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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dangerous use of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving: A toolbox of counter-measures2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile phone and similar devices while driving has been a topic of discussion and research for several years. It is now an established fact that driving performance is deteriorated due to distraction but no clear conclusions can yet be drawn concerning influence on crash rates. Better studies on this relationship is needed. Most countries in Europe and many countries elsewhere have introduced different types of bans for handheld devices. Sweden has, however, no such bans. VTI was commissioned by the Swedish Government to outline possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving as alternatives to banning. This task was a result of a previous VTI-state-of-the-art review of research on mobile phone and other communication device usage while driving. One of the findings in the review was that bans on handheld phones did not appear to reduce the number of crashes.

    Eighteen different countermeasures in three main areas were suggested. (1) Technical solutions such as countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. (2) Education and information, describing different ways to increase knowledge and understanding among stakeholders and different driver categories. (3) Different possibilities for how society, industry and organisations can influence the behaviour of individuals, via policies, rules, recommendations and incentives. Our conclusion is that a combination of different countermeasures is needed – where education and information to the drivers are combined with support and incentives for a safe usage of different communication devices.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    A Moving Base Simulator Investigation of Effects of a Yaw Stability System Caused by a Side Impact2011In: Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering, ISSN 1530-9827, E-ISSN 1944-7078, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 044501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate how an electronic stability control (ESC) system may aid the driver in a critical sideswipe accident. Another objective was to investigate the possibility of having a realistic simulation of a sideswipe accident in a large moving base simulator. The experiment can be divided into two parts. In part one, the driver is unaware of the sudden side impact and in part two, the side impact was repeated six times.

    The experiment was driven by 18 persons. With the ESC system active no driver lost control, while with the system inactive there were five drivers that lost control in part one. In part two, the ESC system showed to stabilize the vehicle faster, and the improvement in stabilization time was between 40% and 62%. It was also seen that 2% loss of control occurred with an ESC system active and 45% without.

  • 3.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Effects of motion parallax in driving simulators2012In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference Europe 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motion parallax due to the driver’s head movement have been implemented and tested in VTI Driving Simulator III. An advanced camera-based system was used to track the head movements of the driver. The output from the tracking system was fed to the simulation software, which used low-pass filtering and a forward prediction algorithm to calculate an offset. The offset was then used by the graphics software to display the correct image to the driver.

    The effects of driving with motion parallax in the simulator were also observed by an initial study. During the experiment, the subjects caught up with several slower vehicles which forced the driver to make an overtaking maneuver. Oncoming traffic forced the subject to search for a suitable gap for overtaking. The study also included a speed perception test. The results from the study showed no difference in lateral positioning when running behind a slower vehicle nor in speed perception with and without motion parallax.

  • 4.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Viktoria & Högskolan i Halmstad, CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Safety Analysis of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control in Vehicle Cut-in Situations2017In: Proceedings of 2017 4th International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology towards Zero-Traffic-Accidents (FAST-zero), Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan , 2017, article id 20174621Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) is a cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) function, which especially when used in platooning applications, possess many expected benefits including efficient road space utilization and reduced fuel consumption. Cut-in manoeuvres in platoons can potentially reduce those benefits, and are not desired from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, in realistic traffic scenarios, cut-in manoeuvres can be expected, especially from non-connected vehicles. In this paper two different controllers for platooning are explored, aiming at maintaining the safety of the platoon while a vehicle is cutting in from the adjacent lane. A realistic scenario, where a human driver performs the cut-in manoeuvre is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers. Safety analysis of CACC controllers using time to collision (TTC) under such situation is presented. The analysis using TTC indicate that, although potential risks are always high in CACC applications such as platooning due to the small inter-vehicular distances, dangerous TTC (TTC < 6 seconds) is not frequent. Future research directions are also discussed along with the results.

