Publications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 32 of 32
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Adell, Emeli
    Trivector Traffic.
    Bicyclists’ visual strategies when conducting self-paced vs. system-paced smartphone tasks in traffic2015In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 41, p. 204-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual distraction among cyclists interacting with their mobile phones is a growing concern. Yet, very little research has actually investigated how cyclists apply visual strategies and adapt task execution depending on the traffic situation. The aim of this study is to investigate visual behaviour of cyclists when conducting self-paced (initiated by the cyclist) vs. system-paced (initiated by somebody else) smartphone tasks in traffic. Twenty-two cyclists completed a track in real traffic while listening to music, receiving and making calls, receiving and sending text messages, and searching for information on the internet. The route and the types of tasks were controlled, but the cyclists could choose rather freely when and where along the route to carry out the tasks, thus providing semi-naturalistic data on compensatory behaviour. The results show that the baseline and music conditions were similar in terms of visual behaviour. When interacting with the phone, it was found that glances towards the phone mostly came at the expense of glances towards traffic irrelevant gaze targets and also led to shortened glance durations to traffic relevant gaze targets, while maintaining the number of glances. This indicates that visual “spare capacity” is used for the execution of the telephone tasks. The task type influenced the overall task duration and the overall glance intensity towards the phone, but not the mean nor maximum duration of individual glances. Task pacing was the factor that influenced visual behaviour the most, with longer mean and maximum glance durations for self-paced tasks. In conclusion, the cyclists used visual strategies to integrate the handling of mobile phones into their cycling behaviour. Glances directed towards the phone did not lead to traffic relevant gaze targets being missed. In system-paced scenarios, the cyclists checked the traffic more frequently and intensively than in self-paced tasks. This leads to the assumption that cyclists prepare for self-initiated tasks by for example choosing a suitable location. Future research should investigate whether these strategies also exists amongst drivers and other road user groups.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Lidström, Mats
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Framtagning av loktågsmodell för VTI:s tågsimulator2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Allowing higher speeds for freight trains would provide opportunities for a higher prioritization in the traffic flow by rail traffic management, which in itself is a capacity gain and should generate better flows and higher capacity on the Swedish rail network, especially on the major railways. Simulators are an effective and safe way to investigate the effects of changes in both driver behavior and capacity.

    The purpose of this project was to create capacity-enhancing opportunities and actions by developing a freight train simulator and investigating its possible application areas. The aim of the project was to provide a freight train simulator, consisting of a locomotive and a number of wagons, which can be used in studies to increase capacity through, for example, optimized speed, and thus changing braking profiles, for long trains. The project has delivered knowledge of new test methods, a freight train simulator and a software platform for further testing.

    The project was conducted in three successive stages. In the first phase, a pilot study was carried out with drivers, operators and problem owners, who gave the researchers an understanding of the driving environment. In addition, some of the data needed for the development of the freight train simulator was collected. In the second phase, a freight train (software and hardware) model was developed. Stage three was a validation study together with drivers.

    A Traxx model driver console was purchased from a German manufacturer. The vehicle model was developed from a single unit, Regina type (motorcar train), into a combination of several units. The train in the simulator consists of one or more locomotives and a number of wagons with a total length of up to 750 meters. A locomotive of Traxx model is used. For each device, locomotive and wagon, data is required: length, weight, load, brake, roll and air resistance. In addition, information about noise, driving, braking (re-electrical braking and conventional pneumatic brake) (P-brake), cab equipment and more are added. Currently, the track between Falköping - Jönköping - Forserum is modelled and will be used for ATC trains. The model is configurable using combinations of a locomotive (Traxx) and, currently, four different types of wagons. These can be linked in different combinations.

    Some applications that were discussed at the start of the project were, on the one side, those that could naturally be linked to longer and heavier trains, and, on the other, the ideas that arose because of the equipment purchased. At the Transport Administration winter meeting, a workshop was conducted where further uses were discussed. Among these are applications within education, energy efficient driving or design. Education and certain types of studies could be performed with the existing locomotive model, while others require either validation of parameters or some further development of the model.

    The project has provided knowledge of new test methods, this research report and a product in the form of a freight train simulator and software platform for further testing. The project has also delivered a national resource of simulator software. The software provides for cost-effective testing activities in the freight train domain. A freight train simulator has been developed, which will be valuable as a demonstration tool as well as a platform for training,

  • 3.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sommarström, Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Läsbarhet av vägskyltar i form av LED-skylt: färgkombination och fontstorlekens betydelse för läsbarheten2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The readability of road signs was studied and in particular the LED format. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of color combination, font size and light conditions on readability. 101 students participated in the study, where 32 were men and 69 were women. Their age ranged from 18–66 years. The choice of subjects were driven by the study's purpose, i.e. for this study it was not of interest to study the differences between gender, age or eyesight. A statistical analysis was carried out to study how readability distances varied as a result of the combination of colors, font size and light conditions. Furthermore, illuminance was measured when the data collection occasions was conducted. Distances were examined both in daylight and in darkness. The results of the study show that the color combination of the LED-sign affects its readability. Signs with white text on blue, brown or green background could be read correctly at a greater distance than the signs with black text on white or orange background. The font size is also important for the readability and every increase in font size produces a significant difference in the distance that the sign can be read. The sign with the largest font size (300 mm) was read correctly from the longest distance. The signs were read even at greater distances in daylight than in darkness. The readability of the sign with the smallest font size 200 mm does not change significantly during the daylight compared to darkness conditions. These conclusive results demonstrate that all the variables studied are important for readability. It should be added that participants stood still during the trial when they scanned/read the signs and had free sight to the LED-sign.

