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  • 1.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    SIREN: sound generation for vehicle simulation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ViP Simulator Sound Renderer (SIREN) software has been created as a means to facilitate generation and playback of audio signals in driving simulators. Siren is a modular, scalable program with a plug-in based infrastructure. The included plug-ins offer sound file playback, sound stream playback and spatialization possibilities. Required additional functionality can be added by creating custom plug-ins. Siren by default relies on the OpenAL library for spatialization and on Csound for sound stream generation. Other spatialization and generation software can be used by replacing the corresponding API modules. Siren is implemented in the new Simulator IV as well as in Simulator III at VTI and will also be implemented in Simulator II in the immediate future. Experimental implementations have been tested in the VTI Foerst simulator running solely under the Microsoft Windows operating system. Volvo Trucks has a trial version implemented in their simulator and has made some local customization. The current sound models implemented through Siren in the VTI simulators consist of real-time synthesis of sound based on measurements performed in real vehicles (car and truck) on the Volvo test track. The resulting sound has been validated through corresponding measurements performed inside the simulator cabins as well as through informal listening by experienced drivers.

  • 2.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lahti, Eva
    Volvo Car Cooperation.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    The effect of low-frequency road noise on driver sleepiness and performance2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4, article id e0123835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this moving base driving simulator study with 19 drivers participating in a random order day and night time, was to evaluate the effect of low-frequency road noise on driver sleepiness and performance, including both long-term and short-term effects.

    It is a well-known fact today that driver sleepiness is a contributory factor in crashes. Factors considered as sleepiness contributor are mostly related to time of the day, hours being awake and hours slept. Factors contributing to active and passive fatigue are mostly focusing on the level of cognitive load. Less is known what role external factors, e.g. type of road, sound/noise, vibrations etc., have on the ability to stay awake both under conditions of sleepiness and under active or passive fatigue.

    The results support to some extent the hypothesis that road-induced interior vehicle sound affects driving performance and driver sleepiness. Increased low-frequency noise helps to reduce speed during both day- and night time driving, but also contributes to increase the number of lane crossings during night time.

  • 3.
    Arvidsson, Anna K.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Åkkvalitet på vinterväg2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What can be stated in this project is how a winter road is experienced when compared to snow free conditions, primarily with regard to unevenness and noise. Surveys carried out during the project show that it is possible, without too much difficulty, to measure the unevenness of a snow covered road surface. I this report is winter road defined as a snow covered road (around one day after heavy snowfall). Based on survey results, the study shows that the unevenness of section lengths between 0.05 metres and 1.0 metres are most affected by winter road conditions. Unevenness during winter road conditions is approximately five times greater than that experienced during snow free conditions. However, it is impossible to generalise for an entire road network as surface conditions during winter can be extremely variable. It is also possible to see that the surface structure described by the shortest wavelengths investigated, less than 10 millimetres, is smoother on the snow-covered surface. This is one hypothesis and indicates that measurements are reliable. The link between noise and unevenness is related to vehicle speed. The biggest sound difference between winter and summer road conditions, which could be related to the road surface measurements, was at the lower frequency range. Perceived in-car noise levels were between 3 and 6 decibel higher during winter conditions. However, for the higher frequency range the difference in noise levels was opposite - lower levels during winter conditions. A possible explanation for this is that sound may be absorbed by the snow.

  • 4.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Vastfjall, Daniel
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Tajadura-Jimenez, Ana
    Royal Holloway University London.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bergman, Penny
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Kleiner, Mendel
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Emoacoustics: A Study of the Psychoacoustical and Psychological Dimensions of Emotional Sound Design2012In: Journal of Shipping and Trade, ISSN 1549-4950, E-ISSN 1937-5905, Vol. 60, no 1-2, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though traditional psychoacoustics has provided indispensable knowledge about auditory perception, it has, in its narrow focus on signal characteristics, neglected listener and contextual characteristics. To demonstrate the influence of the meaning the listener attaches to a sound in the resulting sensations we used a Fourier-time-transform processing to reduce the identifiability of 18 environmental sounds. In a listening experiment, 20 subjects listened to and rated their sensations in response to, first, all the processed stimuli and then, all original stimuli, without being aware of the relationship between the two groups. Another 20 subjects rated only the processed stimuli, which were primed by their original counterparts. This manipulation was used in order to see the difference in resulting sensation when the subject could tell what the sound source is. In both tests subjects rated their emotional experience for each stimulus on the orthogonal dimensions of valence and arousal, as well as perceived annoyance and perceived loudness for each stimulus. They were also asked to identify the sound source. It was found that processing caused correct identification to reduce substantially, while priming recovered most of the identification. While original stimuli induced a wide range of emotional experience, reactions to processed stimuli were emotionally neutral. Priming manipulation reversed the effects of processing to some extent. Moreover, even though the 5th percentile Zwickers-loudness (N5) value of most of the stimuli was reduced after processing, neither perceived loudness nor auditory-induced emotion changed accordingly. Thus indicating the importance of considering other factors apart from the physical sound characteristics in sound design.

