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  • 1.
    Abbas, Khaled A
    Egyptian National Institute of Transport.
    Environmentally sustainable transport strategies: the way forward in metropolitan cities2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:3, p. 12-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with one of the three requirements of a sustainable transport system, namely the environmental dimension. It starts by presenting components and interactions of the transport and traffic systems using causal diagrams. Generic traffic problems are identified and their causes categorized. A classification of demand and supply-based policies and measures that can be used in designing environmentally sustainable transport strategies is depicted. Such strategies are targeted towards minimizing the generic traffic problems encountered in metropolitan cities, i.e., traffic congestion, accidents, environmental degradation and energy inefficiencies. In this paper, Travel Demand and Land Use Management are considered as two of the basic pillars for designing environmentally sustainable transport strategies. Criteria for comparing demand versus supply-based policies are suggested. These are applied to assess the benefits and limitations of each policy, hence assisting decision makers in the prioritization and choice of such policies.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Ishtiaque
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, University Technology Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia.
    Ahmed, Bayes
    IMC Worldwide Limited, Baridhara, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Urban Road Accidents in Dhaka, Bangladesh2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is the most vulnerable city both in terms of total number of accidents and accident rates. A total number of 2,720 accidents occurred during 2007-2011. This has caused a total of 1,481 numbers of pedestrian fatal accidents with 1,562 pedestrian fatal casualties. The primary objective of the paper is to study the characteristics of the road traffic accidents in Dhaka. The study area for this study is Dhaka Metropolitan Area. The paper focused on a few selected parameters a) Trend in overall accident rates b) Monthly variation of accident rates c) Accidents by severity levels d) Collision types e) Accidents in different lighting conditions. The raw data in the form of Accident Report Forms (ARFs) were collected from Dhaka Metropolitan Police (DMP). A GIS database was prepared for accidents showing locations and details for the period of 2007-2011. The analysis showed that on an average, the total number of traffic accidents is reduced by 11% each year. No profound effect of weather/season on road accidents is found. Fatal accidents and motor collisions are decreasing while injury accidents are increasing. Most traffic accidents: cause fatality (69%) and hit a pedestrian (60%). Fifty four percept of the accidents occurred during daytime. The paper recommends improvement measures for the road accident data collection and management system in Dhaka, Bangladesh. That includes the training need for the police staff, need for a geo-referenced database for data storage and management and involvement of multiple agencies in the process. This paper also recommends further studies on the extent and characteristics of underreporting of accidents.

  • 3.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jacobsen, Jens Kr. Steen
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Berglund, Carl Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turistvägar och näringsutveckling: trafikantupplevelser och planeringskriterier2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    VTI and the Norwegian Institute of Transport Economics (TØI) have at the request of the Swedish Road Administration carried out a research and development project concerning tourist routes in Sweden. The project was done in two parts, one literature study with examples of how other countries work with tourist routes and one field study about the opinions of visitors and business operators along two Swedish tourist routes (the present publication). The two tourist routes which have been studied are Tourist Route Gränna-Ödeshög-Rök in the Counties of Jönköping and Östergötland, and Tourist Route Kullaberg in the County of Skåne. The study of the experiences of the business operators, the visitors' willingness to pay and a deepened analysis of the landscape was only done along the Gränna route. As for the experiences of the visitors the data for the two Swedish tourist routes have been compared with similar data from a Norwegian tourist route, Tourist Route Sognefjell.

  • 4.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kan kollektivtrafiken bli attraktivare och säkrare trots begränsade resurser: Dokumentation från ett KTB - VTI seminarium i september 19821983Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kollektivtrafiken: Konkurrent eller komplement till bilism och GCM-trafik?1983Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: del 2. Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1999-01-13--14 beträffande: bilindustrins säkerhetsarbete ger resultat - ny vägfinansiering ger resultat - trafiksäkerhet, vision och verklighet - trafiksäkerhet1999Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: del 7. Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1999-01-13--14 beträffande: luftfart, marknad, avreglering och konkurrens - sjöfarten på den elektroniska oceanen - människa-maskinfrågor vid styrning av snabba fartyg - metoder och modeller, samhällsekonomisk metodik - godsmodeller - sårbarhet - metodutveckling för transportmodeller1999Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Assum, Terje
    et al.
    Institute of Transport Economics (TØI).
    Nordbakke, Susanne
    Institute of Transport Economics (TØI).
    Accidents Risk and Road Safety Among Immigrants in Norway2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigrants make up 13.1 % of the population of Norway in 2012. Immigrant drivers in Norway have considerably higher accident risk, measured as personal-injury accidents per 1000 license holders, than drivers born in Norway. Drivers from the Middle East and Africa have more than twice the accidents risk of drivers born in Norway or immigrant drivers from the western world. Accident risk is calculated using the national registers of road accidents, driver’s licenses and the Norwegian population. Factors which may explain these differences in accident risk were studied by focus group interviews and a questionnaire survey. Language problems, worries about family in the country of origin, attitudes to road traffic rules and driving behavior reflected in the number of road traffic violation fines may contribute to explaining the differences in road accident risk.

