A connection between the injury data and weather data were made both for the hours when the injury occurred, and for the 24-hour period prior to the injury. Compared to non-urban areas, in urban areas there were more than 10 times as many who were injured in single-pedestrian accidents due to slippery road condition (snow /ice). This study shows that female pedestrians are injured due to snowy or icy road surface to a greater extent than men. The females’ injuries are also more severe. When comparing the distribution of different accident causes between males and females an analysis of the odds ratio showed that males have a higher proportion of injuries due to snowy or icy road surface compared to females. Prioritizing maintenance on pedestrian and cycle paths during the winter season seems to be beneficial both in terms of injury reductions and in terms of costs for health care due to injuries from slipping on snowy / icy surfaces. The study indicates the possibility of using the weather data of the type used in this study as a tool in the planning and execution of winter maintenance.

  • 15.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Prognosintervall för antal allvarligt skadade i vägtrafikolyckor2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of seriously injured road users is used both as an indicator of traffic safety trends in Sweden and in more specific studies of, for example, different road user groups. A seriously injured person is defined as a person who suffers injuries that lead to permanent medical impairment of at least 1 percent. The term very seriously injured is used as a complement and is defined correspondingly but refers to injuries that lead to permanent medical impairment of at least 10 percent. In practice, the level of impairment is not known at the time of the accident, and therefore the number of seriously and very seriously injured persons are forecasted. The basis for the forecasts are Strada, the national database for road traffic accidents in Sweden, and a method developed by Folksam (a Swedish insurance company) that estimates the risk that a person’s injuries will lead to permanent medical impairment in the future. The aim of this study is to present the size of the uncertainty of the forecasts for different subpopulations such as geographical areas, roads user groups, age and gender. The uncertainty of the forecasts is illustrated as forecasting intervals. It became clear during the study that derivation of the intervals was relatively easy for the case with one injury per person but considerably more difficult when the persons had a combination of several injuries. Therefore, the width of the intervals was determined using simulation instead of theoretical calculations.

  • 16.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Rolling resistance model, fuel consumption model and the traffic energy saving potential from changed road surface conditions2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to evaluate traffic energy changes due to the improvement of road surface standard one need to describe:

    • • rolling resistance at different road surface conditions
    • • all other driving resistance
    • • fuel consumption (Fc) as a function of driving resistance.

    Based mainly on empirical data from coastdown measurements in Sweden a general rolling resistance model – with roughness (iri), macrotexture (mpd), temperature and speed as explanatory variables – was developed and calibrated for a car; a heavy truck and a heavy truck with trailer.

    This rolling resistance model has been incorporated into a driving resistance based Fc model with a high degree of explanation. The Fc function also includes variables for horizontal curvature (ADC) and the road gradient (RF). If mpd per road link is reduced by up to 0.5 mm, the total Fc in the road network will be reduced by 1.1%. By reducing iri per link by 0.5 m/km, speed will increase in parallel to reduced rolling resistance and there will be approximately no resulting effect on Fc. If rut depth is decreased in parallel to iri there will be a further increase in speed. For individual road links there might be an energy saving potential if the proportion of heavy vehicles is big enough.

  • 17.
    Kröyer, Höskuldur
    et al.
    Trafkon.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Cykling under vintermånaderna: Förstudie om exponering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie kommer vi att fokusera på sambanden mellan cykelexponeringen, årstiden och väderförhållanden. Cykling är för närvarande ett mycket uppmärksammat transportslag i hela norden. De senaste åren har dock cyklingen i Sverige minskat. Tidigare forskning har visat att de är flera olika faktorer som påverkar benägenheten att cykla. Forskningen har visat att , hälsa och motion, upplevd trafiksäkerhet och väderförhållanden spelar roll.

    Det är möjligt att vädrets påverkan för beslutsprocessen att cykla eller ej beror på vilken cyklist de handlar om. Det skulle till exempel kunna vara att det finns vissa grupper med mer hängivna cyklister som är benägna att cykla långt in på eller hela vintern, och att dessa påverkas huvudsakligen endast av extrema väderförhållanden, medan det kan vara så att föräldrar ställer in cykeln för barn vid viss tidpunkt på året när väderförhållanden blir sämre.

