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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Adell, Emeli
    Trivector Traffic.
    Bicyclists’ visual strategies when conducting self-paced vs. system-paced smartphone tasks in traffic2015In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 41, p. 204-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual distraction among cyclists interacting with their mobile phones is a growing concern. Yet, very little research has actually investigated how cyclists apply visual strategies and adapt task execution depending on the traffic situation. The aim of this study is to investigate visual behaviour of cyclists when conducting self-paced (initiated by the cyclist) vs. system-paced (initiated by somebody else) smartphone tasks in traffic. Twenty-two cyclists completed a track in real traffic while listening to music, receiving and making calls, receiving and sending text messages, and searching for information on the internet. The route and the types of tasks were controlled, but the cyclists could choose rather freely when and where along the route to carry out the tasks, thus providing semi-naturalistic data on compensatory behaviour. The results show that the baseline and music conditions were similar in terms of visual behaviour. When interacting with the phone, it was found that glances towards the phone mostly came at the expense of glances towards traffic irrelevant gaze targets and also led to shortened glance durations to traffic relevant gaze targets, while maintaining the number of glances. This indicates that visual “spare capacity” is used for the execution of the telephone tasks. The task type influenced the overall task duration and the overall glance intensity towards the phone, but not the mean nor maximum duration of individual glances. Task pacing was the factor that influenced visual behaviour the most, with longer mean and maximum glance durations for self-paced tasks. In conclusion, the cyclists used visual strategies to integrate the handling of mobile phones into their cycling behaviour. Glances directed towards the phone did not lead to traffic relevant gaze targets being missed. In system-paced scenarios, the cyclists checked the traffic more frequently and intensively than in self-paced tasks. This leads to the assumption that cyclists prepare for self-initiated tasks by for example choosing a suitable location. Future research should investigate whether these strategies also exists amongst drivers and other road user groups.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Carlsson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Ihs, Anita
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure.
    Kuttah, Dina K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Designguide för Smarta gator2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattningsvis definierar vi i denna guide ’smarta gator’ kort sagt som mångfunktionella, levande, långsamma, ekologiska och flexibla gator. Det övergripande målet med denna guide är följaktligen ”Smarta gator för en hållbar stadsutveckling”.

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  • 3.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Lidström, Mats
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Allowing higher speeds for freight trains would provide opportunities for a higher prioritization in the traffic flow by rail traffic management, which in itself is a capacity gain and should generate better flows and higher capacity on the Swedish rail network, especially on the major railways. Simulators are an effective and safe way to investigate the effects of changes in both driver behavior and capacity.

    The purpose of this project was to create capacity-enhancing opportunities and actions by developing a freight train simulator and investigating its possible application areas. The aim of the project was to provide a freight train simulator, consisting of a locomotive and a number of wagons, which can be used in studies to increase capacity through, for example, optimized speed, and thus changing braking profiles, for long trains. The project has delivered knowledge of new test methods, a freight train simulator and a software platform for further testing.

    The project was conducted in three successive stages. In the first phase, a pilot study was carried out with drivers, operators and problem owners, who gave the researchers an understanding of the driving environment. In addition, some of the data needed for the development of the freight train simulator was collected. In the second phase, a freight train (software and hardware) model was developed. Stage three was a validation study together with drivers.

    A Traxx model driver console was purchased from a German manufacturer. The vehicle model was developed from a single unit, Regina type (motorcar train), into a combination of several units. The train in the simulator consists of one or more locomotives and a number of wagons with a total length of up to 750 meters. A locomotive of Traxx model is used. For each device, locomotive and wagon, data is required: length, weight, load, brake, roll and air resistance. In addition, information about noise, driving, braking (re-electrical braking and conventional pneumatic brake) (P-brake), cab equipment and more are added. Currently, the track between Falköping - Jönköping - Forserum is modelled and will be used for ATC trains. The model is configurable using combinations of a locomotive (Traxx) and, currently, four different types of wagons. These can be linked in different combinations.

    Some applications that were discussed at the start of the project were, on the one side, those that could naturally be linked to longer and heavier trains, and, on the other, the ideas that arose because of the equipment purchased. At the Transport Administration winter meeting, a workshop was conducted where further uses were discussed. Among these are applications within education, energy efficient driving or design. Education and certain types of studies could be performed with the existing locomotive model, while others require either validation of parameters or some further development of the model.

    The project has provided knowledge of new test methods, this research report and a product in the form of a freight train simulator and software platform for further testing. The project has also delivered a national resource of simulator software. The software provides for cost-effective testing activities in the freight train domain. A freight train simulator has been developed, which will be valuable as a demonstration tool as well as a platform for training,

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sommarström, Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Läsbarhet av vägskyltar i form av LED-skylt: färgkombination och fontstorlekens betydelse för läsbarheten2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The readability of road signs was studied and in particular the LED format. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of color combination, font size and light conditions on readability. 101 students participated in the study, where 32 were men and 69 were women. Their age ranged from 18–66 years. The choice of subjects were driven by the study's purpose, i.e. for this study it was not of interest to study the differences between gender, age or eyesight. A statistical analysis was carried out to study how readability distances varied as a result of the combination of colors, font size and light conditions. Furthermore, illuminance was measured when the data collection occasions was conducted. Distances were examined both in daylight and in darkness. The results of the study show that the color combination of the LED-sign affects its readability. Signs with white text on blue, brown or green background could be read correctly at a greater distance than the signs with black text on white or orange background. The font size is also important for the readability and every increase in font size produces a significant difference in the distance that the sign can be read. The sign with the largest font size (300 mm) was read correctly from the longest distance. The signs were read even at greater distances in daylight than in darkness. The readability of the sign with the smallest font size 200 mm does not change significantly during the daylight compared to darkness conditions. These conclusive results demonstrate that all the variables studied are important for readability. It should be added that participants stood still during the trial when they scanned/read the signs and had free sight to the LED-sign.

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  • 5.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sehammar, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Palmqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Placement and design of milled rumble strips on centre line and shoulder: A driving simulator study2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A driving simulator experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects on fatigued drivers of rumble strips on narrow roads (<9 meters) on

    both shoulder and centre lines. The driving simulator was an advanced moving base passenger car simulator (VTI´s third generation moving base driving simulator). Four different physical designs of milled rumble strips and two placements on shoulder were used in the experiment. Both driving behaviour (e.g. lateral position, speed, steering wheel angle) and physiological data (brain activity (EEG), eye activity (EOG) and muscle activity (EMG)) were recorded. The drivers were also asked to rate their level of sleepiness every 5 minutes during the drive. They were trained to use the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). Data from 40 regular shift workers driving during morning hours after a full night shift were used in the analysis. The shift workers were equally distributed by gender and recruited by advertisement in the newspaper. They were paid 150 Euro for participating. The experiment was approved by an ethical committee. The experiment was carried out in two parts: the first part aimed to investigate primary effects of rumble strips, i.e. preventing an accident; the second part aimed to obtain the drivers' conscious preferences in terms of placement and design. It was concluded that despite rumble strip design and placement, rumble strips had clear alerting effects and consistently induced correct averting action. Based on the drivers' preference and the results, there seems to be no risk associated with using more aggressive rumble strips such as Swedish or Pennsylvania. Regarding the placement, there seem to be no differences and it is important to obtain the opinions of truck and bus drivers before it is possible to make a recommendation.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Dols, Juan F.
    et al.
    University Polytechnic of Valencia, Spain.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Usefulness and acceptance of assessments of drivers with disabilities in simulation test rigs2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The legal reference in the field of driving license in the EU is currently the 2006/126/EC Directive, which stipulates that driving licenses shall be granted only to those who meet medical requirements and pass a driving test. This Directive has recently been updated with the Directive EU 2015/653. Actually, there is a lack of knowledge in the application of validated procedures for assessing (potential) drivers of adapted vehicles. The objective of this paper it is to present experimental results of driving assessment procedures developed for assessing drivers with impairments –both motor and sensory-. This assessment is based on performing a series of practical tests in a static test rig and a low-cost driving simulator.

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  • 7.
    Fredin-Knutzén, Johan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Olsson, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Sweden .
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Train drivers' work-related stress and job satisfaction2023In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 65, no 9, p. 775-782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study investigated which work-related stressors are rated highest by train drivers and which are strongest correlated with consideration to change profession.

    Methods: In a questionnaire, a total of 251 Swedish train drivers rated 17 work-related stressors, to which extent they had considered quitting their profession, and if they had experienced a PUT (person under train) accident.