  • 9.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Bilisters användande av parkeringsanläggningar i centrala Göteborg: Orsaker, behov och konsekvenser för olika grupper2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current trends in municipal parking policy show that the number of centrally located parking spaces is reducing. About 5 000 parking spaces will disappear in Gothenburg in the next few years. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons why people use parking facilities in central Gothenburg. The study is based on interviews with a total of 71 motorists at three parking facilities in central Gothenburg. Ideal types have been used as an analytic tool to highlight the essence of the interviews and put them into a context. Nine ideal types were identified in the interview material that describe why people use the car and parking facilities in central Gothenburg, such as lack of alternatives to the car, stressful everyday life, seasonal use, the car as a right, to bridge long distances, pragmatism, and for tourism. The results show that incentives to drive a car and the ability to choose transport modes are influenced by everyday structures as well as attitudes and experiences associated with different transport modes and transport systems. The conclusions are that the more complex everyday life people have, the more the working life and private life will be affected by parking measures. Public transport is perceived to be inadequate and time consuming, but many also consider public transport as a good alternative to the car.

  • 10.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Karresand, Helena
    Linköpings universitet.
    Är bilberoende och tidsbrist ett hinder för ökat kollektivtrafikresande?: En kvalitativ aktivitetsbaserad studie2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet är att testa i vilken utsträckning olika hushåll i arbetsmarknadsregionen Göteborg idag kan utföra sina vardagliga aktiviteter genom minskat bilresande och ökad användning av alternativa transportslag såsom kollektivtrafik, cykel och gång, samt att peka på lösningar som ur ett vardagslivsperspektiv fungerar. Studien baseras på tidsdagböcker från sex hushåll. Tidsdagböckerna genomfördes av SCB år 1996. Tre hushålltyper har valts ut: sammanboende småbarnsföräldrar, ensamstående föräldrar, samt sammanboende personer 45 – 64 år utan hemmavarande barn.

    Analyser visar på ett antal restriktioner som begränsar hushållens möjligheter och vilja att använda kollektivtrafik. Den kvalitativa metod som har använts i studien synliggör hushålls resmönster och val av transportmedel på ett pedagogiskt sätt vilket ökar förståelsen för vad som ligger bakom kvantitativa aggregerade modeller för transportplanering. Metoden kan rekommenderas för att studera transportmönster och möjligheter att göra förändringar i färdmedelsval hos resenärer i andra geografiska kontexter, såväl i större som i mindre tätorter.

  • 11.
    Brüde, Ulf
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vart är antalet dödade och skadade i trafiken på väg?: modeller för kontroll av måluppfyllelsen, uppdaterade med 1995 års data1996Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Telecommuting and work travel demand modelling in Sweden2003In: Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Carlén, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Värdering av koldioxidutsläpp från svenska transporter: en kommentar2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report the researcher discusses the problem of assessing the value of Swedish carbon dioxide emissions, given the EU’s climate policy architecture. An important implication of the EU’s emission targets is that when an agent increases its emissions some other agent has to abate correspondingly more so that the aggregate emissions are kept at the target level. Thus, such an emission increment does not increase the risk for climate change. Hereby the approach of valuating carbon emission by assessing the environmental damage has lost its relevance for these emissions. On the other hand, someone else has to bear additional abatement costs. These costs are the economic consequences of increased emissions, e.g. due to increased traffic in Sweden, and those that we are trying to assess here. These costs may be seen as the marginal political valuation of carbon dioxide emissions.

  • 14.
    Cedersund, Hans-Åke
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bilbältesanvändningen i Sverige 20082010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    VTI has observed seat belt use in a number of towns in Central Sweden since 1983. In the original selection of measuring sites, the emphasis was placed on heavily trafficked roundabouts with both through traffic and local traffic. The intention from the beginning was to study passenger cars with back seat passengers since it was expected that these would be affected by a seat belt law a few years later. The observations last year were made over a total of nine days in August-September 2008, approximately one day per measuring point. The total number of vehicles observed was over 53,000 passenger cars and 7,000 other vehicles. When VTI commenced its measurement series in 1983, seat belt use by adult passengers in the back seat was a modest 10 per cent. It increased in one jump to 60 per cent when the law on seat belt use by adults in the car as a whole came into force on 1 July 1986. Today, about 74 per cent of all adult back seat passengers use a belt. The corresponding level for children in the back seat has been consistently about 10-20 percentage points higher. In 2008, close to 95 per cent of all children in the back seat wore a seat belt.

  • 15.
    Cedersund, Hans-Åke
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bilbältesanvändningen i Sverige 20092010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    VTI has observed seat belt use in a number of towns in Central Sweden since 1983. The observations last year were made over a total of nine days in August–September 2009, approximately one day per measuring point. The total number of vehicles observed was over 54,400 passenger cars and 5,900 other vehicles. When VTI commenced its measurement series in 1983, seat belt use by adult passengers in the back seat was a modest 10%. It increased in one jump to 60% when the law on seat belt use by adults in the car as a whole came into force on July 1, 1986. Today, close to 80% of all adult back seat passengers use a belt. The corresponding level for children in the back seat has been consistently about 10-20 percentage points higher. In 2009, about 95% of all children in the back seat wore a seat belt.

