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  • 1.
    Anund, Per
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Measurement of megatexture and macrotexture by the VTI Mobile Laser Profilometer in Denmark 19931994Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Berge, Truls
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Five years of EU tyre labelling: Success or failure?2017In: INTER-NOISE 2017 - 46th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Taming Noise and Moving Quiet, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU regulation (EC) 1222/2009 concerning tyre labelling has now been effective in Europe since 2012. This regulation specifies limits and mandatory label values for fuel efficiency (rolling resistance), safety (wet grip) and noise (external tyre/road noise level) for new tyres of categories C1, C2 and C3. The label values of these three parameters must be visible on each tyre on a specially designed sticker. The main purpose of this regulation has been to inform the customer about the performance of the tyre regarding the three properties. The paper will discuss the principle behind the tests for each of the properties and the experience so far. A wide range of measurements results, both road and laboratory measurements of noise and rolling resistance, are presented. For the regulation to be effective and fair, the correlation between labelled valued and on-road performance should be reasonably good. Unfortunately, the few studies conducted so far show a poor correlation between labelled values and road measurements. The reason for this lack of correlation may be related to the test track used for measurements and the measurement methods not always being the same. Furthermore, influence of temperature, load and tyre pressure as well as which tyres that are selected for labelling tests may contribute to the poor correlation. It is necessary to identify the problems and their causes and to rectify the problems, since it is believed that in principle the labelling system is an excellent tool to promote high quality tyres that are both safe and environmentally friendly. Possible improvements of the labelling system are discussed in the paper.

  • 3.
    Bühlmann, Erik
    et al.
    Grolimund + Partner AG – environmental engineering.
    Egger, Sebastian
    Grolimund + Partner AG – environmental engineering.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    Gdansk University of Technology.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    An in-depth look at the tire rubber hardness influence on tire/road noise measurements2018In: INTER-NOISE 2018 - 47th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Impact of Noise Control Engineering, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When assessing the acoustic quality of a road pavement with the close-proximity (CPX) or the on-board sound intensity (OBSI) method, the rubber hardness of the reference tire substantially affects the measurement. Practical experience shows that measurement tires can get significantly harder within a single measurement season. This is why one would like to normalize measurements to a reference rubber hardness. The recently published technical specification defining the reference tires for CPX measurements (ISO/TS 11819-3), therefore, includes a new correction for tire rubber hardness. Early experiences with this new correction procedure raised questions about its accuracy. This paper takes an in-depth look on the influence of tire rubber hardness on CPX measurements for both reference tires P1 and H1. It analyses existing and new data and summarizes the research from several scientific contributions on this topic. It provides evidence that the effect of rubber hardness is tire specific and that separate correction factors for the P1 and the H1 tires lead to accuracy gains and improved repeatability and reproducibility of the method. The study concludes by proposing a revised tire-specific approach for the tire rubber hardness correction of CPX measurement results.

  • 4.
    Bühlmann, Erik
    et al.
    Grolimund + Partner AG - Environmental Engineering.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    Gdansk University of Technology.
    Speed dependency of temperature effects on road traffic noise2015In: INTER-NOISE 2015 - 44th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a new literature review on the influence of temperature on tire/road noise became available, based on a compilation of large amounts of data from empirical research. This review showed that the effect of temperature is roughly double of that previously assumed and taken account of in international standards. This makes temperature one of the main sources of error in measurement results. Furthermore, it suggested that an additional refinement of the correction approach may be required to improve the accuracy of measurements. As a first attempt for this refinement, this article focuses on the speed dependency of temperature effects.

    Some past work has detected an influence of speed on the temperature effect, but did not succeed in quantifying this influence or in describing the exact pattern of speed dependency. This work aims to fill this gap by

    • investigating speed dependency of temperature effects on tire/road noise
    • estimating the temperature influence on noise generation mechanisms together with their change with speed, and
    • evaluating the speed influence on overall road traffic noise by including a propulsion noise component while using a new European traffic noise emission model.

