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  • 1.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    COWI AB.
    Thorson, Sofia
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Rayner, David
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Janhäll, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jonsson, Anna C
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Moback, Ulf
    Göteborgs stad.
    Bergman, Ramona
    SGI.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad Universitet.
    An integrated method for assessing climate related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas2015In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 7, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation.

    The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend) against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG), soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3) in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines.

    The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid-rise, light coloured building design with large parks/green areas and trees near buildings.

  • 2.
    Göransson, Gunnel
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment. Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Van Well, Lisa
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Bendz, David
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Hedfors, Jim
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Danielsson, P
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Opportunities for planned retreat and flexible land use in Sweden: Local, regional and national governance perspectives2023In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 41, article id 100530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the sea level rises and the frequency of intense rains increase, so does the need for climate adaptation. Planning for a successive development of society away from current and future flood prone areas to give room for water is not seen as an alternative in Sweden today, although it could be a strategy that creates long-term security. In this study, we investigated Swedish public authorities' perceptions of planned retreat and flexible land use. This was done through an online survey and interviews directed to officials directly involved in climate adaptation work, at municipalities, County Administration Boards (CABs), Regions, national authorities (NAs), and industry organizations (IOs). The responses were analyzed through the lens of a windows of opportunity approach. The study indicates that the extent to which climate scenarios are used and how far into the future the planning horizon extends in the practical work, varies between governance level which also have impact on the perspectives on planned retreat. The openness for planned retreat and flexible strategies seemed to differ slightly between governance levels in an ascending scale from regions, IOs / NAs, municipalities, to CABs. The survey has generated insights from a large number of respondents at different governance levels sharing their perceptions of retreat and adaptation in Sweden as a main contribution of this work.Difficulties to deal with uncertainties in climate scenarios and considering long-term perspectives were identified as some reasons that close the window for planned retreat. Enabling a flexible use of the land that will gradually become more exposed to flooding and sea level rise could be an intermediate step towards retreat. This would be a way to reframe a closed window of opportunity and begin the process of turning it into something transformative. It could be where the short- and long-term planning meet and a way to reframe our way of thinking about how we live and reside in dynamic waterfront areas, and perhaps lead to a more transformative, safe, and sustainable society for future generations.

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  • 3.
    Mourad, Khaldoon
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nordin, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Assessing flooding and possible adaptation measures using remote sensing data and hydrological modeling in Sweden2022In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 38, article id 100464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, Europe is experiencing more frequent and greater floods compared to the last 500 years due to climate change among other factors. This has increased the associated risks, especially in urban areas, which poses a great challenge to all stakeholders. To protect traffic networks from possible floods, this paper uses QGIS, remote sensing data, and HEC-HMS model to assess flooding events and possible adaptation measures. Two case studies have been taken; 1) a 60-mm rainstorm that occurred in 2012 on a main road in the Northern part of Sweden (NB)); and 2) a 35-mm rainstorm that occurred in 2019 in the Southern part of Gothenburg (GO). The resulting flood hydrographs show that the peak reached are 0.5 m3/s and 3.8 m3/s in GO and NB, respectively. To adapt to these flood events, four adaptation measures were assessed namely afforestation, permeable pavements & green roofs, multi-use detention basins and culvert installation considering food production, biodiversity, prosperity, and the environment. The study has shown that afforestation is an effective flood risk mitigation measure to handle both moderate and extreme rain events. Well-maintained permeable surfaces and green roofs are effective in reducing flooding due to moderate rainfall, but not in reducing the impacts of extreme rainfall events. Well-designed multi-functional detention basins are good flood protection measures, however, if they are not well-maintained, their efficiency may be reduced by up to 90 %. Culverts are effective for frequent and limited rain events but extreme rain events may even increase flood risk and thereby contribute to damaging the infrastructure.

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