  • 16.
    Choi, Jaisung
    et al.
    The University of Seoul, Department of Transportation Engineering, Seoul, South Korea.
    Kim, Sangyoup
    Jeonbuk Development Institute, Department of Saemangeum & Regional Development, Jeollabukdo, South Korea.
    Kim, Sunggyu
    The University of Seoul, Department of Transportation Engineering, Seoul, South Korea.
    Hong, Hyungi
    The University of Seoul, Department of Transportation Engineering, Seoul, South Korea.
    Baik, Seungyoup
    The National Police Bureau, Seoul, South Korea.
    Pedestrian Crashes During Jaywalking: Can we Afford to Overlook?2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents"undertitel": Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    424 traffic fatalities were recorded in Seoul in 2010 and 227 of them (54%) involved pedestrian crashes. Surprisingly, 40% of these pedestrian fatalities occurred whilst pedestrians were jaywalking, implying that one jaywalker got killed every four days in Seoul and precious lives can be saved if effective methods preventing jaywalk crashes are applied. This research proposes such methods. The approach applied in the research includes literature reviews, collection of demographical and vehicle characteristics, as well as geometric features of jaywalk crash sites. Application of statistical analysis and an examination of jaywalk crashes that occurred during past years were also carried out to understand contributing factors. Important findings from the research indicate that crosswalk spacing rules need to be flexible to allow neighboring crosswalks to sit very closely to prevent jaywalking. Human factor analysis showed that high speed drivers over represent in offenders of fatal crashes whilst jaywalking. In terms of pedestrians, the elderly was the vulnerable age group. More pedestrians were hit jaywalking by taxis and buses. Road and environment factors showed both expected and contradictory results when total numbers of lane or dry/icy pavement conditions were subject to analysis. It is expected that our results will be used in discussing pedestrian safety, as well as understanding increased strategies to prevent pedestrian fatalities.

  • 17. Delhomme, Patricia
    et al.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Loukopoulos, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Boulanger, Ankatrien
    Kommunikationskampanjer för trafiksäkerhet: handbok för design, genomförande och utvärdering (förkortad version)2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta häfte är en förkortad version av CAST-handboken för utformning, genomförande och utvärdering av kommunikationskampanjer om trafiksäkerhet.

    CAST (Campaigns and Awareness-Raising Strategies in Traffic Safety) är ett riktat forskningsprojekt som stöds av Europeiska kommissionen. Det startades som ett led i kommissionens strävan att förbättra trafiksäkerheten med hjälp av effektivare trafiksäkerhetskampanjer. CAST-projektet, som pågick mellan 2006 och 2009, gällde utveckling av tre verktyg för att ge kampanjmakare praktisk hjälp. Tillsammans ger verktygen tydliga anvisningar för utformning och utvärdering av trafiksäkerhetskampanjer. Verktygen är: - en handbok för utformning, genomförande och utvärdering av trafiksäkerhetskampanjer ; - ett utvärderingsverktyg, avsett att vara till hjälp vid bedömning av kampanjens effektivitet; - ett rapportverktyg, som beskriver hur en fullständig och standardiserad kampanjrapport skrivs.

    CAST-projektet genomfördes av ett konsortium av 19 partner och samordnades av Belgiens trafiksäkerhetsinstitut (IBSRBIVV). Alla större europeiska organisationer med kunskaper om och erfarenhet av trafiksäkerhetskampanjer medverkade – projektet samlade alltså expertis från hela EU.

  • 18.
    Du, Lizhen
    et al.
    Beijing University of Technology, China.
    Sun, Xiaoduan
    Civil Engineering Department, University of Louisiana, USA.
    He, Yulong
    Transportation Research Center, Beijing University of Technology, China.
    Level of Service of Safety Graded Quantitative Research for Low-Grade Highway Sections2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Level of Service of Safety is a new concept in the field of traffic safety in China and developed countries, it is a quality indicator which is used to describe the road traffic safety situation and roads providing service of traffic safety for traffic participants. Introducing the study status of the Level of Service of Safety in China and developed countries, the definition of the concept, applications and content. In order to objectively evaluate traffic safety performance at low-grade roads, the concept of the level of service of safety for low-grade roads is brought forward, the factors influencing the sections of level of service of safety are analyzed , then linear, the risk of the roadside, traffic volume, the proportion of trucks and 85% speed difference between cars and large vehicles are selected as the evaluations, level of service of safety for the basic sections of low-grade highway is divided into four levels, the grey class whitening function is established to determine the appropriate threshold, Grey Clustering Method is used to evaluate the level of service of safety for low-grade highway sections, and reasonability of the method is validated. The Grey Clustering Method is applied to evaluate traffic safety of actual low-grade highway section, the result shows that the proposed method is reasonable and feasible.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Anne
    Danish Road Directorate, Denmark.
    Action plans for traffic safety: New Danish examples2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:1, p. 11-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the author introduces different types of action plans for improving traffic safety in Denmark. Mainly, she introduces the National Action Plan for Traffic Safety 2001-20012, which is a successor to the earlier National Action Plan 1989-2000. She next discusses the success they have had in Denmark with Local Traffic Safety Plans, and finally mentions Company Action Plans, a concept they are trying to get some experience with now in Denmark.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Claes
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hylen, Bertil
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Seamless transport - making the connections: analytical and policy documents for the 2012 Leipzig summit2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Memorandum has been elaborated following a commission by the Swedish Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications. The Memorandum should primarily serve for preparations for the 2012 Summit of the OECD’s International Transport Forum in Leipzig, Germany.

    The first section of this memorandum lists organizations, stakeholders, on-going projects etc. It is not intended to be exhaustive in any way since it was not a part of the original commission. Rather it tries to catch on-going activities and projects that still have not reached the publication and outreach phase.

    The second section contains the selected references. They are sorted according to the six issues suggested by the Ministry as starting points for discussions at the summit. It should be pointed out though, that several references address more than one of the issues. Borders may create technology barriers; technology improvements may improve supply chains etc.

