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  • 1.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Infrastrukturens påverkan på ekonomisk tillväxt2013Book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Gospic, Katarina
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Sundberg, Marcus
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Maeder, Johanna
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Fransson, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Karlström, Anders
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Altruism costs-the cheap signal from amygdala2014In: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 1325-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When people state their willingness to pay for something, the amount usually differs from the behavior in a real purchase situation. The discrepancy between a hypothetical answer and the real act is called hypothetical bias. We investigated neural processes of hypothetical bias regarding monetary donations to public goods using fMRI with the hypothesis that amygdala codes for real costs. Real decisions activated amygdala more than hypothetical decisions. This was observed for both accepted and rejected proposals. The more the subjects accepted real donation proposals the greater was the activity in rostral anterior cingulate cortex-a region known to control amygdala but also neural processing of the cost-benefit difference. The presentation of a charitable donation goal evoked an insula activity that predicted the later decision to donate. In conclusion, we have identified the neural mechanisms underlying real donation behavior, compatible with theories on hypothetical bias. Our findings imply that the emotional system has an important role in real decision making as it signals what kind of immediate cost and reward an outcome is associated with.

  • 3.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Liss, Viktoria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Externa marginalkostnader för olyckor i vägtrafik: uppdaterade beräkningar för det statliga vägnätet i Sverige2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents new estimates of the external marginal cost of accidents in the national road network in Sweden 2012. The researchers used a dataset where the accident database (Strada) is linked to the national road database for the years 2004–2012. The results are presented from a number of statistical models in which the researchers estimate the external marginal cost of accidents. The purpose of using several models is to test whether results from standard models are robust. In general, it seems that the results pertaining to light vehicles are quite robust across different models suggesting that the external marginal cost of traffic accidents is around 0 SEK per kilometre. The results for heavy vehicles appear less robust and while the main models suggest that the external marginal cost is around 0.25 SEK per kilometre, other models suggest that it may well be substantially lower.

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  • 4.
    Jonsson, Lina
    et al.
    WSP.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Trafikverket.
    Marginal costs for railway level crossings in Sweden2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate accident risks and marginal costs for railway level crossings in Sweden. The marginal effect of train traffic on the accident risk is used to derive the marginal cost per train passage that is due to level crossing accidents. The estimations are based on Swedish data from 2000 to 2012 on level crossing accidents, train volume, and crossing characteristics. In this study we estimate the accidents risk for both motorized road traffic and vulnerable road users. As a proxy for road traffic flow we use three categories of road type, and to capture the influences of pedestrians and bicyclists we use information about the number of persons living nearby the level crossing. The results show that both protection device, road type, traffic volume of the trains, and number of persons living nearby the level crossing have significant influences on the accident probability. The marginal cost per train passage regarding motor vehicle accidents is estimated at SEK 1.51 on average in 2012. The corresponding number for accidents with vulnerable road users excluding suicides is SEK 0.79 or including suicides SEK 5.02. The cost per train passage varies substantially depending on type of protection device, road type, the traffic volume of the trains, and number of persons living nearby the crossing.

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