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  • 1. Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Evaluation of extrication techniques. - Is there any other quality measurement then time?2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Brolin, Karin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Östh, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svensson, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Sato, Fusako
    Japan Automotive Research Institute.
    Ono, Koshiro
    Japan Automotive Research Institute.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Kullgren, Anders
    Folksam.
    Aiming for an average female virtual human body model for seat performance assessment in rear-end impacts2015In: The 24th ESV Conference Proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The female part of the population suffers more Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) in car crashes than males. Several studies have illustrated the need to consider the female population when developing and assessing the WAD prevention performance of advanced restraint systems in rear-end collisions. Presently only one crash test dummy is available, the average sized male BioRID. Recently a virtual dummy model of an average female, EvaRID, was developed and used in rear impact simulations. The results stressed the need for models representing the female part of the population, as well. Virtual crash simulations have become essential in traffic safety and with models of both an average male and female, further steps in addressing improved assessment of WAD prevention can be taken. The present paper presents a starting point of research aiming to develop an open-source average female Finite Element (FE) model with an anatomically detailed cervical spine. This paper provides a review of the literature to identify gender specific neck biomechanics and anatomical differences, followed by a review of published FE models of the cervical spine. Data on vertebral body dimensions (height, width, depth, spinal canal diameter, facet joint angles) have been compiled from biomechanical literature. Significant gender differences exist for the vertebral body depth and width, the spinal curvature in the seated posture, and the spinal stiffness and range of motion. All have the potential to influence the outcome of an impact and should be accounted for in the development of WAD prevention. The review of FE models of the cervical spine presented 17 models based on male geometry but only one model scaled to represent a female. An overview of the models are given with respect to the solver, geometry source, number of elements, and implementation of the facet joints, ligaments, and muscles. It is recommended that an average female model is developed with focus on; 1) the shape of the female vertebral body, especially the depth and width that provides less support area than for males,2) defining the spinal curvature representative of seated female volunteers who generally display less lordosis than males, 3) the dimensions of the spinal ligaments, rather than the material properties, to capture the larger range of motion and less spinal stiffness of female subjects compared to males, and validation to female volunteers and PMHS tests for range of motion, while failure prediction seem less gender sensitive.

     

     

  • 3.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Chang, Fred
    Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Plymouth, Michigan.
    Lemmen, Paul
    Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Plymouth, Michigan.
    Kullgren, Anders
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Schmitt, Kai Uwe
    AGU Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Anthropometric Specifications, Development, and Evaluation of EvaRID: A 50th Percentile Female Rear Impact Finite Element Dummy Model2014In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 855-865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Whiplash-associated disorders (WADs), or whiplash injuries, due to low-severity vehicle crashes are of great concern in motorized countries and it is well established that the risk of such injuries is higher for females than for males, even in similar crash conditions. Recent protective systems have been shown to be more beneficial for males than for females. Hence, there is a need for improved tools to address female WAD prevention when developing and evaluating the performance of whiplash protection systems. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a finite element model of a 50th percentile female rear impact crash test dummy.Methods: The anthropometry of the 50th percentile female was specified based on literature data. The model, called EvaRID (female rear impact dummy), was based on the same design concept as the existing 50th percentile male rear impact dummy, the BioRID II. A scaling approach was developed and the first version, EvaRID V1.0, was implemented. Its dynamic response was compared to female volunteer data from rear impact sled tests.Results: The EvaRID V1.0 model and the volunteer tests compared well until ~250 ms of the head and T1 forward accelerations and rearward linear displacements and of the head rearward angular displacement. Markedly less T1 rearward angular displacement was found for the EvaRID model compared to the female volunteers. Similar results were received for the BioRID II model when comparing simulated responses with experimental data under volunteer loading conditions. The results indicate that the biofidelity of the EvaRID V1.0 and BioRID II FE models have limitations, predominantly in the T1 rearward angular displacement, at low velocity changes (7 km/h). The BioRID II model was validated against dummy test results in a loading range close to consumer test conditions (EuroNCAP) and lower severity levels of volunteer testing were not considered.The EvaRID dummy model demonstrated the potential of becoming a valuable tool when evaluating and developing seats and whiplash protection systems. However, updates of the joint stiffness will be required to provide better correlation at lower load levels. Moreover, the seated posture, curvature of the spine, and head position of 50th percentile female occupants needs to be established and implemented in future models.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Chang, Fred
    CAE Dep, United States.
    Lemmen, Paul
    Humanetics Europe GmbH, Wateringen, Netherlands.
    Kullgren, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Schmitt, Kai Uwe
    Universität Zürich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    EvaRID: A 50th percentile female rear impact finite element dummy model2012In: 2012 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings: International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2012, p. 249-262Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neck injury due to low severity vehicle crashes is of worldwide concern and the injury risk is greater for females than males. However, whiplash protection systems have shown to be more beneficial for males than females. Hence there is a need for improved tools to address female protection. The objective is to develop and evaluate a 50th percentile female rear impact crash dummy FE model. The model was based on the same design concept as the BioRID II. A scaling approach was developed and the first version, EvaRID V1.0, was implemented. Its dynamic response was compared to rear impact tests with female volunteers. The EvaRID model and volunteer tests showed good correlations until 250 ms of the head and T1 accelerations, linear displacements and head angular displacement. Considerably less T1 angular displacement was found for the EvaRID; similar results were obtained for the BioRID II. Thus, the EvaRID V1.0 and BioRID II models have limitations at low ÎŽv (7km/h). The EvaRID model demonstrated the potential to become a valuable tool when evaluating and developing seats/whiplash protection systems, however, this will require updating the joint stiffness. The model may be used as a template for the development of a physical female dummy.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Davidsson, Johan
    SAFER - Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hell, Wolfram
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine, München, Germany.
    Schick, Sylvia
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine, München, Germany.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Dynamic kinematic responses of female volunteers in rear impacts and comparison to previous male volunteer tests2011In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 347-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objective was to quantify dynamic responses of 50th percentile females in rear impacts and compare to those from similar tests with males. The results will serve as a basis for future work with models, criteria, and safety systems.