  • 5.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lidström, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nordmark, Staffan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Palmqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sehammar, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    SHAKE - an approach for realistic simulation of rough roads in a moving base driving simulator2010In: Trends in driving simulation design and experiments: proceedings of the driving simulation conference Europe 2010, Arcueil: Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur securite, INRETS , 2010, p. 135-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With today’s advanced measurement equipment for measuring roads, it is possible to measure road geometry at high precision within a large span of wavelengths. Detailed information about the roads longitudinal and lateral profile, including macro texture, would in theory be sufficient for a realistic reproduction of road induced vibration and noise in a driving simulator. Especially, it would be possible to create a direct connection between the visual information of the road condition and the ride experience, which would increase the level of realism in the simulation. VTI has during three years performed an internal project called SHAKE with the aim to develop and implement models in VTI driving simulator III that use measured road data for generating realistic vibrations and audible road noise connected to the visual impression presented on the projection screen. This has indeed resulted in an more realistic driving experience, and a validation study with test persons driving both in the simulator and in the field has been undertaken. The OpenDRIVE standard is used as a framework for describing the road properties (e.g. visual, vibrations and noise). For this purpose some augumentations to the OpenDRIVE standard had to be made. This paper describes the technical implementations in the driving simulator, along with results from test drives on the implemented road sections

  • 6.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lidström, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nordmark, Staffan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sehammar, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Improving the realism in the VTI driving simulators: Shake final report2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) has three advanced moving base driving simulators. The aim of this project was to develop and implement new models concerning vibration, noise and graphics in order to improve the realism in the simulators. Moreover, a validation study was to be conducted.

    Within the frame of the project the following were achieved:

    • improvement of the tyre/road vibration models,
    • •improvement of the motion system by changing the rotation centre,
    • •improvement of the noise module facilitating reproduction of noise from tyre/road,
    • •synchronization of the impressions from graphics, noise and vibrations caused by the road surface.

    The validity of the models was tested in the VTI Simulator III. Statistical testing of differences between the car and the simulator indicated absolute validity for the subjective ratings of evenness and noise level and the objective measure speed, with the exception of areas surrounding speed limit signs where only relative validity was found. Relative validity was also indicated for the variable overall comfort. The results from the different validations show that the improvements have been successful and the driver in the simulator can now see, hear and feel the sensation of any road surface irregularities exactly when the wheels hit that part of the road. However, several improvements in the simulator models can still be desired.

  • 7.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    State of preparedness for climate change adaptation in operations and maintenance of transport infrastructure in eight Swedish municipalities2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed the preparedness for climate change adaptation (CCA) of transport infrastructure in eight municipalities in Sweden. The study focused on municipal officials’ role in organizing and implementing CCA measures. The interviews were done in 2011. Many respondents confused CCA with climate change mitigation. Three of the municipalities had performed vulnerability analyses but apart from that, well-documented decision support in long-term adaptation was largely lacking. Adaptation measures were often based on day-to-day problems and recently experienced weather incidents. Strategic work with long-term CCA seemed to be largely lacking. The placing of the responsibility for CCA in the municipal organization was often unclear. Six of the respondents found there were no actual hindrances to their work with CCA and no conflicts with other municipal aims. However, several responses indicated budgetary competition with environmental aims or other societal strivings. The planning and implementation of CCA measures seemed to be highly dependent on individual officials, their engagement, their passivity/activity regarding this issue, their defined responsibility and the boundaries for their current position in the municipality organization. 

