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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Andersson, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Validating speed and road surface realism in VTI driving simulator III2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New simulator models concerning vibration, noise and graphics have been designed and implemented in the VTI Simulator III. The objective of this study is to validate this simulator in terms of road surface realism. Twenty-four drivers participated in the study and drove the same route both in the simulator and on real roads. Three road sections ranging from very smooth to rather uneven were incorporated in the design. The comparison included the objective driving parameter speed as well as subjective parameters from questionnaires and rating scales (evenness, quietness and comfort level). A road section with five speed limit changes was of particular interest in the analyses. No statistically significant difference could be found between the simulator and the car, neither in the parameter speed (in sections with no speed limit changes) nor in the ratings evenness and quietness. Despite similar speed profiles surrounding the speed limit signs, there was a statistically significant difference between the speed in the car and in the simulator, with more rapid accelerations and decelerations in the simulator. The comfort rating was shown to be higher in the car compared to the simulator, but in both cases the general trend showed higher comfort on smoother roads. These results indicate absolute validity for the ratings evenness and quietness, and for the measure speed, and relative validity for comfort and speed surrounding speed limit signs.

  • 2.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Demonstrationsstråk för cykel: för- och eftermätningar avseende trafikantgruppers beteenden. flöde - hastighet - körmönster - samspel2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the documentation of five different studies to estimate the effects of an improved cycle route. All the studies were made as before and after studies.

    The purpose of the cycle route is to provide opportunities for road users to use a bicycle to a greater extent for journeys to work.

    Flows and speeds, bicycles: Measurements were made at nine points along the cycle route and at a control point outside the route. Measurements went on for five days, Monday to Friday, on three occasions before and on one occasion after the measure.

    Flows and speeds, motor vehicles: At two points on that part of the route which was situated in a street carrying mixed traffic, the flow and speed of vehicular traffic were measured. At one of these measurement points a cycle track has been constructed. At the other the bicycle route is still in the street carrying mixed traffic, but the speed limit on the street has been reduced from 50 to 30 km/h, and speed calming measures in the form of road humps have been installed in the street.

    Driving pattern – vehicular traffic on the street with 30 km/h and road humps: A floating car study was performed on that part of the cycle route which is still situated on a street carrying mixed traffic.

    Study of interaction between pedestrians and cyclists, a section of a combined pedestrian and cycle path: In order to measure the effect of segregating pedestrian and cycle traffic on a combined path, traffic was videoed before and after the measure. One indicator of a disturbed cyclist was identified.

    Study of interaction at junctions between a combined pedestrian and cycle path and mixed traffic: At three junctions measures were taken to improve the interaction between road users. The junctions were videoed, and the number of road users per path was noted on these films. For pedestrians and cyclists an assessment was also made whether they were disturbed by other road users.

  • 3.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Demonstrationsstråket för cykel Huvudsta-Slussen: beteende och flöden - förmätning1999Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    GCM-trafikmätning1995Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Rullningsindikator för fastfrusna släpvagnsbromsar2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På släpvagnar som kopplas loss från dragbilen händer det ibland att släpets bromsar fryser fast. För att underlätta för föraren att upptäcka hjul med fastfrusna bromsar har en åkare konstruerat en rullningsindikator. Denna består idag av en plasthållare med reflex som fästes på släpvagnens hjul. I skenet från dragbilens backlampor kan föraren enkelt se i backspegeln om något av hjulen inte roterar. VTI har utvärderat rullningsindikatorn och syftet med utvärderingen har varit att bedöma effekten hos rullningsindikatorn. Ett försök har genomförts, där material med olika reflexion testades under olika ljusförhållanden. Resultatet från försöket visar att rullningsreflexen fungerar bra. Med vanlig reflex eller högintensiv reflex räcker det med en liten extra lampa för att avgöra om hjulet är fastlåst eller inte. Som ytterligare positiva effekter av rullningsindikatorn kan nämnas den ökade synbarheten av släpet, både i trafik och när släpet står parkerat på parkeringsficka utmed vägen.

