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  • 1.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Explaining “peak car” with economic variables2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 2016, no 88, 236-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many western countries have seen a plateau and subsequent decrease of car travel during the 21st century. What has generated particular interest and debate is the statement that the development cannot be explained by changes in traditional explanatory factors such as GDP and fuel prices. Instead, it has been argued, the observed trends are indications of substantial changes in lifestyles, preferences and attitudes to car travel; what we are experiencing is not just a temporary plateau, but a true “peak car”. However, this study shows that the traditional variables GDP and fuel price are in fact sufficient to explain the observed trends in car traffic in all the countries included in our study: the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Sweden and (to a large extent) Australia and Germany. We argue that the importance of the fuel price increases in the early 2000s has been underappreciated in the studies that shaped the later debate. Results also indicate that GDP elasticities tend to decrease with rising GDP, and that fuel price elasticities tend to increase at high price levels and during periods of rapid price increases.

  • 2.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Not invented here: Transferability of congestion charges effects2014In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 36, 263-271 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent the effects of congestion charges rely on specific features of a city and its transport system. We use Stockholm, and its current congestion charging scheme, as a case study by making various modifications in the transport system influencing the availability and attractiveness of public transport, bypasses and bottleneck capacities. We use a transport model to forecast the effects of the Stockholm charges given each transport system modification. Our main conclusion is that although the social benefit of a given charging system is considerably and non-linearly dependent on initial congestion levels, traffic effects and adaptations costs are surprisingly stable across transport system modifications. Specifically, the level of public transport provision has only small effects on baseline congestion, and therefore on the total benefit of the charges. Contrary to expectation, the charges' effect on traffic volumes remains virtually unchanged regardless of the changes in public transport supply. All results are compared to and consistent with the one-market standard model. We interpret our results with respect to common arguments against the transferability of experiences from cities having introduced congestion charges.

  • 3.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH.
    The Stockholm congestion charges – 4 years on: Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt2010In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH.
    The Stockholm congestion charges – 4 years on: Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 World Conference on Transport Research, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first four years of operation. We show that the traffic reduction caused by the charges’ has increased over time, once external factors are controlled for. Alternative-fuel vehicles are exempt from the charges, and this has substantially increased the sales of such vehicles. We discuss public and political acceptability, synthesizing recent research and Swedish experience, and conclude that objective and subjective effects as well as general environmental and political attitude played a role for the high levels of public support, while institutional reform and resolving power issues were necessary to gain political support. Finally, we briefly discuss implications for the transport planning process in general.

  • 5.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Experiences from the Swedish Value of Time study2011In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Experiences from the Swedish Value of Time study2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 59, 144-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide a synthesis of results and insights from the Swedish Value of Time study, with focus on what is relevant for transport appraisal and understanding travel behavior. We summarize recent econometric advances, and show how these enable a better understanding and identification of the value of time distribution. The influence of the sign and size of changes is estimated and discussed, including the problems of loss aversion and the value of small time savings. Further, we show how the value of time depends on trip and traveler characteristics, discuss in what dimensions the value of time should be differentiated in appraisal, and provide recommended values for use in applied transport appraisal.

  • 7.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Hur mycket kan förbättringar för cyklister bidra till att minska vägträngseln och förbättra miljön? PM till TV42010Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Kostnadseffektivitet i valet av infrastrukturinvesteringar2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är upplagd på följande sätt. I kapitel 2 beskrivs vad som ingår i en samhällsekonomisk kalkyl och hur den tas fram. Kapitel 3 redovisar våra slutsatser om hur samhällsekonomiska kalkyler påverkar beslut om infrastrukturinvesteringar. I kapitel 4 diskuteras vanliga invändningar mot kalkyler, till exempel att inte alla effekter finns med eller att den är att resultatet påverkas starkt av antagande om förutsättningar, till exempel framtida bränslepriser etc. Kapitel 5 diskuterar mer utförligt vad det svaga sambandet mellan samhällsekonomisk effektivitet och beslut kan bero på, vilka problem det kan leda till och vad man skulle kunna göra åt det för att få en effektivare resursanvändning i transportsektorn.