    Results: PUTs (when experienced) and irregular work hours are the main stressors, but the strongest predictors of consideration to change profession are those that are encountered often, and last over time (eg, irregular work hours, r = 0.61, and major organizational changes, r = 0.51).

    Conclusions: For effective reduction of stress and improved job satisfaction, focus should be on aspects that affect everyday life for drivers, such as better working shifts, less delays, and improved social climate.

  • 8.
    Fu, Jiali
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Jansson, Andreas
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    VTI:s simulator för utryckningskörning: Teknisk rapport2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Simulatorer för utryckningskörning har ingått i flera VTI-projekt. Erfarenheterna och den tekniska utvecklingen har resulterat i en simulator för utryckningskörning. Syftet med denna rapport är att beskriva simulatorns användningsområden och funktionalitet samt ge en teknisk beskrivning.

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  • 9.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sundström, Jerker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bussars trafiksäkerhet vintertid2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies have shown that buses are overrepresented at accidents during winter road conditions compared to other vehicle types. Hence, the traffic safety of buses during the wintertime has been studied in more detail. The study comprised the following parts: - Gripping power studies on ice in VTI's tyre test facility. - Accident study and a survey of the use of tyre. - Focus group to gain knowledge about dangerous situations. - Driving simulator study to test the importance of the tyres during problematic situations.

    Tests in VTI's tyre test facility on smooth ice did not show any significant difference between summer tyres and non-studded winter tyres, while studded tyres exhibit a better ice grip than non-studded tyres. Nor did driving simulator tests when driving on ice covered road under the influence of heavy wind from the side show a difference between summer tyres and non-studded winter tyres. Also in these tests the studded tyres were superior to the non-studded. If studded tyres are used only on one axle, the driving simulator study showed that during side wind the ability to steer is important. The accident study showed that the buses that have summer tyres on the steering axle and winter tyres on the drivé axle has the lowest estimated accident risk, although it is not statistically significant. The buses equipped with studded tyres on both axles could not be statistically analysed since only 2 accidents occurred on bare roadways, and none on icy/snowy roadways, while at the same time the buses in this category drive a lot on icy/snowy roadways. This probably makes these buses the safest on winter roadways. From the focus groups it was clear that the time table has a great influence on the creating of stress and the demands on the drivers to keep the speed even during slippery roadways. Many bus drivers experience large problems with bad snow clearance, or other winter maintenance. At the same time there is a large consciousness among the drivers that it is always their own way of handling the vehicle that is the determining factor for traffic safety. The drivers were expressing a lack of further education and practical exercises with buses on slippery roads.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Driver behaviour and driver experience of partial and fully automated truck platooning: a simulator study2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds our knowledge of truck driver behaviour in and experience of automated truck platooning, focusing on the effect of partially and fully automated truck platoons on driver workload, trust, acceptance, performance, and sleepiness.

    Twenty-four male drivers experienced three conditions in a truck driving simulator, i.e., baseline, partial automation, and full automation: the baseline condition was driving with standard cruise control; partial automation was automated longitudinal control ten metres behind the truck in front, with the driver having to steer; and full automation was automated longitudinal and lateral control. Each condition was simulated in three situations: light traffic, heavy traffic, and heavy traffic plus fog.

    The experiment demonstrated that automation affects workload. For all workload measures, partial automation produced higher workload than did the full-automation or baseline condition. The two measures capturing trust were consistent and indicated that trust was highest under the baseline condition, with little difference between partial and full automation. Driver acceptance of both levels of automation was lower than acceptance of baseline. Drivers rated their situation awareness higher for both partial and full automation than for baseline, although both levels of automation led to higher sleepiness.

    The challenge when implementing truck platooning is to develop a system, including human–machine interaction (HMI), that does not overburden the driver, properly addresses driver sleepiness, and satisfies current legislation. The system also must be trusted and accepted by drivers. To achieve this, the development of well-designed HMI will be crucial.

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  • 11.
    Jansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bränström, Mattias
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Driver reactions to horn and headlight warnings in critical situations: A simulator study2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a driving simulator study on driving behavior in a critical head-on collision scenario. The study aims at providing basic understanding of driver responses to headlight and horn warning coming from another vehicle a time critical situation. In total, 48 participants drove 30 km. During the drive participants performed a secondary task, announced by a vibration in the seat. At the time of the secondary task the own vehicle was directed into the opposing lane where oncoming simulated vehicles issued a light and/or sound warnings to get the drivers attention. An additional purpose of the study was to examine if the warning coming from the other vehicle has a different effect on persons with a hearing loss. A possible application for this type of warnings is the implementation of a system for automatic activation. Systems for automatic activation of brakes and steering are currently entering the market. These systems use proximity sensors to monitor the state of surrounding road users. Depending on the specific situation the effort/possibility to avoid or mitigate an accident may differ significantly between the principle road users of a pending collision, e.g. one road user (1) may easily avoid a collision while another (2) may not be able to do so. The only possibility for the second road user (2) to avoid a collision in such a situation is to issue a warning to the first (1), so that he/she may take evasive actions. Connecting the horn and the headlight to already existing sensor system, for automatic warning activation, is a cost effective means to provide such a warning. The warnings, could of course, also be triggered manually by the driver.

    The results indicate that a driver who receives a warning from the oncoming vehicle responds faster to avoid the pending frontal collision. The most effective warning was the combination of horn and headlight. A majority of the participants where positive to the notion of an automated system to provide this type of warning (n=41). No significant difference in the behavior between the groups with and without hearing loss was found in this study.

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  • 12.
    Kabashkin, I.
    et al.
    Transport and Telecommunication Institute, Latvia.
    Grakovskis, A.
    Transport and Telecommunication Institute, Latvia.
    Segercrantz, W.
    TTK University of Applied Sciences, Estonia.
    Lend, E.
    TTK University of Applied Sciences, Estonia.
    Kallas, O.
    TTK University of Applied Sciences, Estonia.
    Karasmaa, N.
    HAMK Häme University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Turunen, V.
    HAMK Häme University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Sotanvalta, T.
    HAMK Häme University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Tuukkanen, T.
    HAMK Häme University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Kullaslahti, J.
    HAMK Häme University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Olsson, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    DIGILOG Project: Digitally Supported and Virtual Study Practices for Modern Logistic Systems2021In: Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2021, p. 771-781Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization of Transport and Logistics (T&L) is one of the key pillars of the European Digital Single Market strategy. Creation of the Single European Transport Area, from one hand, and development of Common European Education Area, from another hand, are the basis for DIGILOG (Digitally supported and virtual study practices for modern logistic systems) project supported by Erasmus+ programme. The DIGILOG project aims to foster interchange and cooperation between education and training systems within the frame of digitalisation of T&L under new strategy of European Union - Single European Transport Area. The partners of project are TTK University of Applied Sciences (Estonia), Häme University of Applied Sciences (Finland), Transport and Telecommunication Institute (Latvia), The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (Sweden). The main intellectual outputs of the project are described in the paper: (1) Virtual and open cross-study curricula for digital environment of transport and logistics systems based on Carpe Diem learning design process; (2) E-learning game-based technology for training and education of transport and logistics specialists; (3) Video exercises for study of train traffic and safety management issues using simulation tools. Main tasks, main area of activities and the main priorities of the planned study module are described in the paper. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 13.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Adell, Emeli
    Trivector.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector.
    Börefelt, Alexander
    Trivector.
    Cyklisters kompensationsstrategier när de använder mobil IT i trafiken2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en oro att cyklister som använder mobil IT utgör en trafikfara, men trots den ökande användningen verkar inte olyckstalen stiga. Målet med denna studie är därför att undersöka om och i så fall hur cyklister anpassar sitt beteende när de använder mobil IT medan de cyklar. Tjugotvå unga cyklister fick cykla fem varv längs en gata på en cykelbana i verklig trafik. Under varje varv fick de utföra olika uppgifter: cykla som vanligt, lyssna på musik, bli uppringda och ringa, skriva och läsa sms, samt söka efter information på internet. Rutten och uppgifterna var förutbestämda, men cyklisterna fick till stor del själva välja var och när de utförde de olika uppgifterna. På så sätt kunde vi studera om cyklisterna använde någon strategi när de använde mobil IT samtidigt som de cyklade. Resultaten visar tydligt att cyklisterna i studien väljer strategier för att ta sig an de olika telefonuppgifterna och att de flesta cyklisterna är medvetna om vilka strategier de använder. De valda strategierna skiljer sig åt mellan cyklister och mellan olika situationer, men de har en gemensam nämnare – att motverka belastning från telefonuppgiften. Jämfört med att bara cykla normalt (17.6 ± 3.5 km/h) så ökar hastigheten något vid musiklyssnande (18.2 ± 3.7 km/h) medan hastigheten sänks markant när cyklisten hanterar telefonen (13.0 ± 5.0 km/h). För de uppgifter som cyklisten själv kan påverka (ringa upp, skriva sms, söka information på internet) så sänks hastigheten i god tid före användandet och för resterande uppgifter så sänks hastigheten när ringsignalen hörs. I 26 % av fallen valde cyklisterna att stanna eller att leda cykeln medan de utförde telefonuppgifterna. Även för blickbeteendet var det väldigt liten skillnad mellan att cykla som vanligt och att cykla med musik. Cyklisterna själva beskriver även fler strategier som inte framgår av mätningarna. Till exempel anger vissa att de lyssnar mer aktivt eller att de bara använder en hörlur, att de planerar sitt användande genom längre framförhållning eller genom att inte använda mobil IT i korsningar, eller genom att mana sig själva till att vara mer alerta. Kompensationsstrategin beror också på hur van cyklisten är att använda mobil IT.

