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  • 1.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Leandertz, Rickard
    HiQ.
    Johansson, Martin
    Pitch Technologies.
    Betnér, Steve
    Pitch Technologies.
    Jakobson, Ola
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Rolff, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    SimArch 2: Implementation and demonstration of the SimArch architecture2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Complexity in modern vehicles consists of an increasingly large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification of individual components is important, it is also important to test systems of interacting components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform. 

    A distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented, based on user needs defined in a previous project, which divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces. These entities are Session Control, Environment Simulator, Driving Simulator and Vehicle simulator. High Level Architecture (HLA) Evolved, an IEEE standard, was chosen as the standard for communication. HLA Evolved is based on a publish-subscribe architecture, and is commonly used for distributed simulations. The entities and the communication topology are described in detail in the report.

    The evaluation of the distributed simulation architecture focused on flexibility and scalability, and on timing performance. Results show that the implemented distributed simulation architecture compared to the non-modified architecture increased flexibility and scalability, as several distributed setups were tested successfully. However, it also has an inherent communication latency due to packaging and sending of data between entities, which was estimated to be one millisecond. This is an effect which needs to be considered for a distributed simulation. Especially if the communication between the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator is sensitive to such delays. During evaluations of the distributed simulation architecture, the Driving Simulator and the Vehicle Simulator were always located at one site in a low latency configuration.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Leandertz, Rickard
    HiQ.
    Johansson, Martin
    Pitch Technologies.
    Eriksson, Steve
    Pitch Technologies.
    Jakobson, Ola
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA2015In: Proceedings of the DSC 2015 Europe: Driving Simulation Conference & Exhibition, 2015, p. 123-130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern vehicles are complex systems consisting of an increasing large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification on individual components is important, it is also important to test components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform.

    As an example, consider a workflow where a developer can go from a desktop simulation to an intermediate driving simulator to a high fidelity driving simulator with Hardware-In-the-Loop systems close to a finished vehicle in an easy way. To accomplish this, a distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented that divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces, using HLA as the method of communication. This platform was evaluated on two aspects, flexibility/scalability and timing performance. Results show that increased flexibility and scalability was achieved when using a distributed simulation platform. It is also shown that latency was only slightly increased when using HLA.

  • 3.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Effects of motion parallax in driving simulators2012In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference Europe 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motion parallax due to the driver’s head movement have been implemented and tested in VTI Driving Simulator III. An advanced camera-based system was used to track the head movements of the driver. The output from the tracking system was fed to the simulation software, which used low-pass filtering and a forward prediction algorithm to calculate an offset. The offset was then used by the graphics software to display the correct image to the driver.

    The effects of driving with motion parallax in the simulator were also observed by an initial study. During the experiment, the subjects caught up with several slower vehicles which forced the driver to make an overtaking maneuver. Oncoming traffic forced the subject to search for a suitable gap for overtaking. The study also included a speed perception test. The results from the study showed no difference in lateral positioning when running behind a slower vehicle nor in speed perception with and without motion parallax.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Renner, Linda
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Strand, Niklas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Almqvist, Sverker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhetspåverkan vid omkörning av 30-metersfordon2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road Administration considers permitting longer and heavier trucks on Swedish roads, provided that they do not affect traffic safety. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of truck length, particularly accident risk associated with overtaking. Interviewed drivers of 30 meter trucks had not experienced the problems predicted by drivers of ordinary trucks concerning narrow roundabouts and intersections, but mentioned the importance of a supportive truck company, working environment and truck equipment. A simulator study investigated car drivers overtaking trucks 30 m and 18.75 m long on a 2+1 road where two lanes merges to one. The headway time gap was 0.2 sec. (sign.) shorter after overtaking the 30 meter truck in situations where the back was in the same relative position as of the 18.75 meter truck. A field study analysed video-recorded overtakings of a 30 meter and a 24 meter timber truck on a 2+1 road and a two-lane road. No significant differences were found between headway time gaps when overtaking the two trucks, regardless of road type. The latter result should be interpreted with great caution because of unevenly distributed data collected during specific conditions. The conclusions are that longer trucks may have a small negative effect on overtaking situations, and that further field studies are required.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Karlstad Universitet.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå Universitet.
    Performance and presence with head-movement produced motion parallax in simulated driving2015In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 34, p. 54-64, article id 839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving simulator studies can reveal relevant and valid aspects of driving behavior, but underestimation of distance and speed can negatively affect the driver's performance, such as in performance of overtaking. One possible explanation for the underestimation of distance and speed is that two-dimensional projection of the visual scene disrupts the monocular-based illusory depth because of conflicting binocular and monocular information of depth. A possible solution might involve the strengthening of the monocular information so that the binocular information becomes less potent.