  • 4.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sehammar, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Palmqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Placement and design of milled rumble strips on centre line and shoulder: A driving simulator study2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A driving simulator experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects on fatigued drivers of rumble strips on narrow roads (<9 meters) on

    both shoulder and centre lines. The driving simulator was an advanced moving base passenger car simulator (VTI´s third generation moving base driving simulator). Four different physical designs of milled rumble strips and two placements on shoulder were used in the experiment. Both driving behaviour (e.g. lateral position, speed, steering wheel angle) and physiological data (brain activity (EEG), eye activity (EOG) and muscle activity (EMG)) were recorded. The drivers were also asked to rate their level of sleepiness every 5 minutes during the drive. They were trained to use the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). Data from 40 regular shift workers driving during morning hours after a full night shift were used in the analysis. The shift workers were equally distributed by gender and recruited by advertisement in the newspaper. They were paid 150 Euro for participating. The experiment was approved by an ethical committee. The experiment was carried out in two parts: the first part aimed to investigate primary effects of rumble strips, i.e. preventing an accident; the second part aimed to obtain the drivers' conscious preferences in terms of placement and design. It was concluded that despite rumble strip design and placement, rumble strips had clear alerting effects and consistently induced correct averting action. Based on the drivers' preference and the results, there seems to be no risk associated with using more aggressive rumble strips such as Swedish or Pennsylvania. Regarding the placement, there seem to be no differences and it is important to obtain the opinions of truck and bus drivers before it is possible to make a recommendation.

  • 5.
    Dols, Juan F.
    et al.
    University Polytechnic of Valencia, Spain.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Usefulness and acceptance of assessments of drivers with disabilities in simulation test rigs2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The legal reference in the field of driving license in the EU is currently the 2006/126/EC Directive, which stipulates that driving licenses shall be granted only to those who meet medical requirements and pass a driving test. This Directive has recently been updated with the Directive EU 2015/653. Actually, there is a lack of knowledge in the application of validated procedures for assessing (potential) drivers of adapted vehicles. The objective of this paper it is to present experimental results of driving assessment procedures developed for assessing drivers with impairments –both motor and sensory-. This assessment is based on performing a series of practical tests in a static test rig and a low-cost driving simulator.

  • 6.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sundström, Jerker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bussars trafiksäkerhet vintertid2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Earlier studies have shown that buses are overrepresented at accidents during winter road conditions compared to other vehicle types. Hence, the traffic safety of buses during the wintertime has been studied in more detail. The study comprised the following parts: - Gripping power studies on ice in VTI's tyre test facility. - Accident study and a survey of the use of tyre. - Focus group to gain knowledge about dangerous situations. - Driving simulator study to test the importance of the tyres during problematic situations.

    Tests in VTI's tyre test facility on smooth ice did not show any significant difference between summer tyres and non-studded winter tyres, while studded tyres exhibit a better ice grip than non-studded tyres. Nor did driving simulator tests when driving on ice covered road under the influence of heavy wind from the side show a difference between summer tyres and non-studded winter tyres. Also in these tests the studded tyres were superior to the non-studded. If studded tyres are used only on one axle, the driving simulator study showed that during side wind the ability to steer is important. The accident study showed that the buses that have summer tyres on the steering axle and winter tyres on the drivé axle has the lowest estimated accident risk, although it is not statistically significant. The buses equipped with studded tyres on both axles could not be statistically analysed since only 2 accidents occurred on bare roadways, and none on icy/snowy roadways, while at the same time the buses in this category drive a lot on icy/snowy roadways. This probably makes these buses the safest on winter roadways. From the focus groups it was clear that the time table has a great influence on the creating of stress and the demands on the drivers to keep the speed even during slippery roadways. Many bus drivers experience large problems with bad snow clearance, or other winter maintenance. At the same time there is a large consciousness among the drivers that it is always their own way of handling the vehicle that is the determining factor for traffic safety. The drivers were expressing a lack of further education and practical exercises with buses on slippery roads.

  • 7.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Driver behaviour and driver experience of partial and fully automated truck platooning: a simulator study2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds our knowledge of truck driver behaviour in and experience of automated truck platooning, focusing on the effect of partially and fully automated truck platoons on driver workload, trust, acceptance, performance, and sleepiness.

    Twenty-four male drivers experienced three conditions in a truck driving simulator, i.e., baseline, partial automation, and full automation: the baseline condition was driving with standard cruise control; partial automation was automated longitudinal control ten metres behind the truck in front, with the driver having to steer; and full automation was automated longitudinal and lateral control. Each condition was simulated in three situations: light traffic, heavy traffic, and heavy traffic plus fog.

    The experiment demonstrated that automation affects workload. For all workload measures, partial automation produced higher workload than did the full-automation or baseline condition. The two measures capturing trust were consistent and indicated that trust was highest under the baseline condition, with little difference between partial and full automation. Driver acceptance of both levels of automation was lower than acceptance of baseline. Drivers rated their situation awareness higher for both partial and full automation than for baseline, although both levels of automation led to higher sleepiness.

    The challenge when implementing truck platooning is to develop a system, including human–machine interaction (HMI), that does not overburden the driver, properly addresses driver sleepiness, and satisfies current legislation. The system also must be trusted and accepted by drivers. To achieve this, the development of well-designed HMI will be crucial.

  • 8.
    Jansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bränström, Mattias
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Driver reactions to horn and headlight warnings in critical situations: A simulator study2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a driving simulator study on driving behavior in a critical head-on collision scenario. The study aims at providing basic understanding of driver responses to headlight and horn warning coming from another vehicle a time critical situation. In total, 48 participants drove 30 km. During the drive participants performed a secondary task, announced by a vibration in the seat. At the time of the secondary task the own vehicle was directed into the opposing lane where oncoming simulated vehicles issued a light and/or sound warnings to get the drivers attention. An additional purpose of the study was to examine if the warning coming from the other vehicle has a different effect on persons with a hearing loss. A possible application for this type of warnings is the implementation of a system for automatic activation. Systems for automatic activation of brakes and steering are currently entering the market. These systems use proximity sensors to monitor the state of surrounding road users. Depending on the specific situation the effort/possibility to avoid or mitigate an accident may differ significantly between the principle road users of a pending collision, e.g. one road user (1) may easily avoid a collision while another (2) may not be able to do so. The only possibility for the second road user (2) to avoid a collision in such a situation is to issue a warning to the first (1), so that he/she may take evasive actions. Connecting the horn and the headlight to already existing sensor system, for automatic warning activation, is a cost effective means to provide such a warning. The warnings, could of course, also be triggered manually by the driver.