  • 5.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE Viktoria & Högskolan i Halmstad, CAISR Centrum för tillämpade intelligenta system (IS-lab).
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Simulation of Cut-In by Manually Driven Vehicles in Platooning Scenarios2017In: 2017 IEEE 20th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2017, p. 315-320Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the near future, Cooperative Intelligent Transport System (C-ITS) applications are expected to be deployed. To support this, simulation is often used to design and evaluate the applications during the early development phases. Simulations of C-ITS scenarios often assume a fleet of homogeneous vehicles within the transportation system. In contrast, once C-ITS is deployed, the traffic scenarios will consist of a mixture of connected and non-connected vehicles, which, in addition, can be driven manually or automatically. Such mixed cases are rarely analysed, especially those where manually driven vehicles are involved. Therefore, this paper presents a C-ITS simulation framework, which incorporates a manually driven car through a driving simulator interacting with a traffic simulator, and a communication simulator, which together enable modelling and analysis of C-ITS applications and scenarios. Furthermore, example usages in the scenarios, where a manually driven vehicle cut-in to a platoon of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) equipped vehicles are presented.

  • 6.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Halmstad Universitet.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad Universitet.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Viktoria Swedish ICT,.
    Dimensions of cooperative driving, ITS and automation2015In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings, 2015, p. 144-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless technology supporting vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, allow vehicles and infrastructures to exchange information, and cooperate. Cooperation among the actors in an intelligent transport system (ITS) can introduce several benefits, for instance, increase safety, comfort, efficiency.

    Automation has also evolved in vehicle control and active safety functions. Combining cooperation and automation would enable more advanced functions such as automated highway merge and negotiating right-of-way in a cooperative intersection. However, the combination have influences on the structure of the overall transport systems as well as on its behaviour. In order to provide a common understanding of such systems, this paper presents an analysis of cooperative ITS (C-ITS) with regard to dimensions of cooperation. It also presents possible influence on driving behaviour and challenges in deployment and automation of C-ITS.

  • 7.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation2017In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connected and automated driving in the context of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) is an emerging area in transport systems research. Interaction and cooperation between actors in transport systems are now enabled by the connectivity by means of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. To ensure the goals of C-ITS, which are safer and more efficient transport systems, testing and evaluation are required before deployment of C-ITS applications. Therefore, this paper presents a simulation framework-consisting of driving-, traffic-, and network-simulators-for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications. Examples of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) applications are presented, and are used as test cases for the simulation framework as well as to elaborate on potential use cases of it. Challenges from combining the simulators into one framework, and limitations are reported and discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with future development directions, and applications of the simulation framework in testing and evaluation of C-ITS.

  • 8.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    A simulation framework for cooperative intelligent transport systems testing and evaluation2017In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connected and automated driving in the context of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) is an emerging area in transport systems research. Interaction and cooperation between actors in transport systems are now enabled by the connectivity by means of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. To ensure the goals of C-ITS, which are safer and more efficient transport systems, testing and evaluation are required before deployment of C-ITS applications. Therefore, this paper presents a simulation framework—consisting of driving-, traffic-, and network-simulators—for testing and evaluation of C-ITS applications. Examples of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) applications are presented, and are used as test cases for the simulation framework as well as to elaborate on potential use cases of it. Challenges from combining the simulators into one framework, and limitations are reported and discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with future development directions, and applications of the simulation framework in testing and evaluation of C-ITS. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Larsson, Tony
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization.
    Cooperative Driving Simulation2016In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference 2016, 2016, p. 123-132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a few decades, driving simulators have been supporting research and development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). In the near future, connected vehicles are expected to be deployed. Driving simulators will need to support evaluation of cooperative driving applications within cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITS) scenarios. C-ITS utilize vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. Simulation of the inter vehicle communication is often not supported in driving simulators. On the other hand, previous efforts have been made to connect network simulators and traffic simulators, to perform C-ITS simulations. Nevertheless, interactions between actors in the system is an essential aspect of C-ITS. Driving simulators can provide the opportunity to study interactions and reactions of human drivers to the system. This paper present simulation of a C-ITS scenario using a combination of driving, network, and traffic simulators. The architecture of the solution and important challenges of the integration are presented. A scenario from Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2016 is implemented in the simulator as an example use case. Lastly, potential usages and future developments are discussed.

