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  • 1.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Benefit measures for noise abatement: calculations for road and rail traffic noise2013Inngår i: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 135-148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this study is to estimate monetary abatement values for road and rail traffic noise that can be used for policy purposes. However, a main objective is to critically discuss the assumptions necessary to convert the monetary values elicited in willingness to pay (WTP) studies to values than can be use for policy purposes.

    Methods

    We employ the hedonic regression technique on Swedish data to elicit individuals' preferences for noise abatement. Our elicited values are then converted to policy values and critically examined based on findings from a literature review.

    Results

    We show that WTP for road and rail not only differs in levels but also that the relationship between the noise level and the marginal value differs between the two sources. We also show that a health cost component added to the WTP estimate, based on the assumption of uninformed property buyers, will be small but not negligible and that also modest differences in the assumption of the discount rates will have a significant effect on the estimated values.

    Conclusions

    The main implications from this study are: (i) WTP for road and railway noise abatement differs not only on absolute but also marginal levels, (ii) Even small differences in the chosen discount rate, which is necessary to convert WTP values from a hedonic price study to policy values, have large effects on the policy values, and (iii) We show how to add a health cost component to the WTP estimates in order for the monetary estimates to reflect the total social cost. However, we argue that the motivation for doing so is weak and that more research is needed on this issue.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Bullervärden för samhällsekonomisk analys: beräkningar för väg- och järnvägsbuller2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Noise is a significant social problem. For example, more than 20 per cent of the European Union's population is exposed to higher noise than what is considered acceptable. The transport sector is a major contributor to society's increasing noise problem, due to increased traffic volumes and urbanization exposing more people to noise. Road traffic is admittedly the largest individual noise source in the transport sector, but other transport modes such as aircraft and railways are also responsible for considerable noise emissions. Noise entails costs for the society. This fact, and that society has different needs, means that policies and projects to reduce noise levels need to be evaluated to secure an efficient resource allocation. Benefit cost analysis is a powerful tool to evaluate noise abatement, but it requires both benefits and costs to be measured in a common metric, i.e. in monetary values. Today's official monetary values for all modes are based on the impact of road-traffic noise on property prices. It is a well established fact that the disturbance which individuals experience differs between modes, and therefore there is a need to estimate monetary values based on the respective modes. This report focuses on road and rail noise, two noise sources with different characteristics. This study describes the need to revise the current official Swedish policy values for noise abatement. Current values for road-traffic noise show a progressive relationship between the social cost and the noise level that is too strong, and values for railway noise has been missing and instead based on results for road noise. Valuation of health effects should also be based on EKM since it is sanctioned within the EU, instead of the approach now proposed by ASEK based on estimated total social costs from noise exposure in relation to estimates from willingness to pay studies.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Property prices and exposure to multiple noise sources: hedonic regression with road and railway noise2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effect of road and railway noise on property prices. It uses the hedonic regression technique on a Swedish data set that contains information about both road and railway noise for each property, and finds that road noise has a larger negative impact on the property prices than railway noise. This is in line with the evidence from the acoustical literature which has shown that individuals are more disturbed by road than railway noise, but contradicts recent results from a hedonic study on data of the United Kingdom.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics LERNA.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Property Prices and Exposure to Multiple Noise Sources: Hedonic Regression with Road and Railway Noise2010Inngår i: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 45, nr 1, s. 73-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effect of road and railway noise on property prices. It uses the hedonic regression technique on a Swedish data set that contains information about both road and railway noise for each property, and finds that road noise has a larger negative impact on the property prices than railway noise. This is in line with the evidence from the acoustical literature which has shown that individuals are more disturbed by road than railway noise, but contradicts recent results from a hedonic study on data of the United Kingdom.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Efterfrågan på tystnad: skattning av betalningsviljan för icke-marginella förändringar av vägtrafikbuller2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efterfrågan på tystnad från vägbullerexponering skattas i detta projekt baserat på båda stegen i en så kallad hedonisk modell. Vi använder data från sju olika kommuner runt om i Sverige. Baserat på efterfrågekurvan kan vi räkna ut betalningsviljor för icke-marginella förändringar i bullerexponering från vägtrafik. Dessa resultat har stor användning i samhällsekonomiska kalkyler inom transportsektorn. Våra skattningsresultat visar att betalningsviljan för en bullerreducering från 66 till 65 dB är 2211 kronor per individ och år och 477 kronor per individ och år för en bullerreducering från 56 till 55 dB. Resultaten visar ingen betalningsvilja för bullerreduceringar under 52,8 dB. För en bullerreducering från 66 dB till 52,8 dB och alla lägre bullernivåer är betalningsviljan 15 225 kronor. Denna summa är även kostnaden för att utsättas för 66 dB vägbuller per individ och år.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics LERNA Université Toulouse 1.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi, TEK.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Traffic noise effects of property prices: hedonic estimates based on multiple noise indicators2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Valuation of traffic noise abatement based on hedonic pricing models of the property market has traditionally measured the noise as the equivalent, or another average, level. What is not captured in such a noise indicator is the maximum noise level of a vehicle passage. In this study, we incorporate the maximum noise level in the hedonic model letting the property price depend on both the equivalent noise level and the maximum noise level. Hedonic models for both rail and road noise are estimated. Data consists of characteristics of sold properties, property-specific noise calculation, and geographical variables.