    Det finns fler anledningar varför det är viktigt att försöka öka vår förståelse av hur vädret påverkar exponeringen för cyklister:

    • Att öka cyklingen har flera positiva effekter för samhället. För att kunna uppnå det är det viktigt att ha förståelse för hur vädret påverkar cyklisterna
    • Trots att det är svårt att påverka väderförhållanden kan vi mildra effekten av dessa genom bättre förståelse av hur dessa påverkar cykel som färdmedelsval, genom till exempel bättre vinterväghållning.
    • Det pågår långsiktiga klimatförändringar. Detta skulle kunna påverka cykelexponeringen, särskild under hösten och våren. Genom bättre förståelse av dessa samband så kan vi möjligtvis dra nytta av väderförändringarna genom att stödja cyklingen under dessa perioder.
  • 18.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Olsén, Stefan
    Department of Vehicle Safety, Saab Automobile AB, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Influence of gender, height, weight, age, seated position and collision site related to neck pain symptoms in rear end impacts2012In: 2012 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings: International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2012, p. 235-248Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rear end vehicle collisions can result in occupants suffering neck pain symptoms of varying degree and duration. These injuries are generally called whiplash injuries and they are common and costly. This study analyses the occurance and duration of neck pain symptoms of one particular vehicle make with focus on the influence of occupant specific information. Data collected from a Swedish vehicle make, model year 1993 up to model year 2007 at a maximum of three years old, were analysed. The results from this study show that passengers are more likely than drivers to suffer neck pain symptoms, in crashes that occurred in that particular make of car. No significant differences in risk related to age, gender weight, and height could be identified, except for: Females aged 35-44 had higher risk to have long and medium term neck pain symptoms than males in the same group of age. Males aged >=65 had higher risk to have long and medium term neck pain symptoms than males aged 35-44. Females in group "Braking" had higher risk of any type of neck pain symptoms than males. Where the occupant was seated in the front seat of the carinfluenced the occurance of neck pain symptoms and their duration for both males and females, with passengers posing a higher risk of suffering neck pain symptoms compared to drivers. Of the drivers, 17 percent reported neck pain symptoms compared to 44 percent of the passengers. When grouped into the categories males and females, 15 percent of the male and 19 percent of the female drivers reported neck pain symptoms compared to 44 percent of the male and 43 percent of the female passengers. With respect to the different collision sites, rear end collisions at traffic lights most often resulted in occupants reporting neck pain symptoms. Collisions in roundabouts most often resulted in different impact scenarios and occupants reported suffering neck pain symptoms of mid and long term duration. The result of this study indicates the need for improved understanding of the differences between driver and passenger response in different driving scenarios. In addition, occupant charactersisics should also be studied.

  • 19.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Statistik över cyklisters olyckor: faktaunderlag till gemensam strategi för säker cykling2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 153 cyclists were killed between 2007 and 2012, while more than 44,000 were so badly injured that they were admitted to A&E departments. 8,400 of the injured cyclists were seriously injured and 1,100 very seriously injured. Half the serious injuries are injuries to the arms and shoulders. About 90% of all cycling accidents in which cyclists are seriously injured happen in urban areas. Eight of every ten cyclists seriously injured sustained their injuries in single-bicycle accidents, and just over one-tenth in bicycle-motor vehicle accidents. The majority, 69%, of cyclists killed, lost their lives in collisions with motor vehicles, usually cars. Given what are judged to be the underlying causes of bicycle accidents, improved ice removal and winter tyres for bikes are considered to be the measures with the biggest potential for reducing the number of cyclists seriously injured, as well as the use of a cycle helmet and a protective jacket and trousers. Other important accident prevention measures are the removal of loose grit, good surface maintenance and adjusted kerbstones, followed by segregated cycle paths, safe bicycle crossings/overpasses and the removing of fixed objects on and beside the cycle path. Many serious injuries to cyclists can also be avoided by remedy deficiencies on the bicycle or its equipment. The most important measures for reducing the number of cyclist fatalities are increased helmet use and the prevention of collisions with motor vehicles or a reduction of the violence of such collisions by means of segregation, safe bicycle crossings/overpasses, emergency brakes and/or an external air bag on cars, and, for lorries, a warning system alerting drivers to the presence of cyclists in the “dead angle”. The analyses presented in this report were undertaken on behalf of the Swedish Transport Administration, and forms part of the work to devise a policy strategy for safe cycling.

  • 20.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Söderström, Liselott
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Varedian, Maria
    Vecturia.
    Hur mycket cyklas det i din kommun?: rekommendationer för uppföljning av målen om en ökad cykeltrafik med hjälp av resvaneundersökningar och cykelräkningar2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att följa upp och utvärdera effekter av olika åtgärder som syftar till att styra transportsystemet i riktning mot ökad hållbarhet, är det nödvändigt med metoder för att mäta effekterna. Ett effektmål som ofta preciseras i arbetet mot ett hållbart transportsystem är ökad gång– och cykeltrafik. Syftet med denna skrift är att ge en översiktlig sammanfattning av rekommendationer för uppföljning av cykeltrafiken. Skriften är en sammanfattning av forsknings– och utvecklingsprojektet Mått och mätmetodik för uppföljning av gång– respektive cykeltrafik.