  • 21.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Användning av MCS-data för skattning av ÅDT - Götebord: Etapp 22012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Användning av MCS-data för skattning av ÅDT - Stockholm: Etapp 22012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Planering av en regional resvaneundersökning i Östergötland: Samverkan mellan olika intressenter2016Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Resvanor och inställning till färdmedel i Falu kommun2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce the negative effects of private transportation more people need to travel pro-environmentally. In this report, travel mode choice and the reasons for using different travel modes in the municipality of Falun are described. A travel survey revealed that on average the respondents undertook 3.3 trips a day, and that 64 % used a car for the majority of these trips. Bus, bicycle, and walking accounted for around 10 % of the trips each. The majority of the trips were to and from work, followed by trips to make various purchases. Results from an attitude survey revealed that the respondents had a favourable attitude to bicycles in particular, and also to cars. However, there were a number of circumstances that were perceived to mitigate against cycle usage and entailed an advantage in favour of cars instead. The bus was seen as slightly more negative and the possibility of taking the bus was rated lower than the possibility of using the car. The intention to use the car, the bus and the bicycle was mainly influenced by perceived behavioural control, social norms, and attitude toward the travel mode. In addition, certain background factors, such as driving licence and access to car, were important for the intention to use different travel modes. The results point towards the importance of improving the opportunities to use alternative modes of transport if more car users are to travel pro-environmentally.

  • 25.
    Forsberg, Anders
    et al.
    TRUM, Uppsala universitet.
    Waara, Rolf
    TRUM, Uppsala universitet.
    Gratisturer med buss: Effekter på resandet och trafikbolagens ekonomi1983Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Forsberg, Inger
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ullberg, Martin
    Vectura.
    Svensson, Helena
    Vectura.
    Det nya hastighetssystemet: fokusgruppsintervjuer på landsbygd och i tätort2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rules governing the regulation of driving speed in Sweden have been in force since 1971 outside the urban area, and since 1955 in urban areas. In order to better adapt the speed limits to the current situation and in accordance with the Vision Zero, the Parliament decided in 2007 to introduce a more flexible speed limit system with ten steps (30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110 and 120 km/h). The purpose of the new speed limit was that it would be perceived as more logical than before. This should in itself increase its acceptance among road users. If all road users respect the speed limits then approximately 150 lives would be saved each year. In addition to saving lives, a reduction in speed would reduce the emission of carbon dioxide by about 700 000 tonnes. Work to review and implement the new speed limits began in 2008 and will affect about 20 000 km of roads. The present study aimed to elicit the views of different road user groups and residents along the roads using a qualitative approach. The study was conducted in rural and urban areas where the new speed limits had been implemented. Questions were: 'What is the experience of the new speed limits?' 'Is there a difference of opinion between road users in rural and urban areas?' and 'Is there a difference of opinion between road user groups?' Two focus groups were conducted with residents in rural areas. The first focused on vulnerable road users and the other on the situation of the residents. In an urban area three focus groups were used that discussed a speed limit reduction from 50 to 40 km/h. The focus groups involved vulnerable road users, bus drivers and taxi drivers.

  • 27.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Aretun, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Engström, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nolen, Sixten
    Börjesson, Josefine
    Ungdomars inställning till att ta körkort 2002-20092010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of licensed drivers among adolescents (aged 18-24 years old) has in the past 15 years decreased in Sweden. In the 1980s a large number of adolescents obtained their driving licence very soon after their 18th birthday, but today, many people wait until later. The main aim of this study is, by the means of a longitudinal study (2002-2009), increase our understanding of what influences young people's desire to acquire a driving licence but also what opportunities and barriers they perceive in connection with this. Another purpose of this study is to investigate what predicts their licence taking behaviour and intentions using the theoretical model Theory of planned behaviour. The study used a questionnaire sent to a random sample of adolescents (17.5 years) in Sweden on five separate occasions: the fall of 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006 and spring 2009. In total, 6,015 people participated in the study (response rate of 67%).

  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    15-åringar i Nordens trafik: Vad vet de? Vad tycker de? Vad gör de?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med enkätundersökningen var att skaffa ett underlag för att förbättra trafiksäkerheten bland ungdomar i Norden. I projektet har barn i åldern 12-17-år kallats ”de glömda barnen” eftersom väldigt lite görs för deras trafiksäkerhet. Slutsatser från studien är att det finns en rad kunskaper, attityder och beteenden som inte är på topp när det gäller trafiksäkerhet. Även om många ungdomar vet mycket och beter sig rätt är andelen som gör fel alldeles för hög. Det visar att det finns ett stort behov av att arbeta med ungdomarna och att en stor del av deras trafikolyckor skulle kunna förhindras med ett mer systematiskt och målinriktat arbete. När det gäller Sverige kan konstaterasatt de stora bristerna i nationellt stöd till skolans arbete med trafikfrågor också ger resultat i bristande attityder, kunskaper och beteenden.