  • 10.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM. Halmstad University.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nåbo, Arne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
    Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16), New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 255-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles in cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) often need to interact with each other in order to achieve their goals, safe and efficient transport services. Since human drivers are still expected to be involved in C-ITS, driving simulators are appropriate tools for evaluation of the C-ITS functions. However, driving simulators often simplify the interactions or influences from the ego vehicle on the traffic. Moreover, they normally do not support vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication, which is the main enabler for C-ITS. Therefore, to increase the C-ITS evaluation capability, a solution on how to extend a driving simulator with traffic and network simulators to handle cooperative systems is presented as a result of this paper. Evaluation of the result using two use cases is presented. And, the observed limitations and challenges of the solution are reported and discussed.

  • 11.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lidström, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nordmark, Staffan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Palmqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sehammar, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    SHAKE - an approach for realistic simulation of rough roads in a moving base driving simulator2010In: Trends in driving simulation design and experiments: proceedings of the driving simulation conference Europe 2010, Arcueil: Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur securite, INRETS , 2010, p. 135-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With today’s advanced measurement equipment for measuring roads, it is possible to measure road geometry at high precision within a large span of wavelengths. Detailed information about the roads longitudinal and lateral profile, including macro texture, would in theory be sufficient for a realistic reproduction of road induced vibration and noise in a driving simulator. Especially, it would be possible to create a direct connection between the visual information of the road condition and the ride experience, which would increase the level of realism in the simulation. VTI has during three years performed an internal project called SHAKE with the aim to develop and implement models in VTI driving simulator III that use measured road data for generating realistic vibrations and audible road noise connected to the visual impression presented on the projection screen. This has indeed resulted in an more realistic driving experience, and a validation study with test persons driving both in the simulator and in the field has been undertaken. The OpenDRIVE standard is used as a framework for describing the road properties (e.g. visual, vibrations and noise). For this purpose some augumentations to the OpenDRIVE standard had to be made. This paper describes the technical implementations in the driving simulator, along with results from test drives on the implemented road sections

  • 12.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Simulating the effect of low lying sun and worn windscreens in a driving simulator2010In: Proceedings of the driving simulation conference Europe 2010: trends in driving simulation design and experiments, Bron: Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur securite, INRETS , 2010, p. 23-31Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13. Camuffo, I
    et al.
    Cicilloni, R
    Fürstenberg, K
    Westhoff, D
    Aparicio, A
    Benmimoun, M
    Lützow, J
    Lesemann, M
    Zlocki, A
    Eriksson, H
    Herard, J
    Jacobson, J
    Bilbao, N
    Iglesias, I
    Isasi, L
    Sanchez, J
    Leanderson, S
    Heinig, K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Concepts definition2009Report (Other academic)
  • 14. Camuffo, I
    et al.
    Fürstenberg, K
    Westhoff, D
    Aparicio, A
    Zlocki, A
    Lützow, J
    Benmimoun, M
    Lesemann, M
    Iglesias, I
    Isasi, L
    Murgoitio, J
    Jacobson, J
    Eriksson, H
    Herard, J
    Leanderson, S
    Heinig, K
    Karlsson, A-S
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    State of the art and eVALUE scope2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    eVALUE will address the real function of ICT-based safety systems and their capability to perform the function through two courses of action: defining and quantifying the function output to be achieved by the safety system and developing the testing and evaluation methods for the ICT-based safety systems. The safety systems within the eVALUE scope are classified into four clusters: longitudinal, lateral and yaw/stability. The fourth cluster remains open for upcoming systems. Based on market availability and penetration rate, the consortium decided to focus on eight preventive or mitigating safety systems: ACC, FCW and CM by braking, in the longitudinal assistance domain; BSD, LDW and LKA, in the lateral assistance domain; and finally, ABS and ESC, in the yaw/stability assistance domain. Following the description of current test and evaluation methods, sensor technologies, system function output and ECUs globally applicable to ICT based safety systems, the report covers these technologies and components for the eight selected systems in detail. As a next step to this deliverable and according to the work plan, concepts for design reviews, physical vehicle testing as well as laboratory testing will be analysed. The result will be an in-depth understanding of the possibilities to investigate and evaluate the eight active safety systems within the first phase of the project. The different concepts will then support the decision about the development of the testing and evaluation methods that are able to point out the safety benefit of those systems in the most representative way.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Bolling, Anne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Karlsson, Bo O
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Tema miljörisker: miljörisker och trafikanters beteenden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles the results from the project Theme Environmental risks. More specifically, the project concerned how different transport related environmental risks influence different road users and how their behaviour influence the environment. The project aimed at preparing for interdisciplinary research about environmental risks at VTI. The project was divided into three parts. The first subproject aimed at compiling literature about transport related environmental risks from psychological and economic perspectives, and in the second subproject a willingness to pay study was outlined where both economic and psychological principles were considered. In the third subproject, a simulator study was outlined. The focus was to study environmental effects of driving under controlled circumstances in the driving simulator. The report is divided into two parts. In part 1, the results from the literature review and the proposal for a willingness to pay study are described (subproject 1 and 2). This part is written in English. Part 2 contains a project outline for a simulator study in the form of an research project application (project 3). This part is written in Swedish.