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ljudvarningar vid vägarbetsplatser för att uppnå sänkta hastigheter: Kartläggning och praktisk utvärdering2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A project has been carried out to find methods that effectively decrease drivers’ speeds at road work sites through real-time audio warnings. The project consisted of two parts. First, a survey of existing studies took place. The results show that the characteristics of a successful audio alert are female voice, direct and informative messages, an interaction between semantics and acoustics, successively increased intensity, and the dimming of secondary audio distractions. Based on the results of the survey, a practical evaluation of the potential use of audio warnings at road work sites was carried out in a VTI driver simulator. Twenty-two car drivers drove 25 kilometer on a motorway where two road works were placed on the hard shoulder. Half of the subjects were given an audio warning before the first road work and the other half prior to the second roadwork. The audio warning consisted of a sound similar to that of a GPS warning signal, followed by a female voice saying "Warning! Road work within 500 meters. Adjust the speed!". The message was sent via the car's internal speaker system. The speed reducing effect is significant and the average decrease is estimated to be 9–17 km/h greater with audio warning than without. Furthermore, there was still a small effect (0.5–3.3 km h) left of the audio alert after the road works. More results of the simulation tests are presented along with the drivers’ subjective opinions of such systems.

  • 9.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Trafikinformation och miljöeffekter: beräkningar av omledningseffekter2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims at calculating the environmental impact of traffic with a new computational model. A list of possible measures to reduce environmental effects using traffic information is given, aiming at improving energy efficiency, air quality, noise, and environmental impact. The use of traffic information to control traffic is growing, especially in urban environments where congestion impacts trafficability, while alternative routes are available. In the road sector The Swedish Transport Administration usually informs the traveller directly, while in the rail sector information is directed to the train companies who then inform travellers/drivers. This affects the ability to manage traffic, and creates problems for the intermodal information. This report focuses on the urgent environmental impact of traffic, although a review of long-term effects are included. Only the change in traffic and driving style affects the calculations. Many environmental impacts are affected by traffic, such as air pollution, noise, greenhouse gas emissions, but also the barrier effects, light pollution, water pollution and soil disturbance in sensitive areas. Calculations with the model show how emissions are affected by driving mode, and how the population exposure is affected. The existing models are highly simplified and development in emission modeling, exposure, effects of exposure, and model implementation is essential.

  • 10.
    Lahti, Eva
    et al.
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    SleepNoise2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that sleepiness is an important contributor to crashes. The drivers are influenced by circadian low, hours slept or being awake. There is also reason to believe that variations in interior road noise may be a contributing factor. Up to now the road noise models in simulators are not very mature and not validated.

    The aim of the technical part of the SleepNoise project was to develop the road noise model for the ViP simulation infrastructure, including individual vehicle types driving on individual road types. The goal was a sound model, close enough to the original real world setting as to be approved by vehicle noise experts. The resulting modelled interior sound spectrum should not deviate more than a few decibels from the corresponding recorded sound.

  • 11.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Externa kostnader för luftföroreningar och buller från trafiken på det statliga vägnätet: kunskapsläget och tillgången på beräkningsunderlag i Sverige samt några beräkningsexempel2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2012, the Swedish government commissioned VTI to update the social marginal cost for using infrastructure for all modes of transport based on state-of-the-art knowledge in the research community. The task only involved state roads. In this report we present the data used and the results for the external costs of air pollution (exhaust emissions) and noise. We have used the Impact Pathway Approach to perform the calculations using Swedish data focusing on health. In these calculations we have placed particular emphasis on how the influence of population density in the vicinity of roads influence the results from these calculations. For noise we developed an exposure function based on the new EU-CNOSSOS model which accounted for the location of buildings close to a road while for air pollution we used results based on detailed calculations in the Stockholm area. The results, using updated input data from 2012 on kilometers driven, emissions factors from HBEFA etc., are in line with those presented in the EU handbook from 2014 “Update of the Handbook on External Costs of Transport” but lower than those currently used in analysis of transport investments in Sweden (the so called ASEK-values). An important reason for this is that we have used more detailed information on population exposure. We have also concluded that there are geographical differences in the external cost for air pollution between the north and the south of Sweden. For both air and noise emissions there is also a difference between urban and rural areas. Based on the results we conclude that there are a number of issues where further research is needed, for example the possible interaction of air pollution and noise on human health. There are also still questions regarding the dispersion of emissions and population exposure and how this varies between cities and within cities in Sweden, depending on for example meteorological conditions. For air pollution there is also the question of the formation of secondary pollutants and their dispersion pattern and if they contribute to an external environmental cost in addition to health. One particular source of emissions in Sweden is the used of studded tyres which contribute to very high concentration levels of particulate matter close to roads in springtime. Since the focus in this study was on state roads we have not addressed this pollutant in this report.