  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nordiska invånares syn på trafiksäkerhet: Resultat från en enkätundersökning genomförd av Nordiska Trafiksäkerhetsrådet våren 2010 i Danmark, Finland, Färöarna, Norge och Sverige2011Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Vinterväghållning för gående: Intervjuer och kartläggning i sju kommuner2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Trafikverket har vi tagit reda på förutsättningarna för att använda VViS-data ur ett kommunalt perspektiv vid planering av vinterväghållning för gående. I begreppet vinterväghållning innefattas både snöröjning och halkbekämpning. VViS är Trafikverkets informationssystem för vägväder. Studien har genomförts med hjälp av

    • informationsinhämtning via webbplatser
    • anteckningsbaserade semi-strukturerade telefonintervjuer
    • frågor via e-post
    • kartstudie

    Intervjuerna har gjorts med företrädare för kommunens vinterväghållning eller ansvar för gång- och cykelbanor samt entreprenörer i sju olika kommuner. Även företrädare för meteorologiska myndigheter/företag har intervjuats. Av resultaten framgår att de viktigaste väderparametrarna i samband med olyckor för gående är frost-halka, is på frysande vägbana, nederbörd på kall vägbana och vädersituationer när temperaturen pendlar kring noll. I samtliga kommuner har den (kommun eller entreprenör) som tar beslutet om snöröjning och/eller halkbekämpning tillgång till information från någon form av vädertjänst genom abonnemang. Genom de tjänster kommunerna/entreprenörerna prenumererat på har de redan idag tillgång till VViS-data, men dessa data är ”förpackade” tillsammans med andra data på ett lättillgängligt och illustrativt sätt. En slutsats från studien är att kommunerna anser sig ha tillräckligt med digital data och därför inte anser sig ha något behov av egna vädermätningsstationer.

  • 31.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Meng, Annette
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Transport.
    Alauzet, Aline
    IFSTTAR - French institute of science and technology for transport, development and networks.
    Bell, Daniel
    FACTUM Chaloupka & Risser OHG .
    Dankova, Lenka
    Centrum Dopravního Výzkumu (Transport Research Centre).
    Kureckova, Veronika
    Centrum Dopravního Výzkumu (Transport Research Centre).
    Lang, Britta
    TRL Limited Transport Research Laboratory.
    Marin-Lamellet, Claude
    IFSTTAR - French institute of science and technology for transport, development and networks.
    Monterde-i-Bort, Hector
    Universitat de Valencia .
    Parkes, Andrew
    TRL Limited Transport Research Laboratory.
    Pokriefke, Eike
    FACTUM Chaloupka & Risser OHG .
    Snopek, Mojmir
    Centrum Dopravního Výzkumu (Transport Research Centre).
    Strnadova, Zusana
    Centrum Dopravního Výzkumu (Transport Research Centre).
    Stakeholders and practices in the field of senior safety and mobility: Work package 4 Report2013Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Ecologize AB.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Hållbara turistresor: en fallstudie av destinationerna Kiruna, Åre, Sälen och Vimmerby2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In conjunction with development of destinations and transport systems, tourist demands and requirements are essential in determining measures and changes that may lead to more sustainable travel. Different options for travel to and from destinations are of great importance, but also the geographical accessibility to various visit points within destinations. Good accessibility within a destination without a private car may also influence the modal choice for the trip to and from the destination.

    This study analysed the requirements of different categories of tourists for transport, their travel patterns and their preferences regarding travel to, from and within four Swedish destinations: Kiruna, Åre, Sälen and Vimmerby. The aim was to develop knowledge about factors that may affect the sustainability of tourist travel. The empirical material for the analysis was collected through questionnaires distributed to visitors on-site in the destinations.

  • 33.
    Henriksson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Användning av personbilar ägda av juridiska personer: jämförelse av registrerings- och stationeringskommun2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a demand among Swedish municipalities for vehicle statistics broken down by municipal level. The statistics can be used for estimates of traffic volume or descriptions of the car fleet. Vehicles can, however, be registered in a municipality due to the Swedish Road Traffic Registry but completely or predominantly be located/stationed in another municipality, here referred as stationing municipality. The statistics can then be misleading. This problem is assumed to be greatest for vehicles owned by juridical persons. This study has examined the proportion of the juridical owned passenger cars’ total mileage driven in the municipality they are registered in according to the Road Traffic Registry. A short questionnaire was sent in January 2015 to a sample of 2 000 juridical persons who owned a passenger car. The survey, which also was accessible in a web version, also contained questions about stationing municipality (if the car was stationed anywhere else than in the registration municipality) type of car ownership and its use. The response rate was 52 percent.

  • 34.
    Hjorthol, Randi
    et al.
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.
    Nordbakke, Susanne
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.
    Vågane, Liva
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Siren, Anu
    Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Institut for Transport.
    Ulleberg, Pål
    Universitetet i Oslo, Psykologisk institutt (PSI).
    Eldres mobilitet og velferd: utvikling, reisebehov og tiltak2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of older people state that access to transport is essential to their welfare and quality of life. Nevertheless many older people in Norway today are facing an unsatisfactory transport supply. Not all of them want to or are able to use a car, and many live in areas with low public transport quality. The knowledge of the Special Transport Service is low, and only one third of those who use it state that their transport need is met. With an increasing share of older people it is important to develop a transport policy adjusted to this change. It will mean greater independence for older people and help them to stay longer in their homes, contributing to improved welfare and quality of life.

  • 35.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Litteraturstudie om integritetsaspekter av Intelligent Speed Adaption (ISA) och Event Data Recorder (EDR)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna litteraturstudie analyserar hur integritetsfrågor har diskuterats i anslutning till Intelligent Speed Adaption (ISA) och Event Data Recorder (EDR). En EDR är ett instrument som registrerar och lagrar information om fordon några sekunder före, under och efter en krock. ISA är ett samlingsnamn för tekniker som varnar förare när de överskrider hastighetsgränser och/eller förhindrar förare att köra fortare än tillåtet. ISA-tekniken avgör fordonets geografiska lokalisering, jämför fordonets hastighet med gällande hastighetsgräns och varnar föraren om den överskrids. Det som EDR och ISA har gemensamt är att förarnas beteende registreras. Med lagringen av data och registreringen av beteenden följer en tydlig integritetsproblematik.