  • 9.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    New Values of time and their application in appraisal2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference and the Summer School, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    New Values of time and their application in appraisal2012In: Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 91st Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA: Transportation Research Board , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    On the use of "average delay" as a measure of train reliability2011In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 45, no 3, 171-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how passengers on long-distance trains value unexpected delays relative to scheduled travel time and travel cost. For scheduled services with high reliability and long headways, the value of delays is most commonly assumed to be proportional to the average delay. By exploring how the valuation of train delays depends on delay risk and delay length, using three different stated choice data sets, we find that the "average delay" approach does not hold: the disutility increases slower than linearly in the delay risk. This means that using the average delay as a performance indicator, a guide for operations planning or for investment appraisal will underestimate the value of small risks of long delays relative to large risks for short delays. It also means that estimated valuations of "average delay" will depend on the delay risk level: valuations will be higher the lower the risk levels in the study are.

  • 12.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    The benefits of cycling: Viewing cyclists as travellers rather than non-motorists2012In: Cycling and sustainability / [ed] John Parkin, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012, 247-268 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This chapter provides a think piece on economic evaluation and policy for cycling. Bicycle investments are often motivated by a desire to improve health, the environment and congestion conditions. However, we argue that since the bicycle is a part of the transport system, it should be evaluated as such. Focusing on implications for cycling appraisal in general, we also discuss two conflicting trends in Stockholm: a sharp decrease in cycling in the outer areas, and a sharp increase in the inner parts.

    Methodology – We use (i) travel survey data to analyse the potential to reduce congestion through improvements for cyclists, (ii) travel survey data from 1986 to 1987 and 2004 and bicycle counts over 25 years and (iii) a value of time survey of Stockholm cyclists including questions of exercise habits.

    Findings – Additional benefits in appraisal from reduced car traffic and improved health seem to be small. Given bicyclists’ high values of time and low investment costs, bicycling investments are still likely to be socially beneficial. The conflicting bicycling trends can be explained by (i) increased road congestion and improved bicycle infrastructure, (ii) increased visibility of bicyclists generating a ‘positive spiral’, (iii) increased interest in physical fitness and changes in the relative prices of cars versus central residences turn cycling into a high-status mode and (iv) in peripheral areas, increasing distances and less dense land use patterns decrease cycling levels.

    Practical implications – The results underscore the need for dense, mixeduse spatial planning and ‘smart’ marketing using the effects of cyclist visibility to reinforce the ‘status’ of cycling.

  • 13.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    The value of time and external benefits in bicycle appraisal2012In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 46, no 4, 673-683 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the value of time savings, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists' value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time savings on alternative modes. Cyclists also value other improvements highly, such as separated bicycle lanes. As to additional benefits of cycling improvements in the form of health and reduced car traffic, our results do not support the notion that these will be a significant part in a cost-benefit analysis. Bicyclists seem to take health largely into account when making their travel choices, implying that it would be double-counting to add total health benefits to the analysis once the consumer surplus has been correctly calculated. As to reductions in car traffic, our results indicate that the cross-elasticity between car and cycle is low, and hence benefits from traffic reductions will be small. However, the valuations of improved cycling speeds and comfort are so high that it seems likely that improvements for cyclists are cost-effective compared to many other types of investments, without having to invoke second-order, indirect effects. In other words, our results suggest that bicycle should be viewed as a competitive mode of travel and not primarily as a means to achieve improved health or reduced car traffic.