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    Slutrapport Länsförsäkringar Mars 2013
  • 14.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Prytz, Erik
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bernheim, Lisa
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Olsson, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Moertl, Peter
    Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH, Graz, Austria.
    Train driver attention is influenced by the type of railway signalling system2022In: DDI 2022 Gothenburg: Abstract book, Göteborg: Safer , 2022, p. 50-52Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) will replace national standards with the aim to promote cross-border traffic and enhance efficiency. The transition involves a shift from lineside signalling to mostly in- cabin information via a Driver Machine Interface (DMI). Previous research indicates that this may lead to a decrease in driver attention to the outside world and to a decrease in workload, leading to boredom. Using a train simulator, 41 participants drove the same track with the ERTMS system and the Swedish national standard (ATC) while wearing eye- tracking equipment. Subjective workload and boredom assessments were made after each drive. An analysis of the first set of reduced data (15 participants) showed that the formal attentional requirements like the monitoring of speed changes and signals were fulfilled in almost all cases, regardless of system. Overall, however, the data indicate that in line with previous research the drivers focus their attention more to the inside of the train when using the ERTMS system. This is corroborated by the finding that horn blowing is slightly delayed with the ERTMS system. Perceived workload was generally low, with the ERTMS system experienced to be more boring. We draw the preliminary conclusion that while formal attentional requirements are fulfilled for both systems, the ERTMS system likely has a tendency to pull the drivers’ overall attention inwards. Given that for the ERTMS system most relevant information is presented inside of the train on the DMI, this is not surprising, but needs to be addressed by the authorities.

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  • 15.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effects of road surface appearance and low friction warning systems on driver behaviour and confidence in the warning system2009In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 165-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Warning systems for slippery road conditions are a potential newcomer among driver support systems. A total of 75 participants drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator on roads with both visible and invisible ice, to investigate to which extent drivers rely on a low friction warning system. Three experimental groups with different versions of a low friction warning system and a control group without warning system were compared. All drivers ranked the systems according to trust.

    A system displaying recommended speed received the best ratings. Driving speed was analysed for three particular segments of the route. Generally, lowest speeds were achieved with the recommended speed system. The participants drove more slowly on a slippery segment that looked icy than on the segments that looked dry when they did not receive a low friction warning. When they received a warning for low friction they also lowered their speed for the segment looking like asphalt. The results provide guidelines for how to present low friction warnings to drivers. The design has substantial effects on the resulting behaviour and therefore it can have a high impact on traffic safety. So far, not much research on low friction warning systems has been reported.

  • 16.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Passering av buss i 30 km/h: utvärdering av säkerhetseffekter i samband med hastighetsgräns 30 km/h vid passering av buss - en simulatorstudie2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    A simulator study was conducted to investigate the implementation of a new law which prescribes a speed limit of 30 km/h when passing buses equipped with a 30-sign and flashing lights. It was shown that the drivers follow the rule better when they pass a bus on their own side than when the bus was standing on the opposite side of the road. The slowest mean speeds were found when passing a bus on a road with a speed limit of 70 km/h. The highest speed reduction, however, was found when the posted speed limit was 90 km/h. A bus without signage did not induce the same speed reduction as a bus with signage, which means that the drivers were aware of the meaning of the signage. Driving behaviour showed that the flashing lights are of importance, because the drivers in the study started braking before the 30-sign was readable.

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  • 17.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Selander, Helena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Vaa, Truls
    Institute of Transport Economics.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    The effect of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on driving behavior and risk perception2021In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 108-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To examine the effect of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on differences in driving behavior and risk perception, in experienced drivers. Methods A total of 147 experienced drivers participated in the study. Drivers with ADHD (n = 91) were compared to an age-matched control group of drivers (n = 56) with no neuropsychiatric diagnoses. A simulator driving test (SDT) was used in the study and included a driving scenario with various traffic environments to examine any differences in number of collisions, number of speedings, risk index (based on 12 risky situations), speed adaptation (based on 19 road sections), mean speed, and preferred speed, between the two groups. The participants also completed a questionnaire about their driving behavior. Results No differences in the simulator driving test were found between the ADHD group and the control group. No adverse effects of ADHD were found for any of the measures, i.e., collisions, number of speeding, risk index, speed adaptation, mean speed and preferred speed. The only significant group difference was that drivers with ADHD rated themselves lower on concentration. Conclusions Participants with ADHD and the control group drove remarkably similarly in the simulator driving test and rated themselves similarly regarding how they drive. The results contribute to state that ADHD drivers are less deviant than asserted by previous research.

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  • 18.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Visual perception of speed in drivers with ADHD2019In: International Journal of Sustainable Society, ISSN 1756-2538, E-ISSN 1756-2546, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 125-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of ADHD on driving speed were studied in a driving simulator with only visual motion cues, by comparing drivers with ADHD diagnosis (n = 36) to drivers from a normal student population (n = 28). Their task was to repeatedly accelerate to own preferred speed for a total of 26 trials (2 baseline, 24 experimental trials). Field of view (1, 3, 5, and 7 monitors) and virtual road markings (on, off) were manipulated. These eight experimental conditions were presented three times each (replicates). Overall mean speed did not differ between groups, but the ADHD group was less affected by the extra motion cues. Also, whereas the control group lowered their speed between replicates, the ADHD group did not. The combined results suggest that for ADHD drivers, speed perception is more of a rule-based skill and more based on attention, whereas the normal student population perceives speed more effortlessly.

  • 19.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Selander, Helena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Näsman, David
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    In-Car Warnings of Emergency Vehicles Approaching: Effects on Car Drivers’ Propensity to Give Way2020In: Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, E-ISSN 2624-9634, Vol. 2, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency driving entails substantially higher risk rates than ordinary driving, and it is crucial that other road users notice the emergency vehicles on call. Sirens and emergency lights are used to warn and demand that other road users give way and provide safe passage, but accidents still occur. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of a broadcast hyper local Emergency Vehicle Approaching (EVA) message via RDS radio, noticing that an emergency vehicle on call is approaching and demands that others give way, on the propensity of individual drivers to give way. In two simulator experiments, a total of 90 car drivers participated. In Experiment 1, drivers were passed three times by an ambulance in traffic conditions where it was easy to detect the ambulance early, and two versions of EVA message were compared to a baseline condition without a broadcast message. In Experiment 2, drivers were passed only once by an ambulance and in traffic conditions that made it difficult to detect the ambulance early, and either received an EVA message, or no message. The results showed that EVA messaging made drivers give way earlier and learned to give way earlier even without an EVA message. The main finding was that EVA messaging was necessary for making inexperienced drivers give way to an approaching emergency vehicle on call. Most of them did not know that they are obliged to give way, and some did not notice the emergency vehicle before it passed them. In conclusion, the study suggests that EVA messaging to alert and instruct drivers how to give way properly is beneficial for traffic safety and for enabling time-efficient emergency transports.

