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  • 1.
    Andersson, Matts
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Thörn, Helena Braun
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Gomér, Ylva
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    The effect of minimum parking requirements on the housing stock2016In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 49, p. 206-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cost of parking is in many cities subsidized and instead channelled through higher housing prices, wages, taxes, etc. The effects on other markets are principally well known, but the work on the area is limited. In this paper, we study how parking norms affect the size of the housing stock. Our analysis is based on a model of the rental, asset- and construction markets, the results are quality-assured by interviews with market actors. Prices and profits are affected when constructors are forced, through parking norms, to build more parking spaces than the customers demand. Parking norms reduce the housing stock by 1.2% and increase rents by 2.4% (SEK 300) in our example suburb.

  • 2.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Peak car?: Drivers of the recent decline in Swedish car use2015In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 42, p. 94-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors explaining car use trends. However, due. to the recently observed plateau of total car travel in many high income countries, it has been argued that other factors, such as changes in preferences, attitudes and life-styles, have become more important drivers of car use. This paper shows that the two variables, GDP per capita and fuel price, explain most of the aggregate trends in car distances driven per adult in Sweden: as much as 80% over the years 2002 to 2012. The estimated elasticities are well in line with previous literature and can reasonably well reproduce the trend in car distances driven per adult back to 1980. We find, however, a substantial variation in elasticities between municipalities depending on public transport supply, population density, share of foreign-born inhabitants and the average income level.

  • 3.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Valuing perceived insecurity associated with use of and access to public transport2012In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 22, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a stated choice experiment and drawings of four different type-environments to assess how various security-promoting factors in the built physical environment influence valuation of walking time when accessing public transport. Valuations that can be applied for evaluating policies to improve perceived security are obtained. Consistent results are achieved, indicating that the method is promising for incorporating aspects in the physical environment in the welfare analysis. The results indicate a systematic variation in value of walk time in different physical environments and it is more dependent of the physical environment for women than for men. This paper thereby contributes to the literature by showing that results by social sciences can be verified using methods and theories traditionally used in transport and welfare analysis and may therefore be incorporated in standard CBA. A contribution of this study is the insight that the perception of insecurity involved in accessing the public transport system is a welfare loss that can be quantified.

  • 4.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Not invented here: Transferability of congestion charges effects2014In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 36, p. 263-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent the effects of congestion charges rely on specific features of a city and its transport system. We use Stockholm, and its current congestion charging scheme, as a case study by making various modifications in the transport system influencing the availability and attractiveness of public transport, bypasses and bottleneck capacities. We use a transport model to forecast the effects of the Stockholm charges given each transport system modification. Our main conclusion is that although the social benefit of a given charging system is considerably and non-linearly dependent on initial congestion levels, traffic effects and adaptations costs are surprisingly stable across transport system modifications. Specifically, the level of public transport provision has only small effects on baseline congestion, and therefore on the total benefit of the charges. Contrary to expectation, the charges' effect on traffic volumes remains virtually unchanged regardless of the changes in public transport supply. All results are compared to and consistent with the one-market standard model. We interpret our results with respect to common arguments against the transferability of experiences from cities having introduced congestion charges.

  • 5.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    WSP Analysis and Strategy.
    The Stockholm congestion charges - 5 years on: Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt2012In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 20, no SI, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first five years of operation, until mid-2011. We show that the traffic reduction caused by the charges has increased slightly over time, once external factors are controlled for. Alternative fuel vehicles were exempt from the charges through 2008, and we show that this substantially increased the sales of such vehicles. We discuss public and political acceptability, synthesising recent research and Swedish experience. We conclude that objective and subjective effects on the traffic system, as well as general environmental and political attitudes, formed the basis of the strong public support, while institutional reforms and resolution of power issues were necessary to gain political support. Finally, we briefly discuss implications for the transport planning process in general.

