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  • 1.
    Bianchi Piccinini, Giulio
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lehtonen, Esko
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Forcolin, Fabio
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Engstrom, Johan
    Virginia Tech Transportation Institute.
    Albers, Deike
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Markkula, Gustav
    University of Leeds.
    Lodin, Johan
    University of Leeds.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    How Do Drivers Respond to Silent Automation Failures?: Driving Simulator Study and Comparison of Computational Driver Braking Models.2019Ingår i: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to describe and test novel computational driver models, predicting drivers' brake reaction times (BRTs) to different levels of lead vehicle braking, during driving with cruise control (CC) and during silent failures of adaptive cruise control (ACC).

    BACKGROUND: Validated computational models predicting BRTs to silent failures of automation are lacking but are important for assessing the safety benefits of automated driving.

    METHOD: Two alternative models of driver response to silent ACC failures are proposed: a looming prediction model, assuming that drivers embody a generative model of ACC, and a lower gain model, assuming that drivers' arousal decreases due to monitoring of the automated system. Predictions of BRTs issued by the models were tested using a driving simulator study.; RESULTS: The driving simulator study confirmed the predictions of the models: (a) BRTs were significantly shorter with an increase in kinematic criticality, both during driving with CC and during driving with ACC; (b) BRTs were significantly delayed when driving with ACC compared with driving with CC. However, the predicted BRTs were longer than the ones observed, entailing a fitting of the models to the data from the study.

    CONCLUSION: Both the looming prediction model and the lower gain model predict well the BRTs for the ACC driving condition. However, the looming prediction model has the advantage of being able to predict average BRTs using the exact same parameters as the model fitted to the CC driving data.

    APPLICATION: Knowledge resulting from this research can be helpful for assessing the safety benefits of automated driving.

  • 2.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Minimum Required Attention: A Human-Centered Approach to Driver Inattention2017Ingår i: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 59, nr 3, s. 471-484Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To propose a driver attention theory based on the notion of driving as a satisficing and partially self-paced task and, within this framework, present a definition for driver inattention.

    Background: Many definitions of driver inattention and distraction have been proposed, but they are difficult to operationalize, and they are either unreasonably strict and inflexible or suffer from hindsight bias.

    Method: Existing definitions of driver distraction are reviewed and their shortcomings identified. We then present the minimum required attention (MiRA) theory to overcome these shortcomings. Suggestions on how to operationalize MiRA are also presented.

    Results: MiRA describes which role the attention of the driver plays in the shared "situation awareness of the traffic system." A driver is considered attentive when sampling sufficient information to meet the demands of the system, namely, that he or she fulfills the preconditions to be able to form and maintain a good enough mental representation of the situation. A driver should only be considered inattentive when information sampling is not sufficient, regardless of whether the driver is concurrently executing an additional task or not.

    Conclusions: The MiRA theory builds on well-established driver attention theories. It goes beyond available driver distraction definitions by first defining what a driver needs to be attentive to, being free from hindsight bias, and allowing the driver to adapt to the current demands of the traffic situation through satisficing and self-pacing. MiRA has the potential to provide the stepping stone for unbiased and operationalizable inattention detection and classification.

  • 3.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kujala, Tuomo
    University of Jyväskylä.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    On the Difference Between Necessary and Unnecessary Glances Away From the Forward Roadway: An Occlusion Study on the Motorway2019Ingår i: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, artikel-id UNSP 0018720819866946Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The present study strove to distinguish traffic-related glances away from the forward roadway from non-traffic-related glances while assessing the minimum amount of visual information intake necessary for safe driving in particular scenarios.

    Background: Published gaze-based distraction detection algorithms and guidelines for distraction prevention essentially measure the time spent looking away from the forward roadway, without incorporating situation-based attentional requirements. Incorporating situation-based attentional requirements would entail an approach that not only considers the time spent looking elsewhere but also checks whether all necessary information has been sampled.

    Method: We assess the visual sampling requirements for the forward view based on 25 experienced drivers’ self-paced visual occlusion in real motorway traffic, dependent on a combination of situational factors, and compare these with their corresponding glance behavior in baseline driving.

    Results: Occlusion durations were on average 3 times longer than glances away from the forward roadway, and they varied substantially depending on particular maneuvers and on the proximity of other traffic, showing that interactions with nearby traffic increase perceived uncertainty. The frequency of glances away from the forward roadway was relatively stable across proximity levels and maneuvers, being very similar to what has been found in naturalistic driving.

    Conclusion: Glances away from the forward roadway proved qualitatively different from occlusions in both their duration and when they occur. Our findings indicate that glancing away from the forward roadway for driving purposes is not the same as glancing away for other purposes, and that neither is necessarily equivalent to distraction.

  • 4.
    Kujala, Tuomo
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Kircher, Katja
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Människan i transportsystemet, MTS.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Människan i transportsystemet, MTS.
    A Review of Occlusion as a Tool to Assess Attentional Demand in Driving2021Ingår i: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this review is to identify how visual occlusion contributes to our understanding of attentional demand and spare visual capacity in driving and the strengths and limitations of the method.

    Background: The occlusion technique was developed by John W. Senders to evaluate the attentional demand of driving. Despite its utility, it has been used infrequently in driver attention/inattention research.

    Method: Visual occlusion studies in driving published between 1967 and 2020 were reviewed. The focus was on original studies in which the forward visual field was intermittently occluded while the participant was driving.