    Methods: A rear impact sled test series with 8 female volunteers was performed at velocity changes of 5 and 7 km/h. The following dynamic response corridors were generated for the head, T1 (first thoracic vertebra) and head relative to T1: (1) accelerations in posterior-anterior direction, (2) horizontal and vertical displacements, (3) angular displacements for 6 females close to the 50th percentile in size. Additionally, the head-to-head restraint distance and contact time and neck injury criterion (NIC) were extracted from the data set. These data were compared to results from previously performed male volunteer tests, representing the 50th percentile male, in equivalent test conditions. T-tests were performed with the statistical significance level of.05 to quantify the significance of the parameter value differences for the males and females.

    Results: At 7 km/h, the females showed 29 percent earlier head-to-head restraint contact time (p =.0072); 27 percent shorter horizontal rearward head displacement (p =.0017); 36 percent narrower head extension angle (p =.0281); and 52 percent lower NIC value (p =.0239) than the males in previous tests. This was mainly due to 35 percent shorter initial head-to-head restraint distance for the females (p =.0125). The peak head acceleration in the posterior-anterior direction was higher and occurred earlier for the females.

    Conclusions: The overall result indicated differences in the dynamic response for the female and male volunteers. The results could be used in developing and evaluating a mechanical and/or mathematical average-sized female dummy model for rear impact safety assessment. These models can be used as a tool in the design of protective systems and for further development and evaluation of injury criteria. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Schick, Sylvia
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine, München, Germany.
    Horion, Stefan
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München, Germany.
    Hell, Wofram
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine, München, Germany.
    Female volunteer motion in rear impact sled tests in comparison to results from earlier male volunteer tests2008In: 2008 INTERNATIONAL IRCOBI CONFERENCEONTHE BIOMECHANICS OF INJURY17. – 19. September 2008– BERN (Switzerland)PROCEEDINGS, 2008, p. 461-464Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle related crashes causing neck injuries (whiplash) are costly and common, and injury statistic data shows a larger risk of neck injuries for females than for males. This study aims at investigating differences between female and male dynamic response in rear impacts. Rear impact sled tests with female volunteers were carried out and the results were compared with previously performed tests with males in matching test conditions. The volunteer tests were performed at a change of velocity of 7 km/h. The comparison of the average response of the males and the females and their response corridors showed several differences. The horizontal head acceleration peak value was on average 40% higher and occurred on average 18% earlier for the female volunteers compared to the male volunteers. The NIC value was 45% lower and 30% earlier for the females, probably due to a 27% smaller initial head-to-head restraint distance and thereby a 24% earlier head restraint contact. The results provide characteristic differences between dynamic responses of females and males in low speed rear impacts. These results contribute to the understanding of human dynamic response in rear impacts. In addition, they can be used in the process of future development if numerical and/or mechanical human models for crash testing.

  • 7.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Siegmund, Gunter P.
    The University of British Columbia, School of Kinesiology, Vancouver, Canada.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Motion of the Head and Neck of Female and Male Volunteers in Rear Impact Car-to-Car Impacts2012In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 378-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare dynamic motion responses between 50th percentile female and male volunteers in rear impact tests. These data are fundamental for developing future occupant models for crash safety development and assessment.

    Methods: High-speed video data from a rear impact test series with 21 male and 21 female volunteers at 4 and 8 km/h, originally presented in Siegmund et al. (1997), were used for further analysis. Data from a subset of female volunteers, 12 at 4 km/h and 9 at 8 km/h, were extracted from the original data set to represent the 50th percentile female. Their average height was 163 cm and their average weight was 62 kg. Among the male volunteers, 11 were selected, with an average height of 175 cm and an average weight of 73 kg, to represent the 50th percentile male. Response corridors were generated for the horizontal and angular displacements of the head, T1 (first thoracic vertebra), and the head relative to T1. T-tests were performed with the statistical significance level of.05 to quantify the significance of the differences in parameter values for the males and females.

    Results: Several differences were found in the average motion response of the male and female volunteers at 4 and 8 km/h. Generally, females had smaller rearward horizontal and angular motions of the head and T1 compared to the males. This was mainly due to shorter initial head-to-head restraint distance and earlier head-to-head restraint contact for the females. At 8 km/h, the female volunteers showed 12 percent lower horizontal peak rearward head displacement (P =.018); 22 percent lower horizontal peak rearward head relative to T1 displacement (P =.018); and 30 percent lower peak head extension angle (P =.001). The females also had more pronounced rebound motion.

    Conclusions: This study indicates that there may be characteristic differences in the head-neck motion response between 50th percentile males and females in rear impacts. The exclusive use of 50th percentile male rear impact dummies may thus limit the assessment and development of whiplash prevention systems that adequately protect both male and female occupants. The results of this study could be used in the development and evaluation of a mechanical and/or computational average-sized female dummy model for rear impact safety assessment. These models are used in the development and evaluation of protective systems. It would be of interest to make further studies into seat configurations featuring a greater head-to-head restraint distance. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Siegmund, Gunter P.
    The University of British Columbia, School of Kinesiology, Vancouver, Canada.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Motion of the head and neck of female and male volunteers in rear impact car-to-car tests at 4 and 8 km/h2010In: 2010 INTERNATIONAL IRCOBI CONFERENCE ON THE BIOMECHANICS OF INJURY 15. + 16. September 2010– HANOVER (Germany) PROCEEDINGS, 2010, p. 29-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study indications of differences in motion pattern of females and males have been found. The objective was to quantify dynamic motion responses of female and male volunteers in rear impact tests. Such data can be used as an input in the development process of improved occupant models such as computational models and crash test dummies. High-speed video data from rear impact tests at 4 km/h and 8 km/h with 12 female and 11 male volunteers was analysed. The females in this study had smaller rearward horizontal and angular motions of the head and T1 compared to the males. Furthermore, the females had more pronounced rebound motion.