  • 6.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Rubensson, Isak
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Satisfaction with crowding and other attributes in public transport2019In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 79, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse customer satisfaction surveys conducted among public transport passengers over 15 years in Stockholm. We analyze satisfaction and importance of many attributes and their temporal trends, focusing on attributes that stand out from the rest in some way, which is primarily crowding. Crowding is the attribute with the lowest satisfaction and the only attribute for which satisfaction declines over time. However, in spite of the low satisfaction, crowding is still less important for the total satisfaction than the cognitive attributes reliability and frequency (the most important attributes). Only when crowding levels reach high levels, like that of the most crowded bus services in central Stockholm, does crowding become as important as the cognitive attributes. Also the attribute reliability stands out – it is the most important attribute. For the attributes reliability and crowding, data allow us to compare satisfaction and importance with performance. We find that that satisfaction and importance are influenced by the performance level for both attributes.

  • 7.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    On timetable assumptions in railway investment appraisal2014In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 36, p. 118-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits captured in an appraisal of a railway investment are determined by what timetables the analyst assumes in the scenarios with and without the investment. Without an explicit, objective and verifiable principle for which timetables to assume, the appraisal outcome is virtually arbitrary. This means that appraisals of railway investments cannot be compared to each other, and opens the door for strategic behaviour by stakeholders conducting seemingly objective cost-benefit analysis. We explain and illustrate the nature and extent of the problem, discuss possible timetable construction principles, and show that current practice is likely to exaggerate appraisal benefits.

  • 8.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The unexpected "yes!": Explanatory factors behind the positive attitudes to congestion charges in Stockholm2011In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 636-647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several authors have argued that acceptability for road pricing is likely to increase with familiarity. The experiences in Stockholm, where a trial period with congestion charges changed the public opinion from negative to positive, support this hypothesis. Analysing acceptability and attitudes in Stockholm allows us to study a situation where the population is in fact familiar with congestion charges, and explore what the decisive factors for acceptability are in such a situation. By analysing a survey collected after the referendum and the subsequent reintroduction of the charges, we analyse the prerequisites to achieve acceptability given that the public is familiar with congestion charges.

    As expected, low car dependence and good transit supply are associated with high acceptability. But the two most important factors turn out to be beliefs about the charges' effectiveness, and general environmental attitudes. The importance of beliefs and perceptions of the effects of the charges underscores the importance of both careful system design and careful evaluation and results communication. The strong connection between environmental concerns and positive attitudes to congestion charges underscores the importance of considering and “marketing” the charges' environmental effects. In Stockholm, the politicians' decision to “re-label” the congestion charges to “environmental charges” and emphasising their positive effects on air quality may very well have had a positive impact on acceptability.

  • 9.
    Finnsgård, Christian
    et al.
    SSPA Sweden AB.
    Kalantari, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Roso, Violeta
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Woxenius, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    The Shipper's perspective on slow steaming: Study of Six Swedish companies2019In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trans-ocean liner shipping companies adopt slow steaming during periods when the market is characterised by low demand, high fuel prices, low freight rates and overcapacity. The most recent instance in which this occurred was the period following the 2008/2009 global financial crises, and the speeds have not yet rebounded to the pre-crisis levels. Most of the existing research regarding slow steaming takes environmental, economic and maritime engineering perspectives, meaning that the phenomenon is studied from the viewpoint of ship owners. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of slow steaming from the shipper's perspective.

  • 10.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    et al.
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    Longva, Frode
    Institute of Transport Economics.
    Increased coordination in public transport: which mechanisms are available?2011In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 117-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After several years of New Public Management reforms within public transport, coordination seems to receive increased attention. With examples of actual as well as suggested changes taken from Denmark, Sweden and the UK the aim of the article is to analyse and classify the mechanisms utilized and suggested to increase coordination between core stakeholders within passenger railway services and bus services. Four distinctive mechanisms of coordination are suggested, namely organisational coordination, contractual coordination, partnership coordination and discursive coordination. Each coordination mechanism has its strengths and failures. The article also debates to what extent the mechanisms conflict with three core characteristics of New Public Management: Unbundling of the public sector into corporatized units; more contract-based competitive provision; and greater emphasis on output controls.