    Litteraturstudien visar att det är sällan integritetsfrågor behandlas och när det sker är det ofta relativt ytligt. Det är sällan möjligt att få kunskap om vad exempelvis politiker, företag och förare tycker om teknikerna genom tidigare studier. De studier som finns handlar mest om hur förare upplever användarvänligheten, till exempel angående ISA. Det saknas helt enkelt problematiserande studier som går på djupet med integritet och EDR och ISA. De slutsatser som man trots allt kan dra är att befintlig litteratur framförallt sätter integritetsproblem i samband med vad man kan använda tekniken till i framtiden. Fler parametrar kommer exempelvis att kunna registreras under längre tid av EDR-tekniken. Det ställer krav på teknisk standardisering och regler för hur och vem som ska kunna använda data. Hindren för införandet av EDR och ISA förefaller utifrån tidigare studier emellertid inte vara brist på till exempel lagstiftning utan vad allmänheten är villig att acceptera. Det är därför extra intressant att notera att det saknas djuplodande studier av beslutsfattares och förares perspektiv om integritet och EDR/ISA.

  • 36.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Parkeringsnormer för bostäder: Porslinsfabriken – ett exempel på samspelet mellan läge, kollektivtrafik- och parkeringsutbud2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report analyses the effects of lowered parking requirements for residents in the centrally located, relatively newly built housing area, Porslinsfabriken in Gothenburg. Porslinsfabriken has a relatively low parking requirement of 0.57 places per apartment and is a good example of a parking policy being introduced in many Swedish municipalities. The results show that 19 percent of households have decreased their car ownership and also drive fewer miles because of parking opportunities. However, the majority have not altered their car ownership or car use. There are few differences between groups with different occupations, education, age, gender and/or family situation as regards car ownership, car use or the consequences of parking for everyday life.

    Most are happy with the parking situation. A parking requirement of 0.57 for a centrally located housing area with good public transport, close proximity to services and good opportunities for cycling, walking and using public transport has decreased overall car use. However, the range of parking available in the immediate area gives residents a choice of parking spaces. The majority of residents commute by private car as before, and many others have kept their cars. The parking requirement could therefore have been lower. A practical implication of the results is that a lower parking requirement for construction of new apartment blocks must be accompanied by a well-coordinated battery of other measures, such as good access to public transport, higher parking charges, a reduction in public parking spaces etc.

  • 37.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Pettersson, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Westerdahl, Stig
    Malmö högskola.
    Dömd till samverkan! : En kunskapsöversikt 2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skapandet av en effektiv kollektivtrafik kräver i ökande grad samverkan mellan formellt självständiga organisationer. I denna kunskapsöversikt diskuteras samverkan mellan offentliga och privata organisationer samt resenärer. Syftet är att öka den begreppsmässiga förståelsen av samverkan på kollektivtrafikområdet. Den gör det genom att definiera samverkan, och diskutera vilka kvaliteter som möjliggör väl fungerande samverkan. Kunskapsöversikten börjar med att beskriva tidigare kollektivtrafikforskning om samverkan. Därefter beskrivs vilka slutsatser som finns om samverkan i andra för kollektivtrafiken analytiskt intressanta forskningsfält. En slutsats är att samverkan kan definieras som försök att överkomma problem med kollektivt handlade, och försök att förändra en situation där ömsesidigt beroende aktörer agerar självständigt, till en situation där de agerar samfällt för att uppnå gemensamma mål. Samverkan ska enligt denna definition förstås som en mer sofistikerad form av kollektivt handlande än vad som menas med begrepp som samordning eller koordination. Väl fungerande samverkan kan beskrivas som en form av ”samhandling”. Motsatsen kan beskrivas vara ”förhandling”. I samhandling utforskar formellt självständiga organisationer gemensamma nyttor, och uppnår mer än om de hade agerat självständigt. Samhandling kan ses som ett stegvist tillitsbygge som förutsätter kvaliteter som ett ömsesidigt förtroende, förståelse av andra organisationers drivkrafter, gemensam problemformulering. Den måste även vara tydligt handlingsinriktad.

  • 38.
    Hu, Han
    et al.
    Road Safety Research Center, Research Institute of Highway, Ministry of Transport, China.
    Li, Jinhai
    Road Safety Research Center, Research Institute of Highway, Ministry of Transport, China.
    Wu, Jingmei
    Road Safety Research Center, Research Institute of Highway, Ministry of Transport, China.
    Severe Traffic Crash Speaks: Safety Facts From Mountain Roads in China2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    objective to build up a systematic mountain road safety enhancement technology, this study analyses severe traffic crashes from 2006 to 2010 occurred on an inter-regional mountain arterial road network in south China. In order to digest these crash data collected from local traffic police stations, the authors conduct the in-depth crash analysis from the aspect of human, vehicle, road, and management. By developing the definition sets for crash deterministic causing factors judging system, the deterministic causes of severe accidents on mountain roads in China are deeply investigated. Results of our analysis indicate that human factor does weigh the most in the occurrence of the severe crashes; main crash types on mountain roads are running-off road, headon collision, overturned; Almost 76% severe crashes occurred on slope/curve combination sites; and freight car shall be given more attentions in reducing the severe accidents.