  • 12.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Börjesson, Conny
    Viktoria Swedish ICT).
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Holmén, Lotta
    Viktoria Swedish ICT).
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Elvägar i körsimulator: design, test, utvärdering och demonstration av elvägstekniker och elfordon med virtuella metoder2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric road systems, ERS, where vehicles receive electricity continuously while driving, could be a way to reach the target of a fossil-free transport sector. A demonstration environment in a driving simulator was developed in order to test and evaluate ERS concepts and electric vehicles driving on ERS. A user study was conducted, where 25 drivers drove a 40 kilometre long route, both with a hybrid truck on ERS and with a conventional truck with no ERS. Driving on ERS showed no remarkable difference on driver’s experience of safety and aestethics or the driving behaviour compared to no ERS. The exception was average speed which was 2 kilometres/hour higher when driving on ERS. The energy consumption decreased 35 per cent on ERS. In order to disseminate project results to actors and potential users of ERS, a large number of simulator demonstrations have been conducted. There has also been a press release and a number of magazine articles. In addition, a portable ERS driving simulator was constructed and used in order to reach a broader public.

  • 13.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Samhällsekonomiska effekter med en kombitransport: beräkningar på järnvägsvagnen Flexiwaggon2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden and the EU, there is a stated need to combine more freight transports on road with railway. The aim is to reduce emissions of climate gases, as well as noise and other external effects such as congestion, accidents and wear and tear of the road. New innovations and transport solutions can be necessary to increase the number of combined road and railway freight transports. The transport solution analyzed in this study is a new railway wagon that can transport trucks at the speed of 160 km/h. The purpose of the study is to calculate the economic effects the new railway wagon can generate if it is used on a route where rail can be a viable alternative to road transport. In this, the environment and energy effects are studied, as well as the commercial cost.

    To define the contestable market between transport modes in a certain situation can be a challenging task, as there are many – and often interacting – factors that determine the mode choice. However, the literature states that route distance and the characteristics of the goods being transported are crucial factors for mode choice, where examples of the characteristics of goods are its value, damage sensitivity, time sensitivity, and weight (these can to a large extent be captured by the type of good). Freight transport on rail are often considered to be a viable approach on distances over 300 kilometres. In this study, we use three project cases with the route distances 280, 420 and 670 kilometres. We assume that distinct groups of goods are transported, as this will have an impact on the calculations.

    The base cases (with the abbreviation JA in the study) comprises road transport carried out by trucks with a trailer. A major part of the distance in the project cases (abbreviated UA) is covered by trains on which the trucks have been loaded. There are no truck drivers on the train transport.

    The environment and energy effects (exclusive noise) are calculated using a tool provided by the Network for Transport Measures (NTM). Differences in carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter are presented, where the project cases have lower emissions than the base cases. Moreover, a lower amount of energy is consumed in the project cases compared to the base cases.

  • 14.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Arvidsson, Björn
    Rese - och Turistnäringen i Sverige.
    Evanth, Katarina
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hvitlock, Nina
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundin, Jan
    Rese - och Turistnäringen i Sverige.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Wennberg, Hanna
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Hållbara turistresor inom Sverige: hinder och möjligheter för resor med tåg och buss2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to analyze the conditions for the transfer of passengers from private car to public transport, primarily train and bus to, from and within a number of tourist destinations in Sweden. The goal was to develop a basis for planning for sustainable tourism. The study included an analysis of opportunities to travel by public transport, travel time and travel costs, interviews with tourists and other stakeholders, an analysis of measures, and it results in some general guidelines for planning for sustainable tourism. The possibilities to travel by public transport, travel time and travel costs to, from and within three summer destinations (Astrid Lindgren's World, the Kingdom of Crystal, Öland) and two winter destinations (Åre, Funäsdalen) were analyzed for three different categories of tourists (families with children, couples, four adults) . This showed that overall is possible to travel to the destinations studied without a private car. The conditions travelling with public transport, however, differ greatly between the different destinations. Travel time by train or bus in comparison with travelling by car was not too different for most combinations of points of departure and destinations. In some cases, however, when the point of departure was a smaller place, not located along a major railroad, the journey by train and/or bus could be both long and require many transfers. In those cases public transport is hardly an alternative to traveling by private car. The total travel cost for travelling by train or bus was in almost all cases fairly level with travelling with private car, it but could also be significantly higher. The cost for travelling by public transport was also relatively higher in comparison with private car for parties with two or more people, and in those cases the cost was sometimes seen as an obstacle. The travel opportunities within the various destinations appears to be the biggest obstacle for convincing more people to choose to travel by public transport to and from tourist destinations, particularly in summer when travel requirement in general are higher. The options for travelling within the destinations vary considerably, but are generally better in the winter destinations. In Åre the ski bus, for example, is a good option for travelling between the various ski resorts. The tourist’s views of travelling by public transport is also much more positive for journeys to winter destinations than to summer destinations, which can largely be explained by the smaller travel requirements within these destinations. In the case of families the view that it is difficult to attract families with young children to travel by public transport emerged. There may be several reasons for this, the handling of luggage being one important issue. Many also suggested that there is a need to make it easier to find information about public transport options and alternatives as well as to reserve and book tickets. Package reservations were highlighted as an interesting alternative. Many saw information searching regarding the trip components such as accommodation, flights, transfer, lift passes etc. as problematic and would appreciate a service where everything was in one place. In addition it is not easy to get an overview of pricing for both travel and accommodation. Proposals were also put forward that one way to attract to travel by public transport is to highlight the added value that it entails.