  • 9.
    Clark, A
    et al.
    Monash University.
    Douglas, C
    Monash University.
    Fildes, B
    Monash University.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Yang, J
    Chalmers.
    Sparke, L
    Holden Innovation.
    Mathematical modelling of pedestrian crashes: Parameter study of the influence of the sedan vehicle contour2006In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 39, no Suppl. 1, p. 160-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ekström, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Fatally injured cyclists in Sweden 2005–2015: analysis of accident circumstances, injuries and suggestions for safety improvements2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling is part of the sustainable transport system and plans are in place to increase this part of the transport system in Sweden, Europe as well as globally. Improving the safety for this group of roadusers is of great importance. The aim of this study was to identify patterns among fatally injured cyclists in Sweden, in order to suggest general safety improvements or improvements addressing different groups of cyclists as well as specific traffic conditions.

    The information was sourced from the in-depth study database of fatalities as well as the joint register for police and hospital injury and accident data, STRADA, in Sweden. Data was analysed and interpreted for an 11 year period from 2005–2015. The in-depth study of the fatalities provided details about the accidents and individuals involved in the accident and the information was retrieved by parameter values, in free text description and documents in the database. STRADA was used to sort official data within the in-depth study, assigning codes for accident type, complementing parameters and additional parameters.

    A total of 271 fatalities were identified and analysed where the majority of the accidents occurred during spring–autumn. Male fatalities accounted for two-thirds of the studied cases and in ages above 40, male fatalities are twice as many as female fatalities. Fatalities in Motor vehicle accidents are distributed in all age groups, while in the Single bike and Other bike category, there were no children and only a few young adults reported.

  • 11.
    Howard, Christian
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Review of Swedish experiences concerning analysis of people injured in traffic accidents2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides a review of Swedish experiences concerning the national road traffic accident information system STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition). STRADA contains information on accidents occurring in the Swedish road transport system as reported by the police, and medical data on persons injured as reported by the hospitals. By combining data from two sources, the STRADA system can provide more comprehensive information on both the circumstances and the consequences of road traffic accidents. The aim was to provide a review of accident and injury data in STRADA, including methods for collecting, sharing and analyzing the data. The primary focus is on the injury data provided by the hospitals and how these can be used in conjunction with police data. The main results provided in this report are descriptions of how the STRADA database is structured and what data are available, how the police and hospitals collect data, and how the data are made available to various stakeholders. The report describes the organizations involved in maintaining and developing the STRADA system and a number of examples of how hospital data has been used in various projects are also provided. Information about STRADA was compiled mainly from material provided by the responsible authority – The Swedish Transport Agency. In addition, a literature review was performed in order to identify examples of how hospital data has been used in different projects. The report was commissioned by the Belgian Road Safety Institute (BRSI).

  • 12.
    Jonsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    BioRID II manikin and human seating position in relation to car head restraint2008In: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 479-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to compare stature, weight and backset (the horizontal distance (x) between the back of the occupant’s head and the front of the seam on top of the head restraint) of the Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy (BioRID II) to the same variables on seated volunteers in a car. The following methods were used. Data were collected from 154 randomly selected Swedish individuals (78 males and 76 females). The volunteers and the BioRID II were examined in a Volvo V70 car, year model 2003, in three positions: driver (hands on steering wheel), front passenger (hands in lap) and rear passenger. The study results were as follows: the BioRID II was found to correspond approximately to a 35th-45th percentile male in stature (-2 cm), a 35th percentile male in weight (-7 kg), a 96th percentile female in stature (+11 cm) and a 69th percentile female in weight (+8 kg). The BioRID II was designed to represent a male driver. The BioRID II backset corresponded well with the average of the male drivers of its stature. Larger deviations in backset were found for other volunteer sizes and other seating positions. The average backsets were 26 mm for females and 63 mm for males in the front seat positions. The volunteers had larger backset in the driver position (60 mm) than in the front passenger position (29 mm). Smaller differences in backset were seen between the BioRID II and the volunteers in the rear passenger position. This study provides data regarding the occupant size coverage of BioRID II, and unique data regarding backset, of different occupant positions in the car; driver with hands on steering wheel, and front and rear passengers with hands in lap, for female and male in relation to the BioRID II dummy. © 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  • 13.
    Levin, Lena (red.)
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nielsen, Benny
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Äldre i transportsystemet: mobilitet, design och träningsproblematik2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Generally, more elderly will be travelling and be out on the roads as active road-users in the future. Research exists on the travelling habits of the elderly; but more in-depth knowledge on the elderly's preferences as license-holders, drivers, road-users and actors in public transport is required. The aim of this report is to give an overview of previous research as well as to indicate a number of directions for future research on the mobility of the elderly as actors within the transport system. The work has a clear multidisciplinary approach, with knowledge from social science, behavioural science and technical research on transport and the elderly. However, the main weight lays on social science and behavioural science issues. The report is divided into eleven chapters: 1) contains a short background, purpose and method questions; 2) discusses the project's scientific and social relevance; 3) provides theoretical background and theoretical concepts; 4) mentions previous research on the elderly as car drivers; 5) is a chapter on license-less vehicles; 6) discusses traffic and road design for the elderly; 7) discusses the elderly as pedestrians and bicycle road-users; 8) is about the elderly in public transport and 9) is about the training of elderly drivers. Chapter 10) consists of a final discussion and chapter 11) summarises point by point the need for research on issues which have come to light in the report

  • 14.
    Linder, Astrid
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    A new mathematical neck model for a low-velocity rear-end impact dummy: Evaluation of components influencing head kinematics2000In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 261-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mathematical model of a new rear-end impact dummy neck was implemented using MADYMO. The main goal was to design a model with a human-like response of the first extension motion in the crash event. The new dummy neck was modelled as a series of rigid bodies (representing the seven cervical vertebrae and the uppermost thoracic element, T1) connected by pin joints, and supplemented by two muscle substitutes. The joints had non-linear stiffness characteristics and the muscle elements possessed both elastic stiffness and damping properties. The new model was compared with two neck models with the same number of vertebrae, but without muscle substitutes. The properties of the muscle substitutes and the need of these were evaluated by using three different modified neck models. The motion of T1 in the simulations was prescribed using displacement data obtained from volunteer tests. In a sensitivity analysis of the mathematical model the influence of different factors on the head-neck kinematics was evaluated. The neck model was validated against kinematics data from volunteer tests: linear displacement, angular displacement, and acceleration of the head relative to the upper torso at 7 km/h velocity change. The response of the new model was within the corridor of the volunteer tests for the main part of the time history plot. This study showed that a combination of elastic stiffness and damping in the muscle substitutes, together with a non-linear joint stiffness, resulted in a head-neck response similar to human volunteers, and superior to that of other tested neck models.