  • 39.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Värdering av miljöförändring i tid respektive pengar: exemplet Ugglumsleden i Partille2001Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Jamaluddin, Nurulhuda
    et al.
    Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research.
    Ho, Jen Sim
    Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research.
    Shabadin, Akmalia
    Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research.
    Megat Johari, Nusayba
    Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research.
    Ameer Batcha, Wahida
    Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research.
    Exposure Work Commuting: Case Study Among Commuting Accident in Klang Valley, Malaysia2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic accidents caused the most accidental deaths at work in Malaysia. Commuting accident increased by 9.29% in 2009 compare to 2008. The Social Security Organisation (SOCSO) reported that the number of deaths due to commuting accident was 760, which is nearly two times more than deaths caused by accidents that happened at the workplace (471 deaths). The aim of this study are to analyse the socio-demographics and socio-economics background of the victim, and to analyse the exposure of drivers involved in traffic accidents during their commute to and from the workplace. In the total sample, the majority of traffic accidents (83%) involved males. The majority of respondents (92.2%) also rode on motorcycles. The male drivers have an average driving experience of about 10.7 years and for females about 8.6 years. The estimation of the travelled distance for the sample from home to the workplace is 0.65 to 131 km. Mean accident occurrence time was 23 minutes whilst mean distance was 11.6 km.

  • 41.
    Jamroz, Kazimierz
    et al.
    Gdansk University of Technology, Civil & Environmental Engineering Faculty, Highway Engineering Department.
    Smolarek, Leszek
    Gdansk University of Technology, Civil & Environmental Engineering Faculty, Highway Engineering Department.
    Road Safety Management Tools for Country Strategic Level2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic road safety programmes setting out long-term visions and road infrastructure development plans must be based on road safety forecasts and an understanding of the long-term impact of different measures on road safety. The objective of this paper is to discuss a concept of road safety management for an area of a selected country because there are no simple tools of road safety management for the development and implementation of national and regional road safety strategies. The paper will present a method for estimating fatalities and road fatality rate in relation to the most significant sources of hazard. To estimate the number of fatalities a multiple factor model was used which is the quotient of the population of a country as a measure of risk exposure and the road fatality rate as the measure of the probability of road accident consequences. To implement the proposed method a general procedure was developed for estimating fatalities for a specific area. The paper will present a proposed risk classification as the key to risk evaluation and a method for determining the potential for reducing societal risk and indicate those countries which have the highest potential for road death reduction.

  • 42.
    Jiang, Pengpeng
    et al.
    Research Institute of Highway, Ministry of Transport, China.
    Zhao, Zicheng
    Highway Construction Co., Ltd. Guangdong, China.
    Zhang, Chunsheng
    Boda Highway Co., Ltd. Guangdong, Boshen Branch, China.
    Methods of Emergency Traffic Organization: Taking Boshen Highway as an Example2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency traffic organization under the circumstances of incidents is a very important technical aspect in incident management. It accelerates the speed of the highway administration department responding to a critical situation. It requires a good understanding of highway topology and incident situations. A good choice of traffic organization could result in saving many peoples’ lives. In this paper, methods of emergency traffic organization under the circumstances of incidents are studied. The demonstration includes the dividing of emergency responding areas and incident areas. The combine traffic organization for the Up-flow area and incident area in the case of completely interrupted flow or incompletely interrupted flow is described. In the end, Boshen Highway is used as an example to demonstrate how to apply these methods in the real practice.

  • 43.
    Jørgensen, Stig H.
    Dept. of Geography, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).
    Motor Vehicle Crashes Registered by Casualties, Place of Accident and Place of Residence: Urban and Rural Differences in Norway2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Norway has among the lowest rates of deaths per 100 000 people in road transport. Nevertheless, serious motor vehicle crashes are among the greatest avoidable toll on public health. Striking differences exist between the urban and rural death rates. The author examines national trends in injury risk due to serious private motor vehicle crashes by both place of accident and place of residence. Place of accident emphasizes local environments and site conditions with place-based and situational behaviour. Place of residence reflects vehicle occupants’ mobility and travel patterns in different areas and suggests that geographically rooted risk behaviour influences accidents. The analyses are split by urban, peri-urban, and rural types of residential area, based on population size and density. Nationwide road traffic accident data for the period 2000–2010 for private 4-wheel vehicle occupants are employed for calculating rates and proportion of casualties within and outside different types of residential area. Trends in health risks are presented in time series for motorized casualties and for males in the age group 16–24 years, by type of residential area. The proportions of casualties within versus outside their types of residential area are demonstrated. Population-based health risk differences accentuate rural areas as risk environments. Safety improvements have benefited urban areas and populations. Rural occupants’ mobility patterns imply higher mileages and speed in rural low-control system areas.

  • 44.
    Karamira, Celestin
    et al.
    Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Bhatti, Junaid A.
    Douglas Hospital Research Centre, Addiction Research Program, Canada.
    Comparing Police- and Health Authority-Based Road Traffic Injury Surveillance Systems in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Police and health authorities play an essential role in road traffic injury (RTIs) surveillance, prevention and control. Appropriate reporting of RTI by both authorities can help in adapting local injury prevention policies. This study aimed to compare police- and health authority-based surveillance systems of RTI in Mongolia. The study setting was Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia accounting for 43% of the Mongolian population. This descriptive study combined interviews with key informants (n=30), statistical reports and direct observations. Surveillance data from 2008-2010 was analysed using frequency tables. We concluded that police underreported RTI and fatalities compared to health authorities, and therefore information about local RTI factors was not adequately collected and used by the current system. Linking both datasets seemed feasible because of identifiers and other comparable information available in both of them. This could increase the utility of RTI information captured by both authorities for making prevention policies. Nevertheless, both surveillance systems might require improvements in reporting of crash circumstances to assist future preventive efforts.