  • 21.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance. VTI.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Taavo, Ellen
    Stockholms stad.
    Sopsaltningens effekt på cykeltrafiken: en analys av cykelflöden och olyckor i Stockholm2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A winter maintenance method for cycleways becoming widespread in Sweden is “sweep-salting”. The method entails a front-mounted power broom for snow clearance and brine, pre-wetted or dry salt for de-icing. Traditionally in Sweden, ploughing and gritting is used for winter maintenance of cycleways and footways. At VTI the sweep-salting method has been evaluated in several research studies, focusing on the method, equipment and strategies in order to give recommendations regarding the implementation of the method. In the study presented in this report, this research has been complemented with analysis of accident data from Strada, from 2013 through 2017 and the winter seasons 2012/13–2017/18, including cyclists, pedestrians and moped riders as well as cycle flow measurements from Stockholm, with the objective to evaluate the effects of sweep-salting on cyclists.

    All in all, our analyses of bicycle flow measurements from Stockholm show that sweep-salting contributed to increase the winter cycling. The analyses of accident data indicate that sweep-salting has also contributed to reduce the number of accidents due to skidding. Since the sweep-salted cycle routes are generally important for commuting resulting in relatively high cycle flows, it is likely that the accident risk per cyclist is lower after sweep-salting has been introduced. However, the available data was not extensive enough to quantify the effects. Nevertheless, it is clear that sweep-salting has not led to an increased accident risk. Fall accidents among pedestrians represent the major part of the accidents due to skidding and they occurred mainly on sidewalks in the inner city. We have also analysed weather data from VViS stations located along the road network around Stockholm and from one of SMHI's weather stations in Stockholm.

  • 22.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Cyklisters singelolyckor: analys av olycks- och skadedata samt djupintervjuer2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this project was to study single bicycle accidents, to see how these can be avoided and how the injuries due to these can be alleviated. The in-depth studies of fatal accidents by the Swedish Traffic Administration, and hospital reported accidents in the database Strada have been analysed. The focus was on the single bicycle accidents resulting in death or serious injury, and the data for 2007-–2011 were included. In addition, 32 seriously injured cyclists were interviewed about the accident in which they had been involved. Of all the cyclists who need emergency treatment, eight out of ten had been injured in a single accident. In addition, on average five cyclists were killed every year in a single bicycle accident. In all, during the five-year period studied, 125 cyclists were killed. Of the 1,274 seriously injured in single bicycle accidents, 27 per cent can be related to operation and maintenance, 20 per cent to road design, 27 per cent to cyclist-bicycle interaction, 15 per cent to the behaviour and state of the cyclist, and 11 per cent to the interaction of the cyclist with other road users. Older age groups are involved to a greater extent than the young, in both the fatal accidents and the serious accidents – more than 40 per cent among those killed and seriously injured were 65 or older. The serious injuries among older people are characterised by injuries to the hips. In other respects, head injuries dominate among the seriously injured cyclists, and head injuries were the cause of death in 70 per cent of single bicycle accidents.

  • 23.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wehtje, Philip
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Cykling bland barn och unga: en kunskapssammanställning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling among children and young adults has decreased, resulting in negative effects on their health and independent mobility. The Swedish government has commissioned VTI to review and compile knowledge on plausible reasons, based on literature reviews, contacts with relevant players and analyses of travel surveys and accident statistics. The statistics showed that the number of individuals who cycle has decreased, whereas the cycled distance remains unchanged. Above all, recreational cycling among children and young adults has decreased, which could be explained by longer distances to recreational activities, more parents working full-time and children’s everyday lives having become more institutionalised. Cycling to school has also decreased. Among other things, families being able to choose what school the children attend has resulted in greater distances between the home and the school. Other reasons include households owning more cars, changes in the way children play and communicate, and inadequate actual and perceived safety conditions along cycle lanes combined with parents’ perceptions of their children’s highway skills. Cycling has been partially replaced by car journeys, but mainly by walking and use of public transport. Cycling has decreased the most among older children. As they have primarily replaced cycling by public transport, one explanation could be that more of them are offered free bus passes. There is a great commitment and competency among various players regarding cycling among children and young adults. However, there is a great need for better coordination and for actions and measures taken to be systematically evaluated.

