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  • 1.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Effects of motion parallax in driving simulators2012In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference Europe 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motion parallax due to the driver’s head movement have been implemented and tested in VTI Driving Simulator III. An advanced camera-based system was used to track the head movements of the driver. The output from the tracking system was fed to the simulation software, which used low-pass filtering and a forward prediction algorithm to calculate an offset. The offset was then used by the graphics software to display the correct image to the driver.

    The effects of driving with motion parallax in the simulator were also observed by an initial study. During the experiment, the subjects caught up with several slower vehicles which forced the driver to make an overtaking maneuver. Oncoming traffic forced the subject to search for a suitable gap for overtaking. The study also included a speed perception test. The results from the study showed no difference in lateral positioning when running behind a slower vehicle nor in speed perception with and without motion parallax.

  • 2.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Saluäär, Dennis
    Volvo AB.
    Svanberg, Bo
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Ljung Aust, Mikael
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Holmertz, Pontus
    HiQ.
    Night-time scenarios in simulators: a prestudy of needs, knowledge and possible solutions2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study in this publication investigates the need and potential for night-time scenarios in driving simulators, determines how such night-time scenarios could be reproduced and identifies the objects most important to reproduce. Although on average 12 out of every 24 hours are dark and considering that most situations are more demanding for drivers in dark conditions, simulations of driving scenarios with different degrees of darkness are not common. The project work comprised a pre-study that involved an investigation of the need and potential of night-time scenarios with the help of input from different stakeholders, consolidation of what is known up to now through benchmarking and state of the art, and a review of available technical solutions. The objective was to identify pros and cons with existing solutions and aspects that are important to consider in order to reproduce the most important components in realistic night-time scenarios. Based on the results, six important use cases were identified and two of these (‘Driver fatigue’ and ‘Objects without light sources’) were studied in more detail. It was concluded that for night-time scenarios there is enough darkness in general in the simulator environment. The question is whether it is possible to create sufficient contrast for objects that are meant to be observable. For daytime scenarios, the light levels in the simulator are clearly unrealistically low and this limitation might even trigger unwanted sleepiness.

  • 3.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Tracking techniques for automotive virtual reality2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication is a review of available technologies for tracking the user in virtual reality systems. Tracking the user location is important for generating views that adapts to the user’s movements.

    This review begins with the basic terms used in virtual reality in general. Followed by the important characteristics for tracking equipment. This is followed by a chapter on the fundamental algorithms used for position calculations. Then the most common technologies with their advantages and disadvantages are presented. The text conclude with how these technologies are used in automotive virtual reality.

  • 4.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    A Technical Platform using Augmented Reality for Active Safety Testing2015In: 2015 Road Safety & Simulation International Conference Proceedings / [ed] Dr. Essam Radwan, Dr. Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Orlando, USA: University of Central Florida , 2015, p. 793-803Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design of a video see-through augmented reality system for active safety testing. The development is explained in detail, with focus on the design considerations for the different subsystems. It is shown that it is possible to build a system using available commercial off-the-shelf components, while still maintaining the performance needed for the intended application. Accuracy and resolution requirements of the tracking systems are discussed along with measurement methods. We also examine how to use the hardware efficiently to minimize latency and a device to measure and quantify end-to-end latency has been developed.

  • 5.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Driver behavior in mixed and virtual reality: a comparative study2016In: Proceedings of the DSC 2016 Europe / [ed] Andras Kemeny, Frédéric Mérienne, Florent Columbet, Stéphane Espié, Paris, France: Driving Simulation Association , 2016, p. 179-186Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparative study of driving behavior when using different virtual reality modes. Test subjects were exposed to mixed, virtual, and real reality using a head mounted display capable of video see-through, while performing a simple driving task. The driving behavior was quantified in steering and acceleration/deceleration activities, divided into local and global components. There was a distinct effect of wearing a head mounted display, which affected all measured variables. Results show that average speed was the most significant difference between mixed and virtual reality, while the steering behavior was consistent between modes. All subjects but one were able to successfully complete the driving task, suggesting that virtual driving could be a potential complement to driving simulators.

  • 6.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Driver behavior in mixed and virtual reality: A comparative study2017In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparative study of driving behavior when using different virtual reality modes. Test subjects were exposed to mixed, virtual, and real reality using a head mounted display capable of video see-through, while performing a simple driving task. The driving behavior was quantified in steering and acceleration/deceleration activities, divided into local and global components. There was a distinct effect of wearing a head mounted display, which affected all measured variables. Results show that average speed was the most significant difference between mixed and virtual reality, while the steering behavior was consistent between modes. All subjects but one were able to successfully complete the driving task, suggesting that virtual driving could be a potential complement to driving simulators.

  • 7.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Effects of Visual Latency on Vehicle Driving Behavior2016In: ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, ISSN 1544-3558, E-ISSN 1544-3965, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 5:1-5:12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using mixed reality in vehicles provides a potential alternative to using driving simulators when studying driver-vehicle inter- action. However, virtual reality systems introduce latency in the visual system that may alter driving behavior, which, in turn, results in questionable validity. Previous studies have mainly focused on visual latency as a separate phenomenon. In this work, latency is studied from a task-dependent viewpoint to investigate how participants’ driving behavior changed with increased latency. In this study, the investigation was performed through experiments in which regular drivers were subjected to different levels of visual latency while performing a simple slalom driving task. The drivers’ performances were recorded and evaluated in both lateral and longitudinal directions along with self-assessment questionnaires regarding task performance and difficulty. All participants managed to complete the driving tasks successfully, even under high latency conditions, but were clearly affected by the increased visual latency. The results suggest that drivers compensate for longer latencies by steering more and increasing the safety margins but without reducing their speed.