  • 14.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    The value of time and external benefits in bicycle cost-benefit analyses2010In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH,.
    The value of time and external benefits in bicycle cost-benefit analyses2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 World Conference on Transport Research, Lisbon, Portugal, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the value of time gains, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists’ value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time savings on alternative modes. Cyclists also value other improvements highly, such as separated bicycle lanes. As to additional benefits of cycling improvements in the form of health and reduced car traffic, our results do not support the notion that these will be a significant part in a cost-benefit analysis, contrary to some earlier studies and beliefs. As to health effects, cyclists seem to take these largely into account when making their travel choices, so it would be double-counting to add total health benefits to the analysis once the consumer surplus has been correctly calculated. As to reductions in car traffic, our results indicate that the cross-elasticity between car and cycle is low, and hence benefits from traffic reductions will be small. However, the valuations of improved cycling speeds and comfort are so high that it seems likely that improvements for cyclists are cost-effective compared to many other types of investments, without having to invoke second-order, indirect effects. In other words, the bicycle is perfectly able to be viewed as a competitive mode of travel, rather than primarily a means to achieve improved health or reduced car traffic.

  • 16.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    The value of time of car drivers choosing route: evidence from the Stockholm congestion charging trial2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Transporter och samhällsekonomi (stängd 20110301).
    Train passengers' valuation of travel time unreliability2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For scheduled services with relatively high reliability and long headways, most common approach is the “expected delay” approach, where passengers are assumed to value a possible delay proportional to its expected value. Common measures of travellers’ valuations are the “value of [expected] delay time”, or the “reliability multiplier”, i.e. the ratio of the value of delay time to the value of (scheduled) travel time.

    Using three different data sets, we investigate whether the expected delay approach holds empirically. In particular, we study how the valuation of apossible delay with probability p and length L depends on p and L.

    The main result is that this valuation is not proportional to the expected delay pL, but increases slower than linear in the delay probability. This is particularly pronounced for small risks.

    This means that estimated “values of delay time” will depend on the delay risk level p; “delay time values” will be higher the lower the risk level p is. One implication is that estimated values of delay times which does not take the non-linearity in delay risk into account will result in valuations that cannot be transferred between contexts with different delay risks. We also give a theoretical reason why this should be an expected phenomenon, as long asheadways are large.

    Regarding the dependence on delay length L, results are ambiguous: in one study, the valuation is linear in delay length L, whereas in another it increases slower than linearly.

  • 18.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    WSP Analysis and Strategy.
    The Stockholm congestion charges - 5 years on: Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt2012In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 20, no SI, 1-12 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first five years of operation, until mid-2011. We show that the traffic reduction caused by the charges has increased slightly over time, once external factors are controlled for. Alternative fuel vehicles were exempt from the charges through 2008, and we show that this substantially increased the sales of such vehicles. We discuss public and political acceptability, synthesising recent research and Swedish experience. We conclude that objective and subjective effects on the traffic system, as well as general environmental and political attitudes, formed the basis of the strong public support, while institutional reforms and resolution of power issues were necessary to gain political support. Finally, we briefly discuss implications for the transport planning process in general.

  • 19.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH.
    Valuations of travel time variability in scheduling versus mean-variance models2012In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 46, no 7, 855-873 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard method of estimating the value of travel time variability for use in policy appraisal is to estimate the parameters of a reduced-form utility function, where some measure of travel time variability (such as the standard deviation) is included. A problem with this approach is that the obtained valuation will in general depend on the standardized travel time distribution, and hence cannot be transferred from one context to another. A recently suggested remedy for this problem has been to estimate a scheduling model, which in theory is transferrable, and use the implied reduced-form to derive valuations for use in appraisal.

    In this paper we estimate both a scheduling model and the implied reduced-form model, using stated choice data. The valuation of travel time variability implied by the scheduling model turns out to be substantially smaller than what is obtained from a reduced-form model estimated on the same sample. The results suggest that the scheduling model does not capture all of the disutility arising from travel time variability. Hence, although it can be shown that scheduling and reduced-form models are theoretically equivalent, that hypothesized equivalence is not reflected in the empirical evidence. We speculate that the derivation of reduced-form models from an underlying scheduling model omits two essential features: first, the notion of an exogenously fixed "preferred arrival time" neglects the fact that most activities can be rescheduled given full information about the travel times in advance, and second, disutility may be derived from uncertainty as such, in the form of anxiety, decisions costs or costs for having contingency plans. We also report our estimates of the valuation of travel time variability for public transit trips, for use in applied appraisal.