  • 15.
    Linder, Astrid
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Neck injuries in rear impacts: Dummy neck development, dummy evaluation and test condition specifications2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the work underlying this thesis was firstly to develop a neck for a new rear impact dummy, to evaluate the complete dummy and to specify test conditions for a consumer test with attention to AIS 1 neck injuries in rear impacts. In the development of the dummy neck, a mathematical neck model was developed and evaluated. Furthermore, impact severity and seat designs were also investigated.

    Rear collisions can result in AIS 1 neck injuries. These injuries, which are becoming more frequent, occur mostly at low changes of velocity (less than 30km/h). Since AIS 1 neck injuries can result in long-term symptoms, it is of major importance to devise protection from these injuries. When testing the safety performance of seats and head restraints, an essential tool is the crash test dummy. However, the standard crash dummy of today, the Hybrid III, has had limitations in its interaction with the seat and head restraint.

    The new dummy neck developed was evaluated by using data from crash tests involving volunteers as well as post mortem human subjects. For comparison, the Hybrid III frontal impact dummy was also tested under the same conditions. The new neck was found to have more human-like motion than that of the Hybrid III in low velocity rear tests when compared to both volunteers and post mortem human subjects. This was found to be the case for the head relative to upper torso horizontal and angular displacement. The new dummy neck became a fundamental part of the new, low-velocity rear impact crash dummy, the BioRID. The BioRID was found to have more human-like motion than that of the Hybrid III in low velocity rear impact tests when compared to both volunteers and post mortem human subjects. This result was observed for angular, vertical and horizontal displacement of the upper torso.

    The variations in acceleration pulse characteristics in different vehicle models in identical impact conditions was shown to be substantial. A similar delta-V could be generated in a large variety of ways in terms of mean acceleration and acceleration pulse shape in a rear impact. The variation in crash pulse characteristics for the same car model from different real-world crashes of similar delta-Vs was also shown to be significant. This served as a background for the specifications of the test conditions for a proposed consumer test.

    Real-world rear impact collisions with crash recorder-equipped vehicles, were reconstructed on a sled reproducing the real-world crash pulse. The results illustrate the risk of sub-optimisation when using only a single test in assessing neck injury protection. Further, five different seat configurations were evaluated in a series of sled tests at four impact severities. Identical vehicle seats were found to perform differently in tests with of different severities. Changing the mean acceleration (from 4.2g to 7.6g) influenced key dummy readings more than changing the delta-V (from 15km/h to 25km/h). Therefore, it should be expected that different real-world rear collisions at similar delta-Vs imply highly differing loading conditions to the occupants. As a consequence, the test conditions for the proposed consumer test program included specifications for several levels of change of velocity and mean acceleration.

    The results of this thesis are expected to become important input in the definition of future rear impact test procedures for neck injury risk assessment.

  • 16.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Bergman, Ulf
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Svensson, Mats
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Viano, David
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Evaluation of the BioRID P3 and the Hybrid III in pendulum impacts to the back: a comparison to human subject test data2000In: Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, ISSN 1540-0360, Vol. 44, p. 283-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The BioRID P3 (Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy) and the Hybrid III were evaluated in pendulum impacts to the back and compared to data from previous cadaver tests. The test setup impacting seated cadavers was reproduced with a pendulum impacting seated dummies at the level of T6 (6th thoracic vertebra). The pendulum mass was 23 kg and the impact velocity 4.6 m/s. The results showed that the BioRID P3 was more biofidelic than the Hybrid III in terms of the peak responses and the temporal window of the head and head relative to T1 horizontal, vertical, and angular displacement. This study is an evaluation of both the BioRID P3 and the Hybrid III against a recently available set of human subject data. The study meets the need for validation of the BioRID P3 at a higher impact severity than has been previously accomplished.

  • 17.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Svensson, Mats Y
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Siegmund, Gunter P.
    The University of British Columbia.
    Dynamic responses of female and male volunteers in rear impacts2008In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 592-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Whiplash injuries from vehicle collisions are common and costly. These injuries most frequently occur as a result of a rear impact and, compared to males, females have up to twice the risk of whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) resulting from vehicle crashes. The present study focuses on the differences in the dynamic response corridors of males and females in low-severity rear impacts.

    Methods: In this study, analysis of data from volunteer tests of females from previously published data has been performed. Corridors for the average female response were generated based on 12 volunteers exposed to a change of velocity of 4 km/h and 9 volunteers exposed to a change of velocity of 8 km/h. These corridors were compared to corridors for the average male response that were previously generated based on 11 male volunteers exposed to the same test conditions.

    Results: Comparison between the male and female data showed that the maximum x-acceleration of the head for the females occurred on average 10 ms earlier and was 29% higher during the 4 km/h test and 12 ms earlier and 9% higher during the 8 km/h test. Head-to-head restraint contact for the females occurred 14 ms earlier at 4 km/h and 11 ms earlier at 8 km/h compared to the males. For the same initial head-to-head restraint distance, head restraint contact occurred 11 and 7 ms earlier for the females than the males at 4 and 8 km/h, respectively. Furthermore, the calculated Neck Injury Criteria (NIC) values were similar for males and females at 4 km/h, whereas they were lower for females compared to the males at 8 km/h (3.2 and 4.0 m2/s2, respectively).