  • 16.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sundström, Jerker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    A test method for evaluating safety aspects of ESC equipped passenger cars: a prototype proposal2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Active safety systems are becoming increasingly common in today's vehicles. Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems were introduced during the end of the 1990s, and accident statistics show that they have had a huge impact on traffic safety. In the USA, a new legislation has recently been adopted which demands on every new light vehicle that is sold to be equipped with ESC, beginning 2011. New systems require new testing methods, and there is a need expressed by the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), which at present time only evaluates the passive safety of cars, also to include tests for active safety systems. In a previous VTI work, a literature review regarding methods for the evaluation of traffic safety effects of Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) and ESC was performed. Based on the findings of that review, we have proceeded with defining a test method for evaluating safety aspects of ESC equipped passenger cars. The objective has been to suggest a (prototype) test method that can be used for a more holistic evaluation of the safety effect of ESC in cars, including the driver behaviour perspective. From discussions with leading experts on traffic safety and ESC, possible benefits of ESC systems on traffic safety were identified. In addition to increasing the yaw stability of the vehicle, the following ESC benefit effects were identified: - A warning system for slippery roads. ESC activation indication may act as a warning system to the driver about slippery road conditions. - Reduced collision speed. In a critical situation, ESC activation may reduce the collision speed, which will mitigate the outcome of the collision. - Improved vehicle roll stability. The ESC system may also stabilise the vehicle with respect to untripped rollovers. Most rollovers are however tripped rollovers, which can occur when a vehicle, with some lateral slip, strikes an object or slides off the road. These rollovers also benefit from the ESC system as it aids in keeping the vehicle on the road.

  • 17.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Handling of buses on slippery roads during the influence of side wind: A study of the effects of different tyres2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 972-977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accident statistics assembled by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) have shown that buses are overrepresented when it comes to accidents on icy and snowy roads. For a better understanding of the problem, the performance of modern summer and winter tyres on winter road conditions had to be assessed. The objective of this work has been to go beyond standard road grip studies, and instead investigate how the driver's possibility to deal with one challenging situation depends on the tyres and tyre configuration. This paper describes a novel methodology where measurements with different tyres on ice in VTI's tyre test facility, enabled a simulator study for evaluating the impact of different tyre characteristics when driving in conditions with strong side wind on a slippery road.

    The main results of the study are: to deal with strong side wind, good front wheel grip is most important, and while non-studded winter tyres provided little or no improvement over summer tyres, studded winter tyres significantly reduced the risk to run off the road. Furthermore, it is very difficult for the drivers to judge, beforehand, whether a vehicle with a particular tyre configuration will perform good or bad.