    The article concludes by proposing a method to deal with speed dependency of temperature effects on both, CPX (or OBSI) and SPB measurements, with the ultimate goal of increasing the accuracy of measurement results.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Brüde, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Cedersund, Hans-Åke
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Möller, Staffan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effektsamband i Vägverkets effektkatalogserie: Planprojekt1990Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Conter, Marco
    et al.
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Wehr, Reinhard
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Aichinger, Claus
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Goubert, Luc
    BRRC Belgian Road Research Centre.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    TUG Technical University of Gdansk.
    Holck Skov, Rasmus
    DRD Danish Road Directorate.
    Anfosso, Fabienne
    IFSTTAR .
    Morgan, Phil A.
    TRL Limited.
    ROSANNE project: New procedure for noise characterization of road surfaces in Europe2016In: Proceedings of the INTER-NOISE 2016 - 45th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Towards a Quieter Future, 2016, p. 4997-5005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ROSANNE is a collaborative project in the 7th EU Framework Program which aims at harmonizing measurement methods for skid resistance, noise emission and rolling resistance of road pavements as a preparation for standardization. The project started in November 2013 and is developing and improving standards in the field of working group CEN/TC 227/WG 5.

    Regarding the influence of the pavement on the road traffic noise emission, the main objective is to combine the existing measurement methods of SPB (ISO 11819-1) and CPX (ISO/DIS 11819-2) into a stable and reliable harmonized pavement noise emission characterization method. A respective procedure is being developed within the project and its potential use for noise calculation methods like the one proposed by the CNOSSOS-EU project is investigated. The first two years of research focused on analyzing and comparing existing noise measurement methods to specify the noise properties of road surfaces as well as investigating the temperature influence of possible correction measures; respective results will be presented in a separate paper on this issue within this conference. Activities related to the compatibility with the CNOSSOS-EU calculation method and to the experimental validation are still ongoing. The present paper shows the current draft of the procedure developed.

  • 7. Ejsmont, JA
    et al.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Background noise estimation for tire/road noise measurements using the trailer method (Skattning av bakgrundsbuller vid däck/vägbanebullermätning med hjälp av mätvagnsmetoden)1985Report (Other academic)
  • 8. Ejsmont, JA
    et al.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tire/road noise: Trailer measurements in practice1985Report (Other academic)
  • 9. Ejsmont, Jerzy A
    et al.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    Taryma, Stanislaw
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Rim influence on tire/road noise1996Report (Other academic)
  • 10. Ejsmont, Jerzy A
    et al.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    Taryma, Stanislaw
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tire/road noise emission and its measurement: Effects of rim and other objects close to the tire, such as enclosure and wheel housing1996Report (Other academic)
  • 11. Ejsmont, Jerzy A
    et al.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Influence on tire/road noise emission by vehicles of different construction1990Report (Other academic)
  • 12. Ejsmont, Jerzy A
    et al.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tyre load and vehicle geometry specifications in measurement standards for tyre/road noise1993Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ejsmont, Jerzy
    et al.
    Technical University of Gdańsk.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    ͆wieczko-Zurek, Beata
    Technical University of Gdańsk.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    Technical University of Gdańsk.
    Tyre/road noise reduction by a poroelastic road surface2014In: INTERNOISE 2014 - 43rd International Congress on Noise Control Engineering: Improving the World Through Noise Control, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low noise road surfaces of existing types may in favourable cases and in new conditions provide up to 7 dB of noise reduction. For higher noise reductions, innovative solutions must be sought. Poroelastic road surfaces (PERS) may be such a solution, which currently is studied in the EU project PERSUADE. This paper presents results of trials with a PERS version prefabricated by one of the project partners. Tests were made in a laboratory at TUG, where different tyres were tested on drums covered with PERS, and later field tests were made on a local street in Sweden where VTI had constructed a 25 m long trial section. The field tests were made with a CPX trailer from TUG. Both laboratory and field results showed that tyre/road noise reductions of 9-11 dB were achieved compared to a dense asphalt concrete pavement with maximum aggregate size 11 mm. This is the best result so far in the project. At the same time, this PERS, despite being relatively soft, reduces rolling resistance of passenger car tyres to record-low values, which is important for reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. It is concluded that this type of prefabricated poroelastic road surface offers a very efficient way of reducing tyre/road noise, provided current durability problems can be solved.