  • 6.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    TEMA Cykel - utrustning för mätning av cykeltrafik: en litteraturstudie2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this study was to find new methods and technologies which could help develop better, safer and easier ways to measure cycling data. The result of this literature study is divided into equipment detecting cycles in order to control traffic signals, and equipment used to measure cycle flow. There is also a section that focuses on comparisons between different measurement equipment and another on how new technologies can be used for other benefits for cyclists. Some of the studies referred to, have focused on how the equipment should be used and adjusted to provide the best measurement results. This problem seems to be very important for further research. For the future one can hope that the cycle, the cycle computer, or possibly even the cycle helmet will be equipped with new technology. Technology would not only allow measurement of the cycle flows and control of traffic signals, but would also provide an information link to and from the cyclists. It may also even make it possible to trace a stolen cycle.

  • 7.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lidström, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nordmark, Staffan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Palmqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sehammar, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    SHAKE - an approach for realistic simulation of rough roads in a moving base driving simulator2010In: Trends in driving simulation design and experiments: proceedings of the driving simulation conference Europe 2010, Arcueil: Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur securite, INRETS , 2010, p. 135-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With today’s advanced measurement equipment for measuring roads, it is possible to measure road geometry at high precision within a large span of wavelengths. Detailed information about the roads longitudinal and lateral profile, including macro texture, would in theory be sufficient for a realistic reproduction of road induced vibration and noise in a driving simulator. Especially, it would be possible to create a direct connection between the visual information of the road condition and the ride experience, which would increase the level of realism in the simulation. VTI has during three years performed an internal project called SHAKE with the aim to develop and implement models in VTI driving simulator III that use measured road data for generating realistic vibrations and audible road noise connected to the visual impression presented on the projection screen. This has indeed resulted in an more realistic driving experience, and a validation study with test persons driving both in the simulator and in the field has been undertaken. The OpenDRIVE standard is used as a framework for describing the road properties (e.g. visual, vibrations and noise). For this purpose some augumentations to the OpenDRIVE standard had to be made. This paper describes the technical implementations in the driving simulator, along with results from test drives on the implemented road sections

  • 8.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Junghard, Ola
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dokumentation av program i VTI:s trafiksimuleringsmodell1988Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Junghard, Ola
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI trafiksimuleringsmodell: Användarhandledning1987Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Junghard, Ola
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI trafiksimuleringsmodell - reviderad användarhandledning1988Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lidström, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nordmark, Staffan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sehammar, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Improving the realism in the VTI driving simulators: Shake final report2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) has three advanced moving base driving simulators. The aim of this project was to develop and implement new models concerning vibration, noise and graphics in order to improve the realism in the simulators. Moreover, a validation study was to be conducted.

    Within the frame of the project the following were achieved:

    • improvement of the tyre/road vibration models,
    • •improvement of the motion system by changing the rotation centre,
    • •improvement of the noise module facilitating reproduction of noise from tyre/road,
    • •synchronization of the impressions from graphics, noise and vibrations caused by the road surface.

    The validity of the models was tested in the VTI Simulator III. Statistical testing of differences between the car and the simulator indicated absolute validity for the subjective ratings of evenness and noise level and the objective measure speed, with the exception of areas surrounding speed limit signs where only relative validity was found. Relative validity was also indicated for the variable overall comfort. The results from the different validations show that the improvements have been successful and the driver in the simulator can now see, hear and feel the sensation of any road surface irregularities exactly when the wheels hit that part of the road. However, several improvements in the simulator models can still be desired.

  • 12.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utvärdering av kameraövervakade vägarbetsplatser: en pilotstudie2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att arbeta på och invid vägen är ett mycket utsatt arbete och många

    vägarbetare

    upplever varje dag stor oro och otrygghet på jobbet. Problemet är höga

    hastigheter

    och alltför korta avstånd i kombination med ouppmärksamhet och bristande hän-

    syn hos trafikanterna. Dessa förhållanden leder till förhöjd

    olycksrisk vid vägarbete jämfört med i trafiken i övrigt. I ett försök att

    öka säkerheten och

    förbättra

    arbetsförhållandena för vägarbetarna har kameraövervakning av

    vägarbetsplatser

    testats. Metoden har utvärderats i den pilotstudie som redovisas i

    rapporten.