  • 20.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    KTH.
    Wieweg, Lena
    ASEKs uppgifter och arbetsuppläggning2010Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Infrastrukturens påverkan på ekonomisk tillväxt2013Book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Johnsson Hamilton, Carl
    KTH.
    Why experience changes attitudes to congestion pricing: The case of Gothenburg2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 85, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cities have seen public support for congestion charges increase substantially after charges have been introduced. Several alternative explanations of this phenomenon have been suggested, but so far little evidence has been available to assess the relative importance of these explanations. We study attitudes to congestion pricing in Gothenburg before and after congestion charges were introduced in January 2013. Attitudes to the charges did indeed become more positive after the introduction, just as in previous cities. Using a two-wave postal survey, we separate contributions to the attitude change from a number of sources: benefits and costs being different than anticipated, use of hypothecated revenues, reframing processes, and changes in related attitudes such as attitudes to environment, equity, taxation and pricing measures in general. We conclude that the dominant reason for the attitude change is status quo bias, rather than any substantial changes in beliefs or related attitudes, although some of these factors also contribute. Contrary to a common belief, nothing of the attitude change is due to benefits being larger than anticipated.

  • 23.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH.
    Trängselskatt på Essingeleden minskar trängseln kraftigt. PM till TV4 201104252011Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Kågeson, Per
    KTH.
    Tågens höghastighetsbanor en dålig affär för samhället: DN debatt2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-01-01Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Kågesson, Per
    KTH.
    Ett gigantiskt projekt med oklart syfte2016In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2016-01-04Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Levander, A
    The value of time of car drivers choosing route: evidence from the Stockholm congestion charging trial2007In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, Leiden, Netherlands, 2007, 14- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In applied travel demand forecasting (including network modeling), congestion charges are generally assumed to affect travelers in the same way as fuel costs and other travel costs do. However, there are several reasons to believe that congestion charges affect drivers differently than for example fuel costs: for exampel, it is more “visible”, since you (as a rule) pay each time you pass a cordon (or equivalent), and it is often connected with a certain amount of hassle to actually pay the charge (calling a customer service, for example). Moreover, the way car drivers actually weigh travel time versus monetary cost when they choose route is largely unknown, since time and monetary cost are in general so correlated (as opposed to values of time in mode choice etc.). 

    Data from the Stockholm congestion charging trial allow us to explore this question in detail. Car drivers traveling between the northern part of the county and the southern part could choose either to go through the cordon (paying two charges – 20-40 SEK depending on the time of day) or use the Essinge bypass, which was free of charge – a considerable detour for some trip relations. We use a large panel travel survey conducted before and during the charging trial to estimate the charging cost sensitivity compared to fuel cost sensitivity, and also estimate the actual value of time car drivers reveal when choosing route. Note that due to e.g. selection bias or travelers’ imperfect information about costs, this value of tme may differ from the average value of time for all travelers and also from the average value time for car drivers. The results is very applicable, in that it is easily incorporated into widely used traffic models (network equilibrium models or equivalent), allowing us to make more precise forecasts of the effects of congestion charges. It should also allow us to make more precise route choice modeling in other cases where routes have clearly different monetary costs.

  • 27.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    KTH.
    Is CBA ranking of transport investments robust?2014In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 48, no 2, 189-204 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analyses (CBA) are often questioned on the grounds that results depend crucially on uncertain assumptions about the future, and on ethically or methodologically contestable trade-offs between different types of benefits. This paper explores the robustness of CBA rankings of transport investments with respect to two types of uncertainties: relative benefit valuations and scenario assumptions related to car ownership, car characteristics and driving costs. The impact of differentiating the value of time with respect to travel mode and purpose is also studied. The study concludes that CBA rankings are robust to all of the studied variations.