    The results indicate that a driver who receives a warning from the oncoming vehicle responds faster to avoid the pending frontal collision. The most effective warning was the combination of horn and headlight. A majority of the participants where positive to the notion of an automated system to provide this type of warning (n=41). No significant difference in the behavior between the groups with and without hearing loss was found in this study.

  • 9.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Adell, Emeli
    Trivector.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector.
    Börefelt, Alexander
    Trivector.
    Cyklisters kompensationsstrategier när de använder mobil IT i trafiken2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en oro att cyklister som använder mobil IT utgör en trafikfara, men trots den ökande användningen verkar inte olyckstalen stiga. Målet med denna studie är därför att undersöka om och i så fall hur cyklister anpassar sitt beteende när de använder mobil IT medan de cyklar. Tjugotvå unga cyklister fick cykla fem varv längs en gata på en cykelbana i verklig trafik. Under varje varv fick de utföra olika uppgifter: cykla som vanligt, lyssna på musik, bli uppringda och ringa, skriva och läsa sms, samt söka efter information på internet. Rutten och uppgifterna var förutbestämda, men cyklisterna fick till stor del själva välja var och när de utförde de olika uppgifterna. På så sätt kunde vi studera om cyklisterna använde någon strategi när de använde mobil IT samtidigt som de cyklade. Resultaten visar tydligt att cyklisterna i studien väljer strategier för att ta sig an de olika telefonuppgifterna och att de flesta cyklisterna är medvetna om vilka strategier de använder. De valda strategierna skiljer sig åt mellan cyklister och mellan olika situationer, men de har en gemensam nämnare – att motverka belastning från telefonuppgiften. Jämfört med att bara cykla normalt (17.6 ± 3.5 km/h) så ökar hastigheten något vid musiklyssnande (18.2 ± 3.7 km/h) medan hastigheten sänks markant när cyklisten hanterar telefonen (13.0 ± 5.0 km/h). För de uppgifter som cyklisten själv kan påverka (ringa upp, skriva sms, söka information på internet) så sänks hastigheten i god tid före användandet och för resterande uppgifter så sänks hastigheten när ringsignalen hörs. I 26 % av fallen valde cyklisterna att stanna eller att leda cykeln medan de utförde telefonuppgifterna. Även för blickbeteendet var det väldigt liten skillnad mellan att cykla som vanligt och att cykla med musik. Cyklisterna själva beskriver även fler strategier som inte framgår av mätningarna. Till exempel anger vissa att de lyssnar mer aktivt eller att de bara använder en hörlur, att de planerar sitt användande genom längre framförhållning eller genom att inte använda mobil IT i korsningar, eller genom att mana sig själva till att vara mer alerta. Kompensationsstrategin beror också på hur van cyklisten är att använda mobil IT.

  • 10.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effects of road surface appearance and low friction warning systems on driver behaviour and confidence in the warning system2009In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 165-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Warning systems for slippery road conditions are a potential newcomer among driver support systems. A total of 75 participants drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator on roads with both visible and invisible ice, to investigate to which extent drivers rely on a low friction warning system. Three experimental groups with different versions of a low friction warning system and a control group without warning system were compared. All drivers ranked the systems according to trust.

    A system displaying recommended speed received the best ratings. Driving speed was analysed for three particular segments of the route. Generally, lowest speeds were achieved with the recommended speed system. The participants drove more slowly on a slippery segment that looked icy than on the segments that looked dry when they did not receive a low friction warning. When they received a warning for low friction they also lowered their speed for the segment looking like asphalt. The results provide guidelines for how to present low friction warnings to drivers. The design has substantial effects on the resulting behaviour and therefore it can have a high impact on traffic safety. So far, not much research on low friction warning systems has been reported.

  • 11.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Passering av buss i 30 km/h: utvärdering av säkerhetseffekter i samband med hastighetsgräns 30 km/h vid passering av buss - en simulatorstudie2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    A simulator study was conducted to investigate the implementation of a new law which prescribes a speed limit of 30 km/h when passing buses equipped with a 30-sign and flashing lights. It was shown that the drivers follow the rule better when they pass a bus on their own side than when the bus was standing on the opposite side of the road. The slowest mean speeds were found when passing a bus on a road with a speed limit of 70 km/h. The highest speed reduction, however, was found when the posted speed limit was 90 km/h. A bus without signage did not induce the same speed reduction as a bus with signage, which means that the drivers were aware of the meaning of the signage. Driving behaviour showed that the flashing lights are of importance, because the drivers in the study started braking before the 30-sign was readable.

  • 12.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Gillberg, Mats
    Karolinska institutet.
    Fatigue at sea: a field study in Swedish shipping2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to collect data about the fatigue level of bridge watch keepers to use for revising earlier sleep models, and devise innovative solutions for the shipping industry. Data collection included interviews with shipping companies and a field study onboard 13 cargo vessels. 32 participants took part in representing two watch systems; 2-watch and 3-watch. Subjective sleepiness and stress estimations were performed once every hour. Electrooculography was used to record eye movement behaviour. Reaction time test was made to examine performance. 3-watch participants are more satisfied with their working hours and working situation. Tendencies indicate that 2-watch participants are a bit more tired, whereas the stress is the same. All are less sleepy and less stressed at home. Time on shift had effect on sleepiness. The highest Karolinska Sleepiness Scale scores were recorded in the late night and early morning. After night shift the reaction times have higher variance and more long reaction times are present. The mean value after night shift was significantly higher than after day shift. All thirteen shipping agreed that officers on the bridge always have tasks sensitive to fatigue but no company experienced fatigue as a problem during normal conditions. All were positive to monitoring devices, mentioning safety matters.