    We use the hedonic approach to estimate the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for maximum noise abatement where we model the effect as the maximum noise level subtracted with the equivalent noise level. Furthermore, we control for the equivalent noise level in the estimations. The estimated results show that including the maximum noise level in the model has influence on the property prices, but only for rail and not for road. This means that for road we cannot reject the hypothesis that WTP for noise abatement is based on the equivalent noise level only. For rail, on the other hand, we estimate the marginal WTP for the maximum noise level and it turns out to be substantial. Also, the marginal WTP for the equivalent noise levels seems to be unaffected by the inclusion of the maximum noise level in the model. More research of this novel topic is requested though.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Bulleravgift för järnvägsoperatörer: prissättning enligt marginalkostnadsprinciper2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    The Swedish Parliament has decided that, in order to mitigate externalities in railway infrastructure, operators in the Swedish railway infrastructure shall pay charges based on short-run marginal social costs. Internalization of the social cost from noise is of particular interest, since it is the only environmental problem which people perceive as more troublesome today than they did in the early 1990s. Inclusion of a noise component in rail infrastructure charges raises two problems: (i) the monetary evaluation of noise abatement, since noise is a non-marketed good, and (ii) the estimation of the effect on the noise level that one extra train will create. We are interested in the marginal noise, since infrastructure charges based on the short-run marginal cost principle should be based on the effect from the marginal train, not the noise level itself. We show in this study that, based on already obtained knowledge, it is possible to implement a noise component in the rail infrastructure charges. Those values that already today are used to estimate the social cost from noise exposure (which in Sweden are based on noise from road-traffic) in cost benefit analysis can also be used to calculate the marginal cost. We recommend, however, that further research is carried out in order to get more robust estimates and to get estimates based on railway traffic. We also show that the existing noise estimation models can easily be modified to estimate the marginal noise. Noise infrastructure charges give the operators incentives to reduce their noise emissions. We believe that this kind of charges can be used to reduce overall emission levels to an optimal social level, but that it is important that these charges are based on monetary estimates for rail-traffic and not road-traffic.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Charging the polluters: a pricing model for road and railway noise2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study outlines a method to estimate the short run marginal cost (SRMC) for road and railway noise. It is based on standardized calculation methods for total noise levels and monetary cost estimates from well established evaluation methods. Here official calculation methods and monetary values are used for Sweden, but the estimation method for the SRMC outlined can be directly applied using other standardized noise calculation methods and monetary values. This implies that the current knowledge regarding the calculation of total noise levels and the evaluation of the social cost of noise can be extended to estimate the marginal effect as well. This is an important finding since it enables policy makers to price noise externalities in an appropriate way. Several sensitivity tests run for the SRMC show that: (i) increasing the total traffic on the infrastructure has only a minor influence, (ii) estimates are quite sensitive to the number of exposed individuals, and (iii) to the monetary values used. Hence, benefits transfer, i.e. using monetary values elicited based on road noise for railway noise, should be done with caution or not at all. Results also show that the use of quiet technology can have a significant effect on the SRMC. The fact that this model is able to differentiate not only modes of transport, but also vehicles and even technologies is an important finding. It is essential that the noise charges give the operators the right incentives to choose their optimal allocation.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Charging the Polluters A Pricing Model for Road and Railway Noise2013Inngår i: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 47, s. 313-333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining standardised calculation methods for total noise levels and monetary estimates from well-established evaluation methods, this study outlines a model to estimate the short-run marginal cost (SRMC) for road and railway noise that is able to differentiate not only modes of transport, but also vehicles and technologies. Several sensitivity tests run for the SRMC show that estimates are insensitive to traffic volume, sensitive to the number of exposed individuals, and sensitive to the monetary values used. Results also show that the use of quiet technology can have a significant effect on the SRMC.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Marginal cost pricing of noise in railway infrastructure2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to mitigate negative effects from traffic it has been decided that infrastructure charges in the European Union (EU) should be based on short run marginal costs. The Swedish Parliament has legislated that operators in the Swedish railway infrastructure must pay charges based on short run marginal social costs in order to mitigate externalities in railway infrastructure. Internalization of the social cost of noise is of particular interest, since it is the only environmental problem perceived as more troublesome today than in the early 1990s. Inclusion of a noise component in rail infrastructure charges raises two issues: (i) the monetary evaluation of noise abatement, since noise is a non-market good, and (ii) the estimation of the effect on the noise level that one extra train will create. Regarding the latter, we are interested in the marginal noise, since infrastructure charges based on the short-run marginal cost principle should be based on the effect from the marginal train, not the noise level itself. Using already existing knowledge, this study shows that it is possible to implement a noise component in the rail infrastructure charges. The values that are used today to estimate the social cost of noise exposure in cost benefit analysis can also be used to calculate the marginal cost. We recommend, however, that further research be carried out in order to get more robust estimates based on railway traffic. We also show that the existing noise estimation models can easily be modified to estimate the marginal noise. Noise infrastructure charges give the operators incentives to reduce their noise emissions. We believe that this kind of charge can be used to reduce overall emission levels to an optimal social level, but that it is important for the charge to be based on monetary estimates for rail-traffic and not road-traffic.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Marginal cost pricing of noise in railway infrastructure2009Inngår i: Railway Transportation: Policies, Technology and Perspectives / [ed] Scott, N.P., Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , 2009, s. 141-162Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to mitigate negative effects from traffic it has been decided that infrastructure charges in the European Union (EU) should be based on short run marginal costs. The Swedish Parliament has legislated that operators in the Swedish railway infrastructure must pay charges based on short run marginal social costs in order to mitigate externalities in railway infrastructure. Internalization of the social cost of noise is of particular interest, since it is the only environmental problem perceived as more troublesome today than in the early 1990s. Inclusion of a noise component in rail infrastructure charges raises two issues: (i) the monetary evaluation of noise abatement, since noise is a non-market good, and (ii) the estimation of the effect on the noise level that one extra train will create. Regarding the latter, we are interested in the marginal noise, since infrastructure charges based on the short-run marginal cost principle should be based on the effect from the marginal train, not the noise level itself. Using already existing knowledge, this study shows that it is possible to implement a noise component in the rail infrastructure charges. The values that are used today to estimate the social cost of noise exposure in cost benefit analysis can also be used to calculate the marginal cost. We recommend, however, that further research be carried out in order to get more robust estimates based on railway traffic. We also show that the existing noise estimation models can easily be modified to estimate the marginal noise. Noise infrastructure charges give the operators incentives to reduce their noise emissions. We believe that this kind of charge can be used to reduce overall emission levels to an optimal social level, but that it is important for the charge to be based on monetary estimates for rail-traffic and not road-traffic.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Noise charges in railway infrastructure: a pricing schedule based on the marginal cost principle2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to mitigate the negative effects of transportation and to achieve a competitive transport sector, infrastructure charges in the European Union shall be based on short-run marginal costs. This paper shows that railway-noise charges can be estimated using already obtained knowledge of monetary and acoustical noise evaluation. Most European countries have standardised calculation methods for total noise level, which can be used to estimate the marginal acoustical effect. Based on a Swedish case study (with a relatively high number of exposed individuals), railway-noise charges are estimated at 0.026, 0.099 and 0.89 e/km for commuter, high-speed and freight trains, respectively.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Noise charges in road traffic: a pricing schedule based on the marginal cost principle2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One way of mitigating the negative effects of noise from road traffic is to include the external cost of noise in a road charging system. This study shows how standardized calculation methods for road traffic noise can be used together with monetary estimates of the social cost of noise exposure to calculate charges based on the social marginal cost. Using Swedish data on traffic volume and individuals exposed to road noise, together with official Swedish monetary values for noise exposure, we estimate road-noise charges for light (cars) and heavy (trucks) vehicles.