    Utvärderingen ingår i ett mellansvenskt initiativ som genomförs under 2001.

    I pilotstudien har tre delstudier genomförts. I den första delstudien gjordes

    en

    jämförelse av uppmätta hastigheter med och utan kameraövervakning. I den

    andra

    tillfrågades fortkörare via enkäter om: 1) trafik i allmänhet -

    framförallt regelefterlevnad, 2) vägarbeten - särskilt attityder till dessa

    och 3) den egna

    passagen

    av det aktuella vägarbetet. I den tredje delstudien tillfrågades vägarbetare

    om upplevd säkerhet och trygghet på arbetsplatsen.

  • 13.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wågberg, Lars-Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    FORMAT - Optimerat vägunderhåll: del I: Praktisk guide för optimerat underhåll, del II: Teknisk slutrapport2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    EU-projektet FORMAT (Fully Optimised Road Maintenance) ingick i EU:s femte ramprogram; "Task 2.2.2/11, Road infrastructure pavement maintenance management" under "Uthållig rörlighet och förändring". Projektet startade den 1 februari 2002 och pågick i tre år.

    Den översättning och sammanfattning som redovisas i detta VTI notat har delats upp i två delar; Praktisk guide för optimerat vägunderhåll och Teknisk slutrapport.

    FORMAT-projektet hade följande tekniska och vetenskapliga målsättningar: - Ta fram bättre fungerande, innovativa underhållsåtgärder och metoder som minskar trafikstörningar, i form av köbildning och förbättrad säkerhet, i samband med vägarbeten - Utveckla en heltäckande "cost-benefit" analys som tar hänsyn till alla viktiga aspekter av vägunderhåll, inklusive trafikantkostnader - Utveckla strategier, för säkerheten vid vägarbeten, som omfattar utformningen av vägavstängningar och tidpunkten för åtgärdens genomförande på ett sådant sätt att säkerheten för trafikanter och vägarbetare maximeras - Föreslå metoder, tillvägagångssätt och utrustning för mätning av vägars tillstånd i normal körhastighet för att minimera antalet störande vägavstängningar som krävs för insamling av tillståndsdata.

  • 14.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Slitna vindrutor: simulatorstudie2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    One traffic safety problem that has been observed in several studies is the wear of the windscreens. The risk of dazzling increases when driving with a worn windscreen, which may have the consequence that the driver does not discover objects or people on the road in front of the vehicle. The behaviour of 24 drivers has been studied in a driving simulator using three windscreens with different level of usage. To achieve dazzling in the driving simulator a lamp was mounted in front of the windscreen in the simulator. The lamp simulated a setting sun. When the driver had to make way for an obstacle on the road, this was more difficult with the worn windscreens, despite the lower speed. The drivers discovered the obstacles later, used a harder brake power and took a more powerful action to avoid the obstacle. Altogether this indicates a more risky driving behaviour, in other words decreased traffic safety. The sight length to a cone was also measured. The results showed that the sight length became shorter with worn windscreen. When the drivers were asked to express their opinion about the experiment, they assessed both the simulated environment and the driving task as relatively realistic. Even though this is a simulated situation, with its limitations, the results indicate that driving under dazzling conditions with a worn windscreen has negative effects on driver behaviour.

  • 15.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    State-of-the-art för utformning av vägarbetsplatser: förslag till nya lösningar2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the Swedish Road Administration a state-of-the-art study concerning work zone safety has been carried out. Literature describing new methods and evaluations of methods has been studied. Experts, working with work zone safety, were interviewed and gave their view of the safety problems at work zones. The aim of the study was to find new and effective measures to ensure safety at road work zones.