  • 18.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Integration of vehicle electrical system components and production code active safety functions into a driving simulator2011In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Jansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bränström, Mattias
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Driver reactions to horn and headlight warnings in critical situations: A simulator study2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a driving simulator study on driving behavior in a critical head-on collision scenario. The study aims at providing basic understanding of driver responses to headlight and horn warning coming from another vehicle a time critical situation. In total, 48 participants drove 30 km. During the drive participants performed a secondary task, announced by a vibration in the seat. At the time of the secondary task the own vehicle was directed into the opposing lane where oncoming simulated vehicles issued a light and/or sound warnings to get the drivers attention. An additional purpose of the study was to examine if the warning coming from the other vehicle has a different effect on persons with a hearing loss. A possible application for this type of warnings is the implementation of a system for automatic activation. Systems for automatic activation of brakes and steering are currently entering the market. These systems use proximity sensors to monitor the state of surrounding road users. Depending on the specific situation the effort/possibility to avoid or mitigate an accident may differ significantly between the principle road users of a pending collision, e.g. one road user (1) may easily avoid a collision while another (2) may not be able to do so. The only possibility for the second road user (2) to avoid a collision in such a situation is to issue a warning to the first (1), so that he/she may take evasive actions. Connecting the horn and the headlight to already existing sensor system, for automatic warning activation, is a cost effective means to provide such a warning. The warnings, could of course, also be triggered manually by the driver.

    The results indicate that a driver who receives a warning from the oncoming vehicle responds faster to avoid the pending frontal collision. The most effective warning was the combination of horn and headlight. A majority of the participants where positive to the notion of an automated system to provide this type of warning (n=41). No significant difference in the behavior between the groups with and without hearing loss was found in this study.

  • 20.
    Jansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Matstoms, Pontus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nordmark, Staffan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sehammar, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Förutsättningar för en avancerad körsimulator i Göteborg2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Driving simulators play an important role in many fields of research and development. In vehicle industry simulators are used as powerful tools for product development, often with focus on HMI, active safety and vehicle dynamics. In a prestudie, financed by Test Site Sweden, VTI has investigated the possibilities to establish and run an advanced, world-class driving simulatorin Gothenburg, characterized by: - a possibility to use and shift between personal car and lorry cabins - at least 180 degree horizontal view - an advance moving base, with solid mechanical properties, allowing linear movements in x- and y-direction, combined with titling for the simulation of static acceleration.

  • 21.
    Jansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Driving simulation cooperation strategy: pre-study report2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving simulation is a large and truly inter-disciplinary research field. It involves visualization, vehicle dynamics, motion cueing, sound rendering and much more. Furthermore, research conducted in driving simulators has applications in almost all areas of transportation from road, infrastructure and vehicle design to human behaviour and human factors. Apart from research applications, other important areas using driving simulation are for example product development, training and education, demonstration and visualization, race car tuning and gaming. The pre-study reported here has been conducted on assignment from Chalmers. The focus has been on how to build and maintain competence and knowledge in the field of driving simulation, and how to efficiently manage resources, such as maintenance of the technical equipment, for simulation activities to become cost effective. Also, the driving simulation methodology as one link in a tool chain has been considered concerning synergies, connections and cooperation possibilities with other research methodologies. The pre-study has resulted in: - A survey of the field of advanced driving simulation globally. - A synthesis of pros and cons of commercial and own developed simulation software. - A review of on-going simulator activities in Sweden, at Chalmers and at VTI. - A proposal for a cooperation strategy in the field of driving simulation.

  • 22.
    Jansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Fischer, Martin
    DLR (German Aerospace Center, Institute of Transportation Systems) .
    Blissing, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Källgren, Laban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Design and performance of the VTI Sim IV2014In: New development in driving simulation design and experiments: Driving simulation conference Europe 2014 proceedings / [ed] Andras Kemeny, Paris, 2014, p. 4.1-4.7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The VTI simulator IV (Sim IV) is the fourth advanced driving simulator designed and built at The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). The simulator, taken into operation 2011, has an 8 degrees of freedom (DoF) moving base, a field of view (FoV) of 180 degrees and features a system for rapid cabin exchange. With a budget of roughly 2,4 M euro; Sim IV was developed to provide VTI’s newly established Gothenburg office with advanced driving simulation capability, and to be a cost efficient complement to the Sim II and Sim III facilities in VTI’s Linköping office. This paper describes the design and technical performance of the facility. A brief summary of results and experience from validation studies for the first three years of operation is also presented.