  • 14.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Genell, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Lidström, Mats
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Nordmark, Staffan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Palmqvist, Göran
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Sehammar, Håkan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    SHAKE - an approach for realistic simulation of rough roads in a moving base driving simulator2010Inngår i: Trends in driving simulation design and experiments: proceedings of the driving simulation conference Europe 2010, Arcueil: Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur securite, INRETS , 2010, s. 135-143Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With today’s advanced measurement equipment for measuring roads, it is possible to measure road geometry at high precision within a large span of wavelengths. Detailed information about the roads longitudinal and lateral profile, including macro texture, would in theory be sufficient for a realistic reproduction of road induced vibration and noise in a driving simulator. Especially, it would be possible to create a direct connection between the visual information of the road condition and the ride experience, which would increase the level of realism in the simulation. VTI has during three years performed an internal project called SHAKE with the aim to develop and implement models in VTI driving simulator III that use measured road data for generating realistic vibrations and audible road noise connected to the visual impression presented on the projection screen. This has indeed resulted in an more realistic driving experience, and a validation study with test persons driving both in the simulator and in the field has been undertaken. The OpenDRIVE standard is used as a framework for describing the road properties (e.g. visual, vibrations and noise). For this purpose some augumentations to the OpenDRIVE standard had to be made. This paper describes the technical implementations in the driving simulator, along with results from test drives on the implemented road sections

  • 15.
    Forssén, Jens
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hornikx, Maarten
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Botteldooren, Dick
    Ghent University.
    Wei, Weigang
    Ghent University.
    Van Renterghem, Timothy
    Ghent University.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    A model of sound scattering by atmospheric turbulence for use in noise mapping calculations2014Inngår i: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 100, nr 5, s. 810-815Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sound scattering due to atmospheric turbulence limits the noise reduction in shielded areas. An engineering model is presented, aimed to predict the scattered level for general noise mapping purposes including sound propagation between urban canyons. Energy based single scattering for homogeneous and isotropic turbulence following the Kolmogorov model is assumed as a starting point and a saturation based on the von Kármán model is used as a first-order multiple scattering approximation. For a single shielding obstacle the scattering model is used to calculate a large dataset as function of the effective height of the shielding obstacle and its distances to source and receiver. A parameterisation of the dataset is used when calculating the influence of single or double canyons, including standardised air attenuation rates as well as façade absorption and Fresnel weighting of the multiple façade reflections. Assuming a single point source, an aver aging over three receiver positions and that each ground reflection causes energy doubling, the final engineering model is formulated as a scattered level for a shielding building without canyon plus a correction term for the effect of a single or a double canyon, assuming a flat rooftop of the shielding building. Input parameters are, in addition to geometry and sound frequency, the strengths of velocity and temperature turbulence.

