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  • 1.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet, Campus Gotland.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborg Universitet.
    Climate change and climatic events: Community-, functional- and species-level responses of bryophytes and lichens to constant, stepwise, and pulse experimental warming in an alpine tundra2014In: Alpine Botany, ISSN 1664-2201, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally imposed three different kinds of warming scenarios over 3 years on an alpine meadow community to identify the differential effects of climate warming and extreme climatic events on the abundance and biomass of bryophytes and lichens. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open top chambers (an average temperature increase of 1.87 °C), (b) a yearly stepwise increase of warming (average temperature increases of 1.0; 1.87 and 3.54 °C, consecutively), and (c) a pulse warming, i.e., a single first year pulse event of warming (average temperature increase of 3.54 °C only during the first year). To our knowledge, this is the first climate change study that attempts to distinguish between the effects of constant, stepwise and pulse warming on bryophyte and lichen communities. We hypothesised that pulse warming would have a significant short-term effect compared to the other warming treatments, and that stepwise warming would have a significant mid-term effect compared to the other warming treatments. Acrocarpous bryophytes as a group increased in abundance and biomass to the short-term effect of pulse warming. We found no significant effects of mid-term (third-year) stepwise warming. However, one pleurocarpous bryophyte species, Tomentypnum nitens, generally increased in abundance during the warm year 1997 but decreased in control plots and in response to the stepwise warming treatment. Three years of experimental warming (all treatments as a group) did have a significant impact at the community level, yet changes in abundance did not translate into significant changes in the dominance hierarchies at the functional level (for acrocarpous bryophytes, pleurocarpous bryophytes, Sphagnum or lichens), or in significant changes in other bryophyte or lichen species. The results suggest that bryophytes and lichens, both at the functional group and species level, to a large extent are resistant to the different climate change warming simulations that were applied.

  • 2.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Impacts of different climate change regimes and extreme climatic events on an alpine meadow community2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 21720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate variability is expected to increase in future but there exist very few experimental studies that apply different warming regimes on plant communities over several years. We studied an alpine meadow community under three warming regimes over three years. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open-top chambers (ca. 1.9 °C above ambient), (b) yearly stepwise increases in warming (increases of ca. 1.0, 1.9 and 3.5 °C), and (c) pulse warming, a single first-year pulse event of warming (increase of ca. 3.5 °C). Pulse warming and stepwise warming was hypothesised to cause distinct first-year and third-year effects, respectively. We found support for both hypotheses; however, the responses varied among measurement levels (whole community, canopy, bottom layer, and plant functional groups), treatments, and time. Our study revealed complex responses of the alpine plant community to the different experimentally imposed climate warming regimes. Plant cover, height and biomass frequently responded distinctly to the constant level of warming, the stepwise increase in warming and the extreme pulse-warming event. Notably, we found that stepwise warming had an accumulating effect on biomass, the responses to the different warming regimes varied among functional groups, and the short-term perturbations had negative effect on species richness and diversity.

  • 3.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    University of Gothenburg.
    Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition causes decline of bryophytes and lichens in alpine meadow and heath communitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Global change is predicted to have large and rapid impact on polar and alpine regions. Bryophytes and lichens increase their importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning at higher latitudes/altitudes. Here we report from a seven year factorial experiment with nutrient addition and warming on the abundance of bryophytes and lichens in an alpine meadow and heath community. Treatments had significant negative effect on relative change of total abundance bryophytes and lichens, the largest decline to the nutrient addition and the combined nutrient addition and warming treatments, bryophytes decreasing most in the meadow, lichens most in the heath. Nutrient addition, and the combined nutrient addition and warming brought rapid decrease in both bryophytes and lichens, while warming had a delayed negative impact. Of sixteen species that were included the statistical analyses, we found significant negative effects on seven species. We show that impact of simulated global change on bryophytes and lichens differ in in time and magnitude among treatments and plant communities. Our results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of climate change models, as short-term studies are poor predictors of longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens, similar to what have been shown for vascular plants. Species-specific responses may differ in time, and this will likely cause changes in the dominance structures of bryophytes and lichens over time.

  • 4.
    Alatalo, Juha, M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Testing reliability of short-term responses to predict longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens to environmental change2015In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 58, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes are predicted to have severe and rapid impacts on polar and alpine regions. At high latitudes/altitudes, cryptogams such as bryophytes and lichens are of great importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning. This seven-year factorial experiment examined the effects of fertilizing and experimental warming on bryophyte and lichen abundance in an alpine meadow and a heath community in subarctic Sweden. The aim was to determine whether short-term responses (five years) are good predictors of longer-term responses (seven years). Fertilizing and warming had significant negative effects on total and relative abundance of bryophytes and lichens, with the largest and most rapid decline caused by fertilizing and combined fertilizing and warming. Bryophytes decreased most in the alpine meadow community, which was bryophyte-dominated, and lichens decreased most in the heath community, which was lichen-dominated. This was surprising, as the most diverse group in each community was expected to be most resistant to perturbation. Warming alone had a delayed negative impact. Of the 16 species included in statistical analyses, seven were significantly negatively affected. Overall, the impacts of simulated warming on bryophytes and lichens as a whole and on individual species differed in time and magnitude between treatments and plant communities (meadow and heath). This will likely cause changes in the dominance structures over time. These results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of data used in climate change models, as models based on short-term data are poor predictors of long-term responses of bryophytes and lichens.

  • 5.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Čuchta, Peter
    Academy of Science of the Czech Republic.
    Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 18161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified. Site had significant effect on effective number of species, and abundance of six species, with abundance patterns differing between sites. Site and long-term warming gave non-significant trends in species richness.

    The highest species richness was observed in poor heath, but mean species richness tended to be highest in rich meadow and lowest in wet meadow. Warming showed a tendency for a negative impact on species richness. This long-term warming experiment across three contrasting sites revealed that Collembola is capable of high resistance to climate change. We demonstrated that micro-scale and site effects are the main controlling factors for Collembola abundance in high alpine subarctic environments. Thus local heterogeneity is likely important for soil fauna composition and may play a crucial role in buffering Collembola against future climate change.

  • 6.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    Little, Chelsea, J.
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: contrasting short and medium term responses to simulated global change2014In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 2, article id e406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the impact of simulated global change on a high alpine meadow plant community. Specifically, we examined whether short-term (5 years) responses are good predictors for medium-term (7 years) changes in the system by applying a factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to 20 plots in Latnjajaure, subarctic Sweden. Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient enhancement caused dramatic shifts in dominance hierarchies in response to the nutrient and the combined warming and nutrient enhancement treatments. Dominance hierarchies in the meadow moved from a community being dominated by cushion plants, deciduous, and evergreen shrubs to a community being dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs. Short-term responses were shown to be inconsistent in their ability to predict medium-term responses for most functional groups, however, grasses showed a consistent and very substantial increase in response to nutrient addition over the seven years.

    The non-linear responses over time point out the importance of longer-term studies with repeated measurements to be able to better predict future changes. Forecasted changes to temperature and nutrient availability have implications for trophic interactions, and may ultimately influence the access to and palatability of the forage for grazers. Depending on what anthropogenic change will be most pronounced in the future (increase in nutrient deposits, warming, or a combination of them both), different shifts in community dominance hierarchies may occur. Generally, this study supports the productivity–diversity relationship found across arctic habitats, with community diversity peaking in mid-productivity systems and degrading as nutrient availability increases further. This is likely due the increasing competition in plant–plant interactions and the shifting dominance structure with grasses taking over the experimental plots, suggesting that global change could have high costs to biodiversity in the Arctic.