  • 11.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Lunds Universitet.
    Eriksson, Linnea
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Layering and parallel policy making: Complementary concepts for understanding implementation challenges related to sustainable mobility2017In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 53, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is focused on implementation challenges related to the integration of sustainable mobility in strategic local/regional land use and transport planning. The work was based on a case study of Stockholm, Sweden, focusing on four current plans and strategies of key importance for sustainable mobility. We identify and discuss implementation challenges related to sustainable mobility using a theoretical framework from the policy integration literature, with a focus on the dimensions of “layering”, “drift” and “exhaustion” (Rayner & Howlett 2009).

    The empirical analysis led us to identify a complementary dimension which we call ‘Parallel policy making’. The parallel policy making reflects a fundamental lack of integration of sustainable mobility in policies and plans of strategic importance, which hinders effective policy integration. Altogether, we conclude that a better insight into the practice of parallel policy making is crucial for development of more effective implementation strategies for sustainable mobility in Stockholm and elsewhere.

  • 12.
    Johansson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    An Economic Analysis of Track Maintenance Costs2004In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 277-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The costs for maintaining different track units are analyzed using Swedish and Finnish railway data for the years 1994-1996 and 1997-1999, respectively. To derive insights on the logic of spending on track maintenance, the analysis is based on few a priori assumptions about underlying structures. We provide indications of scale economies in track maintenance with respect to traffic load and calculate a policy-relevant derivative value, i.e. the marginal cost of track use. The paper points to the type of data that has to be compiled in order to implement a recent Directive of the European Commission in a consistent way.

  • 13.
    Jonsson, Lina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Trafikverket.
    Marginal costs for railway level crossing accidents in Sweden2019In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 83, p. 68-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate accident risks and marginal costs for railway level crossings in Sweden. The marginal effect of train traffic on the accident risk is used to derive the marginal cost per train passage that is due to level crossing accidents. The estimations are based on Swedish data from 2000 to 2012 on level crossing accidents, train volume, and crossing characteristics. In this study we estimate the accidents risk for both motorized road traffic and vulnerable road users. As a proxy for road traffic flow we use three categories of road type, and to capture the influences of pedestrians and bicyclists we use information about the number of persons living nearby the level crossing. The results show that both protection device, road type, traffic volume of the trains, and number of persons living nearby the level crossing have significant influence on the accident probability. The marginal cost per train passage regarding motor vehicle accidents is estimated at EUR 0.15 on average in 2012 (price level of 2017). The corresponding number for accidents with vulnerable road users excluding suicides is EUR 0.08 or including suicides EUR 0.50. The cost per train passage varies substantially depending on type of protection device, road type, the traffic volume of the trains, and number of persons living nearby the crossing.

  • 14.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH.
    Impacts of time-varying cordon pricing: Validation and application of mesoscopic model for Stockholm2013In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 28, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a simulation model to compare traffic and welfare effects of changes to the charging schedule currently in use in Stockholm. In particular, a step toll is compared to its flat counterpart at two charging levels. The increments between steps are also increased in a peaked step toll scenario. Furthermore, results from simulation of the current toll ring are compared to real-world measurements in a first attempt to validate model predictions regarding impacts of a time-varying congestion charging scheme. In the model, car users have the possibility to respond to congestion charging by changing departure time, route or switch to public transport and travel times are calculated using mesoscopic traffic simulation. Validation shows that departure time choice adjustments because of congestion charging are overestimated by the model that is based on stated preference data. This warrants further research on discrepancies between stated and revealed adjustments to congestion charging.