  • 16.
    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Öhrström, Evy
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP Environment.
    Good sound environment in green areas modify road-traffic noise annoyance at home2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Noise Control 2009 (EURONOISE 2009), uo: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, , s. 9s. 1579-1587Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a growing recognition among noise researchers that natural elements and natural areas of the built environment have potentials to reduce annoyance due to traffic noise. It has been suggested that presence of vegetation (e.g., trees, bushes, grass, flowers) contributes to an aesthetically pleasing environment, which influence overall residential satisfaction and people?s perception of the noise. Other expected benefits of natural elements/areas are prevention or modification of adverse effects of work-, personal-, or environmental stress (e.g., noise) through restoration processes. Within the large TVANE-project, the present study examined the effect of green areas (park or similar at walking distance) on noise responses in residential settings (n=468) exposed to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h 45 to 65 dB). A binary multiple logistic regression analysis, with sound exposure as the prime variable assumed to predict general noise annoyance at home, indicated that presence of green areas, a closer distance to it from the subject?s home, and perceived green-area characteristics (good sound environment, high attractiveness and potentials for recreational activities) significantly lowered noise annoyance. The results suggest that the exposure-response relationship between noise and annoyance is influenced by access to nearby green areas provided that they have good environmental quality, particularly regarding the perceived sound environment

  • 17.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Vierth, Inge
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys av rundvirkestransporter med 90-tonslastbilar: delprojekt inom Sammodalitetsprojektet2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att göra en samhällsekonomisk analys som visar hur de kostnader som rundvirkestransporter med lastbil ger upphov till, skulle påverkas om fordonens totalvikt tilläts öka från 60 till 90 ton och samtidigt få en tillåten maxlängd på 30 meter. Analysen görs på två sätt. Först redovisas genomsnittliga kostnader per fordonskilometer för olika fordonsstorlekar. Dessutom görs en kalkyl, som utgår från scenarier om hur mycket trafikarbetet skulle påverkas om större fordon tilläts. För att analysera hur transporterna av rundvirke genomförs i olika scenarier används den svenska godstransportmodellen Samgods. Flödesberäkningar från denna används därefter tillsammans med uppgifter från Nationella vägdatabasen (NVDB) för att beräkna samhällsekonomiska kostnader. Dessa beräkningar tar hänsyn till vägtyp och andra lokala förutsättningar och fångar därmed upp den variation i samhällsekonomiska kostnader som finns. Beräkningarna sammanfattas med den totala kostnaden för att transportera rundvirke med lastbil i Sverige under ett år. Enligt simuleringarna minskar trafikarbetet med 21 procent om 60-tonsfordon ersätts med 90-tonsfordon, om man inte tar hänsyn till brorestriktionerna. Detta ger en total samhällsekonomisk kostnadssänkning med 4 procent eller 163 miljoner kronor årligen. Då ska man dock komma ihåg att kostnaden för bärighetsåtgärder på broar, vilket är en förutsättning för att scenariot ska kunna realiseras, inte är inkluderade i analysen. Om vissa broar är spärrade för trafik med 90-tonsfordon är det inte generellt lönsamt att ersätta 60-tonsfordon, eftersom den samhällsekonomiska kostnaden då ökar med 15 procent. Redan idag är det dock möjligt att använda 90-tonsfordon på ett antal stråk som är viktiga för rundvirkestransporter.

  • 18.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Marginalkostnadsskattningar för buss och lätt lastbil: buller, trafiksäkerhet och vägslitage2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att beräkna marginalkostnader för buller, trafiksäkerhet och vägslitage för bussar och lätta lastbilar. Bullerkostnaderna beräknas med modellen Nord 2000 tillsammans med kalkylvärden från ASEK 5. Marginalkostnaden för trafiksäkerhet beräknas utifrån olycksstatistik i STRADA, en fördelning av trafikarbete mellan landsbygd och tätort samt kalkylvärden från ASEK 5. Marginalkostnaden för vägslitage beräknas genom att justera de värden för genomsnittliga tunga fordon som finns i ASEK 5. Justeringen görs utifrån antalet standardaxlar. För bussar beräknas antalet standardaxlar med hjälp av statistik från fordonsregistret, medan antalet standardaxlar hos lätta lastbilar beräknas utifrån fordonstypens maximala totalvikt. Marginalkostnaden för buller har differentierats på vägar med olika ÅDT och omgivning med olika tät befolkning.

  • 19.
    Hornikx, Maarten
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology .
    Forssén, Jens
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Botteldooren, Dick
    Ghent University.
    Van Renterghem, Timothy
    Ghent University.
    Wei, Weigang
    Ghent University.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Salomons, Erik
    TNO Urban Environment and Health.
    Urban background noise mapping: The multiple-reflection correction term2014Inngår i: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 100, nr 2, s. 293-305Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping of road traffic noise in urban areas according to standardized engineering calculation methods systematically results in an underestimation of noise levels at areas shielded from direct exposure to noise, such as inner yards. In most engineering methods, road traffic lanes are represented by point sources and noise levels are computed utilizing point-to-point propagation paths. For a better prediction of noise levels in shielded urban areas, an extension of engineering methods by an attenuation term Acan has been proposed, including multiple reflections of the urban environment both in the source and in the receiver area.