    Conclusions: The results of this study highlight the need to further investigate the differences in dynamic responses between males and females at low-severity impacts. Such data are fundamental for the development of future computer models and dummies for crash safety assessment. These models can be used not only as a tool in the design and development process of protective systems but also in the process of further evaluation and development of injury criteria. Copyright © 2008 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 18.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Matstoms, Ylva
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sundström, Jerker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Östlund, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Methods for the evaluation of traffic safety effects of Antilock Braking System (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC): a literature review2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In today's vehicles, active safety systems are introduced addressing a large variety of safety issues such as providing optimal stability control, braking effect, preventing spin and rollover, as well as collision avoidance, to mention just a few. In this study a literature review was performed in order to establish how the traffic safety performances of active safety systems with focus on Antilock Braking System (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) are assessed. The areas covered were statistical evaluation, testing and driver behaviour. The literature review showed that in particular statistical methods, based on odds ratios, had been used in order to evaluate the traffic safety effect. In order to evaluate the effect of ESC in physical testing there are several test methods described in this report. Estimations of driver behaviour effects have been carried out by surveys among vehicle owners. Experiments performed in field or in simulator have also been found in the literature. From EU projects a variety of measures and test methods are available for assessment of driver behavioural effects.

  • 19.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sundström, Jerker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Methods for evaluation of Electronic Stability Control (ESC): a literature review2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Holmqvist, Kristian
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Average male and female virtual dummy model (BioRID and EvaRID) simulations with two seat concepts in the Euro NCAP low severity rear impact test configuration2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft tissue neck injuries, also referred to as whiplash injuries, which can lead to long term suffering accounts for more than 60% of the cost of all injuries leading to permanent medical impairment for the insurance companies, with respect to injuries sustained in vehicle crashes. These injuries are sustained in all impact directions, however they are most common in rear impacts. Injury statistics have since the mid-1960s consistently shown that females are subject to a higher risk of sustaining this type of injury than males, on average twice the risk of injury. Furthermore, some recently developed anti-whiplash systems have revealed they provide less protection for females than males. The protection of both males and females should be addresses equally when designing and evaluating vehicle safety systems to ensure maximum safety for everyone. This is currently not the case. The norm for crash test dummies representing humans in crash test laboratories is an average male. The female part of the population is not represented in tests performed by consumer information organisations such as NCAP or in regulatory tests due to the absence of a physical dummy representing an average female.

    Recently, the world first virtual model of an average female crash test dummy was developed. In this study, simulations were run with both this model and an average male dummy model, seated in a simplified model of a vehicle seat. The results of the simulations were compared to earlier published results from simulations run in the same test set-up with a vehicle concepts seat. The three crash pulse severities of the Euro NCAP low severity rear impact test were applied. The motion of the neck, head and upper torso were analysed in addition to the accelerations and the Neck Injury Criterion (NIC). Furthermore, the response of the virtual models was compared to the response of volunteers as well as the average male model, to that of the response of a physical dummy model. Simulations with the virtual male and female dummy models revealed differences in dynamic response related to the crash severity, as well as between the two dummies in the two different seat models. For the comparison of the response of the virtual models to the response of the volunteers and the physical dummy model, the peak angular motion of the first thoracic vertebra as found in the volunteer tests and mimicked by the physical dummy were not of the same magnitude in the virtual models.

    The results of the study highlight the need for an extended test matrix that includes an average female dummy model to evaluate the level of occupant protection different seats provide in vehicle crashes. This would provide developers with an additional tool to ensure that both male and female occupants receive satisfactory protection and promote seat concepts that provide the best possible protection for the whole adult population. This study shows that using the mathematical models available today can provide insights suitable for future testing.

  • 21.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Holmqvist, Kristian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simulations with average male and female dummy models with two seat concepts in the Euro NCAP low severity rear impact test configuration2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft tissue neck injuries, also referred to as whiplash injuries, which can lead to long term suffering are most common in rear impacts. These injuries account for more than 60% of the cost of all injuries leading to permanent medical impairment for the insurance companies with respect to injuries sustained in vehicle crashes. Injury statistics have since the mid-1960s consistently shown that females are subject to a higher risk of sustaining this type of injury than males, on average twice the risk of injury. Furthermore, recently developed anti-whiplash systems have shown to protect females less than males. The diversity of males and females should be addresses when designing and evaluating vehicle safety systems to ensure maximum safety for everyone. This is currently not the case. The norm for crash test dummies representing humans in crash test laboratories is an average male. The female part of the population is not represented in tests performed by consumer information organisations such as NCAP due to the absence of a physical dummy representing an average female. Recently, the world first virtual model of an average female crash test dummy was developed. In this study, simulations were run with both an average male, and the recently developed average female dummy model, seated in a laboratory vehicle seat. The results of the simulations were compared to earlier published results from the same test set-up with a vehicle concepts seat. The three crash pulse severities of the Euro NCAP low severity rear impact test were applied. The motion of the neck, head and upper torso were analysed in addition to the accelerations and the Neck Injury Criterion (NIC). Furthermore, the response of the virtual models was compared to that volunteers and for the average male model, to that of the response of a physical dummy model. Simulations with the male and the female dummy models revealed differences related to the crash severity, as well as between the two dummies in different crash severities in two different seats. For the comparison of the response of the virtual models to the response of the volunteers and the physical dummy model, the peak angular motion of first thoracic vertebra as found in the volunteer tests and mimicked by the physical dummy were not of the same magnitude in the virtual models.

  • 22.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kilian, Magnus
    Modeller för simulering av avåkning mot vägens sidoområde: en kunskapsöversikt2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mathematical simulations of run-off vehicles into the road side area have the potential to further increase the traffic safety. Large number of scenarios that are costly and time demanding to perform by physical testing can be simulated using computer models. The aim of this review is to describe methods and simulation programs that currently exist and identify challenges within these. This review consists of two parts. The first part is a literature review. The second part is a compilation of the experiences of a consultant in the vehicle simulation area and interviews with persons with vast simulation experience. The conclusion is that currently there is not one optimal program that in detail and with high efficiency can handle all challenges that exist in a description of the scenario when a vehicle enters the road side area. Different programs have various strengths and limitations. One way to address this is to combine different types of programs thereby using the advantages of different programs. Another way is to use one of the crash simulation programs and make simplifications in order to reduce simulation running time. Simulations with these programs can otherwise last for weeks (for one simulation). This study has also resulted in identification of challenges that are present when simulating of run-off vehicles into the road side area. These are in particular related to components that are part of the interaction between the vehicle and the surface (such as tyres, asphalt, gravel, grass etc) and the influence of the driver and active safety systems.