  • 14.
    Goubert, Luc
    et al.
    Belgian Road Research Centre.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Development of the ultra low noise poroelastic road surface: The findings of the persuade project2016In: ICSV 2016 - 23rd International Congress on Sound and Vibration: From Ancient to Modern Acoustics, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A poroelastic road surface (PERS) consists of rubber granulates and stone aggregates, bound with an elastic resin, such as polyurethane. It does not contain bitumen. Thanks to its elasticity, porosity and texture, it is capable of yielding an unequalled noise reduction, typically 8 - 12 dB(A) with respect to reference dense asphalt concrete. Although already invented in 1979, some persistent problems, the most important being as durability, prevented the use of it for noise abatement.

    In 2009 the six year EU funded project PERSUADE started, aiming to develop a highly noise reducing, safe and affordable PERS with an acceptable durability. The approach of the PERSUADE consortium was at the same time holistic (all aspects of PERS were studied) and step-wise. It started with laboratory testing of mixes and adhesion to the sub layer. Then small scale pilot test tracks were constructed on parking lots and consequently full scale test tracks on real roads. An extensive monitoring program extracted as much as possible information from the test tracks.

    Many other relevant aspects, such as cost-benefit, fire safety, toxicity, sustainability, etc were thoroughly studied. This contribution outlines all the findings of the project and makes clear how one go further with this technology.

  • 15.
    Goubert, Luc
    et al.
    Belgian Road Research Centre.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    The PERSUADE project: developing the concept of poroelastic road surface into a powerful tool for abating traffic noise2010In: 39th International Congress on Noise Control Engineering 2010: INTER-NOISE 2010, Lissabon: Sociedade Portuguesa de Acustica (SPA) , 2010, , p. 10p. 7329-7338Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the noise-abating action plans emanating from the European Noise Directive, there is much need for effective and efficient measures to abate traffic noise. In September 2009, the EC-funded project PERSUADE was started with a view to developing the concept of poroelastic road surface (PERS) into a durable, safe and environmentally friendly tool for extreme noise reduction. The main ingredients for PERS are recycled tyre granules and a polymer binder (generally polyurethane, not bitumen). The work will be carried out by a European consortium of twelve partners specialized in different fields and will be coordinated by the Belgian Road Research Centre. This contribution will discuss the state of the art for PERS and outline the working plan for the PERSUADE project.

  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Berglund, Carl Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Grudemo, Stefan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jacobson, Torbjörn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Johansson, Christer
    Ljungman, Anders
    Nordström, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effekter av vinterdäck: en kunskapsöversikt2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Choice of winter tyres has, from mainly being a matter of safety and economic costs for wearing of road pavements, during later years also become a matter of inhalable particles formed during pavement wear from studded tyres and their negative effects on public health. Further, the tyres' effects on environment and noise have been illustrated in several studies. The issue is also complicated by the fact that tyre choice effects on traffic safety have several components, including such diverging parameters as friction and behaviour. Finally all aspects have to be evaluated from a socioeconomic point of view for society to be able to decide which kind of distribution of tyre types that is the most profitable. This report is a summary of current knowledge in this complex research field.

  • 17.
    Haider, Manfred
    et al.
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Conter, Marco
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Green, Martin
    TRL Limited, UK.
    Schmidt, Bjarne
    Danish Road Directorate.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Status of the EU-project ROSANNE2016In: Transportation Research Procedia, 2016, Vol. 14, p. 2946-2955Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ROSANNE is a collaborative project in the Seventh EU Framework Programme which aims at developing/harmonising measurement methods for skid resistance, noise emission and rolling resistance of road pavements as a preparation for standardization. To achieve this, the project is following the recommendations of key predecessor projects like TYROSAFE, HERMES, SILVIA, SILENCE and MIRIAM as well as considering the ongoing work in CEN and ISO groups.

    Work package 1 deals with skid resistance and aims at the harmonization of skid resistance measurement following the TYROSAFE Roadmap, by deriving conversion factors for friction indices based on similar groups of devices, namely longitudinal and sideways skid resistance measurement devices. During the first project year a first round robin test was carried out in Nantes, ten different devices participated to the test. The results of this test are collected in report D1.2 "Analysis of data from the first round of tests and initial development of the common scale".