    The present work has two main contributions for the ease of computing Acan. Firstly, it is shown by numerical calculations that Acan may be divided into independent source and receiver environment terms, As and Ar. Based on an equivalent free field analogy, the distance dependence of these terms may moreover be expressed analytically. Secondly, an analytical expression is proposed to compute As and Ar for 3D configurations from using 2D configurations only. The expression includes dependence of the street width-to-height ratio, the difference in building heights and the percentage of facade openings in the horizontal plane. For the expression to be valid, the source should be separated from the receiver environment by at least four times the street width.

  • 20.
    Jerson, T
    et al.
    WSP Environment.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Öhrström, E
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital / Gothenburg University.
    Gidlöf Gunnarsson, A
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    How does noise annoyance relate to traffic intensity?2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Railway Noise, 18-22 October 2010, Nagahama, Japan, Curran Associates, Inc., 2010, , s. 7s. 1-7Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of the Swedish research program TVANE, where a number of questionnaire surveys has been performed. A comparison between three areas demonstrate that the reported annoyance is higher where the traffic intensity is higher even if the equivalent noise level is the same. The traffic intensity varies with a factor of 7 between the areas, and the reported annoyance is increased 1.3 –2.5 times.

  • 21.
    Jerson, Tomas
    et al.
    WSP Group.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Elmotorvagn Coradia Duplex - Littera X40: indata till beräkningsmodellerna NMT96 och Nord 20002012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultaten från bullermätningarna visar att den aktuella motorvagnstypen X40 har lägre bulleremission än befintliga tågtyper som t.ex. snabbtåget X2. I diagrammen 1 och 2 redovisas X2-tågets predikterade ljudnivåer i jämförelse med mätresultaten från X40-passager.

    Erhållna data har normaliserats enligt beräkningsmodellerna NMT96 och Nord 2000 och ingångsdata för beräkningar av bullerimmission från elmotorvagn X40 redovisas i tabeller 6 och 7 i avsnitt 6 ”Indata beräkningsmodeller”.

  • 22. Jerson, Tomas
    et al.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Öhrström, Evy
    TVANE - Train vibration and noise effects: presentation of a Swedish research project2009Inngår i: Noise Control Engineering. International Congress And Exhibition.: 37th 2008. (Inter-Noise 2008), Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, , s. 7s. 1397-1403Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For efficient planning of noise and vibration reducing measures, it is important to have knowledge of the health effects of noise and vibrations from railway traffic as well as from road traffic noise. Issues of relevance are “the railway bonus”, the effect of simultaneous exposure to railway and road traffic noise, the effect of vibrations from railway traffic per se as well as in combination with noise, and effects of high intensive railway traffic. The TVANE-project aims to investigate all these issues by socio-acoustic field surveys, noise and vibration measurements, and laboratory experiments

  • 23.
    Jerson, Tomas
    et al.
    WSP.
    Öström, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Öhrström, Evy
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital / Gothenburg University.
    Combined effects of noise and vibration from train and road traffic2007Inngår i: Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems, 2007, , s. 4s. 1-4Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The research project addresses three aims. The first is whether a “train bonus” can be expected, i.e. whether noise from railway traffic is perceived as less annoying than road traffic noise and the same level. The second aim is to investigate the connection between disturbance and exposure to simultaneous noise and vibration from train traffic. The third issue is to investigate concurrent effects from simultaneous exposure to noise from train and road traffic.

  • 24.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Estimating non-marginal willingness to pay for railway noise abatements: application of the two-step hedonic regression technique2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we estimate the willingness to pay for railway noise abatements based on the effect of railway noise on property prices. We estimate both steps of the hedonic regression technique on a large data set of different Swedish regions which contains detailed information about railway noise along with socioeconomic characteristics for each property/household. The estimated demand relationship suggest welfare gains for a 1 dB reduction of railway noise as; 1240 SEK per individual and year at the baseline noise level of 71 dB, and 661 SEK at the baseline noise level of 61 dB. Below a noise level of 49.09 dB, individuals have no willingness to pay for railway noise abatements. In policy, these results can be used for cost benefit analysis and to derive marginal costs for infrastructure charges.

  • 25.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Berell, Håkan
    McDaniel, John
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Björketun, Urban
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Långa och tunga lastbilars effekter på transportsystemet: redovisning av regeringsuppdrag2008Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige tillåts lastbilar i inrikestrafik som är upp till 25,25 meter långa och 60 ton tunga. Detta skiljer sig från EU-normen, där lastbilar som regel inte är längre än 18,75 meter och väger maximalt 40 ton. Näringsdepartementet har gett VTI i uppdrag att studera vilka samhällsekonomiska konsekvenser avvikelsen har medfört för Sverige samt beskriva konkurrensytan mellan väg- och järnvägstransporter. Effekterna på transportkostnader för näringslivet, avgas- och bulleremissioner, vägslitage, tidsfördröjning för bilister samt trafiksäkerheten har beräknats. En mycket stor andel av godstransporterna på väg utförs med fordon som överskrider EU-normen. Att krympa fordonsstorleken skulle leda till stora samhällsekonomiska förluster. Framför allt är det transportkostnaderna som ökar, men det skulle även uppkomma betydande kostnadsökningar inom områdena trafiksäkerhet, avgasemissioner och bulleremissioner. I utredningen konstateras att det är svårt, åtminstone på kort sikt, att åstadkomma överflyttningar mellan väg och järnväg. Detta beror delvis på att järnvägens kapacitet är högt utnyttjad.