  • 23.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Countermeasures against dangerous use of communication devices while driving –: a toolbox2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report outlines possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving. An important aspect of this commission was to demonstrate alternatives to legislation. The suggested countermeasures cover several areas. One is technical solutions, including countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. Another area includes education and information and describes different ways to increase knowledge and understanding. Furthermore, there are different possibilities for how society can influence the behaviour of individuals, both via bans, recommendations and incentives. The usage of communication devices while driving has both advantages and disadvantages. How to deal with device usage is a complex problem, and it is unlikely that one single countermeasure can provide a complete solution. One countermeasure may even depend on the implementation of others. The exact effect of most countermeasures is hard to predict, and possible side effects may occur. It is therefore necessary to be pragmatic, meaning that countermeasures whose advantages outweigh their disadvantages should be implemented. Also, different countermeasures can reinforce each other which may attenuate negative side effects. It is our opinion that a combination of different countermeasures – which educate and inform the driver while at the same time support him or her in a safe usage of communication devices – is preferable to a law against communication device usage while driving. Continuous follow-ups are necessary to ensure the outcome of implemented countermeasures.

  • 24.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Åtgärder mot trafikfarlig användning av kommunikationsutrustning under körning: en verktygslåda2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report outlines possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving, while at the same time preserve the positive effects. The suggested countermeasures cover several areas and are intended to function as alternatives to banning device usage. One is technical solutions, including countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. Another area includes education and information and describes different ways to increase knowledge and understanding. Furthermore, there are different possibilities for how society can influence the behaviour of individuals, both via bans, recommendations and incentives. We want to point out that the usage of communication devices while driving has both advantages and disadvantages. How to deal with device usage is a complex problem, and it is unlikely that one single countermeasure can provide a complete solution. One countermeasure may even depend on the implementation of others. The exact effect of most countermeasures is hard to predict, and possible side effects may occur. It is therefore necessary to be pragmatic, meaning that countermeasures whose advantages outweigh their disadvantages should be implemented. Also, different countermeasures can reinforce each other which may attenuate negative side effects.

  • 25.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Espié, Stéphane
    INRETS, Institut National de REcherche sur les Transports et leur Sécurité, 58, Bd Lefebvre F-75732 Paris, France.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lundgren, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    An algorithm for combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events in driving simulator experiments2011In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1185-1201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles can be used to create realistic simulations of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators. However, the use of autonomous vehicles makes it difficult to ensure reproducibility between subjects. In this paper, an effort is made to solve the problem by combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events, denoted plays. The aim is to achieve the same initial play conditions for each subject, since the traffic situation around the subject will be dependant upon each subject's actions while driving in the autonomous traffic. This paper presents an algorithm that achieves the transition from autonomous traffic to a predefined start condition for a play. The algorithm has been tested in the VTI driving simulator III with promising results. In most of the cases the algorithm could reconstruct the specified start condition and conduct the transition from autonomous to controlled mode in a non-conspicuous way. Some problems were observed regarding moving unwanted vehicles away from the closest area around the simulator vehicle, and this part of the algorithm has to be enhanced. The experiment also showed that the controlled every-day life traffic normally used in the VTI driving simulator makes subjects drive faster than in autonomous traffic.

  • 26.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Brännström, Mattias
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Principle Other Vehicle Warning2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The only possibility for a driver to avoid a collision may sometimes be to issue a warning to another driver. Connecting the horn and the headlight to an already existing sensor system could be a cost effective solution. This report covers the implementation and evaluation of such an automated warning system in a driving simulator at VTI. In this test 24 drivers with normal hearing and 24 with moderate hearing loss experienced five critical events in which four different warning signals were evaluated; sound, light, and a combination of sound and light, and no warning (as reference). A visual distraction task was used to distract the drivers and create critical situations. The results were consistent. A combined sound and light warning significantly increased cautious driving behaviour and also lead to the highest perceived criticality of the situations. With the combined warning the driver’s attention was effectively drawn from the visual distraction task. Drivers were generally positive towards the warning system, and most positive towards the combined warning presenting light and sound signals. Drivers were able to distinguish between warnings (at critical events) and greetings (at non-critical events) suggesting that the tested additional use of horn and headlight would not affect reactions to non-critical warnings or greetings. Hearing loss was associated with worse performance on the visual distraction task and less perceived realism of the driving simulator. But it was not associated with effects on any driving behaviour measures or of warning modalities. This result suggests that the evaluated system should work also for drivers with moderate hearing loss.

1 - 26 of 26
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