    Work package 2 is dealing with the pavement influence on road traffic noise emission: the main objective of this work package is to combine the existing measurement methods of SPB (ISO 11819-1) and CPX (ISO/DIS 11819-2) into a stable and reliable harmonised pavement noise emission characterisation method. The project is validating procedure incorporating correction mechanisms for temperature influence and investigating its potential use for noise calculation methods like the one proposed by the CNOSSOS-EU project.

    Work package 3 is dealing with rolling resistance, where the ROSANNE project is mainly building on the results obtained in the MIRIAM project and is considering standardized trailer measurements of rolling resistance coefficients of road surfaces. After a first report D3.1 "State of the art on rolling resistance measurement devices including draft standard outline" the following main report was produced "Parameters influencing rolling resistance and possible correction procedures".

    In the frame of work package 4 the project is also exploring the potential for developments in the measurement of surface texture in order to find out parameters that better reflect the physical process of tyre/road interaction and that may improve the understanding of how the texture influences noise emission, skid resistance and rolling resistance. In addition to that this work package is also investigating the performance of reference tyres and pavements which are necessary for the measurement of all three road surface properties. The present paper summarizes the project status after the first 18 project months.

  • 18. Haider, Manfred
    et al.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Noise classification methods for urban road surfaces: user manual: measurement methods2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Subproject F of the SILENCE project is concerned with the role of road surfaces in the generation of road traffic noise. The project focuses especially on noise abatement in urban areas, and consequently urban road surfaces and their noise emission properties are the main interest of subproject F. Within the subproject, work package F4 plays the important part of providing tools for other work packages to assess the success of new types of road surfaces or the maintenance of existing pavements. This document is the output of the work in task F4.2 and deals with the measurement methods suitable to assess the noise emission of urban road surfaces.

    The aim of this document is to

    - Discuss new and existing methods for determining the influence of road surfaces on road traffic noise emission

    - Point out the restrictions and special considerations that result from the application in urban surroundings

    - Provide a guideline for measuring the noise emission characteristics of urban road surfaces to the partners in SILENCE and for future use.

  • 19.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Haider, Manfred
    Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT).
    Conter, Marco
    Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT).
    Goubert, Luc
    Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC).
    Bergiers, Anneleen
    Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC).
    Glaeser, Klaus-Peter
    Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt).
    Schwalbe, Gernot
    Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt).
    Zöller, Marek
    Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt).
    Boujard, Olivier
    IFSTTAR.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Ejsmont, Jerzy A.
    Technical University of Gdansk (TUG).
    Wang, T
    University of California, Pavement Research Center, UC Davis and Berkeley, Davis, California.
    Harvey, J.T.
    University of California, Pavement Research Center, UC Davis and Berkeley, Davis, California.
    Rolling resistance: basic information and state-of-the-art on measurement methods. Final version2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    MIRIAM has established a sub-project (SP), designated SP 1, to deal with measurement methods for rolling resistance and related issues. This subject forms the most fundamental basis for the MIRIAM ambition to consider rolling resistance in pavement management or other types of infrastructure systems. Without robust measurement methods and equipment that can use them there will be no reliable data as input to such systems and the end result will be most uncertain, if useful at all.

    In order to develop and study measurement methods, there must be a basic understanding of the influencing parameters as well as what energy losses that should be included in the concept of rolling resistance. These issues are, therefore, important parts of the work in SP 1.

    This report is intended to provide basic knowledge about the part of the tyre and road interaction which relates to rolling resistance; for example, the mechanisms that create rolling resistance, and the influence on rolling resistance of various tyre and road parameters. The intention is also to suggest a definition of rolling resistance for the purposes of this project, as well as to provide some detailed state-of-the-art knowledge about the measurement methods and equipment that are useful for collecting rolling resistance data.