  • 28.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Odeck, James
    Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskaplige Universitet.
    Welde, Morten
    Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskaplige Universitet.
    Spelar samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet någon roll för infrastrukturbeslut?: En jämförelse mellan Sverige och Norge2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 8, 15-24 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige och Norge använder samhällsekonomiska analyser för att prioritera mellan infrastrukturinvesteringar – eller säger sig åtminstone göra det. Vi analyserar nationella infrastrukturplaner från de två länderna för att undersöka om samhällsekonomisk lönsamhet spelar någon roll för vilka investeringar som väljs och om andra faktorer spelar roll. I den norska infrastrukturplanen 2014–23 verkar inte samhällsekonomisk effektivitet ha påverkat regeringens eller trafikverkens beslut överhuvudtaget. I den svenska infrastrukturplanen 2010–21 verkar effektivitet ha haft viss påverkan på trafikverkens investeringsförslag, men en närmast försumbar betydelse för regeringens beslut. I bägge länderna ökar sannolikheten att en investering genomförs om regeringen har högt väljarstöd i regionen.

  • 29.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Om konstruktion av tidtabeller i samhällsekonomiska kalkyler för järnvägsinvesteringar2010Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    On timetable assumptions in railway investment appraisal2014In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 36, 118-126 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits captured in an appraisal of a railway investment are determined by what timetables the analyst assumes in the scenarios with and without the investment. Without an explicit, objective and verifiable principle for which timetables to assume, the appraisal outcome is virtually arbitrary. This means that appraisals of railway investments cannot be compared to each other, and opens the door for strategic behaviour by stakeholders conducting seemingly objective cost-benefit analysis. We explain and illustrate the nature and extent of the problem, discuss possible timetable construction principles, and show that current practice is likely to exaggerate appraisal benefits.

  • 31.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    On timetable assumptions in railway investment appraisal2011In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    On timetable assumptions in railway investment appraisal2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference and the Summer School, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    On timetable assumptions in railway investment appraisal2012In: Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 91st Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH.
    Fler bussar i Stockholm bättre än nytt spårvägsnät2011In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Hamilton, Carl
    KTH.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH.
    Flexibel trängselskatt ger flyt åt Stockholmstrafiken2012In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Omstridd skatt fyller sex. Trängselskattens påverkan på trafiken är till och med större i dag än när den infördes. Att många ändå upplever att köerna blivit längre beror på flera stora byggprojekt som påverkar kapaciteten på vägarna. Trängselskatten bör därför bli mer flexibel och anpassas efter vägarbeten, årstider etc. Essingeleden bör också snarast avgiftsbeläggas. Det skulle enkelt minska trafiken där med 13 procent och göra Stockholm effektivare, renare och trevligare, skriver fyra transportforskare.

  • 36. Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Odeck, James
    Welde, Morten
    Does benefit/cost-efficiency influence transport investment decisions?2015In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 49, no 3, 377-396 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore how benefit-cost efficiency and electoral support affect road investment decisions in Sweden and Norway. In Norway, neither benefits nor costs seem to affect project selection. In Sweden, civil servants’ decisions are strongly affected by projects’ benefit-cost ratios, with a stronger effect for more expensive projects, while politicians’ decisions are only weakly affected, and only for small projects. In both countries, governments tend to favour investments in regions where they enjoy strong local electoral support. Using cost efficiency as a final selection criterion seems to filter out many inefficient projects already at an early stage of the planning process. We argue that even if political decisionmakers are apparently mostly governed by other concerns than cost efficiency, civil servants at the administrations should not shy away from preparing efficient project suggestions for decisionmakers to choose from.

  • 37.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    van Amelsfort, Dirk
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH.
    Accuracy of congestion pricing forecasts2013In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 52, 34-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares forecast effects of the Stockholm congestion charges with actual outcomes. The most important concerns during the design of the congestion charging scheme were the traffic reduction in bottlenecks, the increase in public transport ridership, the decrease of vehicle kilometres in the city centre, and potential traffic effects on circumferential roads. Comparisons of forecasts and actual outcomes show that the transport model predicted all of these factors well enough to allow planners to draw correct conclusions regarding the design and preparations for the scheme. The one major shortcoming was that the static assignment network model was unable to predict the substantial reductions of queuing times. We conclude that the transport model worked well enough to be useful as decision support, performing considerably better than unaided "experts' judgments", but that results must be interpreted taking the model's limitations into account. The positive experiences from the Stockholm congestion charges hence seem to be transferable to other cities in the sense that if a charging system is forecast to have beneficial effects on congestion, then this is most likely true.