    In the present study, we used an advanced high-fidelity driving simulator to investigate whether adding the visual depth information of motion parallax from head movement affects sense of presence, judgment of distance and speed, and performance measures coupled with overtaking. The simulations included two types of driving scenario in which one was urban and the other was rural. The main results show no effect of this head-movement produced motion parallax on sense of presence, head movement, time to collision, distance judgment, or speed judgment.

    However, the results show an effect on lateral positioning. When initiating the overtaking maneuver there is a lateral positioning farther away from the road center as effect of the motion parallax in both types of scenario, which can be interpreted as indicating use of naturally occurring information that change behavior at overtaking. Nevertheless, only showing tendencies of effects, absent is any clear additional impact of this motion parallax in the simulated driving.

  • 6.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Validating on-the-limit properties of a driving simulator2014In: New development in driving simulation design and experiments: Driving simulation conference Europe 2014 proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes a validation model for both subjective and objective comparison of on-the-limit properties of a driving simulator. VTI moving base driving simulator, SIM III, has been used with three different versions of VTI’s vehicle model, for validation toward field tests involving double lane change manoeuvres. Methods for handling evaluation suggested in the literature were adapted to our circumstances. The results are encouraging, although we found some limitations with respect to the objective evaluations that need to be addressed in future studies.

  • 7.
    Jansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bränström, Mattias
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Driver reactions to horn and headlight warnings in critical situations: A simulator study2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a driving simulator study on driving behavior in a critical head-on collision scenario. The study aims at providing basic understanding of driver responses to headlight and horn warning coming from another vehicle a time critical situation. In total, 48 participants drove 30 km. During the drive participants performed a secondary task, announced by a vibration in the seat. At the time of the secondary task the own vehicle was directed into the opposing lane where oncoming simulated vehicles issued a light and/or sound warnings to get the drivers attention. An additional purpose of the study was to examine if the warning coming from the other vehicle has a different effect on persons with a hearing loss. A possible application for this type of warnings is the implementation of a system for automatic activation. Systems for automatic activation of brakes and steering are currently entering the market. These systems use proximity sensors to monitor the state of surrounding road users. Depending on the specific situation the effort/possibility to avoid or mitigate an accident may differ significantly between the principle road users of a pending collision, e.g. one road user (1) may easily avoid a collision while another (2) may not be able to do so. The only possibility for the second road user (2) to avoid a collision in such a situation is to issue a warning to the first (1), so that he/she may take evasive actions. Connecting the horn and the headlight to already existing sensor system, for automatic warning activation, is a cost effective means to provide such a warning. The warnings, could of course, also be triggered manually by the driver.

    The results indicate that a driver who receives a warning from the oncoming vehicle responds faster to avoid the pending frontal collision. The most effective warning was the combination of horn and headlight. A majority of the participants where positive to the notion of an automated system to provide this type of warning (n=41). No significant difference in the behavior between the groups with and without hearing loss was found in this study.

  • 8.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Larsson, Annika F L
    Lunds Universitet.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Tactical driving behaviour with different levels of automation2014In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 158-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigated how different types of automation affect tactical driving behavior, depending on trust in the system. Previous research indicates that drivers wait for automation to act, delegating the monitoring of traffic situations. This would be especially true for those who have more trust in automation. Behavioral and gaze data from 30 participants driving an advanced simulator were recorded in four driving conditions, namely, manual driving, intentional car following, adaptive cruise control (ACC), and ACC with adaptive steering. Measures of trust in the systems were recorded with a questionnaire.