  • 26.
    Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Berell, Håkan
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    McDaniel, John
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Haraldsson, Mattias
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Björketun, Urban
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    The effects of long and heavy trucks on the transport system: report on a government assignment2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trucks up to 25.25 metres in length and weighing up to 60 tonnes are permitted in domestic traffic in Sweden. This deviates from the EU standard, according to which trucks are not to be longer than 18.75 metres or weigh more than 40 tonnes. The Swedish Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications has commissioned VTI to study what economic consequences this deviation has had for Sweden and to describe the competition interface between road and rail transport. The effects on transport costs for business, exhaust and noise emissions, road wear, time delay for motorists and road safety have been estimated. A very large proportion of freight transport by road takes place by vehicles that exceed the EU standard. Reducing vehicle size would lead to large economic losses. Transport costs would increase in particular, but significant cost increases would also occur in the areas of road safety, exhaust emissions and noise emissions. It is noted in the study that it is difficult, at least in the short term, to bring about transfers between road and rail. This is due, in part, to high rate of utilisation of the railway capacity.

  • 27.
    Wei, Weigang
    et al.
    Ghent University.
    Botteldooren, Dick
    Ghent University.
    Renterghem, Timothy Van
    Ghent University.
    Hornikx, Maarten C J
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Forssén, Jens
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Salomons, Erik M
    TNO Urban Environment and Health.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Erratum: Urban background noise mapping: The general model (Acta Acustica united with Acustica (2014) 100 (1098-1111) DOI:10.3813/AAA.918789)2015Inngår i: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 101, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Wei, Weigang
    et al.
    Ghent University.
    Botteldooren, Dick
    Ghent University.
    Renterghem, Timothy Van
    Ghent University.
    Hornikx, Maarten C J
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Forssén, Jens
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Salomons, Erik M
    TNO Urban Environment and Health.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Urban background noise mapping: The general model2014Inngår i: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 100, nr 6, s. 1098-1111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveys show that inhabitants of dwellings exposed to high noise levels benefit from having access to a quiet side. However, current practice in noise prediction often underestimates the noise levels at a shielded façade. Multiple reflections between façades in street canyons and inner yards are commonly neglected and façades are approximated as perfectly flat surfaces yielding only specular reflection. In addition, sources at distances much larger than normally taken into account in noise maps might still contribute significantly. Since one of the main reasons for this is computational burden, an efficient engineering model for the diffraction of the sound over the roof tops is proposed, which considers multiple reflections, variation in building height, canyon width, façade roughness and different roof shapes. The model is fitted on an extensive set of full-wave numerical calculations of canyon-to-canyon sound propagation with configurations matching the distribution of streets and building geometries in a typical historically grown European city. This model allows calculating the background noise in the shielded areas of a city, which could then efficiently be used to improve existing noise mapping calculations. The model was validated by comparison to long-term measurements at 9 building façades whereof 3 were at inner yards in the city of Ghent, Belgium. At shielded façades, a strong improvement in prediction accuracy is obtained.

  • 29.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Externt buller från mitträfflor2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frästa räfflor i mitten på vägbanan används som en trafiksäkerhetshöjande åtgärd, och fungerar genom att föraren uppmärksammas på att fordonet håller på att passera mittlinjen via ljud och vibrationer i fordonet. Som en bieffekt genereras också extern ljud som riskerar att störa boende i närområdet. Denna rapport redovisar mätningar och beräkningar för att utröna hur ofta som fordon kör emot räfflorna vid en viss plats, samt vilka ljudnivåer det rör sig om från olika typer av fordon och på olika avstånd från vägen. Den första frågeställningen behandlades genom mätningar under totalt tio dygn på fyra olika platser, och resultatet visar på att totalt ca 0,2 till –1,0% av passerande fordon träffar räfflan, och att andelen ökar under natten. Den andra frågeställningen behandlades genom kontrollerade mätningar med tre olika fordon (personbil, personbil med lågprofildäck och lastbil) i olika hastigheter. Dessa data användes sedan för att beräkna vilka ljudnivåer man får på olika avstånd, och korrigerades med hjälp av ett exempel på en villas fasadisolering till inomhusnivåer. Resultatet visar att det endast är på korta avstånd som man riskerar att överskrida dagens riktvärden, men det kan ifrågasättas hur relevanta dessa är för impulsliknande ljud med kort varaktighet och tonal karaktär. VTI

  • 30.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Noise emission from railway traffic2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    European authorities hope to be able to increase the volume of freight and passengers that are transported on railway systems compared to those transported on roads. If that policy is successful the problem of noise from railway traffic will increase. It is know from previous research that measures against the noise are more efficient if applied directly at the source itself rather than using indirect measures such as noise barriers and increased window insulation. This report is a literature survey on how the railway noise is generated, and to what extend different measures at the source can reduce the noise emission. The report also briefly describes what limits and recommendations on noise exposure are enforced now and in the near future. Furthermore the noise propagation methods used for calculating the noise level at different receiver positions (noise exposure) from the noise emission are discussed.