  • 15.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Estimation of the marginal cost for road noise and rail noise2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the marginal cost of road noise and rail noise in Sweden. We use the impact pathway approach (IPA) where traffic noise exposure implies an impact on individuals, which in turn is related to monetary valuation of these outcomes.

    Our data consists of noise calculations and number of exposed individuals at different noise levels. We further use monetary valuations of noise disturbances based on property market differentials. Finally, impact functions of negative health outcomes due to noise exposure, and monetary valuations of these negative health outcomes, are used.

    The empirical results show that the marginal costs of traffic noise are highly dependent on the number of exposed individuals and the vehicle type. The overall conclusion is thus that differentiation of the marginal costs is essential, as the noise exposure varies strongly with the population density, and that different vehicle types contribute very differently to the noise emissions. Furthermore, road noise marginal costs are positively influenced by the speed limit and the traffic volume. Nevertheless, the sensitivity with respect to traffic volume is not very substantial. For rail noise marginal costs, there is no effect of traffic volume on the estimated marginal cost.

    In addition, the marginal costs for road noise are estimated separately for different times of the day. These results show that day times have the lowest marginal costs despite the largest traffic volume. Highest marginal costs are mostly estimated for evening but also in some calculations for night time. Sleep disturbances may not be captured in our analysis however, but a sensitivity analysis, including a separate function for sleep disturbance, shows that night time marginal costs are consistently the highest.

  • 16.
    Vieira, Tiago
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundberg, Joacim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology. University of Iceland.
    Porous pavement for reduced tyre/road noise and improved air quality: Initial results from a case study2019In: Proceedings of the 26th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, ICSV 2019, Canadian Acoustical Association , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One possible solution to reduce noise resulting from tyre-pavement interaction is to use a porous pavement surface. A porous surface will reduce noise by decreasing air pressure gradients in the tyre-pavement contact as well as by decreasing the acoustical impedance of the road surface and reducing the horn effect. While reducing noise, other functional aspects of a pavement such as abrasion wear which impacts on air pollution through generation and suspension of particles, friction and rolling resistance need to be addressed. This paper analyses the acoustical behaviour of a Double Layered Porous Asphalt (DLPA), applied in the city of Linköping, Sweden, as a solution to mitigate noise, compared to a non-porous Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) pavement used as reference. The analysis is based on Close Proximity noise measurements, both in absolute value and as frequency spectra, acoustical homogeneity over the surface length and sound absorption measurements. The acoustic analysis is combined with analyses of air quality measurements of PM10 (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm) from two Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) measurement stations placed near each different pavement section. The initial results indicate that the porous pavement results in a noise reduction of up to 5 dB for light vehicles, and up to 4 dB for heavy vehicles. So far, the DPLA shows approximately 52 % lower PM10 concentrations than the SMA. It should be noted that PM10 is influenced also by meteorological conditions, like humidity, background sources as well as vehicle properties, e.g. use of studded tyres, and that some of the observed decrease can be due to other aspects than porosity e.g. road surface moisture and wind direction. In conclusion, the use of a porous pavement shows promising results from both acoustical and air quality aspects, given the initial, short term results

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