    Three fairly common traffic events requiring a driver response were analyzed. Trust in automation was high among the participants, and no associations between trust levels and behavior could be found. Drivers seem to make informed choices on when to let the automation handle a situation and when to switch it off manually or via the vehicle controls. If drivers did not expect the system to be able to handle the situation, they usually resumed control before the automation reached its limits. If the automation was expected to be able to deal with the situation, control was usually not resumed. In addition, situations were dealt with in a tactically different manner with automation than without. Controlling the car with automation systems is thus accepted by drivers as being a different undertaking than driving in manual mode.

  • 9.
    Larsson, Annika F L
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Learning from experience: Familiarity with ACC and responding to a cut-in situation in automated driving2014In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 27, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Response times to risky events have been seen to increase with the use of adaptive cruise control (ACC). It has been unclear whether driver experience with ACC mediates this increase. We compare driving in a cut-in event in a simulator both with and without system support, studying ACC as well as ACC with automatic steering. 31 participants were tested in a repeated-measures design, 10 novices and 21 previously experienced with ACC. There was no difference between responding to ACC with and without automatic steering for either group. As expected, we found an increase in response times when driving with system support for both ACC-experienced drivers and ACC-novices. However, this effect was significantly lower for those previously experienced with ACC. This indicates that there is an element of learning involved not only in knowing about system limitations, but also in responding to potential hazards

  • 10.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Selander, Helena
    Mobilitetscenter.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Jansson, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Evaluation of driving simulator based training for older drivers in Sweden: Deliverable 2.4.32016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to assess your own performance can be vital to maintain safe mobility for older drivers. Overestimation can lead to increased risk of being involved in a crash and underestimation to unjustifiable restrictions in mobility. A pre/post intervention study was conducted with the aim to improve older drivers’ ability to assess their own driving performance. The aim was not to improve performance per se but the ability to assess, i.e. to calibrate themselves. Thus, a driving simulator program was developed and evaluated with a group of 36 older drivers. However, due to simulator sickness only 21 driver completed the study. Drivers repeatedly assessed their driving performance by answering the question “How well do you think you performed on the driving task? (1 = very bad to 5 = very well)”. As a reference of correctly assessed driving performance we used an experienced occupational therapist (specialised in driver assessment) who assessed the drive with the same scale (expert assessment).

    Feedback can be an effective tool for change, which we wanted to evaluate. Thus, feedback to the drivers were given as a specification of errors made (e.g. forgot to use direction indicators, driving too fast, etc.). Feedback could also include information on correct behaviour (e.g. give way to pedestrians, keeping the right speed etc.). Thus, the drivers were divided into two groups: one (n=11) who were told of their misses and one (n=10) who were also informed about their correct behaviour. Training was done at three different occasions.

  • 11.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Principle Other Vehicle Warning2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The only possibility for a driver to avoid a collision may sometimes be to issue a warning to another driver. Connecting the horn and the headlight to an already existing sensor system could be a cost effective solution. This report covers the implementation and evaluation of such an automated warning system in a driving simulator at VTI. In this test 24 drivers with normal hearing and 24 with moderate hearing loss experienced five critical events in which four different warning signals were evaluated; sound, light, and a combination of sound and light, and no warning (as reference). A visual distraction task was used to distract the drivers and create critical situations. The results were consistent. A combined sound and light warning significantly increased cautious driving behaviour and also lead to the highest perceived criticality of the situations. With the combined warning the driver’s attention was effectively drawn from the visual distraction task. Drivers were generally positive towards the warning system, and most positive towards the combined warning presenting light and sound signals. Drivers were able to distinguish between warnings (at critical events) and greetings (at non-critical events) suggesting that the tested additional use of horn and headlight would not affect reactions to non-critical warnings or greetings. Hearing loss was associated with worse performance on the visual distraction task and less perceived realism of the driving simulator. But it was not associated with effects on any driving behaviour measures or of warning modalities. This result suggests that the evaluated system should work also for drivers with moderate hearing loss.

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