  • 20.
    Jonasson, Hans
    et al.
    Statens Provningsanastalt.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blokland, Gijsjan van
    M+P.
    Ejsmont, Jurek
    TUG, Poland.
    Watts, Greg
    TRL, UK.
    Luminari, Marcello
    Source modelling of road vehicles2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The state-of-the-art of acoustic source modelling of road vehicles has been reviewed. Extensive measurements and simulations have been carried out. The aim has been to identify and quantify all relevant parameters influencing the noise emission of road vehicles. The collected information has been used to construct a source model suitable to combine with point-to-point sound propagation theory to calculate day-evening-night weighted yearly average sound pressure levels of road traffic noise. Each vehicle category is represented by two point sources, each having a specified sound power having contributions from tyre/road (rolling) noise and propulsion noise. As a minimum 3 vehicle categories are used: Passenger cars, medium heavy and heavy vehicles. Additional categories are defined. The medium heavy vehicle has two axles and the heavy vehicle has 3 or more axles but corrections are made for the number of axles. All default data refer to a reference condition: constant speed, 20 °C and the average of DAC 0/11 and SMA 0/11 road surfaces. Deviations from these conditions are corrected for. Default data, one constant and one speed coefficient, for rolling noise are given for each frequency band, 25-10000 Hz, using a logarithmic speed dependence. 80% of the rolling noise sound power is assigned a point source at 0,01 m and 20% is assigned a point source at 0,3 m (passenger cars) or 0,75 m (heavy vehicles). Default data, one constant and one speed coefficient, for propulsion noise are given for each frequency band, 25-10000 Hz, using a linear speed dependence. 20% of the propulsion noise sound power is assigned a point source at 0,01 m and 80% is assigned a point source at 0,3 m (passenger cars) or 0,75 m (heavy vehicles). Rolling noise is corrected for different road surfaces and different air temperatures. It is also possible to correct for wetness, studded tyres and number of axles of heavy vehicles. Propulsion noise is corrected for acceleration/deceleration. All point sources are assigned a specific frequency dependent vertical directivity with the main purpose to take the screening of the car body into account. The lowest point source is assigned a specific frequency dependent horizontal directivity with the main purpose to take the horn effect of the tyre/road source into account. The highest point source for propulsion noise and heavy vehicles is assigned a frequency independent horizontal directivity. Propagation effects are taken into account by giving different acoustic impedances of some different road surfaces.

  • 21.
    Kalman, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Biligiri, Krishna Prapoorna
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Project PERSUADE: optimization of poroelastic road surfaces in the laboratory2011In: 40th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2011 (INTER-NOISE 2011): (INTER-NOISE 2011), Tokyo: Institute of Noise Control Engineering of Japan (INCE/J), Acoustical Society of Japan (ASJ) , 2011, , p. 9p. 699-707Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper gives a presentation of the Work Package 2 "Mixture optimization" of the European project PERSUADE; a project which aims at developing poroelastic road surfaces (PERS). The latter are assumed to provide a pavement material that provides exceptional tire/road noise reduction. The task of PERS mixture optimization is extremely complicated, as there are a multitude of variants that one would like to try, but resources allow testing only some of them. The WP2 scope of the work includes selecting test methods that reflect the performance of PERS. So far we have focused on mixes with both hard and rubber aggregates to get mixes which are polishing resistant. The paper presents the test methods we finally have chosen and the criteria we have put on the mixes to pass these tests. The paper discusses some test results briefly and acoustical absorption test results in particular. The paper is mainly a methodology description.

  • 22.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Performance based standards for high capacity transports in Sweden: FIFFI project 2013-03881: final report2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Project “Performance Based Standards for High Capacity Transports in Sweden” started at the end of 2013 to investigate applicability of PBS in Sweden, and ended in Autumn 2017. The purpose of the project was to propose a performance based regulation of HCT vehicles and their access to the road network; under a PBS approach to regulation, standards would specify the performance required from the vehicle, rather than mandating prescriptive length and weight limits. In this project, all the three domains of safety, infrastructure and environment were addressed, but the focus has been on safety for which extensive testing, simulations and analysis were performed. This report gathers the outcomes of the project.

  • 23. Kokot, Darko
    et al.
    Kalman, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Improving the mechanical properties of a low noise section2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this innovation initiated in a later phase of NR2C WP2 activities was to evaluate (and eventually to improve) the functional and the mechanical properties (durability) of low-noise poroelastic layers built on cement concrete blocks. Laboratory and site tests were performed for the evaluation of these properties. So, it contributes to the concept "green infrastructure", by the reduction of noise nuisance coming from traffic.