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  • 20.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    FOI, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, Stockholm.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    User-centered development of a driving simulator for training of emergency vehicle drivers and development of Emergency Vehicle Approaching messaging: a simulator study2020In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large risk of accidents in connection with emergency driving and the need for both better possibilities to train emergency vehicle driving and for systems guiding other road users to the right behavior is apparent. The aim of this study was (1) to initiate user-centered development of a driving simulator for training of emergency vehicle drivers and (2) to collect information about how to best communicate Emergency Vehicle Approaching (EVA) messages. The method used is user-involved, iterative development of both the driving scenario and the driving simulator. 104 participants have tried the simulator and responded to a questionnaire. Most difficult for emergency vehicle drivers are vehicles in front suddenly braking and failure in other drivers noticing them. Desired behaviour in other road users is to yield to the right and brake smoothly. The attitude towards communication of Emergency Vehicle (EV) driving is positive, regarding both pre-alerting drivers who are approaching an incident scene and sending out EVA-messages.

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  • 21.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Gillberg, Mats
    Karolinska institutet.
    Fatigue at sea: a field study in Swedish shipping2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to collect data about the fatigue level of bridge watch keepers to use for revising earlier sleep models, and devise innovative solutions for the shipping industry. Data collection included interviews with shipping companies and a field study onboard 13 cargo vessels. 32 participants took part in representing two watch systems; 2-watch and 3-watch. Subjective sleepiness and stress estimations were performed once every hour. Electrooculography was used to record eye movement behaviour. Reaction time test was made to examine performance. 3-watch participants are more satisfied with their working hours and working situation. Tendencies indicate that 2-watch participants are a bit more tired, whereas the stress is the same. All are less sleepy and less stressed at home. Time on shift had effect on sleepiness. The highest Karolinska Sleepiness Scale scores were recorded in the late night and early morning. After night shift the reaction times have higher variance and more long reaction times are present. The mean value after night shift was significantly higher than after day shift. All thirteen shipping agreed that officers on the bridge always have tasks sensitive to fatigue but no company experienced fatigue as a problem during normal conditions. All were positive to monitoring devices, mentioning safety matters.

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  • 22.
    Mathis, Lesley-Ann
    et al.
    University of Stuttgart IAT.
    Diederichs, Frederik
    Fraunhofer IAO, Stuttgart.
    Widlroither, Harald
    Fraunhofer IAO, Stuttgart.
    Ruscio, Daniele
    Deep Blue, Rome, Italy.
    Napoletano, Linda
    Deep Blue, Rome, Italy.
    Zofka, Marc René
    FZI Research Center for Information Technology, Karlsruhe.
    Viehl, Alexander
    FZI Research Center for Information Technology, Karlsruhe.
    Fröhlich, Peter
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Wien.
    Friedrich, Johannes
    Technical University Berlin, Berlin.
    Lindström, Anders
    FOI, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, Stockholm.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Litke, Antonis
    Infili Technologies PC, Athens, Greece.
    Papadakis, Nikolaos
    Infili Technologies PC, Athens, Greece.
    Bakalos, Nikolaos
    Infili Technologies PC, Athens, Greece.
    Hernandez-Jayo, Unai
    University of Deusto - Deusto Institute of Technology, Bilbao, Spain.
    Espié, Stéphane
    Ifsttar/TS2/SIMU&MOTO, Marne la Vallée, France.
    Cavallo, Viola
    Ifsttar/COSYS/LEPSiS, Marne la Vallée, France.
    Panou, Maria
    Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Hellenic Institute of Transport, Athens, Greece.
    Gaitanidou, Evangelia
    Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Hellenic Institute of Transport, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Bekiaris, Evangelos
    entre for Research and Technology Hellas/Hellenic Institute of Transport, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Creating informed public acceptance by a user-centered human-machine interface for all automated transport modes2020In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, 2020, p. 9-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing automation is ongoing in all areas of transport. This raises new challenges for the design and training of Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI) for different user groups. The EU-project Drive2theFuture investigates the needs and wants of transportation users, operators, passengers and passersby to gain their acceptance and to set the ground for a sustainable market introduction of automated transport. This paper describes how HMI concepts for the transport modes road, rail, maritime and aviation in Drive2theFuture are developed and comparatively assessed in order to be able to support an educated use of automated transport. By relying on a stepwise process, adaptable HMI strategies for different user clusters and levels of automation are defined. As a universal method, a comprehensive HMI development toolkit is developed, which can be adopted as training tool to create realistic expectations and enhance acceptance among users, operators and drivers in light of the deployment of automated vehicles.

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  • 23.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Börjesson, Conny
    Viktoria Swedish ICT).
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Holmén, Lotta
    Viktoria Swedish ICT).
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Elvägar i körsimulator: design, test, utvärdering och demonstration av elvägstekniker och elfordon med virtuella metoder2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric road systems, ERS, where vehicles receive electricity continuously while driving, could be a way to reach the target of a fossil-free transport sector. A demonstration environment in a driving simulator was developed in order to test and evaluate ERS concepts and electric vehicles driving on ERS. A user study was conducted, where 25 drivers drove a 40 kilometre long route, both with a hybrid truck on ERS and with a conventional truck with no ERS. Driving on ERS showed no remarkable difference on driver’s experience of safety and aestethics or the driving behaviour compared to no ERS. The exception was average speed which was 2 kilometres/hour higher when driving on ERS. The energy consumption decreased 35 per cent on ERS. In order to disseminate project results to actors and potential users of ERS, a large number of simulator demonstrations have been conducted. There has also been a press release and a number of magazine articles. In addition, a portable ERS driving simulator was constructed and used in order to reach a broader public.

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  • 24.
    Olsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Effect of Train-Driving Simulator Practice in the European Rail Traffic Management System: An Experimental Study2023In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2677, no 5, p. 694-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many European train drivers face major changes in their work with the introduction of the new train-protection system, the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), as information retrieval shifts from outside to in-cab, and a new rulebook is introduced. Therefore, many train drivers have to be educated in a short time, to make the transition safe and efficient. The purpose was to find out how a successful ERTMS practice can be designed in a physically low-fidelity but highly functional train-driving simulator. An experimental design was used, with 16 drivers divided into two groups: one group practiced in a simulator, and the other in reality. Standard training methodology was used, and the learning outcome was assessed by both measuring driving errors and via instructor evaluation of a simulator test. The drivers also filled in a questionnaire to capture how different factors, such as repeated practice, experience, and self-estimated confidence, correlate with performance. Results show that the simulator group committed significantly fewer driving errors and received significantly higher scores from the instructor. In addition, the simulator group's better performance is mostly caused by the possibility of repeated training of different special cases. The findings also imply that several of the more common special cases on the ERTMS can hardly be provoked in real train driving. Furthermore, this work strengthens the theory that novices can hardly estimate their own ability. Therefore, we argue that this type of low-fidelity simulator is well suited for research purposes, for practicing special cases, and for train operation companies to assess drivers' skills.

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  • 25.
    Olsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    The practical part of train driver education: experience, expectations, and possibilities2021In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The internship period of the Swedish train driver education was examined in terms of which types of situations can be sufficiently encountered in order to develop expertise to handle them safely and efficiently, and to quantify and specify the gap in expertise between expert and novice drivers in terms of risk of error and time efficiency. Focus was on special cases (i.e., situations that occur rarely but may cause severe accidents if not handled correctly and efficiently).

    Methodology: Data on which situations and special cases a driver's student can be expected to experience during the internship period were collected via a web-based questionnaire. Also, ratings of expectations on novice and expert drivers were obtained from train driver educators, employers, and instructors with the purpose of comparing the expectations with the novices practical experience.