  • 13.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Börjesson, Conny
    Viktoria Swedish ICT).
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Holmén, Lotta
    Viktoria Swedish ICT).
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Elvägar i körsimulator: design, test, utvärdering och demonstration av elvägstekniker och elfordon med virtuella metoder2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric road systems, ERS, where vehicles receive electricity continuously while driving, could be a way to reach the target of a fossil-free transport sector. A demonstration environment in a driving simulator was developed in order to test and evaluate ERS concepts and electric vehicles driving on ERS. A user study was conducted, where 25 drivers drove a 40 kilometre long route, both with a hybrid truck on ERS and with a conventional truck with no ERS. Driving on ERS showed no remarkable difference on driver’s experience of safety and aestethics or the driving behaviour compared to no ERS. The exception was average speed which was 2 kilometres/hour higher when driving on ERS. The energy consumption decreased 35 per cent on ERS. In order to disseminate project results to actors and potential users of ERS, a large number of simulator demonstrations have been conducted. There has also been a press release and a number of magazine articles. In addition, a portable ERS driving simulator was constructed and used in order to reach a broader public.

  • 14.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Effect of hearing loss on traffic safety and mobility2015In: Handbook of Hearing Disorders Research, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2015, p. 1-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into the effect of hearing loss (HL) on traffic safety and mobility is limited and the empirical findings are somewhat inconsistent. HL is one of the most frequent sensory deficits in humans, leading to loss of auditory information, which may affect behavior in traffic situations and might reduce traffic safety and mobility. The prevalence of age-related HL in Europe is roughly 30% for men and 20% for women at the age of 70 years, and 55% for men and 45% for women at the age of 80 years. The prevalence of age-related HL is increasing, and as a consequence the number of road users with HL will also increase.The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate traffic safety and mobility for individuals with HL. Three studies were conducted: 1. a questionnaire survey aimed to evaluate differences in choice of transportation that might be related to HL, 2. a driving simulator study that looked into compensatory strategies and evaluated the efficiency of a tactile signal to alert the driver, and 3. a field study to evaluate these effects in real traffic and to evaluate a navigation system with a supportive tactile signal.

  • 15.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Linköpings universitet.
    Effects of hearing loss on traffic safety and mobility2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate traffic safety and mobility for individuals with hearing loss (HL). Three studies were conducted: 1. a questionnaire survey aimed to evaluate differences in choice of transportation that might be related to HL, 2. a driving simulator study that looked into compensatory strategies and evaluated the efficiency of a tactile signal to alert the driver, and 3. a field study to evaluate these effects in real traffic and to evaluate a navigation system with a supportive tactile signal. The effects of HL discovered in this thesis add to the knowledge and understanding of the influence of HL on traffic safety and mobility. Differences found consistently point to a generally more cautious behavior. Compensatory and coping strategies associated with HL are bound to driving complexity and appear when complexity increases. These strategies include driving at lower speeds, using a more comprehensive visual search behavior and being less engaged in distracting activities. Evaluation of a tactile signal showed that by adding a tactile modality, some driver assistance systems can also be made accessible to drivers with HL. At the same time, the systems might be more effective for all users, since the driver can be more focused on the road. Based on the results in this thesis, drivers with HL cannot be considered an increased traffic safety risk, and there should be no need for adjustments of the requirements of hearing for a license to drive a car.

    List of papers
    1. The influence of hearing loss on transport safety and mobility
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of hearing loss on transport safety and mobility
    2013 (English)In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 117-127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To examine how road users with different degree of hearing loss experience safety and mobility in transport situations, compared to road users with normal hearing.

    Methods: A questionnaire study was conducted with participants recruited from the local branch of The Swedish hard of hearing society. A normal hearing control group, matched on age, gender and geographical location, was selected from a commercial database. The response rate was 35% (n = 194) in the group with Hearing Loss (HL) and 42% (n = 125) in the group with Normal Hearing (NH). The individuals with hearing loss were grouped into four groups according to the degree of their hearing loss (mild, moderate, severe and profound).

    Results: Hearing loss affected some specific aspects regarding transport situations, while others remained unaffected. Individuals with hearing loss were not as likely to have a driving license, but for those who have, hearing loss had no effect on mileage per year. Loss of hearing had an effect on criteria for choosing mode of transportation, but in the aggregate, no difference between the groups could be shown in the distribution of how much each mode of transportation was used. With a few exceptions, hearing loss did not affect the ratings of importance of hearing for different transportation modes. Hearing loss affected most questions regarding hearing and driver abilities, while avoidance of specific traffic situations was not associated with hearing loss. Hearing loss had only minor effects on the factors causing inattention when driving, and on the interest in a warning system for driver inattention. The interest in a warning system for driver inattention was high regardless of hearing category.

    Conclusions: Hearing loss influences the prevalence of driving license and criteria for choosing mode of transportation, however has no effect on the distribution of how much each mode of transportation was used. In general, in this study, respondents with higher degree of hearing loss were less concerned about the effect of hearing loss, indicating that they might be using coping strategies. The interest in warning system for inattention and the attitude towards strengthening of auditory information in traffic situations is high regardless of hearing category. This suggests further research on coping strategies and on design of support systems accessible for drivers with hearing loss. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2013
    Keywords
    Hearing, Mobility (pers), Safety
    National Category
    Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
    Research subject
    Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, Road: Personal transport
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6647 (URN)10.1007/s12544-012-0087-4 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Cognitive workload and driving behavior in persons with hearing loss
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive workload and driving behavior in persons with hearing loss
    2013 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 21, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To compare the effect of cognitive workload in individuals with and without hearing loss, respectively, in driving situations with varying degree of complexity.

    Methods: 24 participants with moderate hearing loss (HL) and 24 with normal hearing (NH) experienced three different driving conditions: Baseline driving; Critical events with a need to act fast; and a Parked car event with the possibility to adapt the workload to the situation. Additionally, a Secondary task (observation and recalling of 4 visually displayed letters) was present during the drive, with two levels of difficulty in terms of load on the phonological loop. A tactile signal, presented by means of a vibration in the seat, was used to announce the Secondary task and thereby simultaneously evaluated in terms of effectiveness when calling for driver attention. Objective driver behavior measures (M and SD of driving speed, M and SD of lateral position, time to line crossing) were accompanied by subjective ratings during and after the test drive.