  • 24.
    Kragh, Jörgen
    et al.
    Danish Road Institute (DRI).
    Nielsen, Erik
    Danish Road Institute (DRI).
    Olesen, Erik
    Danish Road Institute (DRI).
    Goubert, Luc
    Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC).
    Vansteenkiste, Stefan
    Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC).
    De Visscher, Joëlle
    Belgian Road Research Centre (BRRC).
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Optimization of thin asphalt layers, OPTHINAL. Final report2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ERA-NET ROAD initiated a transnational research project titled "Optimization of thin asphalt layers". Thin asphalt layers have been used extensively and with promising results for more than 15 years in several countries in Europe and abroad. They seem to be cost effective, fast to build and may have good surface properties. In recent years thin asphalt layers have been shown to imply reduced traffic noise levels, increased traffic safety (skid resistance and forward visibility during wet condition) and to be durable compared with traditional alternatives.

    The DRI-BRRC-VTI Consortium was trusted with carrying out the ERA-NET ROAD project and began with a State-of-the-Art report covering, among other things, a literature study and an inventory of experience with using thin asphalt layers. The results of this phase of the project were documented in a separate project report.

    The main conclusions were that the application of thin asphalt layers is certainly worthwhile, in particular as a renewable "skin" of a stable road construction having sufficient bearing capacity. The skin serves road users' need for skid resistance and other important functions. Compared with more conventional and traditional surfacing such as dense asphalt concrete 0/11 or stone mastic asphalt 0/11, thin asphalt layers in general come out somewhat better in most respects; for example concerning cost, use of nature resources, rolling resistance, and traffic noise emission. However, there are also drawbacks or problems under special traffic that need to be handled, for example TAL durability when exposed to wear from studded tyres. The availability of premium quality aggregate is a prerequisite for applying thin asphalt layers, and good quality aggregate may be difficult to procure.

    The present report looks at possibilities to optimize the application of thin asphalt layers, including an analysis of the cost of applying thin asphalt layers compared with the cost of applying more conventional solutions. The study has been limited to thin asphalt layers with a maximum thickness of 30 mm.

    Recommendations are given concerning the best practice in applying thin asphalt layers and suggestions are given for future research needed to fill the gaps in available knowledge.

  • 25. Kragh, Jörgen
    et al.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Noise emission from Road Vehicles 1990-2010: The development expected by a group of Nordic Experts1994Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Moren, Bertil
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Landström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Törnros, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Inverkan av infraljud, buller och värme på prestation och vakenhet under fordonskörning: En simulatorstudie1989Report (Other academic)
  • 27. Morgan, Phil
    et al.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Blokland, Gijsjan van
    The selection of new reference test tyres for use with the CPX method, to be specified in ISO/TS 11819-32009In: INTER-NOISE 2009: 38th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2009, Institute of Noise Control Engineering ( INCE ) , 2009, , p. 9p. 462-470Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The draft for ISO standard ISO 11819-2:2000 for CPX tyre/road noise measurements includes specifications for a set of four standard reference test tyres. These commercially available tyres were selected to cover the different mechanisms responsible for the generation of tyre/road noise. Three were chosen to be representative of passenger car tyres and one to be representative of heavy vehicle tyres. Since the draft standard was first written, these tyres have either been superseded or discontinued. It has therefore been necessary for ISO/TC 43/SC 1/WG 33 (Measuring Methods for Comparing Traffic Noise on Different Road Surfaces), the Working Group responsible for the Standard, to define recommendations for an updated set of reference tyres, at the same time considering whether fewer tyres could be used. This paper provides a summary of the recommendations for the new reference tyres and an overview of the review process which formed the basis of the recommendations, presenting specific results from the evaluation of candidate replacements for ISO tyre A.

