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  • 1.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH.
    Jonsson, R. Daniel
    KTH.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH.
    Almström, Peter
    KTH.
    Land-use impacts in transport appraisal2014In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 47, p. 82-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard cost-benefit analysis (CBA) does not take into account induced demand due to relocation triggered by infrastructure investments. Using an integrated transport and land-use model calibrated for the Stockholm region, we explore whether this has any significant impact on the CBA outcome, and in particular on the relative ranking of rail and road investments. Our results indicate that induced demand has a larger impact on the benefit of rail investments than on the benefit of road investments. The effect on the relative ranking is still limited for two reasons. First, the number of houses that are built over 20 30 years is limited in comparison to the size of the existing housing stock. Second, the location of most of the new houses is not affected by any single infrastructure investment, since the latter has a marginal effect on total accessibility in a city with a mature transport system. A second aim of this paper is to investigate the robustness of the relative CBA ranking of rail and road investments, with respect to the planning policy in the region 25 years ahead. While the results suggest that this ranking is surprisingly robust, there is a tendency that the net benefit of rail investments is more sensitive to the future planning policy than road investments. Our results also underscore that the future land-use planning in the region in general has a considerably stronger impact on accessibility and car use than individual road or rail investments have.

  • 2.
    Camén, Carolina
    et al.
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Lidestam, Helene
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköping Universitet.
    Dominating factors contributing to the high(er) costs for public bus transports in Sweden2016In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 59, p. 292-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to deepen the understanding of what are the underlying reasons for the increasing cost of public transport in general and bus services in particular in a Swedish context. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with managers at the bus operators as well as the authority organizations. This paper contributes by identifying nine categories that can be the dominating factors behind the increasing costs of public bus services in Sweden.

    The identified categories of cost drivers are; of traffic appearance (peak times), greening of buses, age requirements, the contract period, the accessibility customization, special requirements on buses, collective agreements (working time regulation), tendering and contracting process, and finally, counterproductive political governance. It can be concluded that many of the cost drivers originate from the circumstances of the process of public procurement, such as different demands for different regions in Sweden as well as the trade-off between the bus operators' wishes for higher flexibility in the contracts and the traffic authorities' fear of more risks and thereby higher bids in the end.

  • 3.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Solving procurement problems in public transport: examining multi-principal roles in relation to effective control mechanisms2010In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 124-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the EU’s increasing role in regulating public transport procurement, few studies have considered this aspect when analysing procurement problems of public transport. This paper examines how the institutional relationships between different actors, including international governmental bodies, in public transport effects the possibility of exerting control over a county public transport authority (PTA) in a multi-principal setting. The analysis is carried out using empirical material from an infringement process including a Swedish PTA and the EU. The conclusions have clear policy implications for the procedural order when exerting control over the PTA in cases of procurement problems. It is for example shown, that the implementation process would be much more efficient if the regulations allowed the EU to impose sanctions directly towards the local authorities without having to involve the national government when the procurement laws are violated.

  • 4.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    A typology of inter-organisational coordination in public transport: The case of timetable planning in Denmark2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State, regional, and municipal authorities, public transport authorities, and traffic operators at many levels are essential actors in public transport. This paper presents a typology of four coordination mechanisms relevant to interactions among public transport actors. These four mechanisms, i.e. ownership/instruction, contracts, partnerships, and mutual understanding, are all based on basic coordination mechanisms of markets, hierarchies, and networks. A case of timetable planning is examined, because inter-organisational coordination between actors is crucial in this field, and the usefulness of the typology is illustrated via three examples. The results stem from a Danish study of institutional constraints on timetable optimisation in inter-organisational relations. The empirical focus is eastern Denmark, including Greater Copenhagen.

  • 5.
    Jansson, Kjell
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Quality incentives and quality outcomes in procured public transport: Case study Stockholm2010In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 11-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gross contracts appear to be the most common contract form for procured public transport in Sweden and elsewhere. This contract form, it has been argued, gives weak incentives for operators to deliver the desired quality level. Therefore many procuring public transport authorities amend contracts with quality incentives. This paper examines how such quality incentives influence quality outcomes with focus on cancelled departures and delays. The main findings are that the introduction of quality incentives are correlated with both increases and decreases of measured quality outcomes. We hypothesise that the results are driven by underlying cost changes for achieving desired quality objectives that exceed the possible revenues from the incentives. In interviews with the Stockholm public transport authority (SL) and some operators, two central observations surface. The first is that there are causes for quality failures that are not solely the responsibility of operators and that these are therefore not fully reached by the incentives, and the second is that the operators believe that they have exhausted what they can do under the current contracts.