    The current step toll reaches the highest social benefit estimate in model predictions, but differences in traffic effects between the current step toll and its flat counterpart are rather small. Furthermore, results show that demand changes occur in the model to a considerably greater extent for trips with low value of time. The differences in welfare effects is for that reason large for different trip purposes, indicating the importance of accounting for heterogeneous trips when modelling effects of congestion charges

  • 15.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Daly, Andrew
    University of Leeds.
    Algers, Staffan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Modelling the attraction of travel to shopping destinations in large-scale modelling2018In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 68, p. 52-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of major shopping centres continues even though online shopping is increasing. This has implications for mode and destination choice for shopping travel and therefore also for sustainability, which need to be considered in planning policy. In this paper, we estimate models for shopping travel using an unusually rich data set of shopping attractions. We find that shopping travel is best represented in three separate models: consumables in short and long activity segments and durables. In all of these models, we show that representing nearby attractions outside the destination zone adds to the measured attraction. For long activity consumables and for durables, the addition of secondary attractions within 2 km of the main destination gives the best models. For short activity consumables, both 2 km and 5 km add to the model, but 5 km is slightly better. Furthermore, we find significant within-zone correlation in the consumables models but are unable to find significant between-zone correlation, indicating that zone boundaries have some behavioural meaning for shopping travellers, but larger areas are not viewed in this way. Shopping attractions with a specifically Swedish impact, Systembolaget (official alcohol outlet in Sweden) and IKEA, proved to be important in all the models. These attractors work better as part of the size than as part of the utility, indicating that they appear to be separate attractors of trips, rather than as adding to the utility of other attractors. The models are also applied in two policy scenario analyses in which the impacts of new IKEA establishments and availability of Systembolaget in all zones on destination and mode choice are assessed.

  • 16.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Efficiency vs equity: Conflicting objectives of congestion charges2017In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 60, p. 99-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the trade-off between equity and efficiency in the design of the Stockholm congestion charging systems. Comparing different designs for Stockholm, the paper shows that the most efficient system is the least equitable. Indeed, we show that moving towards a more efficient system design favours high-income-users most. The reason is the uneven distribution of workplaces and residential areas, combined with richer socio-economic groups living in areas with more workplaces. Hence, the conflict between efficiency and equity of this policy arises from the spatial mismatch of residential areas and locations of employment, and the spatial separation between low-income and high-income groups that characterise most cities. This paper shows that these spatial patterns have a large effect on the distribution effects of the congestion charges and that the system design can have a major impact on equity.

  • 17.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Carbon Emission Values in Cost Benefit Analyses2011In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 888-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New infrastructure projects may affect CO(2) emissions and, thus, cost benefit analyses for these projects require a value to apply for CO(2). This may be based on the marginal social cost of emissions or on the shadow price resulting from present and future policies. This paper argues that both approaches are necessary, but for cost benefit analysis of infrastructure projects the latter should be the primary tool. A series of complications arise when applying this principle in practice. These are discussed in the paper. Even if the complications make the implementation of a shadow price approach difficult, we argue that the approach still is preferable to a social cost approach. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Nash, Chris
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Smith, Andrew
    University of Leeds.
    Crozet, Yves
    Laboratoire Aménagement, Économie, Transports.
    Link, Heike
    German Institute for Economic Research.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    How to liberalise rail passenger services?: Lessons from european experience2019In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 79, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the experience of Europe's three most liberalised railways - Sweden, Germany and Britain - in opening-up rail passenger services to competition by means of competitive tendering, and seeks to draw lessons for countries that are just starting the process, such as France. It also comments on experience of competition in the market in these and other countries (this form of competition has been taken furthest in other countries - notably Italy and the Czech Republic, as well as on a single route in Austria). The paper fills an important gap in the literature - that has so far focused on econometric modelling of the impact of rail reforms - by considering how competition can best be introduced in practice. This investigation is important and timely given the requirements of EU legislation (4th Railway Package)which will require competition to be introduced into passenger rail services (by 2020 for commercial services, and 2023 for public transport contracts) across the whole of the EU. It finds evidence that competitive tendering has helped increase demand for and reduce subsidies to the rail passenger sector, but that there are many decisions that have to be taken as to how it is to be implemented. Short gross cost contracts may work well for regional services where the tendering authority takes the lead in planning and marketing such services. If services where ticket revenue recovers a larger share of costs – “more commercial services” – are to be tendered, long net cost contracts may make more sense. An alternative is to leave them operated by the incumbent but with open access for competitors to enter the market. Two particular issues face countries starting on the liberalisation process. Firstly, if existing rolling stock is owned by the incumbent rather than the franchising authority or an independent company; that remains a major barrier to entry. The second is the position of existing staff. If new operators are required to take them on at existing wages and conditions; that is a barrier to improved efficiency, but for new operators to recruit their own staff may also be problematic, particularly where the pace of change is fast.