    Results: HL had no effect on driving behavior at Baseline driving, where no events occurred. Both during Secondary task and at the Parked car event HL was associated with decreased mean driving speed compared to baseline driving. The effect of HL on the Secondary task performance, both at Baseline driving and at the lower Difficulty Level at Critical events, was more skipped letters and fewer correctly recalled letters. At Critical events, task difficulty affected participants with HL more. Participants were generally positive to use vibrations in the seat as a means for announcing the Secondary task.

    Conclusions: Differences in terms of driving behavior and task performance related to HL appear when the driving complexity exceeds Baseline driving either in the driving task, Secondary task or a combination of both. This leads to a more cautious driving behavior with a decreased mean driving speed and less focus on the Secondary task, which could be a way of compensating for the increasing driving complexity. Seat vibration was found to be a feasible way to alert drivers with or without HL.

    Keywords
    Hearing, Driving (veh), Distraction, Psycological aspects
    National Category
    Other Medical Sciences
    Research subject
    Road: Transport, society, policy and planning, Road: Personal transport
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6648 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2013.09.011 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Cognitive workload and visual behavior in elderly drivers with hearing loss
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive workload and visual behavior in elderly drivers with hearing loss
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 377-385Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to examine eye tracking data and compare visual behavior in individuals with normal hearing (NH) and with moderate hearing loss (HL) during two types of driving conditions: normal driving and driving while performing a secondary task.

    Methods

    24 participants with HL and 24 with NH were exposed to normal driving and to driving with a secondary task (observation and recall of 4 visually displayed letters). Eye movement behavior was assessed during normal driving by the following performance indicators: number of glances away from the road; mean duration of glances away from the road; maximum duration of glances away from the road; and percentage of time looking at the road. During driving with the secondary task, eye movement data were assessed in terms of number of glances to the secondary task display, mean duration of glances to the secondary task display, and maximum duration of glances to the secondary task display. The secondary task performance was assessed as well, counting the number of correct letters, the number of skipped letters, and the number of correct letters ignoring order.

    Results

    While driving with the secondary task, drivers with HL looked twice as often in the rear-view mirror than during normal driving and twice as often as drivers with NH regardless of condition. During secondary task, the HL group looked away from the road more frequently but for shorter durations than the NH group. Drivers with HL had fewer correct letters and more skipped letters than drivers with NH.

    Keywords
    Eye movement, Hearing, Disablement, Driving, Cognition, Mental load, Attention
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-7413 (URN)10.1007/s12544-014-0139-z (DOI)2-s2.0-84901575602 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2014-11-07 Created: 2014-11-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Eye Movement Research, ISSN 1995-8692, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An on-road study was conducted to evaluate a complementary tactile navigation signal on driving behaviour and eye movements for drivers with hearing loss (HL) compared to drivers with normal hearing (NH). 32 participants (16 HL and 16 NH) performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one, participants received only visual information, while the other also included a vibration in the seat to guide them in the correct direction. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, recording the point of gaze within the scene. Analysis was performed on predefined regions. A questionnaire examined participant's experience of the navigation systems. Hearing loss was associated with lower speed, higher satisfaction with the tactile signal and more glances in the rear view mirror. Additionally, tactile support led to less time spent viewing the navigation display. 

    Keywords
    Eye movement, Hearing, Behaviour, Driver
    National Category
    Other Medical Sciences
    Research subject
    Road: Traffic safety and accidents, Road: Road user behaviour
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-6649 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-01-14 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2015-05-05Bibliographically approved
  • 16.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Electrooculogram analysis and development of a system for defining stages of drowsiness2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrooculogram (EOG) analysis has been used to detect drowsiness stages, using data from experiments performed in the VTI driving simulator. The suitability of the existing method for blink detection in the EOG signal was evaluated in a preliminary study. Longer blinks recognized in the signal were compared to those identified in video recordings from the same experiment.

    All long blinks were not found in the signal, but still enough to consider data appropriate. The method to detect drowsiness is based on a linear relationship between blink amplitude and velocity, a method used and defined by Hargutt and Krüger. Self ratings of the drowsiness from the driving session, as defined into nine levels, were reduced into four. These were used to determine the detection boundaries for the program. The MATLAB program has shown correspondence with the converted sleepiness ratings. Out of six subjects, five showed a correspondence greater than 75%. This demonstrates the possibility of applying the amplitude- and velocity linearity on EOG data and an appropriate adjustment of the self ratings to the four sleepiness stages.

  • 17.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    The effect of hearing loss on driving performance and experience of navigation system2013In: Abstract book: Second International Conference onCognitive Hearing Sciencefor Communication, 2013, p. 34-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of an additional tactile signal in a navigation system and to examine the effect of hearing loss on driving behavior. 32 participants took part in the study, whereof 16 with normal hearing and 16 with moderate hearing loss.

    The participants performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one they received only visual information from the navigation system and in the other there was an additional vibration in the seat to guide the driver in the right direction. Both routes included two levels of driver workload. The order of which the systems were tested as well as the order of workload level was balanced over the participants.

    Pretest included hearing screening of normal hearing participants, verbal ability test and KIPS test battery for cognitive performance. During the run an on-road protocol was used to evaluate driving performance. A VBOX was used to measure speed and record the route with a video camera. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, which means the field of view was recorded with a marker showing where the driver is looking. Predefined targets will be analyzed, e.g. the mirrors and the speedometer. A questionnaire including questions about the experience of the two navigation systems was given to the drivers afterwards.

    Analysis continues but preliminary results indicate that hearing loss is associated with lower speed, higher satisfaction with the additional tactile signal and more glances in the rear view mirror. 

  • 18.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linnaeus Centre Head.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linnaeus Centre Head.
    Cognitive workload and visual behavior in elderly drivers with hearing loss2014In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 377-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to examine eye tracking data and compare visual behavior in individuals with normal hearing (NH) and with moderate hearing loss (HL) during two types of driving conditions: normal driving and driving while performing a secondary task.

    Methods

    24 participants with HL and 24 with NH were exposed to normal driving and to driving with a secondary task (observation and recall of 4 visually displayed letters). Eye movement behavior was assessed during normal driving by the following performance indicators: number of glances away from the road; mean duration of glances away from the road; maximum duration of glances away from the road; and percentage of time looking at the road. During driving with the secondary task, eye movement data were assessed in terms of number of glances to the secondary task display, mean duration of glances to the secondary task display, and maximum duration of glances to the secondary task display. The secondary task performance was assessed as well, counting the number of correct letters, the number of skipped letters, and the number of correct letters ignoring order.