  • 23.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) in passenger cars and methods for assessment of traffic safety impact: a literature review2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The background for this study is that many Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are currently introduced in passenger vehicles aiming at providing increased traffic safety. This provides a need to assess the traffic safety effects from these systems. The question that this report highlights is how these systems are designed and how the effects are evaluated. The review resulted in identification of 300 references of which the most relevant are found in this report. The report contains a description of the background of why and how 20 systems or groups of systems have been developed, in which vehicles they can be found, a short technical description of how they work, publication of traffic safety effects and future development plans. Regarding statistical methods, an overview of how they work and the results when using these methods on ITS are described. In addition, the report contains a summary of ways of assessing safety effects from areas such as food, nuclear power and pharmaceutical industries. The conclusion is that there are currently many different ways of supporting the driver in the task of driving the vehicle. Regarding the impact on traffic safety of these systems it is still an open question which evaluation methods to use.

  • 24.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Monash University.
    Olsson, T.
    Monash University.
    Truedsson, N.
    Monash University.
    Morris, Andrew
    Loughborough University.
    Fildes, Brian
    Monash University.
    Sparke, Laurie
    Sparke Engineering, Melbourne, Australia.
    Dynamic performances of different seat designs for low to medium velocity rear impact.2001In: 45th Annual Proceedings: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine , 2001, Vol. 45, p. 187-201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is good evidence that seat design and impact severities in terms of delta-V and acceleration plays a role in AIS 1 neck injury outcomes in the event of a rear impact. This study evaluates a number of current production seats to assess the AIS 1 neck injury protection potential at different impact severities. Five different seat designs were exposed to four different impact severities in a sled simulating a rear impact. The same delta-V produced with different peak accelerations generated very different dummy responses. Head restraint position influenced the angular and horizontal displacement of the head relative to torso and the time of head to head restraint contact. The lowest motion of the head relative to the torso was found in the two anti-whiplash seats tested. The results of the study can be used for the design of future vehicle seats and anti-whiplash systems.

  • 25.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Olsén, Stefan
    Department of Vehicle Safety, Saab Automobile AB, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Influence of gender, height, weight, age, seated position and collision site related to neck pain symptoms in rear end impacts2012In: 2012 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings: International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2012, p. 235-248Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rear end vehicle collisions can result in occupants suffering neck pain symptoms of varying degree and duration. These injuries are generally called whiplash injuries and they are common and costly. This study analyses the occurance and duration of neck pain symptoms of one particular vehicle make with focus on the influence of occupant specific information. Data collected from a Swedish vehicle make, model year 1993 up to model year 2007 at a maximum of three years old, were analysed. The results from this study show that passengers are more likely than drivers to suffer neck pain symptoms, in crashes that occurred in that particular make of car. No significant differences in risk related to age, gender weight, and height could be identified, except for: Females aged 35-44 had higher risk to have long and medium term neck pain symptoms than males in the same group of age. Males aged >=65 had higher risk to have long and medium term neck pain symptoms than males aged 35-44. Females in group "Braking" had higher risk of any type of neck pain symptoms than males. Where the occupant was seated in the front seat of the carinfluenced the occurance of neck pain symptoms and their duration for both males and females, with passengers posing a higher risk of suffering neck pain symptoms compared to drivers. Of the drivers, 17 percent reported neck pain symptoms compared to 44 percent of the passengers. When grouped into the categories males and females, 15 percent of the male and 19 percent of the female drivers reported neck pain symptoms compared to 44 percent of the male and 43 percent of the female passengers. With respect to the different collision sites, rear end collisions at traffic lights most often resulted in occupants reporting neck pain symptoms. Collisions in roundabouts most often resulted in different impact scenarios and occupants reported suffering neck pain symptoms of mid and long term duration. The result of this study indicates the need for improved understanding of the differences between driver and passenger response in different driving scenarios. In addition, occupant charactersisics should also be studied.

  • 26.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Schick, Sylvia
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine,.
    Hell, Wolfram
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine,.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics,.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics,.
    Lemmen, Paul P M
    Humanetics Europe GmbH,.
    Schmitt, Kai-Uwe
    Universität Zürich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering,.
    Gutsche, Andreas
    Graz University of Technology, Vehicle Safety Institute,.
    Tomasch, Ernst
    Graz University of Technology, Vehicle Safety Institute,.
    ADSEAT - Adaptive Seat to Reduce Neck Injuries for Female and Male Occupants2013In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 60, p. 334-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neck injuries sustained in low severity vehicle crashes are of worldwide concern and the risk is higher for females than for males. The objective of the study was to provide guidance on how to evaluate protective performance of vehicle seat designs aiming to reduce the incidence of neck injuries for female and male occupants. The objective was achieved by reviewing injury risk, establishing anthropometric data of an average female, performing dynamic volunteer tests comprising females and males, and developing a finite element model, EvaRID, of an average female. With respect to injury criteria, it was concluded based on the tests that using NIC (with a lower threshold value) and Nkm (with reduced intercept values) for females would be a suitable starting point. Virtual impact simulations with seats showed that differences were found in the response of the BioRID II and EvaRID models, for certain seats. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Occupant safety assessment in European regulatory tests: review of occupant models, gaps and suggestion for bridging any gaps2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two parts to the aim of this study. The first part was to review how adult men and women are represented in regulatory tests conducted to assess adult occupant safety in vehicles. Based on the results of the review an outline for how to better represent the adult population in regulatory tests was suggested. The second part of the aim, described as emancipatory knowledge of interest, included highlighting the values declared in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (hereinafter referred as "the Treaties"). This means that the purpose of the knowledge is to recognize the legal values of equality between women and men, as well as non-discrimination on which the Union is founded, article 2 of the Treaty on European Union. as expressed in the above-mentioned Treaties. In addition to that to contribute to women's and men's liberation and to the development of society.