  • 16.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Worn windscreens: simulator study2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    One traffic safety problem that has been observed in several studies is the wear of the windscreens. The risk of dazzling increases when driving with a worn windscreen, which may have the consequence that the driver does not discover objects or people on the road in front of the vehicle. The behaviour of 24 drivers has been studied in a driving simulator using three windscreens with different level of usage. To achieve dazzling in the driving simulator a lamp was mounted in front of the windscreen in the simulator. The lamp simulated a setting sun. When the driver had to make way for an obstacle on the road, this was more difficult with the worn windscreens, despite the lower speed. The drivers discovered the obstacles later, used a harder brake power and took a more powerful action to avoid the obstacle. Altogether this indicates a more risky driving behaviour, in other words decreased traffic safety. The sight length to a cone was also measured. The results showed that the sight length became shorter with worn windscreen. When the drivers were asked to express their opinion about the experiment, they assessed both the simulated environment and the driving task as relatively realistic. Even though this is a simulated situation, with its limitations, the results indicate that driving under dazzling conditions with a worn windscreen has negative effects on driver behaviour.

  • 17.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Simulating the effect of low lying sun and worn windscreens in a driving simulator2010In: Proceedings of the driving simulation conference Europe 2010: trends in driving simulation design and experiments, Bron: Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur securite, INRETS , 2010, p. 23-31Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Validering av METOR i tätort1997Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Brodin, A
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Carlsson, A
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI trafiksimuleringsmodell. Del I: Beskrivning av modell och programsystem. Del II. Bilaga 1: Programsystem och exempel på utdata. Bilaga 2: Lathund för simuleringsprogrammen (The VTI traffic simulation model)1982Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Alm, Torbjörn
    HiQ.
    Andersson, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nilsson, Göran
    Svenska vägmarkeringsföreningen, SVMF.
    Driver acceptance and performance with LDW and rumble strips assistance in unintentional lane departures2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this ViP project the focus of investigation was whether drivers more readily accept either rumble strips or an in-vehicle lane departure warning system (LDW) in unintentional lane departure situations. The results show that acceptance was high for both alternatives, but while the drivers showed more satisfaction from using the LDW, they also showed more trust in the rumble strips. Twenty-four drivers drove the VTI driving simulator SIM III in car mode with simulated rumble strips in one drive and with a simulated Volvo LDW in another drive. A forced yaw motion of the vehicle induced the unintentional lane departures. The results showed no choice in favour of the LDW or the rumble strips, but a clear preference for having a function that warns for unintentional lane departure. Several participants thought it was good to have both types of warning in parallel. Although Response completion time was shorter with the rumble strips warning, there was no difference between the warning types, neither in Time to get car back in lane nor in Lane exceedence area. Thus, there were no major overall differences between the LDW and the rumble strips as measured in the present study. The conclusion is that the drivers’ acceptance, as well as performance, was high for both the rumble strips and the LDW. The positive opinion on the need for assistance systems in unintentional lane departure when drivers are directing their visual attention away from the road is thus further strengthened.

  • 21.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Karlsson, Bo O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Tema miljörisker: miljörisker och trafikanters beteenden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles the results from the project Theme Environmental risks. More specifically, the project concerned how different transport related environmental risks influence different road users and how their behaviour influence the environment. The project aimed at preparing for interdisciplinary research about environmental risks at VTI. The project was divided into three parts. The first subproject aimed at compiling literature about transport related environmental risks from psychological and economic perspectives, and in the second subproject a willingness to pay study was outlined where both economic and psychological principles were considered. In the third subproject, a simulator study was outlined. The focus was to study environmental effects of driving under controlled circumstances in the driving simulator. The report is divided into two parts. In part 1, the results from the literature review and the proposal for a willingness to pay study are described (subproject 1 and 2). This part is written in English. Part 2 contains a project outline for a simulator study in the form of an research project application (project 3). This part is written in Swedish.

  • 22.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Säkerhet och arbetsmiljö vid väg- och spårarbeten: implementeringsprocessen av nytt regelverk och dess effekter2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was, through the use of interviews, case studies, and a reference group meeting to describe and analyze the implementation process of new and revised regulations. This applies to both road and track in their administrative and operational activities within the Swedish Transport Administration and their contractors. The aim was also to analyze the effects the new and revised regulations had on roles and responsibilities but also their own and others' safety. For work on the road, new rules and regulations were established, which became effective as of 1st of January 2013. With regard to rail, a number of measures were implemented in 2011 to improve safety that included changed rules for work on and beside the tracks.