    Results and conclusions: The main results suggest that many special cases are generally insufficiently practiced during the internship and therefore should be practiced in simulators; that both experienced and novice drivers prioritize safety over efficiency; and that expectations on novice drivers are realistic considering their limited professional expertise. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 26.
    Olsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. VTI.
    Simulatorbaserad medåkningsövning för trafikledarutbildningen: ett kostnadseffektivt och flexibelt utbildningsverktyg2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafikverket har startat aktiviteter för att göra om trafikledarutbildningen. Det handlar om översyn av grundutbildningen för fjärrtågklarerare. Både innehåll och struktur ska ses över och detta ska bedrivas i två projekt. 1. Vad ska en tågklarerare kunna efter utbildningen? (Trafikledningens del). 2. Hur ska man lära sig detta? (Trafikverksskolans del). De två projekten är kopplade till varandra. Tidplanen är 2 år och arbetet började med små steg i januari 2018. Ett problem som finns inom utbildningen för trafikledning är att det är svårt att få till lokåkning med lokförare för de blivande tågklarerarna. Det är svårt att få plats att åka med och det blir inte alltid så bra sett ur ett inlärningsperspektiv. Det här projektets idé är därför att ta fram en medåkningsövning med hjälp av tågsimulator. Målet med övningen är att: • • Öka förståelsen för förarens vy • • Visa specifika sällanhändelser Projektet syftar till att inventera FoI-frågor inom området tågsimulering och medåkning för tågklarerarutbildningen. Trafikverket ser Foi-behov inom området. Det här projektets idé är att ta fram en medåkningsövning med hjälp av tågsimulator för att undersöka effekten och flexibiliteten med ett nytt verktyg. En viktig nytta för Trafikverket med projektet är att ge tågklarerarna en ökad förståelse för förarens vy som ger förutsättningar för förbättrad kommunikation vilket kan leda till förbättringar både i trafikflöden och vid hantering av störningar. Studien syftar därför till att ta reda på hur medåkningsverktyget kan bidra till trafikverkets förväntade nytta med projektet att ge en ökad förståelse för förarens verklighet. För att kunna besvara det syftet är det viktigt att känna till varför en förståelse för lokförarens verklighet är viktig. Slutligen syftar studien till att utvärdera medåkningsövningen som utbildningsverktyg. 1. Varför är det viktigt för en tågklarerare att ha förståelse för lokförarens verklighet? 2. Hur bidrar medåkningsverktyget till en ökad förståelse för lokförarens verklighet? 3. Hur uppfattade informanterna nyttan av medåkningsövningen?

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  • 27.
    Olsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    The practical part of train driver education: experiences, expectations and possibilities2020In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, 2020, p. 15-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite all the technical aids introduced to the railway the train drivers’ knowledge and skills are still important for traffic efficiency and safety. The literature shows a clear connection between practical experience and safer and more efficient action. Thus, the aims were (1) to examine what is likely to be included in the internship of the train driver education, and (2) to assess the difference in expectations on novice versus experienced drivers. Quantitative data, obtained through Swedish train drivers, indicate a great possibility that a student will not have the possibility to practice many situations sufficiently or even at all during internship. Results from the instructors and employers show that the expectations on the novice drivers can be regarded as realistic and correspond with the literature about development of profession expertise. Finally, we argue that pedagogical use of simulators may provide effective practice of critical situations in a safe environment.

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  • 28.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Cavalcanti, Thiago
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Prytz, Erik
    LiU.
    Moertl, Peter
    Virtual Vehicle Research GmbH.
    Driveability analysis of the european rail transport management system (ERTMS): A systematic literature review2021In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 18, article id 100240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Train drivers in Sweden had the opportunity to test the new European Rail Transport Management System (ERTMS) during the early implementation of this signaling system in 2011 and 2012. Unfortunately, they have reported many implementation problems. These ERTMS lines have been evaluated as more challenging to drive compared to the previous signaling system. A systematic literature review was conducted to understand what network planning designers typically focus on when analyzing railway driveability and how driveability can be assessed. In the overall picture the impact on driveability originates from both technological, organizational, and train driver aspects. One technological issue found during the investigation is related to the speed profile design. Frequent speed changes were identified as the primary source of negative experiences during driveability evaluations, especially on retrofitted lines. Results also indicate the need for a methodology that includes the driver earlier in the network planning test process, to avoid the costly and time-consuming analysis done after project implementation. The results highlight the importance of the speed profile design to provide good driveability. Cognitive Task Analysis, simulations, and statistical calculations to predict driver and train performance were identified as applicable methods to involve train drivers earlier in the driveability analysis process. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

  • 29.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Förstudie tågsimulering och ERTMS2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I förstudien inventeras FoI frågor inom området tågsimulering och ERTMS. VTI är FoI utförare och arbetet sker på uppdrag och i samverkan med Trafikverket. Det finns ett behov av ökad kunskap om ERTMS, samt metoder kopplat till ERTMS utifrån simulering, projektering och teknikutveckling. I förstudien har FoI området tågsimulering och ERTMS definierats.

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  • 30.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Linköping University.
    Impact on driver behavior from ERTMS speed-filtering2023In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 26, article id 100386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the signal planning process, the ERTMS speed profiles based on track nature needs to be complemented with additional constraints. The base profile resolving the allowed track speed, often includes several speed changes which can be difficult for the train driver to follow. One approach to deal with this problem is to filter the base profile, reducing the number of changes and giving the driver more time for attention.

    This paper presents the effects of a speed profile filtering principle, based on possible time usage during a speed increase, on train energy consumption, train driver braking behavior, running time, and driver workload. In an Electrical Multiple Unit train driver simulator, 40 drivers tested three different speed profiles of a 19 km railway line. It can be concluded that differences in running time are small, that these small time-gains implies a high energy consumption cost, and that drivers tend to drive close to the indication braking curve in the beginning of the braking phase. Further, the drivers rated the driver task workload low for all filter conditions. Accordingly, a certain filter level is required to get capacity and energy effects.

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    Article
  • 31.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Radio communication-based method for analysis of train driving in an ERTMS signaling environment2022In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background ERTMS is an important project improving cross-border interoperability throughout Europe by a single rail signaling standard. One advantage following this development is a standardized radio signaling, which can be tracked by logging the data transfer using the ETCS protocol between Radio Block Center and train. This means that a broad spectrum of train driving can be analyzed in terms of for example driving behavior, signal planning and capacity in a new efficient way. Methods In this paper a radio-based protocol method to achieve this, is presented and applied for studying braking characteristics in terms of meeting point design. The aim was to design, apply and validate a radio-based train data collection method to enable cost-efficient and avoid time-consuming train data collections. To enable comparison between the results from the suggested radio-based method and traditional methods, a verification measurement was performed. Three different alternatives of speed calculation were validated. These were based on: Train Position Report speed; calculation of average speed based on reported train position; processed reported train position forming the average speed. The best alternative was then applied to examine deceleration towards different signal targets at single-track meeting points. Results The results from this study suggest that the ETCS Level 2 protocol is a feasible way to collect train dynamics data. The method is time saving when it comes to train driver behavior studies where several trains and drivers are needed to get significant results. Comparison with traditional GPS method suggest that the method is valid. Most promising is the alternative using processed train position.

  • 32.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Simulated and real train driving in a lineside automatic train protection (ATP) system environment2020In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, article id 100205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first step exploring how capacity, signal systems, and driving behaviour interact and will be followed by investigations of the next generation signalling system ERTMS. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd This paper presents the differences between the train traffic simulation tool RailSys and real train traffic with focus on Electrical Multiple Units (EMU) and the Swedish automatic train protection (ATP) system ATC, on a single-track line. Braking, acceleration, different types of resistance and running times have been investigated. From this study it can be concluded that the margins to unconditional ATC braking is high with this specific ATC implementation and parameters, and that the braking differs depending on the signal target. Compared to RailSys with parameters settings according to Swedish Transport Administration recommendations, the measurements show significantly lower acceleration and deceleration, which results in differences between measured and simulated running time.

  • 33.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lindström, Anders
    FOI, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, Stockholm.
    Analysis and comparison of simulated and real train driving in an Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system environment2020In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, 2020, p. 10-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the differences between the train traffic simulation tool RailSys and real train traffic with focus on Electrical Multiple Units (EMU) and the Swedish automatic train protection (ATP) system ATC, on a single-track line. Braking, acceleration, different types of resistance and running times have been investigated. From this study it can be concluded that the margins to unconditional ATC braking is high and that the braking differs depending on the signal target. Compared to RailSys, the measurements show significantly lower acceleration and retardation, which results in differences between measured and simulated running time.This is the first step exploring how capacity, signal systems, and driving behaviour interact and will be followed by investigations of the next generation signaling system ERTMS.

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  • 34.
    Selander, Helena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. VTI.
    Körsimulatorer i förarutbildningen: trafiklärares upplevelse av simulatorns nytta och betydelse2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med projektet var att få en bättre insyn i hur trafiklärare upplever simulatorns möjligheter och nytta under körkortsutbildningen. Detta med bakgrund av att intresset för simulatorer på senare år har ökat i Sverige. Lägre inköpskostnad och mer realistiska scenarier som passar för körkortsutbildning är några förklaringar. Trots detta är det fortfarande relativt få trafikskolor som använder simulatorer som ett komplement till övriga pedagogiska verktyg. Deras erfarenhet behövs dock för att få bättre kunskap kring simulatorernas användbarhet och hur metodiken eventuellt bör utvecklas för ett mer systematiskt och gemensamt arbetssätt över landet. Totalt intervjuades 14 trafiklärare som använde simulator för utbildning inom tung trafik och/eller för personbil.