  • 31.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Jerson, T
    WPS Environment.
    Öhrström, E
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital / Gothenburg University.
    Gidlöf Gunnarsson, A
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Difference between using 2 and 4 meter receiver height in railway noise prediction2010Inngår i: / [ed] Tatsuo Maeda, Springer, 2010, , s. 6s. 541-546Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Nordic countries a receiver height of 2 m has often been used when calculating noise levels over large areas for socioacoustic surveys, but within the EU 4 m is used. Here results are presented for railway noise calculations at both heights in 1459 points across several areas in Sweden. The average difference in equivalent level is 2.5 dB higher at 4 m height than at 2 m, which in turn leads to 10 % – 40 % less predicted annoyance if the exposure is calculated at 4 m.

  • 32.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP Akustik, Göteborg.
    Indata till bullerberäkningsmetoder för motorvagn X602010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    This report contains measurements on noise emission from the Swedish multiple unit denoted X60. The meaurements have been analyzed and used to prepare input data for the Nordic noise calculation methods for railway traffic noise NMT96 and Nord2000. The result shows that in a typical case the A-weighted noise emission per meter train is approximately 6 dB lower for X60 compared to the high speed train X2. Measurements were also carried out for the multiple unit X40, but unfortunately the spread was too large and the number of data points to small to create valid input data for the methods. More extensive research is needed, and until better data is available it is recommended to use X2 input data as an approximation of X40 noise emission.

  • 33.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP akustik.
    Mätning och beräkning av buller och vibrationer från tågtrafik inom TVANE-projektet2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    The project "Effects of noise and vibrations from train and road traffic - train bonus, differences and combination effects between train and road traffic" (TVANE) started 2006 and will be finished during the beginning of 2011. The basic research method is a questionnaire survey in residential areas exposed to noise and vibrations from railway traffic and noise from road traffic. Well controlled laboratory studies were also performed. This report documents the measurements and calculations of noise and vibration were performed within the TVANE project. These data have then been used together with the questionnaire survey data to evaluate the responses such as annoyance and sleep disturbance.

    In total more than 30 vibration and noise measurements were performed, and the noise level was calculated in approximately 1 800 receiver points. The most important finding apart from describing the calculations and measurement methods used, is that it is not possible to predict the vibrations based only on railway and ground parameters, since the details of the construction of the exposed building will have a strong influence.

    Other TVANE reports and articles from conference proceedings can be downloaded from the project website: http://www.tvane.se and from the webbpage of the department of Occupational and Environmetal Medicine at the University of Gothenburg: http://www.amm.se

  • 34.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Marginalkostnad av tågbuller2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En del i projektet Jäsmage är att bestämma marginalkostnaden för buller från olika typer av järnvägsfordon. Arbetet är uppdelat i två delar; att bestämma hur stor samhällskostnad en förändring i bullernivå innebär och att utgående från denna värdering beräkna vad kostnaden blir för en extra marginell fordonspassage vid olika sträckor. Denna rapport behandlar den andra delen. Arbetet inleddes under 2009 och kommer dels att rapporteras i december 2010, dels resultera i en artikel som är klar för vetenskaplig granskning under början på 2011.

  • 35.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Transportekonomi Stockholm, TEK-S.
    Noise charges for Swedish railways based on marginal cost calculations2011Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an effort to calculate marginal costs for railway traffic in Sweden using 1) standardised and already well established methods for calculating noise and 2) valuations of noise based on hedonic regression. The main point is that the marginal costs are calculated using well established methods used for other purposes (urban planning for the noise method and cost benefit analysis for the noise values), the combination of these methods requires knowledge in both transport economics and acoustics but apart from that no new methods need to be developed. The results show large variations over the network explained mainly by the large variations in population density. It is necessary to include similar variations in a charging system in order to gain the full benefits of internalizing the noise cost.

  • 36.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Öhrström, Evy
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital / Gothenburg University.
    Effects of railway noise and vibrations on sleep: experimental studies within the Swedish research program TVANE2009Inngår i: 8th European Conference on Noise Control 2009 (EURONOISE 2009): Proceedings, Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, , s. 8s. 1214-1221Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a laboratory sleep study with an exposure situation corresponding to a dwelling close to a railway. Both noise and bed vibrations were generated for passing trains, and the sleep quality of the test subjects was evaluated using questionnaires before and after sleep. A total of 21 test subjects slept five nights in the laboratory, and three different exposure situations were presented in a randomized order after two nights for habituation. The three exposures were combined from two noise levels and two vibration amplitudes; one with high noise levels and strong vibrations, one with lower noise levels and strong vibrations and one with high noise levels and weaker vibrations. The results indicate that the perceived sleep disturbance from noise increased with increasing vibration amplitude. There was no such interaction effect for perceived sleep disturbance due to vibrations, i.e. sleep disturbance due to vibrations was the same irrespective of noise level. These results suggest that it will not be sufficient to reduce the noise levels to protect from sleep disturbances, e.g. by sound insulating windows and noise barriers, if vibration levels are high. The vibration levels must also be addressed.