  • 7.
    Alatalo, Juha, M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Little, Chelsea, J.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Vascular plant abundance and diversity in an alpine heath under observed and simulated global change2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, p. 1-11, article id 10197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change is predicted to cause shifts in species distributions and biodiversity in arctic tundra. We applied factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to a nutrient and species poor alpine/arctic heath community for seven years. Vascular plant abundance in control plots increased by 31%. There were also notable changes in cover in the nutrient and combined nutrient and warming treatments, with deciduous and evergreen shrubs declining, grasses overgrowing these plots. Sedge abundance initially increased significantly with nutrient amendment and then declined, going below initial values in the combined nutrient and warming treatment. Nutrient addition resulted in a change in dominance hierarchy from deciduous shrubs to grasses. We found significant declines in vascular plant diversity and evenness in the warming treatment and a decline in diversity in the combined warming and nutrient addition treatment, while nutrient addition caused a decline in species richness. The results give some experimental support that species poor plant communities with low diversity may be more vulnerable to loss of species diversity than communities with higher initial diversity. The projected increase in nutrient deposition and warming may therefore have negative impacts on ecosystem processes, functioning and services due to loss of species diversity in an already impoverished environment.

  • 8.
    Ali, Arshad
    et al.
    East China Normal University.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bai, Yang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Qatar University.
    Diversity-productivity dependent resistance of an alpine plant community to different climate change scenarios2016In: Ecological research, ISSN 0912-3814, E-ISSN 1440-1703, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 935-945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report from a experiment imposing different warming scenarios [control with ambient temperature, constant level of moderate warming for 3 years, stepwise increase in warming for 3 years, and one season of high level warming (pulse) simulating an extreme summer event] on an alpine ecosystem to study the impact on species diversity–biomass relationship, and community resistance in terms of biomass production.

    Multiple linear mixed models indicate that experimental years had stronger influence on biomass than warming scenarios and species diversity. Species diversity and biomass had almost humpback relationships under different warming scenarios over different experimental years. There was generally a negative diversity–biomass relationship, implying that a positive diversity–biomass relationship was not the case.

    The application of different warming scenarios did not change this tendency. The change in community resistance to all warming scenarios was generally negatively correlated with increasing species diversity, the strength of the correlation varying both between treatments and between years within treatments. The strong effect of experimental years was consistent with the notion that niche complementarity effects increase over time, and hence, higher biomass productivity over experimental years. The strongest negative relationship was found in the first year of the pulse treatment, indicating that the community had weak resistance to an extreme event of one season of abnormally warm climate.

    Biomass production started recovering during the two subsequent years. Contrasting biomass-related resistance emerged in the different treatments, indicating that micro sites within the same plant community may differ in their resistance to different warming scenarios.

  • 9.
    Als, Per
    et al.
    A2 A/S .
    Nielsen, Otto Anker
    Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU).
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jespersen, Per Homann
    Roskilde Universitet (RUC).
    Hvordan får vi mere og bedre kollektiv trafik för pengene?: Bud på fremtidens organisering af den kollektive trafik i Greater Copenhagen2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Region Hovedstaden har i sin regionale vækst- og udviklingsstrategi (ReVUS) sat nogle strategiske rammer for en grøn og innovativ metropol med høj vækst og livskvalitet. Et af de strategiske pejlemærker handler om ’Effektiv og bæredygtig mobilitet’.

    Hovedstadsområdet har i dag store trafikale udfordringer med kø på vejene samt trængsel i busser og tog. Udfordringerne vil kun vokse i de kommende år, hvor indbyg-gertallet forventes at stige med over 200.000. Der er behov for en sammenhængende planlægning, som kan medvirke til at reducere trængslen og dermed understøtte den økonomiske vækst og udvikling.

    Region Hovedstaden har taget initiativ til et arbejde, der skal skabe større sammenhæng i den kollektive trafik i den danske del af Greater Copenhagen. Hvis den kollektive trafik skal løfte en større del af trængselsudfordringen,skal der arbejdes på at udbygge kapaciteten, forbedre servicen og sikre en større sammenhæng på tværs af transportformerne. Køer på motorveje og trængsel i den kollektive transport er dyrt for samfundet.

    Til at understøtte arbejdet har Region Hovedstaden nedsat en ekspertgruppe, der med faglige briller kommer med sit bud på, hvilke udfordringer den kollektive trafik skal kunne imødekomme. Oplægget tager udgangspunkt i paraplyorganisationen Din Offentlige Transport (DOT), og hensigten er:

    • at påpege styrker og svagheder i den nuværende organisation
    • at komme med bud på, hvordan man inden for den nu-værende lovgivning kan imødegå nogle af den kollek-tive trafiks udfordringer
    • at komme med bud på, hvordan man med en ændret lovgivning yderligere kan forbedre den kollektive trafiks sammenhæng og attraktivitet

    Gruppen har ikke gennemført en ny, selvstændig analyse. Arbejdet bygger på eksisterende analyser og på den viden og erfaring, som gruppens medlemmer besidder.

  • 10.
    Amato, Fulvio
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC).
    Cassee, Flemming R.
    Centre for Sustainability & Environmental Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).
    Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Gehrig, Robert
    EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hafner, Wolfgang
    Department of Environmental Protection, Municipality of Klagenfurt on Lake Worthersee.
    Harrison, Roy M.
    University of Birmingham.
    Jozwicka, Magdalena
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Kelly, Frank J.
    King's College London.
    Moreno, Teresa
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC.
    Prevot, Andre S. H.
    Paul Scherrer Institute.
    Schaap, Martijn
    Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, TNO.
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona.
    Querol, Xavier
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Research Council (IDÆA-CSIC).
    Urban air quality: The challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions2014In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 275, p. 31-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor exhausts, no actions are currently in place to reduce the non-exhaust part of emissions such as those from brake wear, road wear, tyre wear and road dust resuspension. These "non-exhaust" sources contribute easily as much and often more than the tailpipe exhaust to the ambient air PM concentrations in cities, and their relative contribution to ambient PM is destined to increase in the future, posing obvious research and policy challenges.This review highlights the major and more recent research findings in four complementary fields of research and seeks to identify the current gaps in research and policy with regard to non-exhaust emissions. The objective of this article is to encourage and direct future research towards an improved understanding on the relationship between emissions, concentrations, exposure and health impact and on the effectiveness of potential remediation measures in the urban environment.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    SIREN: sound generation for vehicle simulation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ViP Simulator Sound Renderer (SIREN) software has been created as a means to facilitate generation and playback of audio signals in driving simulators. Siren is a modular, scalable program with a plug-in based infrastructure. The included plug-ins offer sound file playback, sound stream playback and spatialization possibilities. Required additional functionality can be added by creating custom plug-ins. Siren by default relies on the OpenAL library for spatialization and on Csound for sound stream generation. Other spatialization and generation software can be used by replacing the corresponding API modules. Siren is implemented in the new Simulator IV as well as in Simulator III at VTI and will also be implemented in Simulator II in the immediate future. Experimental implementations have been tested in the VTI Foerst simulator running solely under the Microsoft Windows operating system. Volvo Trucks has a trial version implemented in their simulator and has made some local customization. The current sound models implemented through Siren in the VTI simulators consist of real-time synthesis of sound based on measurements performed in real vehicles (car and truck) on the Volvo test track. The resulting sound has been validated through corresponding measurements performed inside the simulator cabins as well as through informal listening by experienced drivers.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Efterfrågan på tystnad: skattning av betalningsviljan för icke-marginella förändringar av vägtrafikbuller2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efterfrågan på tystnad från vägbullerexponering skattas i detta projekt baserat på båda stegen i en så kallad hedonisk modell. Vi använder data från sju olika kommuner runt om i Sverige. Baserat på efterfrågekurvan kan vi räkna ut betalningsviljor för icke-marginella förändringar i bullerexponering från vägtrafik. Dessa resultat har stor användning i samhällsekonomiska kalkyler inom transportsektorn. Våra skattningsresultat visar att betalningsviljan för en bullerreducering från 66 till 65 dB är 2211 kronor per individ och år och 477 kronor per individ och år för en bullerreducering från 56 till 55 dB. Resultaten visar ingen betalningsvilja för bullerreduceringar under 52,8 dB. För en bullerreducering från 66 dB till 52,8 dB och alla lägre bullernivåer är betalningsviljan 15 225 kronor. Denna summa är även kostnaden för att utsättas för 66 dB vägbuller per individ och år.

  • 13.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. COWI AB.
    Davidsson, Göran
    COWI AB.
    Risk Management of Landslides and Flooding: Recommendations and Step Wise Process2017In: Handbook of Disaster Risk Reduction & Management / [ed] Christian N Madu, Chu-Hua Kuei, World Scientific, 2017, p. 329-356Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year flooding and landslides cause severe material damages and thousands of deaths and injuries. To reduce the risk, measures can be taken by applying different management strategies either by reducing the probability of the event or by reducing the potential consequences in case of an event. This chapter provides a systematic (step-by-step) guidance, a brief overview of landslide and flood risk management in general and a summary of an investigation of the present risk management situation in Sweden which has resulted in some general recommendations. Examples of general recommendations are to apply available knowledge, for example by learning from existing good examples and, when available, lessons learned and documentation of the rational argumentation made in the decision process. There is a request of checklists and guides that can be used in the current daily work among planners and risk managers. It is important with a broad basis for decisions, therefore integrated assessments and valuations are recommended for example by applying multi-criteria analysis methodology and involving relevant stakeholders in the process for example through well working networks. It is further important to counteract the current trend that more automatic monitoring results in less field monitoring and reduced local knowledge.

  • 14.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johannesson, Mikael,
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Klimatförändringens påverkan på sjöfart och luftfart: översiktligt underlag för handlingsplan2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a summary analysis of how climate change may affect Swedish naval and aviation. The aim was to provide a basis for an action plan on climate adaptation within the two sectors. The action plan will be developed by the Maritime and Aviation Department of the Swedish Transport Agency.

    The potential climate change outlined in this report are all based on scenarios included in the compilations of potential climate change at global level by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2014) and calculations of SMHI for Sweden.

    The expected air temperature increase will affect the flight specifically, as increased heat reduces the aircraft's lifting ability. This leads to reduced load capacity and at very high temperatures can lead to cancellation and delay of flights.

    Reduced ice coverage is expected to result in longer shipping season and reduced need for icebreaking measures. For the Baltic Sea, the reduced ice coverage may result changes in type and distribution form of the ice. Airports will have a reduced need for deicing and also for the use of salt and chemicals for road and other land improvements.

    The flood risk caused by high water levels, prolonged precipitation, heavy rainfall and storms is expected to increase in large parts of Sweden. This may affect the accessibility of all road and rail traffic and there are already occasions with long shut-off times, which may affect both accessibility to and from airports and ports, as well as other activities involving flights and shipping. Ports and coastal airports may need to be adapted to maintain their activities and operations.

  • 15.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Göteborgs botaniska trädgård.
    Fredriksson, Lena M
    Tidningen Utemiljö.
    Att värdera ekosystemtjänster2017In: Gröna Fakta från Utemiljö, ISSN 0284-9798, no 8 / 2017, p. I-VIIIArticle, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet ekosystemtjänster används allt oftare och värdet av ekosystemtjänsterna ska, enligt Naturvårdsverkets etappmål, vara allmänt kända och integrerade i olika ställningstaganden och beslut senast 2018. Här förklaras begreppet i korthet och några tips om hur det kan implementeras i kommuner ges. Därefter beskriver forskarna Yvonne Andersson-Sköld och Jenny Klingberg ett forskningsprojekt som de har deltagit i och vars resultat är en handbok om hur ekosystemtjänster kan värderas.

  • 16.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Göteborgs botaniska trädgård.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Metod för bedömning och värdering av ekosystemtjänster i staden (VEKST): Handbok version 1.02018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under åren 2013–2016 genomfördes forskningsprojektet Värdering av ekosystemtjänster av urban grönska med syftet att kartlägga, synliggöra och värdera den urbana grönskan. Inom forskningsprojektet studerades bland annat hur ekosystemtjänsterna klimatreglering, förbättrad luftkvalitet, dagvattenhantering, bullerdämpning, rekreation och välbefinnande kan bedömas och värderas. Dessutom kartlades delar av den biologiska mångfalden (träd, buskar, örter, bin och fåglar). För att kunna bedöma och värdera de ekosystemtjänster som ingick i projektet utvecklades en stegvis metod. Metoden baseras på mätningar och inventeringar i sju fallstudieområden i Göteborg, intervjuer och enkätstudier samt relevant litteratur. I denna handbok presenteras metoden samt mallar som guidar användaren genom metodens fem steg. Handboken innehåller också exempel på hur metoden har använts. Viktigt att poängtera är att metoden som beskrivs i denna handbok inte är en slutprodukt utan en första version. I takt med ökad kunskap kan, och bör, metoden utvecklas, kompletteras och förbättras. Till exempel kan fler ekosystemtjänster bedömas och värderas. Metoden är utvecklad med tanken att den ska vara enkel att använda, systematisk och transparent i alla steg. Denna handbok vänder sig bland annat till stadsplanerare och konsulter som på uppdrag av planerare arbetar med beslutsstöd i planprocessen. Metoden kan användas för att bedöma inverkan av förändringar i stadsbilden, t ex vid förtätning, eller för att följa förändringar över tid.

  • 17.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Effective and Sustainable Flood and Landslide Risk Reduction Measures: An Investigation of Two Assessment Frameworks2016In: International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, ISSN 2095-0055, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 374-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural events such as floods and landslides can have severe consequences. The risks are expected to increase, both as a consequence of climate change and due to increased vulnerabilities, especially in urban areas. Although preventive measures are often cost-effective, some measures are beneficial to certain values, while some may have negative impacts on other values.

    The aim of the study presented here was to investigate two frameworks used for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of physical and nonphysical flood and landslide risk reduction measures. The study is based on literature, available information from authorities and municipalities, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder views and values. The results indicate that the risks for suboptimization or maladaptation are reduced if many aspects are included and a broad spectrum of stakeholders are involved.

    The sustainability assessment tools applied here can contribute to a more transparent and sustainable risk management process by assessing strategies and interventions with respect to both short- and long-term perspectives, including local impacts and wider environmental impacts caused by climate change, for example. The tools can also cover social and economic aspects. The assessment tools provide checklists that can support decision processes, thus allowing for more transparent decisions.

  • 18.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    COWI AB.
    Thorson, Sofia
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Rayner, David
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jonsson, Anna C
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Moback, Ulf
    Göteborgs stad.
    Bergman, Ramona
    SGI.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad Universitet.
    An integrated method for assessing climate related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas2015In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 7, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation.

    The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend) against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG), soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3) in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines.

    The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid-rise, light coloured building design with large parks/green areas and trees near buildings.

  • 19.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys .
    Landscape heritage objects' effect on driving: a combined driving simulator and questionnaire study.2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 62, p. 168-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the literature, landscape (panoramas, heritage objects e.g. landmarks) affects people in various ways. Data are primarily developed by asking people (interviews, photo sessions, focus groups) about their preferences, but to a lesser degree by measuring how the body reacts to such objects. Personal experience while driving a car through a landscape is even more rare.

    In this paper we study how different types of objects in the landscape affect drivers during their drive. A high-fidelity moving-base driving simulator was used to measure choice of speed and lateral position in combination with stress (heart rate measure) and eye tracking. The data were supplemented with questionnaires. Eighteen test drivers (8 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 37 were recruited. The test drivers were exposed to different new and old types of landscape objects such as 19th century church, wind turbine, 17th century milestone and bus stop, placed at different distances from the road driven.

    The findings are in some respect contradictory, but it was concluded that that 33% of the test drivers felt stressed during the drive. All test drivers said that they had felt calm at times during the drive but the reason for this was only to a minor degree connected with old and modern objects. The open landscape was experienced as conducive to acceleration. No significant differences could be observed concerning the test drivers' gaze between old or modern objects, but a significant difference was observed between the test drivers' gaze between road stretches with faraway objects and stretches without objects.

  • 20.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Crash Barriers and Driver Behavior: A Simulator Study2013In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 874-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study examines how drivers experience a conventional W-beam guardrail (metal crash barrier) along both sides of narrow versus wider roads (single carriageway with 2 lanes) in terms of stress, feelings, and driving patterns and whether subjective experience concurs with the actual driving patterns captured by the quantitative data.

    Methods: The study used different methods to capture data, including the VTI Driving Simulator III (speed and lateral vehicle position) in conjunction with electrocardiogram (ECG) data on heart rate variability (HRV) and questionnaires (oral during driving and written after driving). Eighteen participants-8 men and 10 women-were recruited for the simulator study and the simulator road section was 10 km long.

    Results: Driving speeds increased slightly on the wider road and on the road with a crash barrier, and the lateral driving position was nearer to the road center on the narrower road and on the road with a crash barrier. The HRV data did not indicate that participants experienced greater stress due to road width or due to the presence of a crash barrier. Participant experience captured in the oral questionnaires suggested that road width did not affect driver stress or driving patterns; however, the written questionnaire results supported the simulator data, indicating that a wider road led to increased speed. None of the participants felt that crash barriers made them feel calmer.

    Conclusions: We believe that there is a possibility that the increased speed on roads with crash barriers may be explained by drivers’ sense of increased security. This study demonstrates that an experimental design including experience-based data captured using both a simulator and questionnaires is productive. It also demonstrates that driving simulators can be used to study road features such as crash barriers. It seems more than likely that features such as street lamps, signs, and landscape objects could be tested in this way. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 21.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Spatial planning and electric vehicles. A qualitative case study of horizontal and vertical organisational interplay in southern Sweden2017In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electric-powered vehicles (EV) is experiencing a boom in some countries. Much research has been conducted on the technology per se; however, there is a research gap regarding institutional spatial planning practice concerning EVs. Here, an empirical analysis was made of planners’ interpretations of opportunities and obstacles to integration of EVs in southern Sweden. The results revealed a lack of interplay between local and regional administrations and showed that the agenda is run by individual bureaucrats rather than being based on official strategies. Moreover, there appears to be a lack of horizontal interplay within some organisations, while new arenas are being formed by actors within and outside government. The reason for formation of such external EV networks may be a single actor not being able to push the issue forward alone, due to a fragmented organisation, or a lack of clear external task formulation at central government level.

  • 22.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Experiencing moose and landscape while driving: a simulator and questionnaire study2014In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 41, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal vehicle collisions (AVC's) have large economic, medical and ecological consequences but have rarely been studied with respect to driver behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate different AVC-relevant landscape settings (vegetation cover), with and without game fencing and in combination with encountering moose. Twenty-five participants took part in an advanced driving simulator experiment. The results show that neither the presence of a game fence nor vegetation was found to affect driving speed, speed variability, lateral position or visual scanning in general. When a moose appeared at the side of the road, the drivers reacted by slowing down earlier and reducing their speed more when no game fence was present. Furthermore, the speed reduction when a moose was present was significantly larger when the vegetation was sparse. Game fencing made drivers feel at ease whereas dense vegetation was experienced as more stressful.

  • 23.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lahti, Eva
    Volvo Car Cooperation.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    The effect of low-frequency road noise on driver sleepiness and performance2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4, article id e0123835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this moving base driving simulator study with 19 drivers participating in a random order day and night time, was to evaluate the effect of low-frequency road noise on driver sleepiness and performance, including both long-term and short-term effects.

    It is a well-known fact today that driver sleepiness is a contributory factor in crashes. Factors considered as sleepiness contributor are mostly related to time of the day, hours being awake and hours slept. Factors contributing to active and passive fatigue are mostly focusing on the level of cognitive load. Less is known what role external factors, e.g. type of road, sound/noise, vibrations etc., have on the ability to stay awake both under conditions of sleepiness and under active or passive fatigue.

    The results support to some extent the hypothesis that road-induced interior vehicle sound affects driving performance and driver sleepiness. Increased low-frequency noise helps to reduce speed during both day- and night time driving, but also contributes to increase the number of lane crossings during night time.

  • 24.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ökad cykling: professionella utmaningar och hinder i den lokala transportplaneringen2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to highlight reasons why not policy objective of an increased proportion of cycling is achieved in practical planning at the municipal level, and contribute to knowledge about how this “implementation gap” can be reduced. The report is based on research on the implementation of policy to increase cycling in four swedish municipalities. The results show that the implementation gap is partly a consequence of pathdependency. The target of increased cycling is handled within an implementation structure, organizationknowledge- action, where professional groups are characterized by knowledge and skills aiming at optimizing the flow of traffic. This approach serves as a model for operational set of problems and solutions in planning for increased cycling. The substantial work has consisted of building a functional cycling network, improving lane design and other cycling infrastructure measures. Mobility for cycling has increased over the years, but the effects in the form of an increased share of cycling have not materialized. Lack of goal-achievement has not led to a reconsideration of exciting approaches and methods. Officials are instead oriented toward maintaining professional boundaries regarding competencies and choice of action. Concretely this means that accessibility conditions for cycling are not ensured, which further endangers the effects of mobility measures, and other measures of a complementary nature. To change this situation the traffic professions have to develop. The report outline three possible approaches to how this can be done: the development of planning support on accessibility conditions for cycling by national authorities with the role of assisting municipalities in their planning, greater focus and systematics around the investigation of local problems for increased cycling, which the selection of actions should be based on; greater governance in order to establish cross-sectoral work in planning.

  • 25.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Klimatanpassning av vägkonstruktion, drift och underhåll2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global climate change is a reality and affecting society and transport systems. Climate change adaptation of transport systems will make the means of transportation more resilient and decrease the risk and magnitude of disruptions. Generally, climate change adaptations in road construction, operation and maintenance will need relatively large changes, but there is a shortage of the specific knowledge required as to what steps need to be taken, when and where, before measures can actually be implemented. Since climate change effects vary among Sweden's climatic zones, the impact of climate change on the road behavior and longevity is extremely difficult to predict. The need for winter maintenance in Sweden will generally decrease due to the warmer climate. Ploughing frequency will probably decrease as well, but preparedness should not be reduced too much since occasions with more extreme instances will increase. In order to succeed in making the road transport system resilient to climate change, we conclude that there is a need to develop more knowledge about the impact on the road infrastructure system as well as the operation and maintenance of the system including how to adapt through different types of variable and flexible climate adaptation measures and the effects of extreme weather events.

  • 26.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure.
    The impact of climate change on the use of anti- and de-icing salt in Sweden2012In: Transportation Research Circular: Winter Maintenance and Surface Transportation Weather, 2012, p. -10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The future needs for winter maintenance will probably be influenced by the climate change in different ways in different parts of the world. As Sweden is a country with several climate zones, the influence of climate change on winter maintenance will therefore differ between regions within the country. To understand the influence of climate change on the future needs of salt consumption in winter maintenance, modeled road weather data were calculated in the IRWIN project (a joint research project through ERA-NET ROAD funded by the 6th Framework Program of the European Commission), where climate change scenarios from ECHAM5 (the fifth generation of the European Centre Hamburg Model general circulation model from the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology) were combined with field data from the road weather information system in Sweden.

    These modeled road weather data were used in project KLIVIN (the study presented here) in three Swedish regions (Gothenburg, Stockholm, and Sundsvall) and was combined with the Swedish winter severity index in order to calculate the trends of future salt needs. In this study the needs of salt for each of the three investigated regions were calculated in 30-year periods between 1970 and 2100. The results show that salt use related to snowfall will decrease in all three regions, while the salt use related to temperature will increase in the northernmost region (Sundsvall) and show a small decrease in the two other regions (Gothenburg and Stockholm).

  • 27.
    Arvidsson, Anna K.
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Åkkvalitet på vinterväg2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What can be stated in this project is how a winter road is experienced when compared to snow free conditions, primarily with regard to unevenness and noise. Surveys carried out during the project show that it is possible, without too much difficulty, to measure the unevenness of a snow covered road surface. I this report is winter road defined as a snow covered road (around one day after heavy snowfall). Based on survey results, the study shows that the unevenness of section lengths between 0.05 metres and 1.0 metres are most affected by winter road conditions. Unevenness during winter road conditions is approximately five times greater than that experienced during snow free conditions. However, it is impossible to generalise for an entire road network as surface conditions during winter can be extremely variable. It is also possible to see that the surface structure described by the shortest wavelengths investigated, less than 10 millimetres, is smoother on the snow-covered surface. This is one hypothesis and indicates that measurements are reliable. The link between noise and unevenness is related to vehicle speed. The biggest sound difference between winter and summer road conditions, which could be related to the road surface measurements, was at the lower frequency range. Perceived in-car noise levels were between 3 and 6 decibel higher during winter conditions. However, for the higher frequency range the difference in noise levels was opposite - lower levels during winter conditions. A possible explanation for this is that sound may be absorbed by the snow.

  • 28.
    Berge, Truls
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Five years of EU tyre labelling: Success or failure?2017In: INTER-NOISE 2017 - 46th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering: Taming Noise and Moving Quiet, Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU regulation (EC) 1222/2009 concerning tyre labelling has now been effective in Europe since 2012. This regulation specifies limits and mandatory label values for fuel efficiency (rolling resistance), safety (wet grip) and noise (external tyre/road noise level) for new tyres of categories C1, C2 and C3. The label values of these three parameters must be visible on each tyre on a specially designed sticker. The main purpose of this regulation has been to inform the customer about the performance of the tyre regarding the three properties. The paper will discuss the principle behind the tests for each of the properties and the experience so far. A wide range of measurements results, both road and laboratory measurements of noise and rolling resistance, are presented. For the regulation to be effective and fair, the correlation between labelled valued and on-road performance should be reasonably good. Unfortunately, the few studies conducted so far show a poor correlation between labelled values and road measurements. The reason for this lack of correlation may be related to the test track used for measurements and the measurement methods not always being the same. Furthermore, influence of temperature, load and tyre pressure as well as which tyres that are selected for labelling tests may contribute to the poor correlation. It is necessary to identify the problems and their causes and to rectify the problems, since it is believed that in principle the labelling system is an excellent tool to promote high quality tyres that are both safe and environmentally friendly. Possible improvements of the labelling system are discussed in the paper.

  • 29.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Samspel i trafiken: formella och informella regler bland cyklister2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of cyclists’ behaviour in relation to rules and regulations are rather poor and the same applies to cyclists’ interaction with other road users. The purpose of this project was therefore to explore cyclists’ knowledge of traffic rules but also what determine their own compliance or noncompliance. Participants in the study were 612 people between 18 and 74 years from Gothenburg, Linköping and Stockholm and were recruited through a web panel. A survey was used which asked them about their background, view of themselves as cyclists, own self-compliance, view of others’ compliance, knowledge of rules and various factors that determine their intention to break the rules.

    The results from the study showed that the participants’ regular knowledge was relatively good, at least in terms of behaviours that are prohibited. The participants who thought that a certain behaviour was forbidden also replied that they did this to a lesser extent. Cyclists who stated that they would like to arrive as soon as possible tended to choose more flexible routes (e.g. bike across pedestrian crossings, pavements and roads mainly used by vehicles), whether permitted or not. To a greater extent they also stated that they did not always stop at red lights or at stop signs. Cycle crossings, junctions, pedestrian crossings and pavements were used as examples of places/situations where the rules were considered unclear. Perceived behavioural control and attitude influenced the intention to behave according to three hypothetical scenarios which described how other road users had to break or swerve in order to avoid an accident with the cyclist. This meant that those who intended to behave in the manner indicated believed that it was easy and rather harmless, but also that it was both right and good. However, the most important factor was if they had performed the behaviour in the past, which in turn may have reinforced this view, that is if nothing serious had happened.

  • 30.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Winter maintenance and the roadside environment2013In: Ekologija severnych territorij: materialy meždunarodnogo kongressa : 17-20 janvarja 2013 g., 2013, p. 171-175Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    The environmental sub-model of the Swedish Winter Model: updated algorithms for the description of salt damage to roadside environment2010In: Sustainable winter service for road users: 13th international winter road congress, Paris: La Défense , 2010, , p. 9Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling the impact of the use of chemical anti-/deicing on the roadside environment requires knowledge of the roadside exposure to salt, the vulnerability or dose-response relationship of the modeled environmental subjects and, preferably, the “cost” of the following impacts. The results presented in this paper are the first tentative test runs of the environmental sub-model of the Swedish Winter model. The environmental cost will in this case study be the cost for vegetation damage larger than a chosen accepted level of damage, and a cost for groundwater protection installations. The total environmental cost in this small case study will roughly be between 1.5 and 2.5 MSEK.

  • 32.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Riehm, Mats
    Institutionen för Mark- och Vattenteknik, KTH.
    Jansson, Per-Erik
    Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), KTH.
    Road surface wetness as affected by evaporation, surface runoff and traffic splashing2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Road surface wetness governs the fate of pollutants on the road surface. The wetness is also important for estimating the risk of ice formation during winters. The road surface water is affected by evaporation, run-off and traffic induced splash and spray. Increased knowledge of how these processes govern the road surface water and how they could be modelled would help to improve the possibility to abate problems with raised levels of air pollutants, as well as traffic safety issues by facilitating optimization of the use of anti- and de-icing chemicals. The aim of this study was to use a modeling tool in order to differentiate between three processes governing the loss of wetness from the road surface within a cross section of a road during two different climatic scenes (winter and spring). Two new measurement techniques were used for detailed measurements of road surface wetness across a road to validate the model. It could be concluded that the changes in wetness on the road can be simulated from general simple weather and traffic information. Furthermore, the wetness across the road is very heterogeneous and can be described by a distribution of regulating parameter values. The presented model application has a potential for real time application on roads and within a region and also for predictions of future conditions by using weather forecast data.

  • 33.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lidström, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nordmark, Staffan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Palmqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sehammar, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    SHAKE - an approach for realistic simulation of rough roads in a moving base driving simulator2010In: Trends in driving simulation design and experiments: proceedings of the driving simulation conference Europe 2010, Arcueil: Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur securite, INRETS , 2010, p. 135-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With today’s advanced measurement equipment for measuring roads, it is possible to measure road geometry at high precision within a large span of wavelengths. Detailed information about the roads longitudinal and lateral profile, including macro texture, would in theory be sufficient for a realistic reproduction of road induced vibration and noise in a driving simulator. Especially, it would be possible to create a direct connection between the visual information of the road condition and the ride experience, which would increase the level of realism in the simulation. VTI has during three years performed an internal project called SHAKE with the aim to develop and implement models in VTI driving simulator III that use measured road data for generating realistic vibrations and audible road noise connected to the visual impression presented on the projection screen. This has indeed resulted in an more realistic driving experience, and a validation study with test persons driving both in the simulator and in the field has been undertaken. The OpenDRIVE standard is used as a framework for describing the road properties (e.g. visual, vibrations and noise). For this purpose some augumentations to the OpenDRIVE standard had to be made. This paper describes the technical implementations in the driving simulator, along with results from test drives on the implemented road sections

  • 34.
    Bolling, Anne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lidström, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Nordmark, Staffan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sehammar, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Improving the realism in the VTI driving simulators: Shake final report2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) has three advanced moving base driving simulators. The aim of this project was to develop and implement new models concerning vibration, noise and graphics in order to improve the realism in the simulators. Moreover, a validation study was to be conducted.

    Within the frame of the project the following were achieved:

    • improvement of the tyre/road vibration models,
    • •improvement of the motion system by changing the rotation centre,
    • •improvement of the noise module facilitating reproduction of noise from tyre/road,
    • •synchronization of the impressions from graphics, noise and vibrations caused by the road surface.

    The validity of the models was tested in the VTI Simulator III. Statistical testing of differences between the car and the simulator indicated absolute validity for the subjective ratings of evenness and noise level and the objective measure speed, with the exception of areas surrounding speed limit signs where only relative validity was found. Relative validity was also indicated for the variable overall comfort. The results from the different validations show that the improvements have been successful and the driver in the simulator can now see, hear and feel the sensation of any road surface irregularities exactly when the wheels hit that part of the road. However, several improvements in the simulator models can still be desired.

  • 35.
    Bühlmann, Erik
    et al.
    Grolimund + Partner AG - Environmental Engineering.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mioduszewski, Piotr
    Gdansk University of Technology.
    Speed dependency of temperature effects on road traffic noise2015In: INTER-NOISE 2015 - 44th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a new literature review on the influence of temperature on tire/road noise became available, based on a compilation of large amounts of data from empirical research. This review showed that the effect of temperature is roughly double of that previously assumed and taken account of in international standards. This makes temperature one of the main sources of error in measurement results. Furthermore, it suggested that an additional refinement of the correction approach may be required to improve the accuracy of measurements. As a first attempt for this refinement, this article focuses on the speed dependency of temperature effects.

    Some past work has detected an influence of speed on the temperature effect, but did not succeed in quantifying this influence or in describing the exact pattern of speed dependency. This work aims to fill this gap by

    • investigating speed dependency of temperature effects on tire/road noise
    • estimating the temperature influence on noise generation mechanisms together with their change with speed, and
    • evaluating the speed influence on overall road traffic noise by including a propulsion noise component while using a new European traffic noise emission model.

    The article concludes by proposing a method to deal with speed dependency of temperature effects on both, CPX (or OBSI) and SPB measurements, with the ultimate goal of increasing the accuracy of measurement results.

  • 36.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Life cycle assessment of roads and pavements: studies made in Europe2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a report in sub-project 3 (SP3) in MIRIAM (Models for rolling resistance In Road Infrastructure Asset Management systems). The main aim in MIRIAM is to provide sustainable and environmentally friendly road infrastructure by reducing rolling resistance. In SP3 the importance of rolling resistance regarding energy use is studied as well as if maintenance measures can be viable options to reduce total energy use.

    In this publication there is a compilation and short description of a number of scientific studies made in Europe that use the life cycle assessment methodology to study roads and pavements. One conclusion is that the results of these studies are not directly comparable since the underlying prerequisites differ considerably. A common understanding in the studies is that all roads are unique and have their own specific conditions, which means that a flexible method is needed that can be adjusted to suite the road you want to study. Also, it is concluded that the energy used for construction, operation and maintenance of the road infrastructure only amounts to a small part of the energy use due to traffic.

  • 37.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Rullmotstånd: vägytans egenskaper och dess inverkan2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling resistance is an important aspect of the road surface properties in relation to transport energy use and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). By reducing rolling resistance, the transport energy efficiency can be improved and the CO2 emissions can be reduced. This will help in reaching the climate targets. MIRIAM is a joint project with partners from Europe and the United States with the aim to provide better opportunities to control road transport CO2 emissions related to road surface characteristics with focus on reducing rolling resistance. The partnership covers measurement methods and equipment, tests and measurements, modeling, case studies and implementation of results.

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the results published in MIRIAM. The report will give a description of what has been done in the different sub-projects and what the findings are. The compilation is based on the reports and other publications issued within MIRIAM as well as in projects that directly is connected to MIRIAM, and that is published on their websites.

  • 38.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Andra generationens biodrivmedel: en litteraturöversikt2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the transport policy objectives in Sweden is that the vehicle fleet should be fossil independent by 2030. To achieve this we should replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels based on biomass. The purpose of this report is to make a knowledge-based overview of second-generation biofuels production technologies, use, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions as well as the problems of land use.

    First-generation fuels such as ethanol from starch and biodiesel from plant oil have a number of limitations, which means they are not a sustainable solution in the long run. The anticipation is instead that the second-generation biofuels, which use cellulosic material, have a better potential to replace fossil fuels. These biofuels have higher energy efficiency and lower overall greenhouse gas emissions compared with the first-generation biofuels. Also, they use raw materials that do not directly compete with food or with land use for food production. It is also predicted that the new biofuels can replace some of the fuels used in air transport, which is not possible with today's options.

    For an increased biofuel production to be sustainable it is important to avoid negative effects on the environment, which for instance can be effects on biodiversity, land degradation, and that the cultivation of crops for biofuels will be on sensitive land areas. To ensure this is not happening there is a European directive stating how this should be performed. In addition, it is important to ensure that production is carried out as efficiently as possible from the perspectives of resources, environment and costs. Other restrictions apply in particular for technical and economic barriers, which will impede the commercialisation in the short run. To have a functioning market within a reasonable time frame, it is also important that the second-generation biofuels are supported by different instruments which will make them competitive. Because no single biofuel is foreseen to provide sufficient quantities to meet a demand of large volumes, it is imperative that the financial and administrative instruments do not lead to solutions that are not justifiable in the long run. And since even renewable raw materials could become scarce, we should not only rely on replacing fossil fuel with more biofuels. It is also important to continue with the making the energy use more efficient in order to reduce total energy needs.

  • 39.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Björketun, Urban
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Utveckling av VTI:s modell för beräkning av trafikarbete på svenska vägar2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Each year, VTI delivers a description of both a historical description and a prognosis of the annual vehicle mileage using a forecast model. Based on the results from this model a simplified description is made of the future traffic in HBEFA, which is the basis for the annual calculation of traffic emissions. The purpose of this project was to undertake a general revision of the method, both historical and future, in the forecast model. The assessment shows, for example, that a computational model can continually evolve and improve. Recent data have become available through the meter readings for mileage and better data are now available to take into account heavy trucks used for overseas shipments. A function adaptation of mileage as a function of vehicle age shows a good agreement with the measured driving distances for vehicles up to and including about 25 to 30 years of age. A sensitivity analysis of making various assumptions regarding the mileage and age distribution shows the effect on the amount of fuel consumption and regulated emissions for different categories of vehicles.

  • 40.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Sustainabililty and Energy Efficient Management of Roads: Final Report2014Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Ekonomisk och energieffektiv användning av motorvärmare: beräkning av kallstartstillägg2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an engine heater before starting the vehicle is a way to achieve greater energy efficiency and lower emissions in the transport sector. The purpose of this study is to update the potential savings by using engine heaters in a newer vehicle fleet. The tool COLDSTART2014 has been used to update the calculations of cold start effects of fuel and emissions, with respect to parking time, ambient temperature and for vehicles of different environmental class.

    The report provides answers to how much the cold start effects can be reduce in the regional and national level, provided that the engine heater is used effectively. There is a difference between the different environment classes on how an engine heater is used efficiently. There should be recommendations based on environmental class, parking time and ambient temperature, and not like today when they are solely based on ambient temperature. What constitutes an efficient use of engine heaters also depends on the cost perspective. If you look at socio-economic costs, engine heaters should be used much more frequently and longer than with a perspective of private economy.

  • 42.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Bladlund, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Measurement technology and engineering workshop.
    Ekonomisk och energieffektiv användning av motorvärmare: utvärdering av effekten på bränsleförbrukning vid värmning av smörjolja jämfört med värmning av kylvatten2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Test results show that the cold-start effect with increased fuel consumption is reduced most by heating the cooling water, compared to heating the lubricating oil. Starting an engine when it is cold gives rise to higher fuel consumption and emissions as a cold engine means that a larger friction needs to be overcome and that the combustion is not optimal. To warm the engine in beforehand leads to lesser cold start effect. Traditionally, engine heating has been made by heating the cooling water, which in turn heats the engine block. The purpose of this study was to examine whether it would be more energy efficient to heat the lubricating oil instead of the cooling water. The hypothesis was that a warmer lubricating oil leads to less friction in the engine, which in itself would mean that less fuel to overcome the frictional resistance is needed. Likely, there may be differences in the usefulness of engine heater between cars with gearbox integrated with motor and without such integration. The results of the tests show that the cold-start effect with increased fuel consumption is reduced most by heating the cooling water. The warmer the cooling water is at engine start, the less fuel consumption by the engine start. When the total energy needs for cold starts is calculated, i.e. fuel consumption plus electric use due to engine heating, the results are not as clear regarding which option is the most energy efficient. The reduced fuel consumption as result of pre-heating is overcome by the electricity consumption needed for the actual motor heating. One advantage is that the local emissions will decrease. Since the Swedish electricity production to a large extent is based on emission free production technology, it is most likely that the total emissions are reduced.

  • 43.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hammarström, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Utvärdering PHEM-modellen: En förstudie2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration has stated that there is a need to develop the use of micro simulation models of fuel use and emissions of traffic that are used for transport planning. The aim of the project is to perform an evaluation of PHEM model to investigate conditions, opportunities and barriers to use it in transport planning. The following aspects have been assessed: License agreements, costs, rights, property issues; User friendliness; Content and calculation capabilities; Adjustment and development possibilities; Validation. Furthermore, simulation tests have been performed where fuel consumption and emissions of nitrogen oxide, nitrogen monoxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, particulate mass and particle number has been calculated for roads with different road classes and for additional emissions and fuel use due to a vehicle stop. PHEM model is found to be relatively user-friendly, and with great opportunities to customize calculations. This makes the model complex, therefore it is recommended to start using PHEM with a short introductory course, even for used modellers. A conclusion of the evaluation is a recommendation to use PHEM for transport modelling. The database underlying the engine maps is constantly updated leading to more reliable emission calculations. The possibility to get a greater coherence in the calculations of the exhaust emissions of the different models that the Transport Administration advocate is also improved, which is a positive development. There are, also, some development possibilities that should be considered.

  • 44.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Trafikverket.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Energy use due to traffic and pavement maintenance: the cost effectiveness of reducing rolling resistance2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a potential to reduce energy use of traffic by performing maintenance measures that lower the rolling resistance. However, the overall aim should be to decrease the total energy use in a life cycle perspective, including energy for both traffic and maintenance. When choosing maintenance alternative, it is also of importance to consider the costs involved. Pavement management is focused on keeping wide spread road networks in acceptable condition given certain budget constraints. Therefore, the economic constraints need to be addressed and in the case of choosing a maintenance alternative that reduces total energy, it also has to be cost-efficient in order for it to be performed. The main scope of the research presented in this report is to investigate how road management should act to reduce total energy use of roads, including traffic and maintenance induced energy use, while also taking cost efficiency and the aspect of uncertainty into consideration. The purpose is to enable a better consideration of the total energy used and maintenance cost when managing the road network. The objective is to derive a meaningful instrument for decision making situations such as when selecting and designing maintenance treatments, in which total energy use and maintenance cost is considered. A general method is developed and presented. A criterion, CR, has been identified for how to choose a pavement maintenance strategy in regards to cost and energy efficiency. A cost benefit analysis approach using Benefit to Cost Ratio, BCR, has been adopted. The study indicates that it is difficult to establish a simple rule of thumb. However, the CR-value may be a useful criterion in some circumstances and it is important to have guidelines as decision support where assessments are made of the road surface characteristics, total energy use and maintenance cost and where the different aspects are valued. This is especially important on an object level.

  • 45.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Life cycle assessment of a road investment: estimating the effect on energy use when building a bypass road2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the transport sector, major efforts have been concentrated on developing more fuel efficient engines and vehicles. However, the road infrastructure, its operation and maintenance also use energy and do have an effect on traffic fuel consumption and emissions. The objective of this study is to estimate the total energy use in a life cycle perspective of a road infrastructure investment and the impact of different phases of the roads life time. How the results are related to the transport objectives is also addressed.

    A life cycle assessment method is used to evaluate an infrastructure investment, including construction, operation, maintenance and traffic during 60 years. A small community is used as a case study where a bypass has been built and the result show that this investment will increase the total energy use by approximately 60 %, or 1 550 TJ compared to not building it. A major part of the increase is due to traffic, and since mostly fossil fuel is used there will also be an increase in greenhouse gas emissions. The result stipulates that the aspects of energy efficiency and reduction of greenhouse gases has not been accounted for in the planning or it has been considered as less important than other aspects, e.g. traffic safety and accessibility.

  • 46.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mellin, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Life cycle assessment of a road investment: Estimating the effect on energy use when building a bypass road2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Törnquist Krasemann, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet.
    Vierth, Inge
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nuvarande förutsättningar och försök med längre godståg mellan Gävle och Malmö2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The second sub-project of ELVIS demonstration project for longer and heavier freight trains aims to analyze the actual conditions for the use of longer trains and to evaluate the trial where a 730 metres long demonstration train (instead of a maximum of 630 metres) was operating between Gävle and Malmö 6–7 October 2012. One conclusion is that it is technically possible to operate trains that are longer than 630 metres but there are organizational barriers. To use the infrastructure more efficient, the project proposes the use of dedicated channels for longer freight trains in specific corridors as a temporary solution. The comparison of the demonstration train with up to 630 metres reference trains was hampered of that the central data describing the reference trains were difficult to access and partially uncertain. An important conclusion is that a better mapping of the current situation is needed in order to make reliable quantitative analysis. It was possible to compile information about the electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer of the demonstration train and the reference trains. However, it is difficult to quantify how the length of the train, the weight of the train, the speed, the number of stops etc. influence the electricity consumption one by one – both due to the quality of the data set and the fact that there is a quite large variation in electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer regardless which of the factors is studied. The impact of the topography and the length and weight of the train on the electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer can however be shown. The electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer of the demonstration train is generally lower than the consumption of the reference trains. It is possible, however, to conclude that electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer is generally not higher for longer trains, but it is impossible to say that consumption is generally lower. The literature and discussions with firms indicate that industry can reduce transport costs by using longer freight trains. However, economies of scale can only be exploited if locomotives traction capacity is not fully utilized today. It is obvious that the access to the rail infrastructure determine which train lengths and weights are commercially interesting. The electricity consumption per gross tonne-kilometer can possibly also reduced by using longer trains, but this cannot be stated without further notice. Running longer freight trains on a larger scale requires investments in tracks, terminals etc. The rough socio-economic calculations for the 750 metre long trains that have been carried out so far indicate that the investment costs are relatively modest. Though there is a need for analyzes for various train lengths as it is not obvious that the minimum length of 750 metres that is required for the TEN-T core network from 2030 is optimal.

  • 48.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Vieira, Tiago
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Effekten på rullmotstånd av vatten och snö på vägytan2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling resistance depends on the interaction between road surface and tire and forms part of the driving resistance a vehicle needs to overcome to move forward. The road surface properties considered the most important for rolling resistance are macro textures and unevenness along the way. But water and snow on the road surface will also affect the rolling resistance. Precipitation remaining on the road surface means the wheels need to be driven through and move water or snow, which gives increased resistance.

    The purpose of the report is to provide an overview of the state of knowledge about how the rolling resistance is affected by water and snow on the road surface. Literature has been sought in databases of scientific articles and reports, and also on the internet. A review has been made of about 50 reports and articles published from the 1970s to 2018.

    The overview shows that water and snow on the road surface can have a significant effect on the rolling resistance. For water on the road surface, speed, temperature and water depth are often used as explanatory variables. To describe the snows impact on the rolling resistance, the explanation variables use snow depth, snow density, tire contact surface with the ground. An uncertainty in the results of the studies reported is that several have been implemented in the 70's and 80's. Since then, measuring methods as well as measuring equipment have been developed and improved. The tire properties have also improved, which has had an effect on the rolling resistance. Therefore, to obtain snow and water rolling resistance measurement data for tires and vehicles used on normal roads today, new measurements should be made using the most recent measurement methods and measurement equipment. This would reduce the uncertainty in measurement results and provide current information that can be used to update the relationship between fuel consumption and water and snow on the road surface.

  • 49.
    Cha, Yingying
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms Universitet.
    On particulate emissions from individual trains in tunnel environments2016In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance, Dun Eaglais, Kippen Stirlingshire, FK8 3DY, UK: Civil-Comp Press , 2016, 2016, Vol. 110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to detect the concentrations and size distributions of airborne particles that were generated by individual moving trains on an underground railway platform, a series of real-time measurements were undertaken. The measurement range covered the ultrafine (less than 100 nm) and partly the fine (100 nm to 2.5 μm), but not the coarse fraction (2.5 to 10 μm). The results show that the individual trains with stop and start at the platform elevate substantially the particulate number concentrations with a diameter size greater than 100 nm. Two size modes of the particulate number concentrations are obtained. One mode peaks around 170 nm when a train stopped/started, while the other is around 30 nm when no train operated in the station. By using principal component analysis, four components are extracted from the thirty two-analyzed particulate sizes, indicating four different contributors in those detected particles. It is revealed from this study that the particulate matter released by individual moving trains (mainly through mechanical wear and turbulent resuspension) is a key contributing source of the fine particles on underground railway platforms, which can be separated from the background by their different size distributions.

  • 50.
    Cha, Yingying
    et al.
    KTH.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms Universitet.
    On particulate emissions from moving trains in a tunnel environment2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 59, p. 35-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing attention is being paid to airborne particles in railway environments because of their potential to adversely affect health. In this study, we investigate the contribution of moving trains to both the concentration and size distribution of particles in tunnel environments. Real-time measurements were taken with high time-resolution instruments at a railway station platform in a tunnel in Stockholm in January 2013. The results show that individual trains stopping and starting at the platform substantially elevate the particulate concentrations with a mobility diameter greater than 100 nm. Two size modes of the particulate number concentrations were obtained. A mode of around 170 nm occurs when a train moves, while the other mode peaks at about 30 nm when there is no train in the station. By using principal component analysis (PCA), three contributing sources were identified on the basis of the classification of the sizes of the particles, namely railway-related mechanical wear, suspension due to the movement of trains and sparking of electric-powered components. It is concluded that the particulate matter released by individual moving trains is a key contributor to fine particles (100–500 nm) on the railway platform in a tunnel.

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