  • 6.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Political economics or Keynesian demand-side policies: What determines transport infrastructure investment in Swedish municipalities?2015In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 51, p. 49-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines investment in transport infrastructure in Swedish municipalities according to the three National Transport Infrastructure Plans of 2004, 2010 and 2014. The plans cover 12 years each. The test of a swing voter model, combined with variables relevant to the Keynesian model of demand side policies, supports the proposition that there is less investment in municipalities with highly partisan electorates. The model seems to work better for road than for rail investments. Municipalities with a high density of voters at the ideological cut-point (middle of the ideological distribution) got more investment in the 2010 plan but not in the other plans. The impact of the elasticity of output on public service provision raised investment in road projects in sub-plan period 1 compared to later sub-plan periods. The tax elasticity of output may influence the volume of investment downward. The Plan for 2010–2021 seems to be the most politically determined of the plans considered here.

  • 7.
    Lidestam, Helene
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings Universitet.
    Camén, Carolina
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle. Linköpings Universitet.
    Evaluation of cost drivers within public bus transports in Sweden2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The supply of public transport in Sweden has been continuously increasing and as a consequence thereof, the cost for bus traffic has also increased. However, many indicators show that costs for public transports in Sweden in recent years have increased more than supply. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to test and evaluate the importance of the nine previously identified cost drivers (Camén & Lidestam, 2016) of public bus transports in Sweden. A mixed-method design, which included both focus groups and a questionnaire, was used. The questionnaire, with quantitative rating scales, was sent to representatives from the bus operators and from the Public Transport Authorities (PTAs). In the focus groups, industry associations, consultants, and politicians also participated. The results reveal what the dominating cost factors are, as well as the factors considered to be the most important, according to actors within the Swedish bus transport sector. The most important cost driver identified is peak traffic and the costs of its consequences.

  • 8.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Impacts of increased rail infrastructure charges in Sweden2012In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 90-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of the already decided increase in rail infrastructure charges in Sweden are described for various market segments within the rail transport system and on the aggregate level for society as a whole. The need for complementary measures in the road transport system is also discussed. Likewise, the paper also mentions the impact of increased rail infrastructure charges on certain significant industrial sectors. An increase in rail charges may reduce social welfare even though the reduction in rail transport mileage is small. This is mainly due to large non-internalised absolute externalities for road freight. For commuter trains, the infrastructure charges' share of the costs of rail transport is expected to rise to 13 percent, which in an international perspective still will be small.

  • 9.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Local public Transport on the Basis of Social Economic Criteria2010In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 339-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying the welfare economic approach it is demonstrated what the effects of certain supply changes in the local public transport will be and the potential of innovative demand management measures are examined. Straighter bus routes would reduce the average travel time from door to door. The travel time on the buses decreases and the frequency increases, which reduces waiting times at bus stops. Using smaller buses and more of them would also increase the net benefit, but increase the need for subsidisation. The peak within the peak in the morning is hard to handle by price policy alone. Introducing a small variation of the start of the school-day for high-school pupils would make investment- and operation cost savings possible, and the inconvenience costs for the pupils could be limited. It is only during peak hours in the main direction of peak travel and in the critical section of the line that optimal price becomes high relative to the present level. Zero fares in off-peak will be social profitable, but an increase in subsidy is needed. An introduction of these policy changes would give rise to a net social benefit of 30 million SEK per year in Linköping.

  • 10.
    Paulsson, Alexander
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Rye, Tom
    Edinburgh Napier University.
    Scholten, Christina
    Malmö Universitet.
    Collaboration in public transport planning: Why, how and what?2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about collaboration in public transport governance. Drawing upon the emerging literature that views collaboration through the lens of networks, we explore why and how regional public transport authorities collaborate with both municipalities and public transport operators in the planning of public transport. We also explore the advantages and disadvantages of such collaborations. Based on interviews with civil servants (government officers) in the Swedish metropolitan regions of Stockholm, Västra Götaland and Scania, we conclude that collaboration is, firstly, a way for the regional public transport authorities (RPTA) to engage with the local municipalities and develop joint agreements on public transport priorities. It is also a way to build a common identity with the public transport operators, who operate services under tendered contracts. Secondly, we find that collaboration takes place during official meetings, as well as in informal conversations and face-to-face dialogues. Thirdly, the potential advantages and disadvantages of collaboration hinge on the ability of coordinating actors to put in place processes where the feasibility of plans can be established, and where a sense of common identity can be constructed.

