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  • 1.
    Razouki, Sabah
    et al.
    Al-Nahrain University.
    Kuttah, Dina K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Pavement Technology.
    Behaviour of Fine-Grained Gypsum-Rich Soil under Triaxial Tests2019In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction Materials, ISSN 1747-650X, E-ISSN 1747-6518Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Razouki, Sabah
    et al.
    Al-Nahrain University.
    Kuttah, Dina K
    Al-Nahrain University.
    Abood, Maha
    Al-Nahrain University.
    Compaction and Design of Gypsiferous Fill for Hot Desert Road Pavements2011In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction Materials, ISSN 1747-650X, E-ISSN 1747-6518, Vol. 164, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study between a homogeneous road embankment constructed of gypsiferous soil and compacted throughout its full height at the dry optimum moisture content (DOMC) and an exactly similar embankment but with improved active zone (top 50 cm of the embankment compacted at the wet optimum moisture content WOMC), is presented. Two soils A and B were examined. Soil A was sandy lean clay (CL) containing about 35% total soluble salt (TSS) of which 33% was gypsum; soil B had a 28% TSS and a gypsum content of 25·6%. California bearing ratio (CBR) soil samples, prepared at DOMC and WOMC for soil A and at WOMC for soil B, showed serious reductions in soil strength and stiffness due to soaking, especially when the soil had been compacted at DOMC. A soaking period of 4 days was considered very reasonable and conservative for hot dry regions. Swelling of the soil during soaking was observed, especially when the soil was compacted at DOMC. For pavement design, it appears to be more economical to introduce an active zone compacted at WOMC instead of DOMC. The cost of the additional water required for compaction at WOMC instead of DOMC is much less than the savings in cost of sub-base material due to increased subgrade soil strength. It is concluded that the gypsiferous soil which occurs widely in the Middle East can be used to build embankments for hot desert road pavements.

  • 3.
    Razouki, Sabah
    et al.
    Nahrain University.
    Kuttah, Dina K
    Nahrain University.
    Al-Damluji, Omar
    Planar - Halvorson and Partners, Abu Dhabi.
    Nashat, Isam
    National Center for Construction Laboratories and Research, Iraq.
    Using Gypsiferous Soil for Embankments in Hot Desert Areas2008In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction Materials, ISSN 1747-650X, E-ISSN 1747-6518, Vol. 61, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of the strength characteristics of a fine-grained gypsiferous soil intended for use as a construction material for forming highway and airport embankments in desert areas is reported herein. The tested soil was a sandy lean clay (CL) according to the Unified Soil Classification System and an A-6 (6) soil according to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) soil classification system, containing about 35% total soluble salts (TSS) of which 33% was gypsum. To study the properties of the tested soil, various California bearing ratio (CBR) soil samples were prepared at the dry optimum moisture content of 2% and soaked for 0, 4, 7, 15 and 30 days. The CBR tests revealed that there was a serious drop in the CBR due to soaking, which is in full agreement with the drop in c and f with soaking period, indicating that if gypsiferous soils are used as fill material they should be protected from ingress of water. To study the deformation properties of the tested soil, vertical swelling/settlement measurements were carried out on each CBR sample during soaking using a 0$002 mm dial gauge. The effect of soaking period on the distribution of moisture, TSS and gypsum content was also studied. It was observed that there was an increase in moisture content and a decrease in TSS and hence gypsum with increasing soaking for CBR samples compacted at the dry optimum moisture content.

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