  • 19.
    Nyström, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Lind, Hans
    Kungliga Tekniska högskolan.
    Degrees of freedom and innovations in construction contracts2016In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 47, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DB (Design and build) and DBB (Design-bid-build) represent two different contracting forms in construction. The first provides the contractor degrees of freedom in design, which enables innovation. DBB is the safe and traditional contracting form, where the client is responsible for the design and the contractor builds accordingly.

    Using a case study approach of five Swedish road construction projects, the present paper compares these contracting forms in terms of innovation. In this, the client's labelling of a contract being DB or DBB is taken at face value. It is established that the actual degrees of freedom for the contractors are highly restricted and that no important difference can be seen between the contracting forms regarding innovation. This implies that it is no reason to expect more innovation simply by labelling contracts as DB. Rational explanations for the usage of DB-contracts with bounds on the degrees of freedom are also suggested. Policy implications for promoting innovation in infrastructure contracting finalise the study.

  • 20.
    Pettersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Why do cities invest in bus priority measures?: Policy, polity, and politics in Stockholm and Copenhagen2019In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the current attention on transport system related challenges concerning climate emissions, air pollution and congestion in cities, there are great aspirations to increase the volume and share of passengers using public transport. Among other things, this demands that services should be improved. One type of improvement is to increase the speed of buses and improve regularity. Doing so will make bus services more attractive, which in turn may help to increase public transport. In congested areas, speed and regularity may be improved through the implementation of measures such as bus lanes, signal priority at traffic lights, a reduction in the number of bus stops, and the re-designing of crossroads, etc., measures that are often framed within the term “bus priority measures”.

    Especially in connection with the introduction of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), several scientific studies have been carried out regarding factors that promote or prevent investments in measures that prioritise bus service. However, these studies, are often focused on the planning and implementation of measures in the Global South, especially in Latin America and Asia (Lindau et al., 2014, Muñoz and Geschwinder, 2008, Munoz and Paget-Seekins, 2016; Nikitas and Karlsson, 2015, Rizvi and Sclar, 2014). In contrast, the literature that describes conditions for the implementation of priority measures in Scandinavian countries is more limited (Finn et al., 2011 is an exception). Additionally, while the aforementioned studies focus on the implementation of bus priority measures in the context of large-scale BRT projects, there is to the best of our knowledge not any studies on the implementation of priority measures in “conventional” bus services.

    In the Scandinavian context the responsibility for implementing priority measures is shared between different actors. In the context of procured public transport the regional public transport authorities (PTA's) and commercial operators are important actors. If bus services operate on roads where the state is infrastructure holder, the national road administrations are also involved (the Swedish Transport Administration, and the Danish Road Directorate). However, the municipal level plays a key role, because they manage the infrastructure for large parts of the urban road network, where the majority of bus travel occurs. Based on this, the purpose of this study is to investigate what causes the Scandinavian capitals, Stockholm in Sweden and Copenhagen in Denmark to prioritise investments in bus priority measures in their road networks. Given the lack of previous research on implementing bus priority measures in the Scandinavian context, we apply a broad, exploratory approach, which means that we are open to explanations both concerning why the cities invest, but also to the challenges associated with implementing bus priority measures. So, the research question is: Which factors promote or prevent municipal investments in bus priority measures?