  • 23.
    Ihs, Anita
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Trafikanternas krav på vägars tillstånd: en körsimulatorstudie2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In order to get a view on the road surface condition the Swedish Road Administration (SRA) uses both objective measurement mehods, mainly measurements of rut depth and unevenness, and road users, opinions on the roads condition. Objective measurements show that road surface condition in general has not changed to any greater extent during the latest years. Road user surveys show, however, that the road users, and not least the professional drivers, have become less satisfied with the operation and maintenace of the roads. To try to understand the cause of this discrepancy it is of interest to closer analyse the road users assessment of road surface condition. The report presents a driving simulator study, which is divided into two experiments. In the first experiment the importance of different impressions, i.e. visual appearance, noise and vibrations, is tested on a road surface with ruts as well as on a road surface with patchings/repairs. The analysis was based on driving data and on the drivers´ opinions on how comfortable and safe, respectively, the road was to drive on. The conclusion from the first experiment was that the visual apppearence alone does not influence speed, but lateral position. Noise has an influence on the variance of speed, and vibration has an influence on the variance of lateral position. Noise and vibration have an influence on speed in interaction with the visual appearance. The results of the drivers´ assessments of comfort and safety show a clear pattern where the visual appearance, the sound and the vibrations separately and in an additional way have an influence on the subjective experience of comfort and safety. In the second experiment eight road surfaces with different road surface conditions (patches, ruts, ruts filled with water, rough texture, unnevenness (two levels), cracks and edge deformations). The eight road surfaces grouped together in three different groups concerning the assessment of comfort and of safety, though not in the exact same way.

  • 24.
    Ihs, Anita
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Säkerhet vid väg- och spårarbete: en intervjustudie2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are rules and regulations that govern how working environment and safety are considered for road and railway works, but despite this a number of accidents and more or less serious incidents happens every year. To get an idea of how safety and working environment related issues are handled in the procurement, planning and implementation of maintenance activities of roads and railways a limited number of interviews with relevant actors have been performed. Purchasers and project managers at the Swedish Transport Administration (STA), as well as entrepreneurs and a union representative at the union SEKO, were interviewed for both the road and the railway side. For the road side, traffic engineers at STA were also interviewed. Based on the results from the interviews a number of problem areas could be identified, of which some are:

    • Dissemination of information about new regulations to all parties at all levels
    • Unclear procedures for self-monitoring, reporting, action on identified deficiencies, follow up and feedback
    • Inadequate procedures for reporting of accidents and incidents as well as for actions taken, follow up and feedback of these
    • The STA nowadays sets skill requirements instead of requirements on specific education/courses, making it more complicated to ensure that the requirements are met
    • It can be difficult to ensure the competence of temporary staff, mainly at work peaks.
  • 25.
    Kircher, Albert
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vogel, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Törnros, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Malmström, Therese
    Ceci, Ruggero
    Mobile telephone simulator study2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The study consists of four separate experiments conducted in the VTI driving

    simulator. The common theme was to investigate how driver behaviour and

    traffic safety are influenced when the driver attends to another technical

    device while driving. The experiments were concerned with handsfree or

    handheld mobile phone conversation and dialling, receiving mobile phone SMS

    messages and watching a DVD film (the latter two being minor pilot

    experiments). In three of the experiments (mobile phone conversation, SMS,

    DVD) the participants drove a route which led through urban and rural

    environments, ranging from 90 km/h rural to 50 km/h urban environments. The

    urban environments differed in complexity (three levels). The driving

    distance was about 70 km. The dialling experiment used a rural environment

    with a speed limit of 110 km/h. The driving distance was about 15 km. In the

    main experiment dealing with mobile phone conversation, a number of driving

    performance measures were analysed: driving speed, variation in lateral

    position, deceleration, brake reaction time, headway, time to collision, etc.

    PDT (Peripheral Detection Task) was used as a measure of mental workload.