    Results

    While driving with the secondary task, drivers with HL looked twice as often in the rear-view mirror than during normal driving and twice as often as drivers with NH regardless of condition. During secondary task, the HL group looked away from the road more frequently but for shorter durations than the NH group. Drivers with HL had fewer correct letters and more skipped letters than drivers with NH.

  • 19.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport.
    Utvärdering av ett fordonsbundet varningssystem: vibrationer i sätet vid risk för överträdande av kant- eller mittlinje2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One alternative to rumble strips is to simulate them in the car by vibrations in the driver's seat. Citroen has a lane departure warning system in the models C4 and C5 which has been evaluated from user experience. A focus group was carried out with four users from Ostergötland. From the discussion a questionnaire with accompanying diary was constructed and sent out to Citroen owners in Sweden having a lane departure warning system. A large part of the users have not received any information about the system at the time of buying the car. The majority of the users are satisfied with the lane departure warning system but almost all declare not to use it at all in winter which indicates that it should be improved to be used all the year round.

    The results point towards that the system has a good price level, but many still think that it should be a part of the standard equipment meaning that safety should not be optional. Noise and vibrations are considerably lower in C4 and C5 compared to milled rumble strips. Many drivers are disturbed by false alarms. Therefore more apparent warnings demand a reduction of false alarms. The most important result is that more information and guidelines should be given to the users. Function and shaping of the lane departure warning system should also be improved. Citroen has satisfied customers willing to pay for well functioning support systems.

  • 20.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Holmqvist, Kenneth
    Lunds Universitet.
    Black, Alexander
    Queensland University of Technology, School of Optometry.
    The effect of hearing loss on eye movements when driving and an evaluation of tactile support for navigation2013In: Book of Abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements, 11-16 August 2013, in Lund, Sweden / [ed] Kenneth Holmqvist, Fiona Mulvey & Roger Johansson (Red), 2013, p. 34-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of an additional tactile signal in a navigation system and to examine the effect of hearing loss on eye movements. 32 participants took part in the study, whereof 16 with normal hearing and 16 with moderate hearing loss.

    The participants performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one they received only visual information from the navigation system and in the other there was an additional vibration in the seat to guide the driver in the right direction. The order of which the systems were tested was balanced over the participants.

    SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, and the field of view was recorded with a marker showing where the driver is looking. Predefined targets were analyzed, e.g. the mirrors, the speedometer and the navigation display. A questionnaire including questions about the experience of the two navigation systems was given to the drivers afterwards.

    Results revealed that hearing loss is associated with lower speed, higher satisfaction with the additional tactile signal and more glances in the rear view mirror. Additionally, tactile support lead to less gaze data on the navigation display, regardless of hearing status.

     

  • 21.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Principle Other Vehicle Warning2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The only possibility for a driver to avoid a collision may sometimes be to issue a warning to another driver. Connecting the horn and the headlight to an already existing sensor system could be a cost effective solution. This report covers the implementation and evaluation of such an automated warning system in a driving simulator at VTI. In this test 24 drivers with normal hearing and 24 with moderate hearing loss experienced five critical events in which four different warning signals were evaluated; sound, light, and a combination of sound and light, and no warning (as reference). A visual distraction task was used to distract the drivers and create critical situations. The results were consistent. A combined sound and light warning significantly increased cautious driving behaviour and also lead to the highest perceived criticality of the situations. With the combined warning the driver’s attention was effectively drawn from the visual distraction task. Drivers were generally positive towards the warning system, and most positive towards the combined warning presenting light and sound signals. Drivers were able to distinguish between warnings (at critical events) and greetings (at non-critical events) suggesting that the tested additional use of horn and headlight would not affect reactions to non-critical warnings or greetings. Hearing loss was associated with worse performance on the visual distraction task and less perceived realism of the driving simulator. But it was not associated with effects on any driving behaviour measures or of warning modalities. This result suggests that the evaluated system should work also for drivers with moderate hearing loss.

  • 22.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Effects of ADHD on driver attention and speed, evaluated in a driving simulator2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been considered to have a 3–4 times higher crash risk than control drivers without ADHD. A core issue which has not been properly dealt with is the role of comorbid diagnoses which frequently appear together with ADHD, especially Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD), sometimes generically referred to as “conduct problems”. The increased crash risk associated with ADHD diagnosis presented in the literature is often based on studies performed with participants with more than one diagnosis. This means that the comorbidity may be high and, consequently, the effect of ADHD on traffic safety may be overestimated. This has been shown in a meta-analysis presenting a relative risk of 1.30 instead.

    The existing research on drivers with ADHD is unsatisfying when it comes to methodology, specifically concerning inclusion and exclusion criteria for participants. This has led to a misunderstanding of the driving ability for people with ADHD, which has been cited and spread in the literature for two decades. People with ADHD diagnosis might suffer from this misinterpretation and the specific effects of ADHD on driving behavior remain unclear. There is a potential for better control for confounding factors, for exposure (mileage) and for comorbidity, especially CD and ODD.

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in driving behavior between experienced drivers with and without ADHD, respectively.

  • 23.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Malicka, Alicja
    La Trobe University.
    Black, Alexander
    Queensland University of Technology .
    Hickson, Louise
    University of Queensland .
    Wood, Joanne
    Queensland University of Technology .
    Exploring older adults hearing and vision and driving: the Swedish study2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to evaluate self-reported driving abilities and self-reported use of visual and hearing aids for driving, among older adults with varying degrees of Hearing Impairment (HI), Vision Impairment (VIA measure of visual processing related to driving performance was also assessed. The following research questions were examined: How are self-reported and clinically measured declines in sensory and cognitive skills associated with: Each other, Level of comfort in various driving situations, and Use of hearing and vision aids when driving.