    In the following sections, we first present some concepts that have been used to structure the project's empirical data, we further present an international literature review as well as the project's methods (chapter 2). Thereafter, two case studies of Stockholm and Copenhagen are described and analysed (chapter 3). In light of the international literature, findings in the cases are discussed (chapter 4), and finally we present the project's conclusions (chapter 5).

  • 21.
    Siren, Anu Kristiina
    et al.
    The Danish National Centre for Social Research.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    Immense changes in traffic: Considerable stability in discourses. Road speed in Danish parliamentary documents 1900-20102015In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 40, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on road safety acknowledges speed as having a major impact on both the number and severity of road crashes, and this seems to have been translated into policies. However, a closer look reveals that the societal debate and political context also seem to play a major role in the way road safety policies are shaped. Yet, the knowledge on the political discourse regarding speeding and speed management is scarce. In this paper, we analyze the ways speed has been managed and legislated in transport policymaking by studying Danish parliamentary documents from 1903 through 2010.

    Analyzing the material qualitatively in two phases, first, we looked for notable policy shifts in the material, and consequently identified five historical periods. Second, we analyzed these periods in more detail, and identified and analyzed four repetitive discourses about speed across them, which were as follows: speed, individual rights and responsibilities; speed and safety; speed, policy measures, and law enforcement; and speed and other societal goals. While the transport system has undergone a massive change during the last 100 years, we found a considerable stability in the discourses regarding speed policies. The themes and patterns we distinguished in the documents occurred repeatedly.

    Certain discourses are strongly connected to the way speed is discussed and governed, and these are likely to emerge when speed policies are taken up in the parliamentary context. We conclude that in addition to the current prominent discourses, past discourses may have a strong influence on the way safety measures and policies are being understood and accepted.

  • 22.
    Tønnesen, Anders
    et al.
    Institute of Transport Economics.
    Krogstad, Julie Runde
    Institute of Transport Economics.
    Christiansen, Petter
    Institute of Transport Economics.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    National goals and tools to fulfil them: A study of opportunities and pitfalls in Norwegian metagovernance of urban mobility2019In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 81, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highlights:

    • Some of the greatest potential of the UGAs (urban-growth agreements) is found in their regional ambition.
    • Ability differences between municipalities help explaining implementation barriers.
    • UGA can be an intervening stage preventing meta-policy from being toothless locally.
    • It is important that UGAs create governance arenas with internal accountability.
  • 23.
    Van Wee, Bert
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    How to make CBA more suitable for evaluating cycling policies2015In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 44, p. 117-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we argue that there is no reason to a priori reject the use of CBA for the evaluation of cycling policies. A CBA can be very helpful to ex ante evaluate the impacts of candidate cycling policies although the outcomes need to be carefully examined and could be misleading. This is firstly due to current practice and modelling tools which do not address cycling well, key issues being the poor inclusion of cycling in transport models even in countries with high bicycle levels, and the use of aggregate average risk data which do not reflect marginal risk changes in specific cases. In addition it is doubtful whether the value of travel time gains can be captured by the cyclist's willingness to pay. Secondly, some important effects are generally ignored, typically difficulties in quantifying and monetizing the potential impacts on the urban environment, social exclusion and the option value. We point out some research and modelling challenges essential for improving CBA for the evaluation of cycling policies.

  • 24.
    Vigren, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. CTS, Stockholm, Sweden..
    How many want to drive the bus?: Analyzing the number of bids for public transport bus contracts2018In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 72, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how different factors related to contract characteristics and the operational and tender environments affect the number of unique bidders placing bids in tenders for bus contracts. A generalized Poisson model is used with a comprehensive data set containing most of the recently tendered bus contracts in Sweden, spanning the period 2007-2015. The main finding from the analysis is that most contract characteristics change participation in tenders by approximately 0.1-0.5 bidders. Operator restricting measures such as special requirement on buses have a similar limited effect. Further, the number of tenders that are open at the same time as a specific tender was shown to reduce participation by almost two bidders. Finally, there is evidence that the local competitive environment is of importance, and the public transport authorities therefore need to be concerned with entry barriers in their tenders.

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