  • 28.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Lemmen, Paul
    Humanetics Europe GmbH, Wateringen, Netherlands.
    Chang, Fred
    Schmitt, Kai Uwe
    Universität Zürich.
    Kullgren, Anders
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    EvaRID: Anthropometric and biomechanical specification of a finite element dummy model of an average female for rear impact testing2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Neck injury due to low severity vehicle crashes is of worldwide concern and it is well established that the risk of such injuries are higher for females than for males, even in similar crash conditions. In addition, recently developed protective systems have shown to be less protective of females than males. Hence there is a need for improved tools when developing and evaluating the performance of protective systems for occupants.

    The objective of this study was to develop a finite element model of a 50th percentile female rear impact crash dummy model. The anthropometry of the 50th percentile female was specified based on data found in the scientific published literature and is called EvaRID (Eva - female/RID - Rear Impact Dummy). EvaRID is based on the same design concept as the 50th percentile male rear impact dummy, the BioRID. A first version, EvaRID V1.0, was developed in LSDyna. The dynamic response of EvaRID V1.0 was compared to data from rear impact tests with female volunteers. It was found that it is necessary to further adjust the stiffness of the joints in the spine in order to fully mimic the motion of the volunteers. In future, the EvaRID dummy model has the potential to be a valuable tool when evaluating and developing seats and whiplash protection systems.

  • 29.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Davidsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Flogård, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Håland, Anders
    Autoliv Research AB, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Lotta
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Per, Lövsund
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wiklund, Kristina
    Saab Automobile AB, Sweden.
    The New Neck Design for the Rear-End Impact Dummy, BioRID I1998In: Annual Proceedings: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine , 1998, p. 172-192Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new mechanical neck was developed for a new dummy possessing a complete articulated spine, for low speed rear-end collisions. The new neck consists of seven cervical elements connected by hinge joints. The neck stiffness properties were created by rubber blocks between each pair of vertebrae in combination with simulated muscle elements between the head and T1. The neck was validated against volunteer tests (Δv of 7 km/h) results. Both displacement and acceleration of the head relative to the upper torso for both duration and peak values, were in agreement with the volunteer data.

  • 30.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Davidsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Flogård, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lövsund, Per
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Håland, Yngve
    Autoliv Inc., Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Lotta
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Wiklund, Kristina
    Saab Automobile AB.
    Design and validation of the neck for a rear impact dummy (BioRID I)2002In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the protective performance of seats and head restraints, occupant models able to mimic the motion of a human in a crash are needed. Hence, a new mechanical dummy neck for low-velocity rear collision tests was developed. The dummy neck consists of seven cervical elements connected by pin joints. The stiffness properties of the neck were represented by rubber blocks mounted between each pair of vertebrae, as well as by muscle substitutes between the head and the first thoracic vertebra (T1). The muscle substitutes consist of cables connected to a unit containing springs and a damper. The neck was validated against volunteer test data (Δv of 7 km/h) and compared with the kinematics of the Hybrid III dummy. The new neck was tested as a part of a new dummy (BioRID) that produced a human-like motion of the T1. The kinematics of the new neck was within the corridor of the volunteers, during the major part of the first 250 ms of the crash event, for both displacement of the head relative to T1 and for the acceleration of the head. This applies to both duration and peak values. When compared with the new neck, the Hybrid III showed an earlier decrease of the horizontal acceleration of the head, less maximum horizontal displacement, and an earlier increase of the rearward angular displacement of the head relative to T1.

  • 31.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Viano, David C.
    Wayne State University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Detroit, United States.
    Evaluation of the BioRID P3 and the hybrid III in pendulum impacts to the back: A comparison with human subject test data2002In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crash test dummies able to mimic the motion of a human are needed to assess the protective performance of seats and head restraints in crash tests. This study evaluates both a newly developed dummy for rear impacts (BioRID P3) and the Hybrid III dummy by means of a recently available set of human subject data. The study also meets the need for validation of the BioRID P3 at a higher impact severity than that previously achieved. The BioRID P3 and the Hybrid III were evaluated by means of pendulum impacts to the back and compared with data from previously run cadaver tests. Seated dummies were struck with a pendulum with a mass of 23 kg and an impact velocity of 4.6 m/s at the level of the 6th thoracic vertebra. The results showed that peak values and temporal responses of the BioRID P3 was closer to that of the corridor of the cadavers than the Hybrid III in terms of horizontal, vertical, and angular displacement of the head and of the head relative to T1.

  • 32.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Thomson, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Lemmen, Paul
    Humanetics Europe GmbH.
    Schmitt, Kai-Uwe
    Arbeitsgruppe für Unfallmechanik (AGU).
    Tomasch, Ernst
    Graz University of Technology.
    Occupant diversity in modelling and evaluation related to soft tissue neck injuries in low severity impact2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that the risk of soft tissue neck injuries (or whiplash associated disorders) is higher for females than for males, even in similar crash conditions. Injury statistics from the mid 1960´s until today all show that females have a higher risk of sustaining such injury than males, ranging from 1.5 to 3 times higher. These injuries arise in one of the most frequent collision types and thus an important societal issue.

    Testing and evaluation of automotive systems are essentially determined by crash test dummies representing the 50th percentile male crash test dummy. While this dummy corresponds to a 90th -95th percentile female with regards to stature and mass, it may not be applicable for assessing the biomechanics of females, particularly for injuries resulting from low velocities rear impacts. Females and males have different anthropometry and mass distributions which may influence the interaction of the upper body with the seat backrest and head restraint and thus the injury risk.

    In this study the anthropometry and mass distribution of an average female was established. The anthropometry of the 50th percentile female for a rear impact crash dummy model was derived from data published in the scientific literature and data available to the consortium. This data was used to develop a finite element model of an average female dummy EvaRID (Eva – Female, RID – Rear Impact Dummy) and a new loading device called BioRID 50F. Both the numerical and physical models were based on the currently available rear impact dummy of an average male, the Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy (BioRID) II.

    Volunteer tests involving male and female subjects were performed. Analysis of the volunteer tests resulted in dynamic response corridors that were used in the evaluation of the EvaRID model. Initial evaluations of seat performance were also undertaken with the male and female versions of the BioRID II physical test devices. The results show how the design of the seats are sensitive to the occupant mass distributions and, in some cases, resulted in poorer performance when loaded with a smaller and lighter dummy model. Future safety evaluations need to be adjusted to account for different occupant size and gender.