    Mobile phone conversation was found demanding in terms of mental workload. It

    also had effects on driving. Most effects were quite similar for the two

    phone modes (handsfree, handheld). Impaired reaction time performance was

    demonstrated in one of the situations for handheld mode. However, effects

    were found which could be interpreted as attempts to compensate for the

    increased workload caused by the mobile phone conversation: speed was reduced

    (more so for handheld than for handsfree mode), and time and distance headway

    increased. In spite of these compensatory behaviours, mental workload was

    still markedly increased by phone use. In the SMS experiment the participants

    braked later in one situation when reading the SMS message. No other effects

    were found in this minor experiment. In the DVD experiment, mental workload

    increased when watching the film, although this was compensated for to some

    extent by the increased distance headway to a lead vehicle. No compensation

    in terms of reduced driving speed, however, was apparent in this experiment.

    In the dialling experiment negative effects on traffic safety were evident

    from the larger variance of lateral car position during the dialling task for

    the handsfree phone mode. The mental workload also increased with the

    dialling task. Compensation in terms of reduced driving speed was apparent

    for both phone modes. Other aspects of mobile phone use while driving still

    remain to be analysed in more detail, such as starting or finishing a call,

    looking for a phone number to dial, mishaps like dropping the phone, etc.

  • 26.
    Ljung Aust, Mikael
    et al.
    Volvo cars.
    Engström, Johan
    Volvo technology.
    Viström, Matias
    Saab automobile.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Saab automobile.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Effects of forward collision warning, initial time headway and repeated scenario exposure on driver response in emergency lead vehicle braking scenarios2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To address the research questions, acritical lead vehicle braking scenario and anFCW system was developed and pilot tested in Saab’s fixed based driving simulator in Trollhättan. After piloting, the scenario was implemented in VTI’s moving base simulatorin Linköping, and the effects,of FCW presence, two different initial time headways at visual distraction task onset and repeated scenario exposure, on driver response timeswere examined.The study showed significant effects of FCW and repeated scenario exposure on response times. Moreover, these effects were not additivei.e. a significant interaction between the two was found. There was also a significant effect on responsetimes ofinitial time headway at onset of the visual distraction task. In addition, an interaction between initial time headway and repeated scenario exposure was found for drivers with FCW, but not for drivers without FCW. A second objective of the project was to compare the extent to which the VTI moving base simulator with motion cues generates similar driver responses(quantitatively and qualitatively)as the static simulator set-up at Saab. In general, theresults from this project have important implications for the interpretation of driver performance in experimental settings, particularlywhen aiming toevaluate safety-related in-vehicle information and warning technologies. For onething,they pose a general question markaround the generalizabilityof results to real world events. Second, a future prerequisite for FCW studies should probably be that test drivers have a previous level of system exposure level which matchesthat of real world drivers encountering typical critical events. Also, tuning the initialtime headwayat distraction task onsetin the experimentalsetting to real world conditions is of critical importance.

  • 27.
    Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Cocu, Xavier
    BRRC, Belgian Road Research Centre.
    Saleh, Peter
    AIT, Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH.
    Aleksa, Michael
    AIT, Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH.
    La Torre, Francesca
    UNIFI, Università di Firenze.
    Nocentini, Alessandro
    UNIFI, Università di Firenze.
    Tucka, Pavel
    CDV, Transport Research Centre.
    Towards a European Guideline for Speed Management Measures in Work Zones2016In: Transportation Research Procedia, 2016, Vol. 14, p. 3426-3435Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed management in work zones is important to ensure that the driver safely can navigate the vehicle through the work zone routing. The ASAP project, Appropriate Speed saves All People, was designed to address this issue, with its specific focus on speed management measures and treatments that increase road safety both for the road workers and the road users. The objective was to provide a best practice document that can be applied across Europe with recommendations on how to effectively manage speed through roadwork zones.

    The guideline provides solutions to help achieving the appropriate speed on different road types and roadworks independently of country. The study showed that most of the speed management measures have some effects on reducing speeds, and even when only minor speed reductions are achieved, these measures may effectively alert drivers to an upcoming roadwork, thereby increasing the safety.

1 - 27 of 27
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