  • 8.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Augmented and Mixed Reality as a tool for evaluation of Vehicle Active Safety Systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the realism of driving simulators increases constantly, there is a potential issue with how representative the test is compared to a real life scenario. An alternative to simulators is to present a mixture of real and simulated environment to the driver and perform the scenario at a test track when driving a real vehicle. This enables an efficient way of testing that inherits many of the advantages of driving simulators as well as some of the advantages of physical testing in prototype vehicles. The present paper is a compilation of previous research in augmented reality in vehicle driving situations, focusing on technical limitations of Head-Mounted-Displays.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Alm, Torbjörn
    HiQ.
    Andersson, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Svenska vägmarkeringsföreningen, SVMF.
    Driver acceptance and performance with LDW and rumble strips assistance in unintentional lane departures2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this ViP project the focus of investigation was whether drivers more readily accept either rumble strips or an in-vehicle lane departure warning system (LDW) in unintentional lane departure situations. The results show that acceptance was high for both alternatives, but while the drivers showed more satisfaction from using the LDW, they also showed more trust in the rumble strips. Twenty-four drivers drove the VTI driving simulator SIM III in car mode with simulated rumble strips in one drive and with a simulated Volvo LDW in another drive. A forced yaw motion of the vehicle induced the unintentional lane departures. The results showed no choice in favour of the LDW or the rumble strips, but a clear preference for having a function that warns for unintentional lane departure. Several participants thought it was good to have both types of warning in parallel. Although Response completion time was shorter with the rumble strips warning, there was no difference between the warning types, neither in Time to get car back in lane nor in Lane exceedence area. Thus, there were no major overall differences between the LDW and the rumble strips as measured in the present study. The conclusion is that the drivers’ acceptance, as well as performance, was high for both the rumble strips and the LDW. The positive opinion on the need for assistance systems in unintentional lane departure when drivers are directing their visual attention away from the road is thus further strengthened.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Karlstad Universitet.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå Universitet.
    Performance and presence with head-movement produced motion parallax in simulated driving2015In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 34, p. 54-64, article id 839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving simulator studies can reveal relevant and valid aspects of driving behavior, but underestimation of distance and speed can negatively affect the driver's performance, such as in performance of overtaking. One possible explanation for the underestimation of distance and speed is that two-dimensional projection of the visual scene disrupts the monocular-based illusory depth because of conflicting binocular and monocular information of depth. A possible solution might involve the strengthening of the monocular information so that the binocular information becomes less potent.

    In the present study, we used an advanced high-fidelity driving simulator to investigate whether adding the visual depth information of motion parallax from head movement affects sense of presence, judgment of distance and speed, and performance measures coupled with overtaking. The simulations included two types of driving scenario in which one was urban and the other was rural. The main results show no effect of this head-movement produced motion parallax on sense of presence, head movement, time to collision, distance judgment, or speed judgment.

    However, the results show an effect on lateral positioning. When initiating the overtaking maneuver there is a lateral positioning farther away from the road center as effect of the motion parallax in both types of scenario, which can be interpreted as indicating use of naturally occurring information that change behavior at overtaking. Nevertheless, only showing tendencies of effects, absent is any clear additional impact of this motion parallax in the simulated driving.

  • 11.
    Jansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Fischer, Martin
    DLR (German Aerospace Center, Institute of Transportation Systems) .
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Design and performance of the VTI Sim IV2014In: New development in driving simulation design and experiments: Driving simulation conference Europe 2014 proceedings / [ed] Andras Kemeny, Paris, 2014, p. 4.1-4.7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The VTI simulator IV (Sim IV) is the fourth advanced driving simulator designed and built at The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). The simulator, taken into operation 2011, has an 8 degrees of freedom (DoF) moving base, a field of view (FoV) of 180 degrees and features a system for rapid cabin exchange. With a budget of roughly 2,4 M euro; Sim IV was developed to provide VTI’s newly established Gothenburg office with advanced driving simulation capability, and to be a cost efficient complement to the Sim II and Sim III facilities in VTI’s Linköping office. This paper describes the design and technical performance of the facility. A brief summary of results and experience from validation studies for the first three years of operation is also presented.

  • 12.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Andhill, Carl Johan
    Dynagraph.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Known Roads: real roads in simulated environments for the virtual testing of new vehicle systems2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication presents a project aiming to develop virtual representations of real roads for use in driving simulators. The development was done in order to enable assessments of new systems on existing and well known roads in a driving simulator, and will increase the external validity of virtual testing. Furthermore, the usage of the virtual model of such roads makes the simulator results better comparable to earlier performed or later following road tests. The roads connecting Göteborg-Borås-Alingsås-Göteborg were selected. The purpose for this is due to their proximity to the vehicle industry in west Sweden and to the test tracks “Hällered” and “AstaZero”. However, the tools and methods developed can be used to build a virtual representation of any other road through a surrounding landscape and/or more urban environment. The project was carried out in steps, starting with data collection (investigation and assessment of available data from different sources as well as measurement of road properties) followed by data treatment (remove irrelevant data and errors, filtering, etc.), modelling (mathematical description of road properties) and simulation (selection of data formats for real time simulation).

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