  • 38.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Valuation of Travel Time Variability in Scheduling versus Mean-Variance Models2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 World Conference on Transport Research, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard method to estimate valuations of travel time variability for use in appraisal is to estimate the parameters of a reduced-form utility function, where some measure of travel time variability (such as the standard deviation) is included. A recently discovered problem with this approach is that the obtained valuation will in general depend on the standardized travel time distribution, and hence cannot be transferred from one context to another. Instead, we test another recently suggested approach: estimating a scheduling model and then deriving an implied reduced formexpression, which can be used for appraisal. The valuations implied by the scheduling model turn out to deviate substantially from a reduced-form model estimatedon the same sample. We conclude that the scheduling model – in the way it is usually interpreted and estimated – is not able to capture the entire disutility of travel time variability. Hence, although it can be shown that scheduling and reduced-form models are "theoretically equivalent", they are apparently not "empirically equivalent". We hypothesize that the derivation of reduced-form models from an underlying scheduling model omits two essential features: first, the notion of an exogenously fixed ―preferred arrival time neglects the fact that most activities can be rescheduled given full information about the travel times in advance, and second, disutility may be derived from uncertainty as such, in the form of anxiety, decisions costs or costs for having contingency plans. Finally, we report our best estimates of the valuation of travel time variability for public transit trips, for use in applied appraisal.

  • 39.
    Lundberg, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Are CBA Results Robust?: Experiences from the Swedish Transport Investment Plan, 2010-20212011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as a tool for choosing between suggested transport investments is often questioned. Many argue that the results completely rest on what assumptions are made. This paper studies whether this is true for two sorts of assumptions; climate policy assumptions and benefit valuations. First, we study how much the CBA ranking is affected by varying the relative weight of different types of benefits. The valuation of travel time, traffic safety, emissions and freight benefits are systematically varied for 480 suggested road and rail investments in the latest Swedish transport investment plan. The conclusion is that the ranking is surprisingly stable. The balance between road and rail is also robust. Second, we vary the relative weights within a benefit type by differentiating the value of time. This exercise has an even smaller effect on ranking. Last, scenario assumptions relating to future climate policy options are altered. Even rather drastic assumptions, such as a doubled oil price, change the benefits with only a few percent and the rankings are hardly affected at all. The exception seems to be car ownership. In conclusion, our study suggests that decision makers can feel secure that following the CBA methodology will lead to sound investments being prioritized. The top-ranked investments stay more or less the same in all sensitivity tests.

  • 40. Persson, Christer
    et al.
    Wärmark, Anders
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Överflyttning av resor mellan flyg- och tågtrafik. Möjligheter och hinder2008Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Welde, Morten
    et al.
    Statens vegvesen Vegdirektoratet/Concept, Norway.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Odeck, James
    Statens vegvesen Vegdirektoratet/NTNU, Noway .
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Planprosesser, beregningsverktöy og bruk av nytte-kostnadsanalyser i vegsektor: En sammenligning av praksis i Norge och Sverige2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning, analytic tools and the use of cost-benefit analysis in the transport sector in Norway and Sweden. Economic impact assessment is frequently used both nationally and internationally to appraise and evaluate large public investment projects. It is used to demonstrate the consequences of using resources in the public sectors and determines whether a given project is economically viable or not. In this report, we compare the use of Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA), which is an element of economic impact assessment, in prioritizing road projects, in Norway and Sweden. The overall objective is to shed light on the differences that may exist such that the two countries can learn from each other and improve their use of CBA when selecting investment portfolios. Specifically, we explore the differences in planning processes, methodological approaches used and the unit prices used in CBAs. Using data from the countries’ latest national transport plans, we compare the significance of CBA in the prioritization of projects.

1 - 41 of 41
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