  • 37.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Öhrström, Evy
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP environmental.
    A system for railway noise sleep disturbance trials2007Inngår i: Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems, 2007, , s. 6s. 1-6Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden a new research project aimed at studying noise and vibration from railway traffic has been started. An important part of the project is controlled laboratory experiments where subjects are exposed to noise and vibration when sleeping. The first set of experiments (using only noise) have already started, and the vibration excitation is under construction. Here the focus is on the construction of the laboratory and the design of the experiments, but some preliminary results are also presented. The sound system consists of roof mounted speakers for low frequencies, and two speaker cabinets for the high frequency part. Train passages recorded in the field on the façade of a building are filtered to account for façade insulation and presented to the subjects. This enables many scenarios to be studied with the same setup by selecting the individual sounds and changing the parameters of the filter. The vibration excitation system under construction will be based on electro-dynamical shakers which will interact with the bed to force it to vibrate.

  • 38.
    Ögren, Mikael
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Öhrström, Evy
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP environmental.
    Noise and vibration generation for laboratory studies on sleep disturbance2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN) 2008, 2008, , s. 8s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The research project TVANE is aimed at studying the effects of noise and building vibrations from railway traffic, and is sponsored by the Swedish railway infrastructure manager Banverket. The project includes many studies performed both in the field with questionnaires and noise and vibration measurements, and in the laboratory. This paper describes the design of a low cost vibrating bed used in laboratory sleeping experiments, and also the sound and vibration signals that the subjects were exposed to.

  • 39. Öhrström, Evy
    et al.
    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, A
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Jerston, T
    Comparative field studies on the effects of railway and road traffic noise2010Inngår i: 39th International Congress on Noise Control Engineering 2010: INTER-NOISE, Lissabon: Sociedade Portuguesa de Acustica (SPA) , 2010, s. 1660-1668Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    To provide additional knowledge on the long term effects of railway and road traffic noise socio-acoustic surveys were performed in two residential areas exposed to road traffic noise (highway and major roads) and two areas exposed to railway noise (124 trains per day). Results were obtained for 974 individuals exposed to comparative sound levels ranging from LAeq,24h 45 to 65 dB. Road traffic caused significantly more noise annoyance than railway traffic, however, the difference decreased somewhat at higher sound levels above LAeq,24h 60 dB. For Lden the difference in annoyance between the two noise sources was larger and the difference increased at higher sound levels. At all sound levels, road traffic noise caused more disturbances of rest/relaxation (LAeq,24h) and sleep quality (Lnight) but less disturbance of conversation than railway noise. It was concluded that noise from railway traffic overall causes less adverse health effects than road traffic noise, in cases with a relatively moderate number of trains per day.

  • 40.
    Öhrström, Evy
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP Environment.
    Effects of railway noise and vibration in combination: field and laboratory studies2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Noise Control 2009 (EURONOISE 2009), Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, , s. 10s. 1204-1213Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41.
    Öhrström, Evy
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Akademin vid Göteborgs universitetet.
    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita
    Sahlgrenska Akademin vid Göteborgs universitetet.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP environmental akustik.
    Resultat och slutsatser från forskningsprogrammet TVANE: effekter av buller och vibrationer från tåg- och vägtrafik, tågbonus, skillnader och samverkan mellan tåg- och vägtrafik: slutrapport2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsprogrammet har fokuserat på att studera hur buller och vibrationer från tågtrafik upplevs av människor i deras boendemiljö med avseende på allmän störning, påverkan på olika dagliga aktiviteter inomhus och utanför bostaden samt hur de störs av buller och vibrationer under sin sömn. Jämförande studier har belyst skillnader i upplevelse av vägtrafikbuller och tågbuller och hur antalet tåg per dygn inverkar på olika upplevda effekter. Det förekommer ofta att bostäder är utsatta för buller både från stora trafikleder och från järnvägslinjer med hög trafikering. TVANE-programmet har studerat hur människor upplever trafikbuller i sådana situationer.

    Som ett komplement till fältepidemiologiska studier har experimentella studier under väl kontrollerade exponeringsförhållanden och hemlika miljöer genomförts i Ljudmiljölaboratoriet vid Arbets- och miljömedicin. I ett experiment har effekter på sömnen av vibrationer och buller från tågtrafik studerats och ett annat sömnexperiment har belyst effekter av vägtrafikbuller och tågbuller.

    För att kunna bestämma exponeringen för buller och vibrationer på de platser där undersökningarna genomförts har ett stort antal mätningar och beräkningar utförts inom projektet. Beräkningarna är utförda enligt de standardiserade nordiska metoderna för buller från tåg- och vägtrafik. Mätningarna genomfördes dels som korta stickprov av buller och vibrationer, dels som mer omfattande vibrationsmätningar under ett dygn för att kartlägga vibrationsexponeringen i de områden som var känsliga för markvibrationer.

  • 42. Öhrström, Evy
    et al.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö och trafikanalys, MTA.
    Jerson, Tomas
    WSP environmental.
    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University.
    Experimental studies on sleep disturbances due to railway and road traffic noise2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN) 2008, 2008, , s. 8s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
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