  • 45.
    Kortsari, Annie
    et al.
    CERTH/HIT.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Pein, Iris
    FGM-AMOR.
    Möller, Malena
    Trivecor.
    Allesiani, Francesco
    MIZAR, Italy.
    Recommendations for future policy support and research needs2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work and of the present document is to propose guidelines and recommendations for the European Commission and other research bodies and policy agencies towards policy-making, as well as to define future research priorities in the thematic area of seasonal variations of transport demand sustainable mobility.

  • 46.
    Kottenhoff, Karl
    et al.
    KTH.
    Sundström, Jerker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Samband mellan körstil och åkkomfort: förbättringspotentialen inom kollektivtrafiken. Lång version2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ride comfort constitutes part of the total comfort experience of a journey. It is a result of the interaction between the characteristics of the infrastructure and those of the vehicle, and not least a result of the driver’s handling. Poor ride comfort generally leads to low attractiveness of the public transportation system, mainly due to travelers being less relaxed and even unable to use the traveling time for reading. The motions of the vehicle can cause some passengers to develop motion sickness and even tripping or fall accidents occur due to difficulty to keep balance. The project aims to improve the knowledge level for the relationship between drivers' driving style and ride comfort, including motion sickness. Comparisons of the ride comfort are made between bus and rail services and differences between drivers are also studied. A concrete goal is to provide basis for driver training and new support systems for drivers. Differences and similarities between "eco driving" and good ride comfort are briefly addressed.

  • 47.
    Lee, Jaeyoung
    et al.
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida.
    Abdel-Aty, Mohammed
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida.
    Choi, Keechoo
    Department of Transportation Systems Engineering, Ajou University, South Korea.
    Chowdhury, Siddiqui
    North Dakota Department of Transportation Williston, North Dakota.
    Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Traffic Crash Involvement in Florida2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that the demographic, socioeconomic and traffic characteristics of crash locations have been used as important factors in macroscopic crash analysis. In this study, we focus on the residential ZIP code areas of drivers who were involved in crashes. The objective of this study is to identify the origin’s characteristics of drivers involved in traffic crashes so better targeted education and awareness could be designed and delivered. Various characteristic factors of the postal ZIP code area of a driver’s residence were used in the study. The postal codes were collected from police crash reports for the year 2006 and demographic, socioeconomic and travel pattern data were retrieved from US Census Bureau. Several negative binomial (NB) models were estimated for specific types of crashes such as, total number of crashes (for at-fault drivers), severe crashes (for at-fault drivers), pedestrian crashes, and bicycle crashes. It was found that demographic characteristics such as gender, ethnic group, socioeconomic characteristics including family income and unemployment, and travel patterns as commute mode and travel time to work are significant factors for specific types of crashes. The findings from the study implied that several demographic, socioeconomic and traffic factors of zones can influence the crash frequency of the resident. In the planning phases we can forecast the crash frequency with these models and predicted independent factors in the future. From operational perspective, the results from the study can be used to identify zones that have residents with higher chances to be involved in crashes, thus we can concentrate on these specific zones for education and stricter enforcement.

  • 48.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Gillberg, Mats
    Karolinska institutet.
    Fatigue at sea: a field study in Swedish shipping2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to collect data about the fatigue level of bridge watch keepers to use for revising earlier sleep models, and devise innovative solutions for the shipping industry. Data collection included interviews with shipping companies and a field study onboard 13 cargo vessels. 32 participants took part in representing two watch systems; 2-watch and 3-watch. Subjective sleepiness and stress estimations were performed once every hour. Electrooculography was used to record eye movement behaviour. Reaction time test was made to examine performance. 3-watch participants are more satisfied with their working hours and working situation. Tendencies indicate that 2-watch participants are a bit more tired, whereas the stress is the same. All are less sleepy and less stressed at home. Time on shift had effect on sleepiness. The highest Karolinska Sleepiness Scale scores were recorded in the late night and early morning. After night shift the reaction times have higher variance and more long reaction times are present. The mean value after night shift was significantly higher than after day shift. All thirteen shipping agreed that officers on the bridge always have tasks sensitive to fatigue but no company experienced fatigue as a problem during normal conditions. All were positive to monitoring devices, mentioning safety matters.

  • 49.
    Magnusson, Tarja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI på väg: jubileumsturnen 19961996Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Carlén, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Landbaserade godstransporter, klimat och styrmedel: sammanfattande rapport2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we discuss greenhouse gas emissions from freight transport and how they could be reduced. We address these questions from several different angles. For example, we discuss the introduction of so-called green corridors and propose tools to solve the complex coordination problems that are associated with these corridors. Furthermore, we discuss how to view the climate change impact from shifting road to rail or electrified vehicles on road. We show that the consequences of such a shift depend on the energy- and climate policy context. The major part of the report focuses on how the freight transport sector might respond to economic climate policy instruments. Freight market exhibits a number of specific characteristics that could imply that it reacts differently than other types of markets do.

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