  • 28. Otsuka, Takako
    et al.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    A study of the history of traffic noise in a large city: modern Tokyo compared to Edo - the predecessor to Tokyo2010In: 39th International Congress on Noise Control Engineering 2010: INTER-NOISE, Lissabon: Sociedade Portuguesa de Acustica (SPA) , 2010, , p. 14p. 2406-2419Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of mechanized civilization, transportation of goods and people has become fast and convenient, at the expense of transportation noise which has become a serious problem. This paper aims at comparing the acoustical environment of a modern multi-million city (Tokyo) with the situation one to three centuries ago in the corresponding old city (Edo); also at that time one of the largest cities in the world. Attempts are made to explore traffic noise of Edo through historical records and to compare Edo and Tokyo in this respect. Naturally, as the noise in Edo was not quantified, this study is only qualitative. Edo was a highly developed city in the 17th-19th centuries with a unique system of distribution and ecology and was considered to be an unusually clean city of those times. It is concluded that traffic in Edo was intensive; yet relatively quiet as it was dominated by other modes of transportation than today and with non-motorized vehicles. Yet, sound from people who operated the road vehicles or who carried other people and goods must have been quite loud. At nighttime Edo was closed to traffic and was a quiet city, only interrupted by sound from night watches and fire guardians. Tokyo, on the other hand, is noisy both day and night.

  • 29. Ripke, Oliver
    et al.
    Andersen, Bent
    Bendtsen, Hans
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Report of promising new road surfaces for testing2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SILENCE aims at developing an integrated system of methodologies and technologies for an efficient control of urban traffic noise. "Integrated system" means the combined consideration of city authorities, individual traffic (on road) and mass transport (on rail and road) with a holistic treatment of all traffic noise facets: urban noise scenarios, individual noise sources (vehicles), traffic management, noise perception and annoyance. This sub-project considers the integral design and maintenance of lower noise road surfaces in urban areas. Particular attention is given to surfacing technologies that are appropriate for use in congested streets containing road features such as inspection covers or suffer from frequent interventions due to sub-surface street works. Also new surface types will be developed for use on roads for medium to high speed traffic with speeds of 50 to 100 km/h, which are typical for city ring roads and city arterial roads carrying heavy traffic close to often populated living areas. The sub-project also includes developing technologies for ensuring that low noise surfaces maintain their cost/effective acoustic performance through their lifetime. Equipment and procedures for determining and classifying the influence of road surface noise in the urban environment is important to optimise the use of low-noise pavements in an asset management evaluation of urban road networks and therefore play an important part in the sub-project. As the materials technology is advancing around Europe, it is important the issue of novel materials are considered in the sub-project to further promote the development and use of new and innovative materials for low-noise roads. The innovative part of sub-project F is to develop, monitor, classifying and maintain pavements to be used in urban areas, which in their whole lifetime provide an optimised cost/effective reduction of the tyre/road noise in urban areas.

  • 30.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Combined effect of noise, infrasound and vibration on driver performance1983Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Effektivitet hos stänkskydd: Mätningar 19791980Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    First proposal for two standard road surfaces for measurement of external tire/road noise1982Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Generation of infrasound in buses1981Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mätning av stänk från fordon på våt vägbana1977Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Provning av effektivitet hos stänkskydd1978Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Reduction of tire/road noise by drainage asphalt1984Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Reduktion av trafikbuller genom användning av dränerande vägbeläggning1984Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Road surface characterization with respect to tire noise: A proposed recommendation1976Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Road surface for reduction of tire noise emission. ( INTER-NOISE 79)1979Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Road texture induced external tire noise: Empirical frequency response function for tires1979Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Six decades of vehicle noise abatement - but what happened to the tyres?1984Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Stänkskyddsprovning 1979: Lägesrapport med preliminär resultatsammanfattning1979Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Swedish tire/road noise research. Part II1982Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tire noise conference. International, Stockholm, August 28-31, 19791980Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tire/road noise on an open-graded friction course1981Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Sandberg, U
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vägbanekarakterisering med avseende på däckbuller1976Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Sandberg, U
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bennerhult, O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Attenuation of tire noise emission by tire enclosing. ( INTER-NOISE 78. San Francisco. Proceedings)1978Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Sandberg, U
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bennerhult, O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Skärmning av däckbuller1978Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Sandberg, U
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Descornet, G
    Description of methodology concerning the identification of two generation mechanisms for tire/road noise and the differentiation of the noise into the two mechanisms1982Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Sandberg, U
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Ejsmont, JA
    Reference road surfaces for use in tire/road noise measurements1985Report (Other academic)
123 1 - 50 of 119
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