    Participants included 109 older adults (58 women, 51 men) aged over 60 years (Mage = 69.5 years (SD=5.25), age range: 60—87) holding a valid driver’s license. Tests of vision, hearing and visual processing were performed to collect objective data. All participants filled in a questionnaire covering subjective measures of vision, hearing, driving habits, and use of vision and hearing aids. Correlations were made to examine the relations between objective and subjective measures

  • 24.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Herbert, Nicholas
    University of Leeds, Institute for Transport Studies.
    Holmqvist, Kenneth
    Lunds Universitet.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Black, Alexander
    Queensland University of Technology, School of Optometry.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hearing loss and a supportive tactile signal in a navigation system: Effects on driving behavior and eye movements2013In: Journal of Eye Movement Research, ISSN 1995-8692, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An on-road study was conducted to evaluate a complementary tactile navigation signal on driving behaviour and eye movements for drivers with hearing loss (HL) compared to drivers with normal hearing (NH). 32 participants (16 HL and 16 NH) performed two preprogrammed navigation tasks. In one, participants received only visual information, while the other also included a vibration in the seat to guide them in the correct direction. SMI glasses were used for eye tracking, recording the point of gaze within the scene. Analysis was performed on predefined regions. A questionnaire examined participant's experience of the navigation systems. Hearing loss was associated with lower speed, higher satisfaction with the tactile signal and more glances in the rear view mirror. Additionally, tactile support led to less time spent viewing the navigation display. 

  • 25.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University.
    Cognitive workload and driving behavior in persons with hearing loss2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 21, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To compare the effect of cognitive workload in individuals with and without hearing loss, respectively, in driving situations with varying degree of complexity.

    Methods: 24 participants with moderate hearing loss (HL) and 24 with normal hearing (NH) experienced three different driving conditions: Baseline driving; Critical events with a need to act fast; and a Parked car event with the possibility to adapt the workload to the situation. Additionally, a Secondary task (observation and recalling of 4 visually displayed letters) was present during the drive, with two levels of difficulty in terms of load on the phonological loop. A tactile signal, presented by means of a vibration in the seat, was used to announce the Secondary task and thereby simultaneously evaluated in terms of effectiveness when calling for driver attention. Objective driver behavior measures (M and SD of driving speed, M and SD of lateral position, time to line crossing) were accompanied by subjective ratings during and after the test drive.

    Results: HL had no effect on driving behavior at Baseline driving, where no events occurred. Both during Secondary task and at the Parked car event HL was associated with decreased mean driving speed compared to baseline driving. The effect of HL on the Secondary task performance, both at Baseline driving and at the lower Difficulty Level at Critical events, was more skipped letters and fewer correctly recalled letters. At Critical events, task difficulty affected participants with HL more. Participants were generally positive to use vibrations in the seat as a means for announcing the Secondary task.

    Conclusions: Differences in terms of driving behavior and task performance related to HL appear when the driving complexity exceeds Baseline driving either in the driving task, Secondary task or a combination of both. This leads to a more cautious driving behavior with a decreased mean driving speed and less focus on the Secondary task, which could be a way of compensating for the increasing driving complexity. Seat vibration was found to be a feasible way to alert drivers with or without HL.

  • 26.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University.
    Hearing loss and transport2012In: TRANSED 2012: 13th international conference on mobility and transport for elderly and disabled persons, New Delhi: Svayam , 2012, , p. 9p. 1-9Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to examine through a questionnaire how road users with different degree of hearing loss experience safety and mobility in transport situations compared to road users without hearing loss.

    Participants were recruited from the local branch of HRF (The Swedish hard of hearing society). A control group without any known hearing loss, matched on age, gender and geographical location, was selected from a commercial database. The individuals with hearing loss were grouped into four groups according the degree of their hearing-loss (mild, moderate, severe and profound).

    The results revealed that hearing loss affects some specific aspects regarding transport habits, while others remain unaffected. Individuals with hearing loss are not as likely to have a driving license, but for those who have, hearing loss has no effect on mileage per year. Loss of hearing has an effect on criteria for choosing transportation, but the use of each transportation mode is unaffected. With a few exceptions, hearing loss does not affect the ratings of importance of hearing for different transportation modes. Degree of hearing loss affects most questions regarding hearing in relation to driver abilities, while avoidance of specific traffic situations or environments is only associated with hearing loss in specific situations. Hearing loss has only minor effect on the factors causing inattention when driving and on the interest in a warning system for driver inattention. Preliminary results from open questions point at a general wish for more and complimentary information in all transportation modes, thru texted information, light warnings, traffic light in all crossings etc.

    It can be concluded that hearing loss influences the prevalence of driving license and criteria for choosing transportation mode. However hearing loss had no effect on the travelling frequency independent of mode. Respondents with profound hearing loss were less concerned about hearing loss with respect to travelling, indicating a coping strategy. This suggests further research on coping strategies and on design of support systems accessible for drivers with hearing loss.

  • 27.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University.
    The influence of hearing loss on transport safety and mobility2013In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 117-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To examine how road users with different degree of hearing loss experience safety and mobility in transport situations, compared to road users with normal hearing.

    Methods: A questionnaire study was conducted with participants recruited from the local branch of The Swedish hard of hearing society. A normal hearing control group, matched on age, gender and geographical location, was selected from a commercial database. The response rate was 35% (n = 194) in the group with Hearing Loss (HL) and 42% (n = 125) in the group with Normal Hearing (NH). The individuals with hearing loss were grouped into four groups according to the degree of their hearing loss (mild, moderate, severe and profound).

    Results: Hearing loss affected some specific aspects regarding transport situations, while others remained unaffected. Individuals with hearing loss were not as likely to have a driving license, but for those who have, hearing loss had no effect on mileage per year. Loss of hearing had an effect on criteria for choosing mode of transportation, but in the aggregate, no difference between the groups could be shown in the distribution of how much each mode of transportation was used. With a few exceptions, hearing loss did not affect the ratings of importance of hearing for different transportation modes. Hearing loss affected most questions regarding hearing and driver abilities, while avoidance of specific traffic situations was not associated with hearing loss. Hearing loss had only minor effects on the factors causing inattention when driving, and on the interest in a warning system for driver inattention. The interest in a warning system for driver inattention was high regardless of hearing category.