    Results: Occlusion studies have shown that attentional demand varies across situations and drivers and have indicated environmental, situational, and inter-individual factors behind the variability. The occlusion technique complements eye tracking in being able to indicate the temporal requirements for and redundancy in visual information sampling. The proper selection of occlusion settings depends on the target of the research.

    Conclusion: Although there are a number of occlusion studies looking at various aspects of attentional demand, we are still only beginning to understand how these demands vary, interact, and covary in naturalistic driving.

    Application: The findings of this review have methodological and theoretical implications for human factors research and for the development of distraction monitoring and in-vehicle system testing. Distraction detection algorithms and testing guidelines should consider the variability in drivers’ situational and individual spare visual capacity.

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  • 5.
    Liu, Zhuofan
    et al.
    Xi'an University of Posts & Telecommunications, China.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Kircher, Katja
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Attentional Demand as a Function of Contextual Factors in Different Traffic Scenarios2019Ingår i: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, artikel-id UNSP 0018720819869099Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess the attentional demand of different contextual factors in driving.

    Background: The attentional demand on the driver varies with the situation. One approach for estimating the attentional demand, via spare capacity, is to use visual occlusion.

    Method: Using a 3 × 5 within-subjects design, 33 participants drove in a fixed-base simulator in three scenarios (i.e., urban, rural, and motorway), combined with five fixed occlusion durations (1.0, 1.4, 1.8, 2.2, and 2.6 s). By pressing a microswitch on a finger, the driver initiated each occlusion, which lasted for the same predetermined duration within each trial. Drivers were instructed to occlude their vision as often as possible while still driving safely.

    Results: Stepwise logistic regression per scenario indicated that the occlusion predictors varied with scenario. In the urban environment, infrastructure-related variables had the biggest influence, whereas the distance to oncoming traffic played a major role on the rural road. On the motorway, occlusion duration and time since the last occlusion were the main determinants.

    Conclusion: Spare capacity is dependent on the scenario, selected speed, and individual factors. This is important for developing workload managers, infrastructural design, and aspects related to transfer of control in automated driving.

    Application: Better knowledge of the determinants of spare capacity in the road environment can help improve workload managers, thereby contributing to more efficient and safer interaction with additional tasks.

  • 6.
    Solis Marcos, Ignacio
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kircher, Katja
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Performance of an Additional Task During Level 2 Automated Driving: An On-Road Study Comparing Drivers With and Without Experience With Partial Automation2018Ingår i: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the influence of prior experience with Level 2 automation on additional task performance during manual and Level 2 partially automated driving.

    Background: Level 2 automation is now on the market, but its effects on driver behavior remain unclear. Based on previous studies, we could expect an increase in drivers’ engagement in secondary tasks during Level 2 automated driving, but it is yet unknown how drivers will integrate all the ongoing demands in such situations.

    Method: Twenty-one drivers (12 without, 9 with Level 2 automation experience) drove on a highway manually and with Level 2 automation (exemplified by Volvo Pilot Assist generation 2; PA2) while performing an additional task. In half of the conditions, the task could be interrupted (self-paced), and in the other half, it could not (system-paced). Drivers’ visual attention, additional task performance, and other compensatory strategies were analyzed.

    Results: Driving with PA2 led to decreased scores in the additional task and more visual attention to the dashboard. In the self-paced condition, all drivers looked more to the task and perceived a lower mental demand. The drivers experienced with PA2 used the system and the task more than the novice group and performed more overtakings.

    Conclusions: The additional task interfered more with Level 2 automation than with manual driving. The drivers, particularly the automation novice drivers, used some compensatory strategies.

    Applications: Automation designers need to consider these potential effects in the development of future automated systems.

  • 7.
    Weibull, Kajsa
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Förare och fordon, FOF.
    Prytz, Erik
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    False Alarm Effects in Early Warnings for Emergency Vehicles: Exploring Drivers’ Move-Over Behavior2023Ingår i: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, artikel-id 00187208231216835Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study investigated drivers' move-over behavior when receiving an Emergency Vehicle Approaching (EVA) warning. Furthermore, the possible effects of false alarms, driver experience, and modality on move-over behavior were explored.

    Background: EVA warnings are one solution to encourage drivers to move over for emergency vehicles in a safe and timely manner. EVA warnings are distributed based on the predicted path of the emergency vehicle causing a risk of false alarms. Previous EVA studies have suggested a difference between inexperienced and experienced drivers' move-over behavior.

    Method: A driving simulator study was conducted with 110 participants, whereof 54 inexperienced and 56 experienced drivers. They were approached by an emergency vehicle three times. A control group received no EVA warnings, whereas the experimental groups received either true or false warnings, auditory or visual, 15 seconds before the emergency vehicle overtook them.

    Results: Drivers who received EVA warnings moved over more quickly for the emergency vehicle compared to the control group. Drivers moved over more quickly for each emergency vehicle interaction. False alarms impaired move-over behavior. No difference in driver behavior based on driver experience or modality was observed.

    Conclusion: EVA warnings positively affect drivers' move-over behavior. However, false alarms can decrease drivers' future willingness to comply with the warning.

    Application: The findings regarding measurements of delay can be used to optimize the design of future EVA systems. Moreover, this research should be used to further understand the effect of false alarms in in-car warnings.

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