  • 33.
    Osth, Jonas
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Brolin, Karin
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    A Female Ligamentous Cervical Spine Finite Element Model Validated for Physiological Loads2016In: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, ISSN 0148-0731, E-ISSN 1528-8951, Vol. 138, no 6, article id 061005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mathematical cervical spine models allow for studying of impact loading that can cause whiplash associated disorders (WAD). However, existing models only cover the male anthropometry, despite the female population being at a higher risk of sustaining WAD in automotive rear-end impacts. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a ligamentous cervical spine intended for biomechanical research on the effect of automotive impacts. A female model has the potential to aid the design of better protection systems as well as improve understanding of injury mechanisms causing WAD. A finite element (FE) mesh was created from surface data of the cervical vertebrae of a 26-year old female (stature 167 cm, weight 59 kg). Soft tissues were generated from the skeletal geometry and anatomical literature descriptions. Ligaments were modeled with nonlinear elastic orthotropic membrane elements, intervertebral disks as composites of nonlinear elastic bulk elements, and orthotropic anulus fibrosus fiber layers, while cortical and trabecular bones were modeled as isotropic plastic-elastic. The model has geometrical features representative of the female cervical spine-the largest average difference compared with published anthropometric female data was the vertebral body depth being 3.4% shorter for the model. The majority the cervical segments compare well with respect to biomechanical data at physiological loads, with the best match for flexion-extension loads and less biofidelity for axial rotation. An average female FE ligamentous cervical spine model was developed and validated with respect to physiological loading. In flexion-extension simulations with the developed female model and an existing average male cervical spine model, a greater range of motion (ROM) was found in the female model.

  • 34.
    Schmitt, Kai Uwe
    et al.
    Universität Zürich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Weber, Toni
    Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Johan
    SAFER - Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Björklund, Magnus
    Jakobsson, Lotta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Tomasch, Ernst
    Graz University of Technology, Vehicle Safety Institute, Graz, Austria.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Seat testing to investigate the female neck injury risk: preliminary results using a new female dummy prototype2012In: Proceedings: IRCOBI Conference; September 12–14; Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland,, 2012, p. IRC 12-33-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic performance tests are conducted to assess the neck injury risk. To date seats are assessed based on sled tests mostly using a BioRID which is based on the 50%ile male anthropometry. Since females sustain whiplash associated disorders (WAD) more often than males, their injury risk needs to be addressed as well.

  • 35.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Traffic safety for cyclists in roundabouts: geometry, traffic, and priority rules: A literature review2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to carry out a literature review of roundabout geometric characteristics and traffic management regulations addressing the safety for cyclists. The literature review examined articles from 1990 until 2017. An article was considered relevant as follows:

    • Investigation of the relationship between roundabout geometric design and cyclist accidents (2 articles)
    • Investigation of the relationship between roundabout geometric design and cyclist operation/interaction with other traffic, i.e., motorised vehicles (4 articles)
    • Investigation of any safety impacts of the conversion of intersections into roundabouts for cyclists (9 articles)
    • Psychological/behavioural studies of cycling at roundabouts (5 articles)

    The results show that the impact on cyclist safety is not as clear as for motorised vehicles with some studies showing a deterioration for cyclists (Jensen, 2013; 2016; Daniels et al. 2008; 2009). The cycle facility type (e.g., mixed traffic, cycle lane, and cycle path) and the priority rules have the potential to increase safety for cyclists. For example, the priority rules vary among different countries and within some countries.

    From the literature, which priority rules provide the safest cycling environment remain unclear in terms of number of accidents and injury severity. The identified priority strategies are: (i) cyclists always yield to vehicles, (ii) shared yielding responsibility, (iii) vehicles always yield to cyclists, and (iv) an alternate solution ‘with’ and ‘without’ priority based on special characteristics (e.g., presence of vulnerable road users, geographic location). Furthermore, cycle lanes are the most unsafe cycle facility compared to mixed traffic or cycle paths. Likewise, coloured cycle lanes at roundabouts are less safe than non-coloured cycle lanes (Jensen, 2016). On the other hand, it is recommended that cyclists should ride in front of or behind vehicles in mixed traffic at single-lane roundabouts and in the middle of the lane, and should not ride parallel with vehicles (Cumming, 2012).

    Some research directions are highlighted. The impact of the different priority rules needs further investigation in terms of number of accidents and injury severity. Some questions to study include: (i) what the best priority strategy is; (ii) what special road markings should be used; (iii) what the best distance is to place the cycle path from the circulatory roadway. Another research direction is to establish the impact on cyclist safety of cycle lanes at roundabouts. Finally, the impact on traffic safety, by cycling in the middle of the lane, needs further investigation as well.

  • 36.
    Östh, Jonas
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Mendoza-Vazquez, Manuel
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Sato, Fusako
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Brolin, Karin
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    A female head–neck model for rear impact simulations2017In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 51, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several mathematical cervical models of the 50th percentile male have been developed and used for impact biomechanics research. However, for the 50th percentile female no similar modelling efforts have been made, despite females being subject to a higher risk of soft tissue neck injuries. This is a limitation for the development of automotive protective systems addressing Whiplash Associated Disorders (WADs), most commonly caused in rear impacts, as the risk for females sustaining WAD symptoms is double that of males.

    In this study, a finite element head and neck model of a 50th percentile female was validated in rear impacts. A previously validated ligamentous cervical spine model was complemented with a rigid body head, soft tissues and muscles. In both physiological flexion-extension motions and simulated rear impacts, the kinematic response at segment level was comparable to that of human subjects.

    Evaluation of ligament stress levels in simulations with varied initial cervical curvature revealed that if an individual assumes a more lordotic posture than the neutral, a higher risk of WAD might occur in rear impact. The female head and neck model, together with a kinematical whole body model which is under development, addresses a need for tools for assessment of automotive protection systems for the group which is at the highest risk to sustain WAD.

  • 37.
    Östh, Jonas
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Mendoza-Vazquez, Manuel
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Brolin, Karin
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Development of a 50th percentile female human body model2016In: 2016 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2016, p. 573-575Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 37 of 37
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