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  • 35.
    Selander, Helena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Synskärpans påverkan på bilkörning: En simulatorstudie2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Flera synförmågor tenderar att försämras med ökad ålder. Trots detta kontrolleras synförmågan i Sverige endast i samband med ansökan om körkortstillstånd. Denna studie genomfördes med syftet att undersöka synens påverkan på körfömåga, oavsett ålder. Totalt deltog 89 personer (36 män) i åldrarna 18-77 år i studien. Deltagarna var uppdelade i fem grupper: två yngre grupper med godkänd (≥ 0,5) respektive nedsatt syn (nedsatt till minst 0,4), två äldregrupper med godkänd (≥ 0,5) respektive nedsatt syn (nedsatt till minst 0,4) samt en grupp personer med ögonsjukdom (glaukom, katarakt och AMD). Med tanke på att tidigare forskning har visat att det behövs fler syntester än enbart synskärpa (visus) för att bedöma bilkörning kompletterades visus med kontrastseende och testet Useful Field of View (UFOV) samt simulatorkörning. Datainsamlingen, i en körsimulator från VTI, genomfördes av studenter på Optikerprogrammet vid Karolinska Institutet i Stockholm. Körsimulatorn var en stationär simulator utan rörelseplattform som var utrustad med automatlåda och tre skärmar. Inga skillnader mellan grupperna framkom när det gäller antal krockar, men däremot fanns signifikanta skillnader vid flera händelser under simulatorkörningen. För de två yngre grupperna fanns skillnader för totalt 5 av 12 händelser. De med nedsatt synskärpa såg fotgängare eller fordon senare än de med bättre synskärpa. Detta resulterade i ett riskfyllt körbeteende eftersom de reagerade för objektet, det vill säga bromsade eller stannade, senare eller hade högre hastighet än vad som var lämpligt. För de äldre framkom skillnader mellan grupperna i 3 av 12 händelser. De äldre förarna med god syn upptäckte fordonet och fotgängarna tidigare, vilket betyder att de uppvisade en bättre reaktionsförmåga och därmed ett säkrare körbeteende. Studien visade således att körsimulator är ett användbart verktyg för att bedöma körförmåga och att synfunktioner spelar en viktig roll för säker bilkörning. Dock behöver detta studeras ytterligare för att öka förståelsen för exakt vilken grad av nedsättning kopplat till varje typ av synförmåga som försämrar körbeteendet och leder till minskad trafiksäkerhet.

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  • 36.
    Selander, Helena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. VTI.
    The affect of visual acuity on driving ability: a simulator study2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As we age, visual abilities tend to worsen. Despite this, in Sweden vision is only checked when applying for a drivers’ licence. This study was performed to investigate the impact of vision on driving ability, regardless of age. Eighty-nine people (36 men) between the ages of 17 and 77 participated in the study. Participants were divided into five groups: two younger groups with good (≥ 0.5) and impaired visual acuity (impaired to at least 0.4), two older groups with good (≥ 0.5) and impaired visual acuity (impaired to at least 0.4), as well as a group with people with eye disease (glaucoma, cataracts and AMD). Considering that previous research has shown that there is a need for more vision tests than just visual acuity (visus) to determine driving ability, contrast vision, the Useful Field of View (UFOV) test and simulator driving were also used in this study. Data collection, in a driving simulator from VFI was performed by optometry students from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. The driving simulator was a stationary simulator with an automatic gearbox and three screens, but no moving platform.

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  • 37.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Effect of hearing loss on traffic safety and mobility2015In: Handbook of Hearing Disorders Research, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2015, p. 1-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into the effect of hearing loss (HL) on traffic safety and mobility is limited and the empirical findings are somewhat inconsistent. HL is one of the most frequent sensory deficits in humans, leading to loss of auditory information, which may affect behavior in traffic situations and might reduce traffic safety and mobility. The prevalence of age-related HL in Europe is roughly 30% for men and 20% for women at the age of 70 years, and 55% for men and 45% for women at the age of 80 years. The prevalence of age-related HL is increasing, and as a consequence the number of road users with HL will also increase.The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate traffic safety and mobility for individuals with HL. Three studies were conducted: 1. a questionnaire survey aimed to evaluate differences in choice of transportation that might be related to HL, 2. a driving simulator study that looked into compensatory strategies and evaluated the efficiency of a tactile signal to alert the driver, and 3. a field study to evaluate these effects in real traffic and to evaluate a navigation system with a supportive tactile signal.

  • 38.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Linköpings universitet.
    Effects of hearing loss on traffic safety and mobility2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate traffic safety and mobility for individuals with hearing loss (HL). Three studies were conducted: 1. a questionnaire survey aimed to evaluate differences in choice of transportation that might be related to HL, 2. a driving simulator study that looked into compensatory strategies and evaluated the efficiency of a tactile signal to alert the driver, and 3. a field study to evaluate these effects in real traffic and to evaluate a navigation system with a supportive tactile signal. The effects of HL discovered in this thesis add to the knowledge and understanding of the influence of HL on traffic safety and mobility. Differences found consistently point to a generally more cautious behavior. Compensatory and coping strategies associated with HL are bound to driving complexity and appear when complexity increases. These strategies include driving at lower speeds, using a more comprehensive visual search behavior and being less engaged in distracting activities. Evaluation of a tactile signal showed that by adding a tactile modality, some driver assistance systems can also be made accessible to drivers with HL. At the same time, the systems might be more effective for all users, since the driver can be more focused on the road. Based on the results in this thesis, drivers with HL cannot be considered an increased traffic safety risk, and there should be no need for adjustments of the requirements of hearing for a license to drive a car.

    List of papers
    1. The influence of hearing loss on transport safety and mobility
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of hearing loss on transport safety and mobility
    2013 (English)In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 117-127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To examine how road users with different degree of hearing loss experience safety and mobility in transport situations, compared to road users with normal hearing.

    Methods: A questionnaire study was conducted with participants recruited from the local branch of The Swedish hard of hearing society. A normal hearing control group, matched on age, gender and geographical location, was selected from a commercial database. The response rate was 35% (n = 194) in the group with Hearing Loss (HL) and 42% (n = 125) in the group with Normal Hearing (NH). The individuals with hearing loss were grouped into four groups according to the degree of their hearing loss (mild, moderate, severe and profound).

    Results: Hearing loss affected some specific aspects regarding transport situations, while others remained unaffected. Individuals with hearing loss were not as likely to have a driving license, but for those who have, hearing loss had no effect on mileage per year. Loss of hearing had an effect on criteria for choosing mode of transportation, but in the aggregate, no difference between the groups could be shown in the distribution of how much each mode of transportation was used. With a few exceptions, hearing loss did not affect the ratings of importance of hearing for different transportation modes. Hearing loss affected most questions regarding hearing and driver abilities, while avoidance of specific traffic situations was not associated with hearing loss. Hearing loss had only minor effects on the factors causing inattention when driving, and on the interest in a warning system for driver inattention. The interest in a warning system for driver inattention was high regardless of hearing category.

    Conclusions: Hearing loss influences the prevalence of driving license and criteria for choosing mode of transportation, however has no effect on the distribution of how much each mode of transportation was used. In general, in this study, respondents with higher degree of hearing loss were less concerned about the effect of hearing loss, indicating that they might be using coping strategies. The interest in warning system for inattention and the attitude towards strengthening of auditory information in traffic situations is high regardless of hearing category. This suggests further research on coping strategies and on design of support systems accessible for drivers with hearing loss. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2013
    Keywords
    Hearing, Mobility (pers), Safety
    National Category
    Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
    Research subject
    Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, Road: Personal transport
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6647 (URN)10.1007/s12544-012-0087-4 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2022-10-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Cognitive workload and driving behavior in persons with hearing loss
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive workload and driving behavior in persons with hearing loss
    2013 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 21, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To compare the effect of cognitive workload in individuals with and without hearing loss, respectively, in driving situations with varying degree of complexity.

    Methods: 24 participants with moderate hearing loss (HL) and 24 with normal hearing (NH) experienced three different driving conditions: Baseline driving; Critical events with a need to act fast; and a Parked car event with the possibility to adapt the workload to the situation. Additionally, a Secondary task (observation and recalling of 4 visually displayed letters) was present during the drive, with two levels of difficulty in terms of load on the phonological loop. A tactile signal, presented by means of a vibration in the seat, was used to announce the Secondary task and thereby simultaneously evaluated in terms of effectiveness when calling for driver attention. Objective driver behavior measures (M and SD of driving speed, M and SD of lateral position, time to line crossing) were accompanied by subjective ratings during and after the test drive.