    Conclusions: Hearing loss influences the prevalence of driving license and criteria for choosing mode of transportation, however has no effect on the distribution of how much each mode of transportation was used. In general, in this study, respondents with higher degree of hearing loss were less concerned about the effect of hearing loss, indicating that they might be using coping strategies. The interest in warning system for inattention and the attitude towards strengthening of auditory information in traffic situations is high regardless of hearing category. This suggests further research on coping strategies and on design of support systems accessible for drivers with hearing loss. 

  • 28.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Petersson, Mats
    Förväntningar på åtgärd av riksväg 23 mellan Sandsbro och Braås: gruppdiskussioner med lastbilschaufförer och frekventa användare av riksväg 232007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Road 23 is one of the larger approaches to Växjö from north-east and the traffic is considerable. The stretch between Sandsbro and Braås is just about 20 kilometres and the road is about 9 meters wide with one lane in each direction. There have been many accidents on the road and a rebuilding to increase traffic safety is planned as a part of the project Safer accessibility performed by the Swedish Road Administration. With regard to the dense traffic a railing in the middle of the road and a 2+1-roadsection are planned, since they decrease the risk of harsh accidents with frontal collisions. The purpose with this study was to capture the road-users' experience of the road today and their expectations of the planned action, both from a safety as from an accessibility perspective. Therefore truck drivers and frequent road-users' where invited to discussions in focus groups.

  • 29.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Synförmågans mätbarhet och inverkan på säker bilkörning: en litteraturstudie2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of vision abilities that are important for safe driving. Knowledge of measurability of vision and its impact on driving have proven to be important to secure a safe traffic system. Several different approaches to measure vision in order to improve road safety have been identified around the world. A trend seen is that the traditional vision tests more and more are supplemented by cognitive tests. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of vision abilities that are important for safe driving. The study answered questions about vision abilities that are essential for safe driving, which tests are available and how they are used, and the existing evidence for these tests. In total 128 scientific publications were included in the overview. The results provide an overview of international standards of vision required for driving a car. Furthermore, the results were presented according to different vision abilities which are described along with an account of diseases that may affect the ability, which tests that are available and the evidence for these, and how the ability is important for safe driving. Two tests were highlighted based on the strong support found in the literature and these were (1) contrast sensitivity, and (2) Useful Field of View. Based on the results it was concluded that testing of vision should consist of several complementary tests, the most common measure, visual acuity that is, is not sufficient for safe driving, and that tests that includes cognitive aspects can improve the assessment of vision related to safe driving.

  • 30.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Vision measurability and its impact on safe driving: a literature review2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science, ISSN 1891-0882, E-ISSN 1891-0890, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of measurability of vision and its impact on safe driving have been proven to be important to secure a safe traffic system. Several different approaches to measuring visual function in order to improve road safety have been identified around the world. A trend seen in the literature is that traditional vision tests are increasingly supplemented by cognitive tests.

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of visual capabilities that are important for safe driving. The study answered questions about the visual capabilities that are essential for safe driving; which tests are available and how they are used; and existing evidence for these tests.

    The literature review was based on database searches of TRID, Web of Science and PubMed. In total 128 scientific publications were included in the overview. The results provided an overview of international standards of vision required for driving a car. Moreover, the results were structured according to the different visual capabilities and a corresponding account of the diseases that may affect these capabilities; available tests and corroborating evidence for the test; and the manner in which these capabilities are important for safe driving. Two tests were highlighted based on the review: contrast sensitivity, and Useful Field of View.

    It was also concluded that 1) testing of vision should consist of several complementary tests, 2) good visual acuity is not alone sufficient for safe driving, and 3) tests including cognitive aspects can complement vision testing and improve the assessment of safe driving.

  • 31.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Vision measurability and its impact on safe driving: a literature review2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of measurability of vision and its impact on safe driving have proven to be important to secure a safe traffic system. Several different approaches to measure vision in order to improve road safety have been identified around the world. A trend seen in the literature is that traditional vision tests increasingly are supplemented by cognitive tests. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of visual capabilities that are important for safe driving. The study answered questions about the visual capabilities that are essential for safe driving; which tests are available and how they are used; and existing evidence for these tests. The literature review was based on database searches of TRID, Web of Science and PubMed. In total 128 scientific publications were included in the overview. The results provided an overview of international standards of vision required for driving a car. Moreover, the results were structured according to the different visual capabilities and a corresponding account of the diseases that may affect these capabilities; which tests that are available and corroborating evidence for the test; and the manner in which these capabilities are important for safe driving. Two tests were highlighted based on the review and these were contrast sensitivity, and Useful Field of View. It was also concluded that 1), testing of vision should consist of several complementary tests, and 2), visual acuity is not sufficient for safe driving, and 3), tests including cognitive aspects can complement vision testing and improve the assessment of safe driving.

  • 32.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Dukic Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Attitudes among older drivers towards medical assessment at renewal of driving license in Sweden2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim was to examine attitudes among older adults in Sweden as regards a possible legislation for medical assessment at license renewal depending on their health status (vision and hearing) and gender.

    Methods: A questionnaire study measuring attitudes towards medical assessments at license renewal and an examination of vision, hearing, and cognitive abilities was conducted by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. 109 participants older than 60 years participated in the study (58 women, 51 men). They were categorized into four groups according to their health status: (1) without any visual or hearing impairment, (2) visual impairment, (3) hearing impairment, and (4) visual and hearing impairment. All data collection was performed in a driving assessment situation.

    Results: The answers showed positive attitudes towards recurring vision test (94% positive) and recurring medical assessments (93% positive). A majority wanted to include tests of visual acuity, contrast vision, and visual field. The most common choice was a starting point of 70 years and an interval of 2–3 years. Gender effects showing that woman were more positive towards some assessment and shorter time intervals between them was revealed. No significant effect of hearing or vision decline was found. Better results on cognitive tests was associated with positive attitudes towards medical testing.

    Conclusions: The participants were positive towards medical assessments at license renewal, indicating that there is an acceptance in the population for such legislation. Even short intervals such as every two or three years were accepted.

1 - 32 of 32
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf