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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dangerous use of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving: A toolbox of counter-measures2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile phone and similar devices while driving has been a topic of discussion and research for several years. It is now an established fact that driving performance is deteriorated due to distraction but no clear conclusions can yet be drawn concerning influence on crash rates. Better studies on this relationship is needed. Most countries in Europe and many countries elsewhere have introduced different types of bans for handheld devices. Sweden has, however, no such bans. VTI was commissioned by the Swedish Government to outline possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving as alternatives to banning. This task was a result of a previous VTI-state-of-the-art review of research on mobile phone and other communication device usage while driving. One of the findings in the review was that bans on handheld phones did not appear to reduce the number of crashes.

    Eighteen different countermeasures in three main areas were suggested. (1) Technical solutions such as countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. (2) Education and information, describing different ways to increase knowledge and understanding among stakeholders and different driver categories. (3) Different possibilities for how society, industry and organisations can influence the behaviour of individuals, via policies, rules, recommendations and incentives. Our conclusion is that a combination of different countermeasures is needed – where education and information to the drivers are combined with support and incentives for a safe usage of different communication devices.

  • 2.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Lunds Universitet.
    Retrospection of medieval landscape change in mid-Sweden Historical maps analysed using a retrogressive approach2014In: NEW FOCUS ON RETROSPECTIVE METHODS: RESUMING METHODOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS - CASE STUDIES FROM NORTHERN EUROPE, 2014, no 307, 163-185 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars from different historical disciplines use the word 'retrospective in different ways which might sometimes be confusing. In historical geography, 'retrogressive methodology' is the term for what in history is known as retrospective methodology: using later sources to shed light upon earlier times. In this field, retrospective methodology is the opposite: making earlier sources throw light upon later times. The aim of this article is to present the retrogressive method as I know it from historical geography and in two case studies show how it works and highlight its potential for medieval landscape studies by the use of (post-medieval) maps from the provinces of Halsingland and Jamtland, mid-Sweden (fig. 1). The cases discuss medieval hamlet and village formation as well as late medieval farm desertion.

  • 3.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys .
    Landscape heritage objects' effect on driving: a combined driving simulator and questionnaire study.2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 62, 168-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the literature, landscape (panoramas, heritage objects e.g. landmarks) affects people in various ways. Data are primarily developed by asking people (interviews, photo sessions, focus groups) about their preferences, but to a lesser degree by measuring how the body reacts to such objects. Personal experience while driving a car through a landscape is even more rare.

    In this paper we study how different types of objects in the landscape affect drivers during their drive. A high-fidelity moving-base driving simulator was used to measure choice of speed and lateral position in combination with stress (heart rate measure) and eye tracking. The data were supplemented with questionnaires. Eighteen test drivers (8 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 37 were recruited. The test drivers were exposed to different new and old types of landscape objects such as 19th century church, wind turbine, 17th century milestone and bus stop, placed at different distances from the road driven.

    The findings are in some respect contradictory, but it was concluded that that 33% of the test drivers felt stressed during the drive. All test drivers said that they had felt calm at times during the drive but the reason for this was only to a minor degree connected with old and modern objects. The open landscape was experienced as conducive to acceleration. No significant differences could be observed concerning the test drivers' gaze between old or modern objects, but a significant difference was observed between the test drivers' gaze between road stretches with faraway objects and stretches without objects.

  • 4.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Crash Barriers and Driver Behavior: A Simulator Study2013In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 14, no 8, 874-880 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study examines how drivers experience a conventional W-beam guardrail (metal crash barrier) along both sides of narrow versus wider roads (single carriageway with 2 lanes) in terms of stress, feelings, and driving patterns and whether subjective experience concurs with the actual driving patterns captured by the quantitative data.

    Methods: The study used different methods to capture data, including the VTI Driving Simulator III (speed and lateral vehicle position) in conjunction with electrocardiogram (ECG) data on heart rate variability (HRV) and questionnaires (oral during driving and written after driving). Eighteen participants-8 men and 10 women-were recruited for the simulator study and the simulator road section was 10 km long.

    Results: Driving speeds increased slightly on the wider road and on the road with a crash barrier, and the lateral driving position was nearer to the road center on the narrower road and on the road with a crash barrier. The HRV data did not indicate that participants experienced greater stress due to road width or due to the presence of a crash barrier. Participant experience captured in the oral questionnaires suggested that road width did not affect driver stress or driving patterns; however, the written questionnaire results supported the simulator data, indicating that a wider road led to increased speed. None of the participants felt that crash barriers made them feel calmer.

    Conclusions: We believe that there is a possibility that the increased speed on roads with crash barriers may be explained by drivers’ sense of increased security. This study demonstrates that an experimental design including experience-based data captured using both a simulator and questionnaires is productive. It also demonstrates that driving simulators can be used to study road features such as crash barriers. It seems more than likely that features such as street lamps, signs, and landscape objects could be tested in this way. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 5.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    People and parking requirements: Residential attitudes and day-to-day consequences of a land use policy shift towards sustainable mobility2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, no 62, 213-222 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A land use policy shift is taking place in a growing number of cities regarding parking, whereby a conventional supply management approach is being replaced with a parking management approach. As part of this policy shift, many cities are lowering their parking requirements.

    This study analysed changes in car use, car ownership, spatial parking patterns and the consequences for the everyday life of residents in a housing area with a relatively restrictive parking requirement in Gothenburg, the second largest city in Sweden. The housing area, a concrete example of how lowering parking requirements can be used to achieve targets on reduced car use and sustainable urban development, is used to discuss how parking policy should be applied to achieve the desired effect.

    The results show that the consequences of the restrictive requirement was paradoxically small in the study area. In practice, the requirement did not result in a decrease in the number of parking spaces, because e.g. of access to parking in neighbouring residential areas. This shows how important it is to adopt a holistic approach in parking policy, by e.g.introducing more restrictive parking requirements in parallel with other measures, such as raising parking charges and decreasing the number of public parking spaces. It also shows that planning of parking must be coordinated with other urban planning functions. Otherwise, the actual contribution of a shift in parking policy to the development of a more environmentally friendly transport system and city risks being small, despite lower parking requirements

  • 6.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Lunds Universitet.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Storbjörk, Sofie
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Negotiating climate change responses: Regional and local perspectives on transport and coastal zone planning in South Sweden2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 52, 297-305 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Putting climate change policy-integration into practice is challenged by problems of institutional misfit, due to, inter alia, deficient vertical administrative interplay. While most focus within the field of climate change research has targeted the national-local interplay, less is known about the interface of regional and local perspectives.

    Here, the aim is to study that interface with a specific focus on the relation between regional and local spatial planning actors, through a case-study of transport and coastal zone management in a Swedish municipality. The article is based on interviews (focus group and single in-depth) and official planning documents.

    The material reveals a tricky planning situation, replete with conflict. In practice, various institutional frameworks, claims and ambitions collide. The attempts to steer the local spatial planning initiatives from the regional level led to conflicts, which in turn seems to have hampered the overall work for climate change management through spatial planning. Furthermore, there are few traces of prospects of a smooth vertical institutional interplay able to support the overall aims related to integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation in spatial planning.

  • 7.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jacobsen, Jens Kr. Steem
    University of Stavanger.
    Tourism development strategy or just brown signage?: Comparing road administration policies and designation procedures for official tourism routes in two Scandinavian countries2014In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 36, 342-350 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comparative study maps and explores planning and designation of official tourism, routes in two countries with quite similar planning traditions, responding to a deficiency in research, on tourism route planning and development.

    Based on personal semi-structured interviews with, public road planners and managers in Norway and Sweden, the paper illuminates establishment and, management of official tourism routes, with an emphasis on overall strategies, funding, and, stakeholder involvement.

    Results show that public road administration route planning procedures in, the two countries are quite different. In Norway, a top-down principle is basically employed, concerning initiatives and designation of routes.

    In Sweden, the principle is one of muddling through, giving street-level planners more opportunities for individual influence on route planning. Funding for, road stretches included in the Norwegian national route programme is earmarked, whereas Swedish, routes are financed from ordinary appropriations to the regional road administrations.

    In Norway, regular follow-up studies such as road user surveys are conducted. In Sweden, a dearth of, documentation of tourist interests and route assessments seemingly makes route development, susceptible in relation to regional road administrations' economic priorities.

  • 8.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Experiencing moose and landscape while driving: a simulator and questionnaire study2014In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 41, 91-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal vehicle collisions (AVC's) have large economic, medical and ecological consequences but have rarely been studied with respect to driver behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate different AVC-relevant landscape settings (vegetation cover), with and without game fencing and in combination with encountering moose. Twenty-five participants took part in an advanced driving simulator experiment. The results show that neither the presence of a game fence nor vegetation was found to affect driving speed, speed variability, lateral position or visual scanning in general. When a moose appeared at the side of the road, the drivers reacted by slowing down earlier and reducing their speed more when no game fence was present. Furthermore, the speed reduction when a moose was present was significantly larger when the vegetation was sparse. Game fencing made drivers feel at ease whereas dense vegetation was experienced as more stressful.

  • 9.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    SLU.
    Landskapsanalys och upphandling: en intervjustudie med aktörer i väg- och järnvägsplaneringen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report builds on interviews with twelve key individuals concerning issues surrounding landscape analysis (LA) during the planning and procurement process for roads and railways. The background to the study is the long-established use of LA to support broad-scale planning and large projects such as new trunk roads and mainline rail routes.

    In its strategic plan the then Swedish Road Administration (Vägverket) decided that from 2010 onwards all public road-building projects must include a formal landscape analysis and design programme. However, there is no regulatory framework to say what should be analysed, or how the analysis should be conducted.

    There is considerable variation in the experiences and opinions of those interviewed, from which it can be concluded that project leaders at the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) adopt different styles of working depending on which geographic region or individual project they are associated with. For example, a common understanding of what ‘landscape’ might mean is largely missing, while the way that the respondents describe the landscape does not correspond to the official landscape terminology as set down in the European Landscape Convention (ELC). The term design programme presents a similar case, whereas the concept of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is well established and goes unquestioned by the interviewees, because it is used both in legislation and in the literature.

    Another conclusion is that there is little in the way of consensus concerning LA except for a common perception that there is a lack of guidelines or assistance from the responsible authority (Trafikverket) in the form of a handbook or a dedicated chapter in the existing EIA handbooks. The importance of a handbook or similar document to the respondents is striking. There is uncertainty as to how to assure the quality of a given LA, and often a review of the EIA is regarded as sufficing for the LA as well.

    There are two schools of thought among the respondents as to when an LA should be carried out: either early in the planning process, or continuously throughout the entire planning process. In reality, though, there is a third school of thought evident in the existing planning system: that an LA is a part of the EIA, and as such should first take place during the consultation process.

  • 10.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Lunds Universitet.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet .
    "This is what we did last time". Uncertainty over landscape analysis and its procurement in the Swedish road planning process2015In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 42, 48-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In some European countries, landscape analysis has long been used in support of large-scale planning or major projects such as new trunk roads and mainline rail routes, in line with both the UN's Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment and the European Landscape Convention. Some countries, however, lack a regulatory framework for what should be analysed, how a landscape analysis should be conducted, or even how it should be procured. Sweden is one such country.

    The research project on which this article is based, uses in-depth interviews with twelve key Swedish officials to consider landscape analysis issues in the planning and procurement of road and railway infrastructure. The findings point to the fact that skilled transport planners are not entirely comfortable with the current situation, and the way landscape analysis is handled in daily planning practice varies enormously. For example, nearly all the respondents believe that the way formal landscape analyses are procured is important, not least to ensure quality, yet at the same time they are rarely commissioned separately, even when this is explicitly stipulated by the regulations. There is no generally accepted notion of what 'landscape' might be, and the terms in which respondents describe the landscape do not correspond to the official landscape terminology as set down in the ELC.

  • 11.
    Antov, Dago
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology.
    Banet, Aurélie
    Barbier, Cécile
    Bellet, Thierry
    Bimpeh, Yaw
    Boulanger, Ankatrien
    Brandstätter, Christian
    Britschgi, Virpi
    Brosnan, Michael
    Buttler, Ilona
    Cestac, Julien
    De Craen, Saskia
    Delhomme, Patrice
    Dogan, Ebru
    Drápela, Emil
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Freeman, R
    Furian, Gerald
    Gábor, Miklós
    Goldenbeld, Charles
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Holte, Hardy
    Kraïem, Sami
    Papadimitriou, Eleonora
    Podlesek, Anja
    Polič, Marko
    Sánchez-Martín, Fermina
    Sardi, Gian-Marco
    Schmidt, Eike-Andreas
    Silverans, Peter
    Siska, Tamas
    Skládaná, Pavlina
    Theofilatos, Athanasios
    Von Below, Ariande
    Yannis, George
    Zaidel, David
    Zavrides, Neophytos
    Delhomme, Patricia (Editor)
    IFSTTAR.
    European road users' risk perception and mobility: the SARTRE 4 survey2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The SARTRE (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) project started in 1991. It consists of a European wide survey about knowledge of road traffic laws and road traffic risks, attitudes regarding road safety issues, reported road traffic behaviours, transport habits and needs in several European countries. Various topics related to road safety are in the focus of the project such as alcohol, drugs, or phone use while driving, speeding, use of advanced driver assistance systems and the transport infrastructure and environment.

  • 12.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Räfflor i mitten av körfältet: ett försök i Skaulo2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the study was to evaluate the effects on road user behavior when using milled rumble strips in the centre of the lane on a road 6.5 meters wide. The evaluation included measurements of speed and lateral position. Measurements were done before and after milling, and focus group interviews were perfomed with motorcyclists and truck drivers after realisation. The results of the measurements of speed and lateral position showed that milled rumble strips in the middle of the lane do not affect car drivers. A slight increase in the standard deviation of the lateral position for passenger cars may be noted. Truck drivers were affected slightly more: significantly lower speed was detected as well as that trucks moved closer to the road centre, and the standard deviation of lateral position increased. This is not what the drivers themselves report to experience. They say that their choice of speed is unchanged. All in all truck drivers were negative to the rumble strips in the centre of the lane. One argument was that they disturbe the "line" during the drive and make it difficult to choose the placement they want to have. Truck drivers do not believe that they, in case of falling asleep, (in contrary to expectations) would have time enough to act in order to aviod a crash, since the roads are too narrow. Also the motorcyclists are negative to the centre lane location of rumble strips. They agree, however, that rumble strips in the centre of the road and in the roadside are postitive in terms of traffic safety.

  • 13.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Stakeholders’ opinions on a future in-vehicle alcohol detection system for prevention of drunk driving2015In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 16, no 4, 336-344 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as the outcome. Various countermeasures have therefore from time to time been taken by the authorities to prevent drunk driving. One of them has been the alcohol interlock. Up to now, interlocks have mainly been used by previously convicted drunk drivers and in the commercial road transport sector, but not in private cars.

    Objective and Method: New technology has today reached a level where broader implementation might be possible. To our knowledge, however, little is known about different stakeholders' opinions of a broader implementation of such systems. In order to increase that knowledge, we conducted a focus group study to collect in-depth thoughts from different stakeholders on this topic. Eight focus groups representing a broad societal span were recruited and conducted for the purpose.

    Results and Conclusions: The results show that most stakeholders thought that an integrated system for alcohol detection in vehicles might be beneficial in lowering the number of drunk driving crashes. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution to the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system.

    Concerns were raised about the risk of increased sleepy driving and driving just under the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit. The results also indicate that stakeholders preferred a system that provides information on the BAC up to the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit; for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Acceptance of the system depended on the reliability of the system, on its ability to perform fast sampling, and on the analytical process, as well as the system's more or less inconspicuous placement and user-friendliness. The stakeholders thought that drivers would probably not voluntarily demand the system. So if broad implementation was desired, it would have to be made compulsory by legislation. As an incentive to increase demand, lower taxes and insurance premiums were suggested.

  • 14.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Boende, pendlare och lastbilsförare tycker till om riksväg 23 och riksväg 402012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is obvious that those who live near a road like to be involved during the planning phase of a road reconstruction. The Swedish Transport Administration would most likely benefit from making residents more involved in the planning process and from providing clear information about the road safety potential of the implemented measures. A better understanding of the measures’ potential contribution to increase safety is likely to give a greater acceptance.

    The aim of this study performed by VTI was to learn more about what residents, commuters and truck drivers think of the measures taken along two Swedish country roads.

    Concerning one of the roads the truck drivers were positive to the reconstruction even though their fears concerning lack of respect for the continuous centerline had come true. They were also negative regarding the short distance of the gradient field. They would have appreciated if it had been longer. In addition, they argued for deeper milled rumble strips in order to make vibration and sound more easily felt in heavy vehicles. As it is now the truck drivers hardly notice the rumble strips when passing them with a truck.

    Even though the roads previously had had a high traffic density with many dangerous overtakings and a lot of accidents with wild animals, there was little understanding of the reasons behind the reconstructions. The acceptance for fences to protect from wild animals was high, but the other measures implemented to improve road safety were more difficult to substantiate.

  • 15.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nykterhetsstödjande system: diskussioner i fokusgrupper2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as outcome. The aim with this study was to understand drivers’ vision of a future vehicle integrated system for alcohol detection. Eight focus groups with in total 47 participants representing different stakeholders were recruited and conducted for the purpose. The groups represented young drivers (18–19 years old), males (30–60 years old), females (30–60 years old), elderly (70–90 years old), former alcohol addicts, one group represented authorities and finally one represented retailors and rental car companies. The analysis was based solely on the transcriptions and the analysis was performed using inductive content analysis. The results show a clear view that such future vehicle integrated system will benefit a large group of drivers. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution for the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system. From the drivers point of view the system most truly should be invisible for the drivers. Feedback to the driver was seen as justified at levels below the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit: for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Feedback should be given through sound or as a visual feedback. Reliability and trust to the system was rated as very important, and it was underlined that it was important that it was the drivers BAC that was detected not the passengers.

  • 16.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Liljas, Stina (red.)
    Sina Liljas AB.
    Varför skjutsar föräldrarna barnen till skolan?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många kommuner upplever problem i samband med att barnen skjutsas till skolan med bil av föräldrarna i stället för att gå, cykla eller åka buss eller skolskjuts. Detta leder i sin tur till minskad trafiksäkerhet i området kring skolorna. Den här skriften förklarar varför föräldrar skjutsar barnen till skolan genom att redovisa forskningsrapporter och redogöra för en studie som författarna gjort på några utvalda skolor. Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting har tagit fram skriften för att inspirera och stödja kommunerna i arbetet med att hitta lösningar som kan minska skjutsandet.

  • 17.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ekonomiska styrmedel för en hållbar personbilstrafik: konsekvenser för tillgänglighet: en kunskapsöversikt2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to provide knowledge on how economic instruments for the greening of private car traffic have been addressed in accessibility research with an equity and distribution perspective. The focus is on instruments that are designed to give economic incentives for environmental adjustments and are in operation in Sweden and Norway. The report begins with a review of economic instruments for the greening of private car traffic in force in Sweden and Norway. The instruments have been classified into three groups: those linked to vehicle characteristics, those linked to fuel, and tolls and congestion charges. This review is followed by a presentation of international accessibility research; how equity and distribution are conceptualized and researched within this field and the central empirical findings. The report continues with a review of how these instruments have been discussed and assessed to date in accessibility research with a focus on equity and distribution-related consequences. The report ends with a number of thematic areas of relevance for upcoming research in Sweden and Norway The literature review indicates that an intensified emphasis on economic instruments targeting private car traffic for the transition to an environmentally sustainable transport system in the transport policy of many Western countries has led to increased interest in these instruments in accessibility research. Characteristic of the literature under review is that the expected consequences of these instruments are discussed in relation to empirical results from accessibility research studies, but the instruments as such have not yet been the object of empirical research within this field to any large extent. Throughout the literature the economic instruments are regarded as increasing inequities in transport in terms of accessibility. Essentially, the explanation offered is that the context in which these economic instruments operate, and which controls their outcomes, is a society that is car-oriented in respect of land use patterns and transport infrastructure. This means that groups whose finances are under strain face severe barriers in accessing society’s goods and services and in reaching a reasonable standard of living and quality of life without using a car to get around. Accessibility research does not reject the economic instruments as such. What it criticizes is that these instruments do not seem to be accompanied by wide-ranging changes in land use planning and investment in alternative transport infrastructure.

  • 18.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Kolbenstvedt, Marika
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, TØI, Oslo.
    Policy för spridning av elbilar: några aktuella perspektiv och forskningsbehov: en förstudie2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is based on a preliminary study that focuses in particular on exploring policy for the accelerated adoption of electric cars in Norway and Sweden. Electric cars are one of the central vehicle technologies when it comes to the targets for a fossil-independent vehicle fleet that have been set by countries such as Sweden and Norway. The overall purpose of the preliminary study has been to highlight what steers policy formulation in each country and how policy relates to research into and knowledge of the way green technology innovations are adopted. The aim is to pin down future knowledge and research needs regarding the accelerated adoption of electric cars specifically and green technology innovations in the transport field more generally. The preliminary study comprises one Swedish and one Norwegian sub-study of national transport and environmental policy with a bearing on the adoption of electric cars, plus R&D policy linked to this vehicle technology. Both these sub-studies have, in various ways, used and referred to international research and theorising on the adoption of green technology innovations in the analyses that have been conducted. The sub-studies have led to the identification of knowledge gaps in policy-making, research needs and three thematic areas for further studies: Increased multi- and cross-disciplinary research into the adoption of green technology innovations in vehicles and transport; Knowledge based policy research for “knowledge policies”, Policy as political process and the role of key players.

  • 19.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nordbakke, Susanne
    TØI, Oslo.
    Developments in driver’s licence holding among young people: potential explanations, implications and trends2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review examines the factors that influence the development in the driver’s licence rate among young people in different age groups, socioeconomic groups and geographical contexts, as well as the impact on the welfare of young people of holding or not holding a driver’s licence. The review also includes research on trends, prognoses and evaluations of developments in driver’s licence holding, and knowledge on any links between changes in driver licensing and falling car usage among young people. The review shows that several factors appear to explain and influence the driver licensing trend among young people, while, at the same time, there is a great difference in driver’s licence holding among different groups. More research is needed to investigate the extent to which the declining driver licensing rates is a general trend and/or opposite trends between different groups of young people, and with different welfare impacts.

  • 20.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ökad cykling: professionella utmaningar och hinder i den lokala transportplaneringen2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to highlight reasons why not policy objective of an increased proportion of cycling is achieved in practical planning at the municipal level, and contribute to knowledge about how this “implementation gap” can be reduced. The report is based on research on the implementation of policy to increase cycling in four swedish municipalities. The results show that the implementation gap is partly a consequence of pathdependency. The target of increased cycling is handled within an implementation structure, organizationknowledge- action, where professional groups are characterized by knowledge and skills aiming at optimizing the flow of traffic. This approach serves as a model for operational set of problems and solutions in planning for increased cycling. The substantial work has consisted of building a functional cycling network, improving lane design and other cycling infrastructure measures. Mobility for cycling has increased over the years, but the effects in the form of an increased share of cycling have not materialized. Lack of goal-achievement has not led to a reconsideration of exciting approaches and methods. Officials are instead oriented toward maintaining professional boundaries regarding competencies and choice of action. Concretely this means that accessibility conditions for cycling are not ensured, which further endangers the effects of mobility measures, and other measures of a complementary nature. To change this situation the traffic professions have to develop. The report outline three possible approaches to how this can be done: the development of planning support on accessibility conditions for cycling by national authorities with the role of assisting municipalities in their planning, greater focus and systematics around the investigation of local problems for increased cycling, which the selection of actions should be based on; greater governance in order to establish cross-sectoral work in planning.

  • 21.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    et al.
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Wallen Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Fyrhjulingars köregenskaper och förarnas kunskap om dessa egenskaper2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Riding quad bikes differs in many ways from driving passenger cars and the rider is not always aware of the differences required to maintain control of a vehicle that they are not trained to ride. One of the major differences with quad bikes compared to driving a car is that a quad bike has a tendency to roll over during sharp cornering. The purpose of this study was to compare both static vehicle characteristics and driving dynamics of motorcycle-registered quad bikes of different models to identify any difficulties that may arise when using quad bikes in road traffic. The aim was also to study how driving style affects the quad bike’s driving dynamics and identify the riders' knowledge of these.

    The study consists of three parts of which the first two concerns vehicle handling characteristics studied by performing a series of 1) static and 2) dynamic performance tests. The static tests consisted of measuring the angle at which the vehicle rolled over sideways by means of a hydraulic tilting table. The dynamic test consisted of performing a series of test runs on different test tracks in order to study the dynamic behaviour of the quad bike. The third part addressed the question whether riders have the necessary knowledge to drive quad bikes safely by conducting focus group interviews with persons with different driving license categories and driving experience.

    The results of the static test showed that the rollover threshold of the quad bikes is affected by the weight of the rider due to the relative lightweight of the quad bike. The dynamic tests verified that the rider could, by using his/her own body weight, compensate for the physical forces acting upon the vehicles’ tendency to roll over by using an active driving style. The focus group interviews showed that most of the interviewed persons believe that an active driving style is needed to drive safely and that the current training for the driving license lacks necessary training for driving a quad bike.

  • 22.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Contested mobilities: politics, strategies and visions in Swedish bicycle activism2017In: Applied Mobilities, ISSN 2380-0127, 1-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling is currently the focus of considerable political and public attention in many urban areas. As more and more cyclists claim space on the roads, new forms of political engagement in cycling issues beyond traditional bicycle advocacy have also emerged. Beyond focusing on cyclists' perspectives and rights, these expressions of bicycle activism show the ways in which bicycles - as potential vehicles for sociopolitical change - are contested political and cultural symbols.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the ways in which bicycle activists and advocates in Sweden construct their politics and practices. Empirically the paper addresses three expressions of contemporary bicycling activism and advocacy: the well-established Swedish national cycling advocacy organization Cykelfrämjandet (Cycling Sweden), the ad-hoc Ghost Bike Sweden, and the online-based Bike Maffia-initiative. The empirical material of the paper consists of qualitative interviews with the leading representatives from each organization or initiative, as well as written and video materials. As arenas for cultural politics, the organizations or initiatives are diverse, exemplifying highly different views concerning conflicts in urban space, strategies for addressing these conflicts, and views of cyclists as subjects of bicycle politics.

    The paper addresses these issues in a specific Swedish context, also exploring the implications for understanding how political activism is shaped more generally. It is argued that bicycle activism can be viewed as a way of practising cycling citizenship, a perspective that provides a conceptual linkage between new social movement theory and activism more generally.

  • 23.
    Barnard, Yvonne
    et al.
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Lai, Frank
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Carsten, Oliver
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Merat, Natasha
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Pichon, Marianne
    UNIVAL.
    Vanderhaegen, Frederic
    UNIVAL.
    Specification of test procedures for the simulator experiments2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Deliverable 3.1 of Workpackage 3, we discuss the methodology developed and applied in the European ITERATEproject (IT for Error Remediation And Trapping Emergencies). This methodology has as its objective to design experiments that will provide data to seed the ITERATE model. In the ITERATE project a high-level theoretical model of vehicle operator behaviour has been developed in Workpackage 1, specifying the factors that play a role in the influence of innovative support systems on vehicle operation in potentially dangerous situations. Themodel isapplicable for different surface transport modes: road vehicles, rail transport and ships. Themodel will be calibrated by experiments investigating how the different factors interact. One hundred and sixty car drivers and 160 train drivers in five countries will drive with a static driving simulator, and 64 drivers (both train and car) with full motion simulators. Finally an executable simulation model will be constructed with the aim to predict the effects of support systems on operator behaviour and risk.

  • 24.
    Bell, Daniel
    et al.
    FACTUM Chaloupka & Risser OHG .
    Pokriefke, Eike
    FACTUM Chaloupka & Risser OHG .
    Risser, Ralf
    FACTUM Chaloupka & Risser OHG .
    Biler, Stanislav
    CDV Centrum Dopravního Výzkumu (Transport Research Centre).
    Šenk, Petr
    CDV Centrum Dopravního Výzkumu (Transport Research Centre).
    Parkes, Andrew
    TRL Limited Transport Research Laboratory.
    Stannard, Jenny
    TRL Limited Transport Research Laboratory.
    Armoogum, Jimmy
    IFSTTAR - French institute of science and technology for transport, development and networks.
    Marin-Lamellet, Claude
    IFSTTAR - French institute of science and technology for transport, development and networks.
    Gabaude, Cathrine
    IFSTTAR - French institute of science and technology for transport, development and networks.
    Madre, Jean-Loupe
    IFSTTAR - French institute of science and technology for transport, development and networks.
    Alauzet, Aline
    IFSTTAR - French institute of science and technology for transport, development and networks.
    Monterde-i-Bort, Hector
    Universitat de Valencia- Estudi General.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mobility Patterns in the Ageing Populations: Work package 2 - Summary Report2013Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    En studie om effektiva och innovativa lösningarför kollektivtrafik på landsbygd: Slutrapport av regeringsuppdrag2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the budget proposal for 2016, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) was tasked with implementing a study on effective and innovative solutions that can enhance people’s willingness and ability to use public transport in rural areas in Sweden. The commission should implement an environmental analysis and describe the present situation. This includes highlighting good examples of efficient and innovative solutions within the public transport area, both national and international. The commission will also consider how conditions differ between various rural areas, as well as women’s and men’s opportunities to travel by public transport. Furthermore, new opportunities for managing open data and digitalisation should be highlighted.

    The commission is reported in November 2017. The results are based on four different studies that are documented in four publications. The present final report presents a summary of important conclusions from the commission.

  • 26.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Linköpings Universitet.
    Everyday mobility and travel activities during the first years of retirement2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility is central to living an independent life, to participating in society, and to maintaining well-being in later life. The point of departure in this thesis is that retirement implies changes in time-space use and interruption in routines, which influence demands and preconditions for mobility in different ways.  The aim of this thesis is to explore mobility strategies and changes in mobility upon retirement and how mobility develops during the first years of retirement. A further aim is to provide knowledge of the extent to which newly retired people maintain a desired mobility based on their needs and preconditions. The thesis is empirically based on travel diaries kept by newly retired people, and qualitative interviews with the same persons, and follow-up interviews three and a half years later. The results show that mobility is a way of forming a structure in the new everyday life as retirees by getting out of the house, either just for a walk or to do errands. Many patterns of everyday life remain the same upon retirement, but the informants also merge new responsibilities and seek new social arenas and activities. As a result, the importance of the car have not changed, but it is used for other reasons than before. After leaving paid work, new space-time constraints are created which influences demands for mobility. The study further shows that “third places” become important, especially among those who live alone, as they give an opportunity to being part of a social context and a reason for getting out of the house. The follow-up interviews revealed that declining health changes the preconditions for mobility. Daily walks had to be made shorter, and the car had to be used for most errands to where they previously could walk or cycle. However, mobility can also be maintained despite a serious illness and a long period of rehabilitation.

  • 27.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mobility changes during the first years of retirement2016In: Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, ISSN 1471-7794, Vol. 17, no 2, 131-140 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility is an important aspect of well-being, activity and participation. Retiring from paid work is a transition in later life when people need to adjust to a new daily structure and fill the day with activities other than work. Life-course transitions influence demands for mobility and choice of travel mode as people adapt to new circumstances and learning processes.

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how mobility strategies develop during the first years of retirement. A qualitative analysis based on initial interviews with a total of 27 retired people during their first year of retirement and again, about three years later.

    Important changes during the first years of retirement included illness or a decline in physical health. Mobility had become a means of achieving certain goals after an illness, such as learning to walk, being able to drive or enjoying the time that was left. While some enjoyed not having commitments, others experienced difficulties in filling the day. The results indicate four dimensions of mobility: means of carrying out activities which are needed and desired; resources for creating activities; a leisure activity in itself; and subordinate to staying at home.

  • 28.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Linköpings universitet.
    Mobility changes during the first years of retirement2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility is an important aspect of well-being, activity and participation (WHO, 2002; Mollenkopf et al., 2005; Siren and Hakamies-Blomqvist, 2009; Ziegler and Schwanen, 2011). An important goal of urban planning is to prepare for an ageing population so that people can age actively, without being directly dependent on other people for everyday activities outside the home. Retiring from paid work is a transition in later life when people need to adjust to a new daily structure and fill the day with activities other than work (Berg et al., 2014). Retirement implies an interruption in everyday routines; there is no more travel to and from work, the individual has more time at his or her disposal and social relations with former colleagues are weakened (Berg et al., 2014). Multiple or intersecting transitions, such as when illness and retirement occur about the same time, impact on how retirement is experienced and how the individual copes with these changes in life (Grenier, 2011; Szinovacz, 2003). These experiences can be expected to have consequences for the need or ability to be mobile. The choices made during the first years of retirement may have an impact on future travel activities, so this phase of life is of central importance for transport planning and public health policymaking, aimed at promoting mobility and well-being in later life. Although mobility and travel activities are strongly influenced by habits (Bamberg et al., 2003), life-course transitions and key events influence demands for mobility and choice of travel mode as people adapt to new circumstances and learning processes (Scheiner, 2007; Lanzendorf, 2003). This paper reports findings from a qualitative longitudinal study on mobility and travel activities during the first years of retirement. The aim of the study was to explore how mobility strategies develop during the first years of retirement. The qualitative analysis is based on interviews with older people in an urban environment, during their first year of retirement and again about three years later.

  • 29.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mobility in the transition to retirement: the intertwining of everyday transportation and physical activity2012In: TRANSED 2012: 13th international conference on mobility and transport for elderly and disabled persons, New Delhi: Svayam , 2012, , 9 p.1-9 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To retire from work has potential consequences for patterns of everyday mobility in numerous ways. People born during the 1940s and are now retiring are more heterogeneous than earlier cohorts of retirees. They experience more years with good health after retirement, engage more in leisure-time activities and make more trips and errands. Therefore, their transportation behavior and mobility patterns can be expected to differ from previous generations. This paper is part of a study where the aim is to explore older people’s mobility in connection to the transition from working life to retirement, and their perspectives, resources and experiences in the shaping of their mobility. In this paper, parts of the results are presented, namely how everyday mobility is combined, intertwined, and planned according to the individual project of physical activity. The data constitutes of qualitative interviews with 24 men and women. The results show that being physically active by walking or bicycling is important after retirement and that it often determines where to shop and make errands and when other projects are carried out. Restrictions to combine physical activity and transportations is physical disabilities and illnesses, long distances to shopping- and service facilities and activities as well as poor walking- and bicycling paths. Resources that enables walking and bicycling are time, earlier walking- and bicycle habits and social networks. The study suggests that walking and bicycling are important modes of transportation among the “40s” why there is a potential to promote and increase transportation without the car among present and future retirees.

  • 30.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kollektivtrafikens betydelse för mobilitet och vardagsaktiviteter hos hushåll på landsbygd: intervjustudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the government, VTI has the commission to implement a study on effective and innovative solutions that can enhance people’s willingness and ability to use public transport in rural areas in Sweden. This interview study is part of the commission and aims to highlight local examples of how access to transport meet the needs for mobility and participation in everyday activities among residents in rural areas. The following questions should be answered:

    1) What positive and negative aspects of living in rural areas are described?

    2) How are different modes of transport used?

    3) To what extent can public transport meet their mobility needs?

    The empirical material consists of interviews with people from 14 households living in rural areas that are close to urban neighborhoods. The rural areas are in the municipality of Kinda in Östergötland, Falun in Dalarna and Östersund in Jämtland. The results present positive and negative aspects of living in rural areas, the use of different transport modes, perceived restrictions and benefits of using public transport, the importance of the car and the informants' suggestions for solutions that could increase the use of public transport. Measures and improvements that can increase the ability to travel by public transport and reduce car trips are: public transport that connects rural areas with public transport hubs to increase access to high-demand routes; coordination between publicly funded school transport and public transport; access to shops and services at hubs; coordination between counties to offer efficient public transport to main urban centers, considering geographical proximity rather than administrative borders; and, integration of a wide variety of different mobility tools such as car-pooling, ride-sharing, public and demand-responsive public transport as well as bike rental services.

  • 31.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Karresand, Helena
    Linköpings universitet.
    Är bilberoende och tidsbrist ett hinder för ökat kollektivtrafikresande?: En kvalitativ aktivitetsbaserad studie2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet är att testa i vilken utsträckning olika hushåll i arbetsmarknadsregionen Göteborg idag kan utföra sina vardagliga aktiviteter genom minskat bilresande och ökad användning av alternativa transportslag såsom kollektivtrafik, cykel och gång, samt att peka på lösningar som ur ett vardagslivsperspektiv fungerar. Studien baseras på tidsdagböcker från sex hushåll. Tidsdagböckerna genomfördes av SCB år 1996. Tre hushålltyper har valts ut: sammanboende småbarnsföräldrar, ensamstående föräldrar, samt sammanboende personer 45 – 64 år utan hemmavarande barn.

    Analyser visar på ett antal restriktioner som begränsar hushållens möjligheter och vilja att använda kollektivtrafik. Den kvalitativa metod som har använts i studien synliggör hushålls resmönster och val av transportmedel på ett pedagogiskt sätt vilket ökar förståelsen för vad som ligger bakom kvantitativa aggregerade modeller för transportplanering. Metoden kan rekommenderas för att studera transportmönster och möjligheter att göra förändringar i färdmedelsval hos resenärer i andra geografiska kontexter, såväl i större som i mindre tätorter.

  • 32.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Äldres vardagliga resor: val av färdmedel och erfarenheter av kollektivtrafik2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to gain a deeper understanding of how older women and men are using public transport, but also enhance the understanding of whether they are using other means of transport and what is the basis for their choice. The study’s interest is in variations among older people’s narratives. To grasp the heterogeneity "among older people" the subjects involved were recruited from both urban and rural areas. They have different backgrounds, age and gender. The majority of them are ethnic Swedes, however, the study also included people with different ethnic background. The study includes 30 qualitative interviews with older people from two regions: Östergötland and Jönköping, 18 women and 12 men.

    The respondents often transported themselves by walking, sometimes even by bicycle; actually many chose walking or bicycling before bus or car. They stressed the importance of coming out and meeting other people, and moving around in different environments. They even referred to the importance of health reasons.

    Elements of restrictions appear in some of their stories which are not always by their own choice and must therefore be considered in future planning so that these individuals are not left out of the contexts they need and want to participate in. Examples of restrictions might be long distance to the bus stop, stairs, travel centers and other interchanges at different levels/floors, timetables that are not synchronized or buses at times that do not fit older people’s daily activity patterns. Except from deficiencies in public transport, it can also be about cycle paths or sidewalks that abruptly end at a difference in level, or stairs to the next available accessible area. When the whole chain of movements in the transport environment is not available, problems may occur. For the oldest respondents, it is particularly important that the 'whole journey' works. It is more common that the younger respondents travel by car and the interviewees also refer to car driving as an activity when one is reasonably young and healthy. But a lot of them are still driving at the age of 80-–90, some even after the 90th birthday, which indicate that it is not until you can no longer drive a car as you become more dependent on society's resources and of other people. The women in the present study describe the bus in more positive terms than men. Many of those who want to travel by bus believe that the bus is a good means of transport and describe it in certain ways: efficient, safe, environmentally friendly and economically efficient. More women than men in the study also describe that they are happy to choose other means of travel instead of the car in order to be able to relax, watch and meet other people, but also to have some time for themselves.

  • 33.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Linköpings Universitet.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköpings Universitet.
    "I want complete freedom": car use and everyday mobility among the newly retired2015In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 7, no 4, 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate car use among newly retired people, to explore to what extent car transport is used for everyday mobility and how it is valued in comparison to other transport modes.

    The data consists of travel diaries and qualitative interviews with 24 individuals, aged between 61 and 67, living in a middle-sized Swedish city. The informants filled in a travel diary during 1 week that were analysed by VISUAL-TimePAcTS, an application for visualising and exploring activity diary data. The semi-structured qualitative interviews were analysed using a qualitative content analysis.

    The car was used for several trips daily and often for short trips. The informants had a lot of everyday projects that they would not be able to perform if they did not have access to a car. The informant’s social context implies new space-time constraints. Commitments to family members, engagement in associations and spouses’ occupations affect how much and when they use the car, and their overall mobility.

    In contrast to much research on older people’s mobility that has studied slightly older people, this study have focused on a specific group that are relatively healthy, well-off, and have the possibility to choose between different modes of transport. By combining travel diaries and qualitative interviews, we have explored how newly retired people reason as regard their travel behaviour but also how they actually travel.

  • 34.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Mobility in the transition to retirement: the intertwining of transportation and everyday projects2014In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, no 38, 48-54 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through travel diaries and interviews with newly retired urban residents in Sweden our aim was to explore (1) mobility patterns in the transition to retirement, (2) the influence of space-time restrictions and resources on mobility and (3) the meaning and embodied experience of mobility. This time-geographic study contributes with knowledge on how mobility is influenced by individual, social and geographical contexts. Illustrated by four cases, our result show that retirement changes the preconditions for mobility and creates new space-time restrictions. To spend more time on projects that were previously carried out outside working time, such as caring for grandchildren, volunteer work and household responsibilities, influenced the informants' demands for mobility and choice of transport mode. However, the informants have resources that can be seen as strategies to overcome space-time restrictions. Most of the informants found it important to structure the day, to some it was vital to have something to do during the day while others enjoyed the possibility to take each day as it comes. Everyday mobility was a way of forming a structure by getting out of the house, either just for a walk or for making errands. The informants' embodied experiences of mobility influenced their choice to walk and cycle for transport for the reasons of comfort, get fresh air, or simply to get out of the house. The daily mobility pattern that was established was a result of individual preferences and resources as well as negotiations with family members. We conclude that the transition to retirement is a period when new mobility patterns are considered, evaluated and practiced.

  • 35.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Linköpings Universitet.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Time to spare: Everyday activities among newly retired people in a middle-sized city2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Retirement has recently been studied as a complex process that affects people’s lives in many different ways (Teuscher 2010; Grenier 2011; Halleröd, Örestig and Stattin 2013). Retirement implies changes in time-space use, interruption in routines and changed social patterns. Leisure activities, shopping, errands and rest are no longer determined by the working life rhythm. New time-space constraints might at the same time occur that limit the individual’s actions, such as reduced income, new or increased commitments towards children and grandchildren, involvement in associations or part-time work (Kleiber and Nimrod, 2009; Szinovacz et al., 2001; Van den Bogaard et al., 2013).

    A vast amount of research from different fields has focused on the implications of retirement for wellbeing (Bender 2012; Wang 2007), adjustment (Van Solinge and Henkens 2008), identity (Teucher 2010), volunteering (Van den Bogaard et.al., 2013) and physical activity (Lahti et al. 2011). So far, only a few studies have investigated everyday activities and timespace use among older people in general and the post-World War II generation in particular (Chatzitheochari and Arber 2011; Gauthier and Smeeding 2003). In many studies of  time-space use, the aim has been to illuminate the juggling of everyday activities that occurs and to deal with the balance between work, leisure and family (Schwanen and de Jong 2008; Kwan 2000; Scholten, Friberg and Sanden 2012). Naturally, retired people have not been included in those studies, although many older people play an important role in the lives of families with small children (Schwanen 2008) and seek supporting and leading roles as citizens (cf. Gagliardi, et al. 2007; Leinonen 2011; Liechty, Yarnal and Kerstetter 2012; McCormack et al. 2008; Nimrod and Adoni 2006; Sperazza and Banerjee 2010). Little is known about the expectations this generation has on retirement and its demands for activities. The aim of this study is therefore to explore newly retired peoples everyday activities. What activities do they take part in and where are these activities carried out? In what respect, and for what reasons, do activities change or stay the same upon retirement?

    The remaining of this paper begins with a discussion of the implications of retirement on everyday activities in accordance to previous research. The time-geographical perspective and concepts used here for studying activities is then presented. That is followed by a description of methods, data and analysis, before the empirical analysis of travel diaries and qualitative interviews is given. The paper ends with a discussion of the results in relation to previous research.

  • 36.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Thoresson, Karin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mobilitet och transportlösningar på landsbygd: en internationell litteraturstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the Swedish government, VTI has the commission to implement a study on effective and innovative solutions that can enhance people’s willingness and ability to use public transportation in rural areas. This literature review is part of the commission and aims to describe the state of the art and to highlight the problems that have been focused in research on rural transport in recent years. The aim is to get in-depth and comprehensive knowledge about research on public transport in rural areas, about mobility among people living in rural areas and solutions available for future mobility and accessibility in rural areas. The research questions that are highlighted are:

    • What issues and problems have researchers in this field been interested in? Which social groups have been particularly focused?

    • What is the situation with respect to mobility among various social groups in rural areas? How do they solve their everyday transports and what constraints for mobility and accessibility do they experience?

    • What solutions have been tested in rural areas and what are the results?

    No specific definition of rural areas is used in the study since the search criteria would be too narrow. The searches have been concentrated to publications from the year 2000 and onwards. The final number of articles that were selected as relevant in order to answer the aim and research questions was 27. Most studies (15 articles) were conducted in the United Kingdom.

  • 37.
    Berglund, Ulla
    et al.
    Institutionen för stad och land, SLU .
    Nord, Jenny
    SLU.
    Eriksson, Malin
    SLU.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Butler, Andrew
    SLU.
    Hammarlund, Karin
    SLU.
    Hedfors, Per
    Institutionen för stad och land, SLU,.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    SLU.
    Landskapsanalys för transportinfrastruktur: en kunskaps- och metodredovisning för utveckling av väg- och järnvägsprojekt i enlighet med den Europeiska Landskapskonventionen2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten ”Landskapsanalys för transportinfrastruktur” har tagits fram inom forskningsprojektet ”Bättre landskapsanalys för transportsektorn” (2010-2013) i samverkan mellan SLU och VTI och handlar om hur man kan arbeta med landskapsanalys (LA) i planläggningsprocessen för väg- ochjärnvägsprojekt. Vi kallar den ett kunskapsunderlag, och dess främsta syfte är att förmedla relevantkunskap från forskarsamhället till Trafikverkets landskapsexperter och därmed stödja Trafikverketsmöjligheter att leverera den landskapsanpassade infrastruktur som regeringen kräver.Fokus för arbetet har varit planläggningsfasen, dvs. när man enligt den sammanhållna vägprocessenkommit så långt att vägen/järnvägen ska prövas i en fysisk miljö.

  • 38.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Analyser av olyckor i plankorsningar2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study it has been investigated how the accident risk changes if the protection device in a railway level crossing is rebuilt or the crossing is erased as well as how the expected socioeconomic accident costs change if different types of crossings are erased. VTI’s existing data on railway level crossings and accidents have been supplemented with information from a few more years and is now including year 2000 to 2015. Estimates have been carried out using logistic regression analysis with the outcome of accident or not as dependent variable. As explaining variables, the number of train passages, three road types (as a proxy for road traffic flow) and four different types of protection devices have been used. Analyses have been carried out both for accidents with motor vehicles and for vulnerable road users. As in previous studies, this study shows that the probability of a railway level crossing accident is lower for crossings with barriers than for those without barriers, that the probability increases the more trains passing and that the probability is greater the greater the road (and thus more vehicles) crossing the railway. However, the overall probability of a railway level crossing accident is very small, and there are some uncertainties in the data, which are discussed in  the paper.

  • 39.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Samspel i trafiken: formella och informella regler bland cyklister2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of cyclists’ behaviour in relation to rules and regulations are rather poor and the same applies to cyclists’ interaction with other road users. The purpose of this project was therefore to explore cyclists’ knowledge of traffic rules but also what determine their own compliance or noncompliance. Participants in the study were 612 people between 18 and 74 years from Gothenburg, Linköping and Stockholm and were recruited through a web panel. A survey was used which asked them about their background, view of themselves as cyclists, own self-compliance, view of others’ compliance, knowledge of rules and various factors that determine their intention to break the rules.

    The results from the study showed that the participants’ regular knowledge was relatively good, at least in terms of behaviours that are prohibited. The participants who thought that a certain behaviour was forbidden also replied that they did this to a lesser extent. Cyclists who stated that they would like to arrive as soon as possible tended to choose more flexible routes (e.g. bike across pedestrian crossings, pavements and roads mainly used by vehicles), whether permitted or not. To a greater extent they also stated that they did not always stop at red lights or at stop signs. Cycle crossings, junctions, pedestrian crossings and pavements were used as examples of places/situations where the rules were considered unclear. Perceived behavioural control and attitude influenced the intention to behave according to three hypothetical scenarios which described how other road users had to break or swerve in order to avoid an accident with the cyclist. This meant that those who intended to behave in the manner indicated believed that it was easy and rather harmless, but also that it was both right and good. However, the most important factor was if they had performed the behaviour in the past, which in turn may have reinforced this view, that is if nothing serious had happened.

  • 40.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Estimating policy values for in-vehicle comfort and crowding reduction in local public transport☆2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 106, 453-472 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimates policy values for comfort, defined as getting a seat, and crowding reduction on board local public transport in Sweden. We use stated-preference (SP) data and present crowding as a mode-neutral crowding level among the standing travelers depicted in images presented to the respondents. We analyze whether there are differences in the willingness to pay (WTP) for comfort and crowding reduction among the three largest urban areas in Sweden. In general, we find no significantly different preferences for sitting and crowding reduction among the three urban areas. Still, the point estimates differ in some cases, indicating that there may be differences across the three urban areas, but the estimates have large confidence intervals that overlap each other. Also, these differences are likely to have resulted from mode-share differences and not from differences in preferences across the urban areas. Some significant differences are found among the modes, for example, a higher disutility of standing on a bus versus on a tram. These mode-specific estimates can be used as policy values for a given tram line or metro line. Nevertheless, we also pooled the data suggesting average WTP estimates for sitting and crowding reductions that can be used for national cost–benefit analysis policy in all large urban areas in Sweden where crowding on local public transport occurs. Importantly, analysis of heterogeneity and SP-design differences shows that the results are in line with empirical knowledge of the value of travel time savings.

  • 41.
    Bjørnskau, Torkel
    et al.
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.
    Assum, Terje
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Personvern og ITS-baserte trafikksikkerhetstiltak: en studie av streknings-ATK, automatisk fartstilpasning (ISA) og atferdsregistrator (EDR)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Nye ITS-baserte trafikksikkerhetstiltak som kan brukes til å registrere og regulere uønsket atferd i trafikken, har et stort potensial for å øke trafikksikkerheten. Men de kan komme i konflikt med personvernet. Streknings-ATK og EDR har klare implikasjoner for personvernet og at ISA kan ha det om data fra ISA-systemet lagres. Konsekvensene for personvernet er tolket ulikt i Norge og Sverige. Prøvedrift med streknings-ATK på flere strekninger er startet opp i Norge, men i Sverige er dette ikke aktuelt pga. hensynet til personvern. I begge land installeres ISA i offentlige tjenestebiler. EDR har fått liten oppmerksomhet i begge land. Bileierne er overveiende positive til både streknings-ATK og ISA. Jo større forståelsen for at fart er en risikofaktor, desto større er aksepten for slike fartsregulerende tiltak. Bileierne er mest skeptiske til atferdsregistratorer som i dag er lite kjent. Atferdsregistratorer, som ?event data recorder? eller ?black box?, er imidlertid i ferd med å bli svært vanlige i moderne biler ? og stadig mer data fra kjøretøyene lagres. Bileiere bør derfor i større grad få informasjon om dette og tilgang til de data som registreres.

  • 42.
    Book, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö Högskola.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Svensson, Åse
    Lunds universitet.
    Kollektivtrafikens roll i resenärens vardagsliv: Litteraturöversikt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande litteraturöversikt visar på i första hand bredden i tidigare och pågående forsknings- och utredningsarbete om resenärer i kollektivtrafiken. Översikten tar avstamp med ett kapitel om studier av resenärers beteende, preferenser och attityder.  Där beskrivs studier av beteendevetenskaplig karaktär om bland annat kvalitet i kollektivtrafiken och om välbefinnande hos resenärer, baserade på resenärers utsagor och beteenden. Därefter kommer ett kapitel som beskriver studier om resandet och vardagslivets komplexitet, vilket bland annat handlar om resande och tid, samt aktiviteter i samband med kollektivtrafikresor och vad människor gör när de reser med kollektivtrafik (utöver att förflytta sig från en plats till en annan). Vidare beskriver vi i ett kapitel studier om tillgänglighet. Dels handlar det om fysisk tillgänglighet med fokus på fordon, stations- och hållplatsmiljöer; dels handlar det om sociala aspekter på tillgänglighet och om resenärers upplevelser och erfarenheter av tillgänglighet i och till kollektivtrafiken.

    Ett kapitel beskriver olika resenärsgrupper och deras erfarenheter, vilket är ett omfattande område där flera olika sätt att kategorisera resenärer går att skönja i tidigare studier; såsom ålder (barn, unga, äldre), kön (jämställdhet), resenärer med funktionsnedsättningar, pendlare, arbetsresor, skolresor, fritidsresor. Vidare följer ett kapitel om studier av trygghet och säkerhet i kollektivtrafiken och dess miljöer samt ett kapitel om metoder och prognosmodeller som används i planeringen.

    I ett avslutande kapitel diskuterar vi vad som framträder via den forskning och utredningsverksamhet som kartlagts i litteraturöversikten. Vad behöver beforskas mer och hur ser kunskapsluckorna ut? Hela resan är ett område som vi ser har utvecklingspotential i förhållande till tidigare studier. Likaså tror vi att man inom kollektivtrafiken behöver öka kunskapen om resenärerna för att kunna möta behoven i deras vardagsliv. Utvecklingen av komplementära metoder och modeller för prognoser i planeringen är också ett angeläget område, liksom att planera för hållbart resande.

     

  • 43.
    Broth, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Jakob, Cromdal
    Linköping University.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Starting out as a driver: Progression in instructed pedal work2017In: Memory practices and learning: Interactional, institutional and sociocultural perspectives / [ed] Mäkitalo, Åsa; Linell, Per; Säljö, Roger, IPA Publisher , 2017, 113-142 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Andra generationens biodrivmedel: en litteraturöversikt2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the transport policy objectives in Sweden is that the vehicle fleet should be fossil independent by 2030. To achieve this we should replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels based on biomass. The purpose of this report is to make a knowledge-based overview of second-generation biofuels production technologies, use, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions as well as the problems of land use.

    First-generation fuels such as ethanol from starch and biodiesel from plant oil have a number of limitations, which means they are not a sustainable solution in the long run. The anticipation is instead that the second-generation biofuels, which use cellulosic material, have a better potential to replace fossil fuels. These biofuels have higher energy efficiency and lower overall greenhouse gas emissions compared with the first-generation biofuels. Also, they use raw materials that do not directly compete with food or with land use for food production. It is also predicted that the new biofuels can replace some of the fuels used in air transport, which is not possible with today's options.

    For an increased biofuel production to be sustainable it is important to avoid negative effects on the environment, which for instance can be effects on biodiversity, land degradation, and that the cultivation of crops for biofuels will be on sensitive land areas. To ensure this is not happening there is a European directive stating how this should be performed. In addition, it is important to ensure that production is carried out as efficiently as possible from the perspectives of resources, environment and costs. Other restrictions apply in particular for technical and economic barriers, which will impede the commercialisation in the short run. To have a functioning market within a reasonable time frame, it is also important that the second-generation biofuels are supported by different instruments which will make them competitive. Because no single biofuel is foreseen to provide sufficient quantities to meet a demand of large volumes, it is imperative that the financial and administrative instruments do not lead to solutions that are not justifiable in the long run. And since even renewable raw materials could become scarce, we should not only rely on replacing fossil fuel with more biofuels. It is also important to continue with the making the energy use more efficient in order to reduce total energy needs.

  • 45.
    Ceci, Ruggero L.
    et al.
    Trafikverket.
    Patten, Christopher J
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Health Promotion Intervention On Rural Roads In Sweden: A Case Study Of Cycling Safety2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 5, 229-229 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: In Sweden, as well as in many countries in Scandinavia and in northern Europe, there is a growing trend to allocate the daily exercise routines to cycling and walking in the form of work commuting. This has led to an increase of bikers with light race bikes and garment for race bike training along the roads and streets of major cities like Stockholm and Gothenburg and elsewhere. The health gained from this new trend is of course an important factor to consider and the Swedish authorities, cycling organizations and researchers are actively engaged in the development and evaluation of this health trend. One crucial factor in this development is the safety of the bikers on the public roads with mixed traffic. A cyclists is often overtaken by cars and other vehicles and does not have control over the distance between them and the other vehicles. However, if the cyclist had control over the distance between themselves and the motor vehicle/object, how much space would they give themselves? To investigate how road safety factors such as proximity to vehicles passing the bikers on a rural roads a study was conducted.

    METHODS: The experiment was conducted in an indoor athletics arena at Lugnet stadium in Falun where 48 participants were assigned to one of three groups. Group one with a balanced order of the object-proximity variable (n = 24); group two with the object-proximity variable ordered closest first and moving outward from the track (n = 12); and group three with object-proximity variable ordered furthest away first and moving inward towards the track (n = 12). The participants were donned with a bicycle helmet with a GoPro camera, a second camera was attached to the handlebars. Independent variables were object proximity to the bicycle lane (cm) measured from the center of the lane; dependent variables were lateral position in cm to moving objects, cycling speed and heart rate.

    RESULTS: The preliminary results suggest that bicycle lane must be at least 140 cm broad to accommodate a ‘comfortable’ passing distance (for the cyclist). The equivalent passing speeds equates to a car speed of approximately 40 km/h. If the car speeds were higher, the bicycle lane will need to be broader.

    CONCLUSIONS: This would suggest that the current minimum bicycle lane breadth (in Sweden) of 70 cm would appear to be woefully under-dimensioned.

  • 46.
    Coogan, Matthew A
    et al.
    New England Transportation Institute.
    Campbell, Margaret
    Resource Systems Group, Inc.
    Adler, Thomas J.
    Resource Systems Group, Inc.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Examining behavioral and attitudinal differences among groups in their traffic safety culture2014In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 26, no PB, 303-316 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores the concept that, for a given population, there is not a single "traffic safety culture," but rather a set of alternative cultures in which the individual driver might belong. There are several different cultures of dangerous driving behavior and each might need a separate strategy for intervention or amelioration.

    First, the paper summarizes the over-arching theory explored in the research, which applies Multi-group Structural Equation Modeling (MSEM) in a modification of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in the explanation of Risky Driving Behavior, based on ten observed explanatory factors.

    Second, we apply Latent Class Cluster (LCC) segmentation to the full sample, revealing four segments: one cluster reflecting a "Low Risk Driving Safety Group" and three clusters describing three different groups of problematic drivers. We first apply MSEM to two groups; the "Low Risk Driving Safety Group," and the "High Risk Driving Safety Group," defined as the members of the three problematic clusters together, revealing how a "Low Risk" culture differs from the "High Risk" culture, with the relative importance of the TPB explanatory factors varying sharply between the two groups.

    Finally, the three problematic clusters are profiled for demographics and their mean scores for the ten observed explanatory factors. Each of the clusters is reviewed in terms of responses to selected survey questions.

    Three separate and distinct dangerous traffic safety cultures emerge: first, a culture of risky driving dominated by excitement seeking and optimism bias; a second dominated by denial of societal values; and a third characterized by its propensity to find rational justifications for its speeding behavior.

    The paper applies two research methods together: LCC segmentation divides our sample into meaningful subgroups, while MSEM reveals both within-group analysis of variance and between-group differences in safety attitudes and outcomes. The paper concludes that the combination of the segmentation powers of the LCC and the analysis powers of the MSEM provides the analyst with an improved understanding of the attitudes and behaviors of the separate groups, all tied back to the over-arching theory underlying the research.

  • 47.
    Dahl, Emmy
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Tema teknik och social förändring, Linköpings universitet.
    Genusdimensioner i svensk kommunal planering och krishantering: en forskningsöversikt2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research review of gender dimensions within research of municipal planning is to learn from previous studies as a new field of research is being established, namely gender and climate mitigation and adaptation. The research review has shown that women are often depicted as a homogenous group with common interests within the different areas that are included in the study: housing, civil rights to participate and influence political decisions, safety. planning and planning practices, risk and crisis management. The result from the research review encourages further research that broadens the picture of both the multiple lives of women and men and likewise illustrates multiple family forms. This research can challenge the notion of men and women as homogeneous groups. Studies of the construction and reconstruction of gender as a social and cultural category may further develop this field. An intersectional perspective on urban planning may also visualize how gender, ethnicity, family, sexuality, age and class intersect and contribute to various forms of exclusion.

  • 48.
    Dahl, Emmy
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Linköpings universitet.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Konstruktioner av maskulinitet i samtal om kollektivtrafik2012In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 7, no 2, 160-181 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights how environmental issues influence transport planning, and how they make transport planners rethink previous categorizations of user groups. The introduction of an environmental discourse leads to a questioning of men’s travel activities, i.e. car driving. However, the critique against men’s travelling does not address all men. Instead, two types of masculinities are constructed in the local planning discourse: the first one is a ‘problematic’ obsolete old driver. The second one is a young ‘quality conscious’ man who opts for new technological solutions. The relationship between these two constructions of masculinities is hierarchical.

    The transport planners interpret it as their responsibility to make sure that public transport is regarded as attractive to younger men and their imagined ‘needs’. The elderly men however, are made scapegoats and are blamed for their unsustainable travelling. These rather stereotypical constructions of men also include a negative perception of elderly men. The analysis is based on discussions in eight focus groups, accomplished in 2009 with 36 transport planners and politicians (24 men and 12 women) working with the planning of the future public transport system in Malmö city in the south of Sweden.

  • 49.
    Delhomme, Patricia
    et al.
    IFFSTAR.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Transport psychology: Identification of road users' risks and attitudes and behaviour change2014In: Revue europeenne de psychologie appliquee, ISSN 1162-9088, E-ISSN 1878-3457, Vol. 64, no 3, 93-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Delhomme, Patricia
    et al.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Loukopoulos, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Boulanger, Ankatrien
    Kommunikationskampanjer för trafiksäkerhet: handbok för design, genomförande och utvärdering (förkortad version)2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta häfte är en förkortad version av CAST-handboken för utformning, genomförande och utvärdering av kommunikationskampanjer om trafiksäkerhet.

    CAST (Campaigns and Awareness-Raising Strategies in Traffic Safety) är ett riktat forskningsprojekt som stöds av Europeiska kommissionen. Det startades som ett led i kommissionens strävan att förbättra trafiksäkerheten med hjälp av effektivare trafiksäkerhetskampanjer. CAST-projektet, som pågick mellan 2006 och 2009, gällde utveckling av tre verktyg för att ge kampanjmakare praktisk hjälp. Tillsammans ger verktygen tydliga anvisningar för utformning och utvärdering av trafiksäkerhetskampanjer. Verktygen är: - en handbok för utformning, genomförande och utvärdering av trafiksäkerhetskampanjer ; - ett utvärderingsverktyg, avsett att vara till hjälp vid bedömning av kampanjens effektivitet; - ett rapportverktyg, som beskriver hur en fullständig och standardiserad kampanjrapport skrivs.

    CAST-projektet genomfördes av ett konsortium av 19 partner och samordnades av Belgiens trafiksäkerhetsinstitut (IBSRBIVV). Alla större europeiska organisationer med kunskaper om och erfarenhet av trafiksäkerhetskampanjer medverkade – projektet samlade alltså expertis från hela EU.

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