    Results: HL had no effect on driving behavior at Baseline driving, where no events occurred. Both during Secondary task and at the Parked car event HL was associated with decreased mean driving speed compared to baseline driving. The effect of HL on the Secondary task performance, both at Baseline driving and at the lower Difficulty Level at Critical events, was more skipped letters and fewer correctly recalled letters. At Critical events, task difficulty affected participants with HL more. Participants were generally positive to use vibrations in the seat as a means for announcing the Secondary task.

    Conclusions: Differences in terms of driving behavior and task performance related to HL appear when the driving complexity exceeds Baseline driving either in the driving task, Secondary task or a combination of both. This leads to a more cautious driving behavior with a decreased mean driving speed and less focus on the Secondary task, which could be a way of compensating for the increasing driving complexity. Seat vibration was found to be a feasible way to alert drivers with or without HL.

    Keywords
    Hearing, Driving (veh), Distraction, Psycological aspects
    National Category
    Other Medical Sciences
    Research subject
    Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, Road: Personal transport
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6648 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2013.09.011 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2022-10-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Cognitive workload and visual behavior in elderly drivers with hearing loss
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive workload and visual behavior in elderly drivers with hearing loss
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 377-385Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to examine eye tracking data and compare visual behavior in individuals with normal hearing (NH) and with moderate hearing loss (HL) during two types of driving conditions: normal driving and driving while performing a secondary task.

    Methods

    24 participants with HL and 24 with NH were exposed to normal driving and to driving with a secondary task (observation and recall of 4 visually displayed letters). Eye movement behavior was assessed during normal driving by the following performance indicators: number of glances away from the road; mean duration of glances away from the road; maximum duration of glances away from the road; and percentage of time looking at the road. During driving with the secondary task, eye movement data were assessed in terms of number of glances to the secondary task display, mean duration of glances to the secondary task display, and maximum duration of glances to the secondary task display. The secondary task performance was assessed as well, counting the number of correct letters, the number of skipped letters, and the number of correct letters ignoring order.

    Results

    While driving with the secondary task, drivers with HL looked twice as often in the rear-view mirror than during normal driving and twice as often as drivers with NH regardless of condition. During secondary task, the HL group looked away from the road more frequently but for shorter durations than the NH group. Drivers with HL had fewer correct letters and more skipped letters than drivers with NH.

    Keywords
    Eye movement, Hearing, Disablement, Driving, Cognition, Mental load, Attention
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7413 (URN)10.1007/s12544-014-0139-z (DOI)2-s2.0-84901575602 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2014-11-07 Created: 2014-11-07 Last updated: 2022-10-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Eye Movement Research, ISSN 1995-8692, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An on-road study was conducted to evaluate a complementary tactile navigation signal on driving behaviour and eye movements for drivers with hearing loss (HL) compared to drivers with normal hearing (NH). 32 participants (16 HL and 16 NH) performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one, participants received only visual information, while the other also included a vibration in the seat to guide them in the correct direction. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, recording the point of gaze within the scene. Analysis was performed on predefined regions. A questionnaire examined participant's experience of the navigation systems. Hearing loss was associated with lower speed, higher satisfaction with the tactile signal and more glances in the rear view mirror. Additionally, tactile support led to less time spent viewing the navigation display. 

    Keywords
    Eye movement, Hearing, Behaviour, Driver
    National Category
    Other Medical Sciences
    Research subject
    Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Road user behaviour
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6649 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2022-10-12Bibliographically approved
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  • 39.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Electrooculogram analysis and development of a system for defining stages of drowsiness2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrooculogram (EOG) analysis has been used to detect drowsiness stages, using data from experiments performed in the VTI driving simulator. The suitability of the existing method for blink detection in the EOG signal was evaluated in a preliminary study. Longer blinks recognized in the signal were compared to those identified in video recordings from the same experiment.

    All long blinks were not found in the signal, but still enough to consider data appropriate. The method to detect drowsiness is based on a linear relationship between blink amplitude and velocity, a method used and defined by Hargutt and Krüger. Self ratings of the drowsiness from the driving session, as defined into nine levels, were reduced into four. These were used to determine the detection boundaries for the program. The MATLAB program has shown correspondence with the converted sleepiness ratings. Out of six subjects, five showed a correspondence greater than 75%. This demonstrates the possibility of applying the amplitude- and velocity linearity on EOG data and an appropriate adjustment of the self ratings to the four sleepiness stages.

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  • 40.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    The effect of hearing loss on driving performance and experience of navigation system2013In: Abstract book: Second International Conference onCognitive Hearing Sciencefor Communication, 2013, p. 34-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of an additional tactile signal in a navigation system and to examine the effect of hearing loss on driving behavior. 32 participants took part in the study, whereof 16 with normal hearing and 16 with moderate hearing loss.

    The participants performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one they received only visual information from the navigation system and in the other there was an additional vibration in the seat to guide the driver in the right direction. Both routes included two levels of driver workload. The order of which the systems were tested as well as the order of workload level was balanced over the participants.

    Pretest included hearing screening of normal hearing participants, verbal ability test and KIPS test battery for cognitive performance. During the run an on-road protocol was used to evaluate driving performance. A VBOX was used to measure speed and record the route with a video camera. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, which means the field of view was recorded with a marker showing where the driver is looking. Predefined targets will be analyzed, e.g. the mirrors and the speedometer. A questionnaire including questions about the experience of the two navigation systems was given to the drivers afterwards.

    Analysis continues but preliminary results indicate that hearing loss is associated with lower speed, higher satisfaction with the additional tactile signal and more glances in the rear view mirror. 

  • 41.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linnaeus Centre Head.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linnaeus Centre Head.
    Cognitive workload and visual behavior in elderly drivers with hearing loss2014In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 377-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to examine eye tracking data and compare visual behavior in individuals with normal hearing (NH) and with moderate hearing loss (HL) during two types of driving conditions: normal driving and driving while performing a secondary task.

    Methods

    24 participants with HL and 24 with NH were exposed to normal driving and to driving with a secondary task (observation and recall of 4 visually displayed letters). Eye movement behavior was assessed during normal driving by the following performance indicators: number of glances away from the road; mean duration of glances away from the road; maximum duration of glances away from the road; and percentage of time looking at the road. During driving with the secondary task, eye movement data were assessed in terms of number of glances to the secondary task display, mean duration of glances to the secondary task display, and maximum duration of glances to the secondary task display. The secondary task performance was assessed as well, counting the number of correct letters, the number of skipped letters, and the number of correct letters ignoring order.

    Results

    While driving with the secondary task, drivers with HL looked twice as often in the rear-view mirror than during normal driving and twice as often as drivers with NH regardless of condition. During secondary task, the HL group looked away from the road more frequently but for shorter durations than the NH group. Drivers with HL had fewer correct letters and more skipped letters than drivers with NH.

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  • 42.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport.
    Utvärdering av ett fordonsbundet varningssystem: vibrationer i sätet vid risk för överträdande av kant- eller mittlinje2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One alternative to rumble strips is to simulate them in the car by vibrations in the driver's seat. Citroen has a lane departure warning system in the models C4 and C5 which has been evaluated from user experience. A focus group was carried out with four users from Ostergötland. From the discussion a questionnaire with accompanying diary was constructed and sent out to Citroen owners in Sweden having a lane departure warning system. A large part of the users have not received any information about the system at the time of buying the car. The majority of the users are satisfied with the lane departure warning system but almost all declare not to use it at all in winter which indicates that it should be improved to be used all the year round.

    The results point towards that the system has a good price level, but many still think that it should be a part of the standard equipment meaning that safety should not be optional. Noise and vibrations are considerably lower in C4 and C5 compared to milled rumble strips. Many drivers are disturbed by false alarms. Therefore more apparent warnings demand a reduction of false alarms. The most important result is that more information and guidelines should be given to the users. Function and shaping of the lane departure warning system should also be improved. Citroen has satisfied customers willing to pay for well functioning support systems.

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  • 43.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Gällman, Krister
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Järnvägens HUS förstudie: sammankoppling av simulatorer för järnväg2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här förstudien var att undersöka förutsättningar, behov och nyttor då olika simulatormiljöer för järnväg integreras för att skapa en helhet. HUS står för Helhet i Utvecklad Simulatormiljö, men syftar samtidigt till en fysisk miljö inrymd i Trafikverksskolan i Ängelholm. Målet för förstudien var att skapa förutsättningar för samt initiera en plattform där olika simuleringsverktyg, nödvändiga för testning, träning och forskning relaterad till järnvägstrafik, kan användas både var för sig eller kopplas samman. Ett första steg är att koppla samman två olika simulatorsystem för att kunna demonstrera idén. 