  • 11.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Lindgren, Hanna
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Outcomes from new contracts with “strong” incentives for increasing ridership in bus transport in Stockholm2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Public Transport Association has adopted recommendations on incentives for increased ridership in tendered contracts, though there is little evidence on how public transport contracts should be designed to reach this goal. This study begins amassing the needed evidence by analyzing the performance of four Stockholm Region bus contracts spanning seven years, examining the new E20 contracts intended to increase ridership, customer satisfaction, and efficiency. These contracts employ 100 percent of payments to operators depending on the number of boarding and paying passengers. Using mostly monthly data, outcomes in E20-contracts in four areas (formerly governed by gross cost contracts) over three years are compared with outcomes in the years before the E20 contracts were implemented, and with two gross contracts running parallel to the E20 contract. Compared with gross cost operators in comparison areas, E20 operators performed better in terms of costs, customer satisfaction (initially worse but then better), punctuality, and canceled departures, but worse in number of departures and no better in number of passengers.

  • 12.
    Rye, Tom
    et al.
    Transport Research Institute, Edinburgh Napier University.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Workshop 4 report: Criteria for successful collaboration2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper synthesizes evidence from Workshop 4 ‘Criteria for successful collaboration’ of the 15th International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport. This workshop focused on collaboration between public and private organisations as a key dimension of public transport governance. Collaborative arrangements can in some cases be a complementary approach to owner-instruction relationships (when allowed within the legal framework), overcoming or at least addressing some of the “critical interfaces” and problems that “fall between the cracks” in formal institutional structures. Collaboration between organisations with different resources and aims is often crucial for the ability to identify, develop and implement efficient solutions to problems that exceed traditional divisions of responsibility. It can foster trust (trusting partnerships) and joint capacity for innovation; and it can take place in formalized partnerships or more informal networks. Papers at the workshop addressed both positive and negative experiences of collaboration in Scandinavia, Brasil, Chile, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Australia from an empirical perspective, but several more theoretical papers considered the place of collaboration within wider governance frameworks. The workshop discussions led to a clearer definition of collaboration, and the formulation of key lessons on collaboration as a critical dimension in the interaction between the organisations that drive the development of current public transport operations and management, and future public transport improvements.

  • 13.
    Vigren, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Cost efficiency in Swedish public transport2016In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 59, p. 123-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last couple of years, costs in Swedish public transport have increased substantially, and there is little knowledge in what affects cost efficiency. This study aims at determining how different contractual and environmental factors affect cost efficiency, and whether cost efficiency differs between Public Transport Authorities (PTA). A stochastic frontier analysis is conducted using contract-level data for the 21 PTAs and year 2013

    The main findings are that cost efficiency is lower if a contract is operating in areas with high population density, or if the traffic is supplied by a publicly owned operator without using competitive tendering. Furthermore, no major differences in cost efficiency are found across PTAs, with the exception of the counties of Stockholm and Skåne, both counties with high population density, and the county of Västmanland, where all public transport is provided without competitive tendering. The finding of lower cost efficiency in high-density areas calls for further investigation into why this is. Potential explanations are the need for higher peak capacity, or more complex transportation systems. Finally, usage of direct-awarding of public transport should be clearly motivated, as this affects cost efficiency negatively.

  • 14.
    Vigren, Andreas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Trafikanalys.
    Public Transport Authorities’ use of Cost-Benefit Analysis in practice2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the Swedish national goals for transport and infrastructure, economic efficiency is essential also in public transport. In 2003, Ljungberg (2007) sought to answer to which extent PTAs use Cost-Benefit analyses (CBA), a methodology to assess economic efficiency, in their planning of operations and infrastructure. It was found that CBA was seldom used. This paper tries to answer the same question, but for year 2016. The aim of this paper is to see to what extent PTAs are using CBA at the time of the survey, and investigate whether there are any changes with the previous study. A survey was sent to all Swedish PTAs with questions regarding current, previous, and projected future use of CBA. Questions about knowledge of reference materials and why the organization use (or do not use) CBA was asked. The main result is that most PTAs are not using CBA as decision support. For those that do, the method is used mostly for investments in payment systems and major line or traffic changes. The PTAs seem not regard a lack of economic resources a reason for not using CBA. Rather, lack of knowledge and more reliance on other types of decision support are the reasons.

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