  • 24.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ljungblad, Hanna
    Koucky & Partners (K&P).
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Zajc, Anna
    Koucky & Partners (K&P).
    Vägarbeten på cykelvägar: kunskapssammanställning och problembeskrivning2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using interviews, literature studies and accident analyses, the researchers have gathered knowledge concerning present-day procedures in connection with road works on cycle paths and how they may conceivably affect cyclists in terms of accessibility, comfort and safety. Nine out of ten cycling accidents relatable to road works occurred in urban areas, and the most common causes are: the cyclist falling off when encountering cables, hoses, pipes etc. laid across the cycle path; loose gravel, stones or dirt from the road works; high and/or unmarked edges; large potholes, ditches or other irregularities. The cyclists’ accessibility is adversely affected by all types of obstacle which road works can amount to, and above all by diversions. The cyclists’ perceived comfort is negatively affected by surface irregularities, mud, gravel and dirt which are frequently occurring in connection with road works. All in all, the studies in this project reveal a need for better knowledge and awareness as to how cyclists should be treated in connection with road works. Road authorities perceive the importance of devising working procedures which will cater to cyclists’ need of safe, passable routes even during construction processes. The big issue to them is the best way of doing this. To construction contractors the main question is rather what priority this issue has in relation to the other demands road works are subjected to. The existing guidelines appear insufficient, with their sweeping terms and woolly language, they show insufficient consideration for the circumstances and needs of cyclists. In addition, there is a lack of clear examples showing how cyclists are to be treated in practice. There is also a need for marking and fencing materials to be adapted for use on cycle paths, both for the sake of better understanding and with a view to reducing the risk of accidents.

  • 25.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Varedian, Maria
    Vectura.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Söderström, Liselott
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Uppföljning av gång- och cykeltrafik: utveckling av en harmoniserad metod för kommunal uppföljning av gång- respektive cykeltrafik med hjälp av resvaneundersökningar och cykelflödesmätningar2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second and last report in a project financed by the Swedish Traffic Administration, with the objective to propose a harmonised method for monitoring the proportion of pedestrian and cycle traffic. The method should be used for local monitoring in Swedish municipalities to be able to make comparisons over years and between towns, regions or the country as a whole. The project began with a survey and analysis of the present method of estimating travel by walking and cycling, both in and outside Sweden. This work was described in the first report on the project, VTI Report No 686 (Niska et al., 2010). In this report, method and results of analysis of some municipal travel surveys, cycle counts and other considerations resulting in the harmonised method are presented. In the harmonised method, the basic unit ?the proportion, represented by cycle traffic, of all trips which have their origin and destinations in the municipality on weekdays?, is used. In order to collect data for the basic unit, the recommendation is that a municipal travel survey should be performed in the autumn every five years with the help of a written questionnaire consisting of 1-2 pages with background questions, and a simple and self-explanatory travel diary. All movements with an errand at the destination, on the day of survey, should be registered in the travel diary. The sample should consist of at least 1 500 inhabitants of the municipality aged between 16-75 years. Cycle counts can be used for identifying long term trends and for the planning and monitoring of specific measures on individual routes, but usually not for estimating the change in cycling from one year to another. In the report, a number of practical hints are given as to how measuring sites should be selected, when and for how long the measurements should be made, and the requirements that may be specified for the equipment in use. In addition, a summary is given of what should be documented and what should be borne in mind in drawing up the report.

  • 26.
    Ullberg, Martin
    et al.
    Vectura.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user. Vectura.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Lunds Tekniska Universitet.
    Att främja gåendet: resultat från en enkätstudie2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är den tredje i projektet ”Planering och utformning för ett ökat gående”. Den redovisar resultat från en enkätstudie om gåendes förflyttningsvanor och åsikter om goda och mindre goda miljöer för gående. Studien är genomförd i fem orter – Luleå, Östersund, Västerås, Älmhult och Båstad. Enkäten innehöll frågeställningar kring hur ofta personer rör sig som gående, skälen till att personer förflyttar sig som gående, varför personer väljer att gå i vissa specifika miljöer samt nöjdhet kring planering för gående. Studien har behandlat människors gående, vad som upplevs som positivt med gåendet, och vad som hindrar människor från att gå. Ett resultat är att många färdas till fots till arbete eller skola. Särskilt tydligt är att människor tycker om att färdas till fots, och också ofta går på fritiden för rekreation och motion.

  • 27.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    En modell för säker cykling2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the multi-disciplinary scientific research programme A strong research environment in the field of non-motorised vulnerable road users is to increase our knowledge of unprotected twowheeled or non-motorised road users and their special requirements in the road traffic environment. The aim being to, in the long-term, to contribute to the Swedish national road safety goals. The objective of the Model for Safe Cycling report is to summarise the results and suggested actions from the eight projects that were conducted within the framework of the research programme; a literature study; and other programme related activities, in a conceptual model based on Haddon’s matrix. With a model, in this case, we mean that a list of suggested implementation actions, structured according to Haddon’s matrix and embellished with prerequisites directed towards the cyclist, the bicycle and the road environment. Each of the suggested actions or implementation suggestions, are organised along the chain of events from the prerequisite phase to the crash phase. Stakeholders are identified for each of the suggested actions for implementation. In summary, the results suggest one must look at the (road) transport system as a whole to provide a system for safe cycling. To be able to acquire a holistic approach, cooperation between stakeholders is necessary. Finally, more research is required to find optimal solutions and designs tailored to the actions that must also be evaluated to assure that the desired effects are reached.

1 - 27 of 27
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