    Projektet är ett uppdrag där Trafikverket och specifikt Trafikverksskolan har anlitat VTI. Metoderna som har använts är fokusgrupper med olika behovsägare samt mjukvaruutveckling tillsammans med systemexperter från Trafikverket. 

    Resultaten visar ett stort behov av hopkopplade simulerade miljöer för träning, utbildning och forskning inom järnvägsområdet. Många roller har behov av att träna tillsammans i säkra och kontrollerbara miljöer för att bättre förstå varandras arbetssituation. Forskare behöver också repeterbara, kontrollerbara och säkra miljöer som inte är säkerhetsklassade. En första simulerad hopkoppling av VTI:s tågsimulator och Trafikverkets Järnvägssimulator har genomförts för att demonstrera möjligheterna och nyttan med att integrera miljöerna. Utmaningarna ligger främst i att hantera säkerhetsfrågor och skapa en samverkansform med den kommersiella tillverkaren av Järnvägssimulatorn.

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  • 44.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Holmqvist, Kenneth
    Lunds Universitet.
    Black, Alexander
    Queensland University of Technology, School of Optometry.
    The effect of hearing loss on eye movements when driving and an evaluation of tactile support for navigation2013In: Book of Abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements, 11-16 August 2013, in Lund, Sweden / [ed] Kenneth Holmqvist, Fiona Mulvey & Roger Johansson (Red), 2013, p. 34-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of an additional tactile signal in a navigation system and to examine the effect of hearing loss on eye movements. 32 participants took part in the study, whereof 16 with normal hearing and 16 with moderate hearing loss.

    The participants performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one they received only visual information from the navigation system and in the other there was an additional vibration in the seat to guide the driver in the right direction. The order of which the systems were tested was balanced over the participants.

    SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, and the field of view was recorded with a marker showing where the driver is looking. Predefined targets were analyzed, e.g. the mirrors, the speedometer and the navigation display. A questionnaire including questions about the experience of the two navigation systems was given to the drivers afterwards.

    Results revealed that hearing loss is associated with lower speed, higher satisfaction with the additional tactile signal and more glances in the rear view mirror. Additionally, tactile support lead to less gaze data on the navigation display, regardless of hearing status.

     

  • 45.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Principle Other Vehicle Warning2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The only possibility for a driver to avoid a collision may sometimes be to issue a warning to another driver. Connecting the horn and the headlight to an already existing sensor system could be a cost effective solution. This report covers the implementation and evaluation of such an automated warning system in a driving simulator at VTI. In this test 24 drivers with normal hearing and 24 with moderate hearing loss experienced five critical events in which four different warning signals were evaluated; sound, light, and a combination of sound and light, and no warning (as reference). A visual distraction task was used to distract the drivers and create critical situations. The results were consistent. A combined sound and light warning significantly increased cautious driving behaviour and also lead to the highest perceived criticality of the situations. With the combined warning the driver’s attention was effectively drawn from the visual distraction task. Drivers were generally positive towards the warning system, and most positive towards the combined warning presenting light and sound signals. Drivers were able to distinguish between warnings (at critical events) and greetings (at non-critical events) suggesting that the tested additional use of horn and headlight would not affect reactions to non-critical warnings or greetings. Hearing loss was associated with worse performance on the visual distraction task and less perceived realism of the driving simulator. But it was not associated with effects on any driving behaviour measures or of warning modalities. This result suggests that the evaluated system should work also for drivers with moderate hearing loss.

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  • 46.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    How to improve the interaction between cyclists and truck drivers2019In: International Journal of Sustainable Society, ISSN 1756-2538, E-ISSN 1756-2546, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 81-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to increase the understanding of user needs of truck drivers and cyclists regarding future warning systems designed to decrease incidents and collisions between them. Two focus groups were carried out and the inclusion criterion for truck drivers was to have much experience of driving in the city centre. Inclusion criteria for bicyclists were to ride their bike almost every day in city traffic and to either be experienced and aware of traffic rules (group 1) or around 15-16 years of age and not having started to take driving lessons (group 2). It can be concluded that both truck drivers and cyclists are frustrated about the current situation and the risks that they perceive have strong evidence in the literature. Possible ways to improve the situation are, in order of priority, improved visibility of cyclists, education of cyclists, more warnings on trucks and improved infrastructure.

  • 47.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Effects of ADHD on driver attention and speed, evaluated in a driving simulator2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been considered to have a 3–4 times higher crash risk than control drivers without ADHD. A core issue which has not been properly dealt with is the role of comorbid diagnoses which frequently appear together with ADHD, especially Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD), sometimes generically referred to as “conduct problems”. The increased crash risk associated with ADHD diagnosis presented in the literature is often based on studies performed with participants with more than one diagnosis. This means that the comorbidity may be high and, consequently, the effect of ADHD on traffic safety may be overestimated. This has been shown in a meta-analysis presenting a relative risk of 1.30 instead.

    The existing research on drivers with ADHD is unsatisfying when it comes to methodology, specifically concerning inclusion and exclusion criteria for participants. This has led to a misunderstanding of the driving ability for people with ADHD, which has been cited and spread in the literature for two decades. People with ADHD diagnosis might suffer from this misinterpretation and the specific effects of ADHD on driving behavior remain unclear. There is a potential for better control for confounding factors, for exposure (mileage) and for comorbidity, especially CD and ODD.

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in driving behavior between experienced drivers with and without ADHD, respectively.

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  • 48.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Effects of ADHD on Driving Behaviour and Attention2017In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 5, p. S77-S77Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lindström, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Cyclist strategies and behaviour at intersections. Conscious and un-conscious strategies regarding positioning2020In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 70, p. 149-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Severe and even fatal accidents between cyclists and motor vehicles commonly occur at intersections. Many of these accidents occur with right-turning vehicles, with drivers not observing an adjacent cyclist. Few structured investigations exist regarding the interaction between cyclist and motor vehicle, and factors in need of study are how infrastructure and vehicle properties affect human decision-making and cycling behaviour. Therefore, a bicycle simulator study was performed, where vehicle type, presence of lane markings and lane width were systematically varied in a scenario with a cyclist approaching a vehicle from behind, at a signalized city intersection. 33 participants cycled through 8 intersection variants each. Data on cycling trajectories, stopping points and speed was coupled with survey data from the participants, and semantically categorized verbal responses to questions regarding strategy for choice of stopping point. Results show that all three factors (vehicle type, lane markings and available vehicle-adjacent space) significantly affects cyclists’ behaviour and conscious strategies. Participants were more cautious in the presence of a truck than a car, reflected in choice of position when cycling and stopping, and in explicit verbalisations regarding perilous aspects of the situation and their conscious and strategic choice of positioning. Available lateral space also affected stop positions and feeling of safety (expressed verbally). Presence of bicycle lane markings made the cyclists inclined to continue into the space to the right of the vehicle. This was revealed by their positioning and speed, and also apparent in the verbal expressions, especially the positive remarks on the situation and conditions. However, the perceived comfort with lane markings present was actually lower than when they were missing. Cyclist type (slow, moderate, or fast) matters with the self-reported faster cyclists being more prone to stop to the right than the slower one.

  • 50.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lindström, Anders
    FOI, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, Stockholm.
    Käck, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Interaction between cyclists, motor vehicles and infrastructure: a simulator study on cyclist strategy and behaviour at intersections2020In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, 2020, p. 10-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Severe and fatal accidents between cyclists and motor vehicles are common at intersections, and many involve right-turning vehicles, with drivers not observing an adjacent cyclist. Few structured investigations exist regarding the interaction between the two, and factors to be studied are how infrastructure and vehicle properties affect human decision-making and cycling behaviour. Therefore, a bicycle simulator study was performed, where vehicle type, lane markings and width were systematically varied in a scenario with a cyclist approaching a vehicle from behind at an intersection. 33 participants each cycled through 8 intersections. Data on cycling trajectories, stopping points and speed was coupled with survey data and semantically categorized verbal responses to questions regarding strategy for choice of stopping point. Results show that all three factors (vehicle type, lane markings and available vehicle-adjacent space) significantly affects cyclists’ behaviour (lateral and longitudinal stopping position), speed choice and verbally expressed conscious strategies.

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