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  • 1.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    et al.
    WSP.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jämställdhet och genus i infrastrukturplanering: en studie av tillämpningen inom järnvägsplaneringen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to present the results of the research project Gender equality in railway planning. Furthermore, the report aims to contribute with a suggestion of how different transport authorities can systematically work with gender mainstreaming in infrastructure planning. The research

    project was conducted on behalf of the Swedish Rail Administration (Banverket) which changed into the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) after the reorganisation of the Swedish transport authorities. The project relies on established gender theory and social science research methodology. The research project was implemented through three sub-studies that were carried out successively: 1) knowledge-building study based on case studies of existing practice in railway construction in Svealandsbanan and Mälarbanan and a literature review; 2) development of a proposed method for implementation of gender equality in railway planning, 3) implementation study in Simrishamnsbanan

    and Sydostlänken. Finally, an evaluation of methods and analyses was carried out. Three main themes were identified as key areas for the Swedish Transportation Administration's work with gender mainstreaming in infrastructure planning:

    • To work with gender equality objectives
    • •Tools and methods aimed at leading the organization's work on the basis of specific goals
    • •Tools and models for impact assessment of gender equality.

    One conclusion of the research project is that although the Swedish Transportation Administration has initiated work with gender equality in transport planning, the authority needs to work more on developing both policy and planning. Transport planning should have the means to do social impact assessment, which is a methodology that the present research project suggests for the area of gender equality and other social aspects in transport planning and which is also perceived absent of officials, politicians and planners. This report proposes a method with different steps from procurement to implementation and evaluation (different parts corresponding to the transport authorities' internal and external gender equality).

  • 2.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    et al.
    WSP.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Kön i trafiken: jämställdhet i kommunal transportplanering2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jämställdhetsintegrering ska ofta ses som en strategi i det vardagliga arbetet inom kommuner, landsting och regioner. Samtidigt finns det en osäkerhet hos många projektledare och planerare om vad jämställdhet egentligen handlar om och vad som förväntas av dem. Denna skrift är en vägledning och inspiration till arbete med jämställdhet i transportplaneringen på lokal och regional nivå. Den har tagits fram för att ge en vägledning till hur man systematiskt kan arbeta med att integrera jämställdhet i planeringen. Skriften vänder sig framförallt till tjänstemän och politiker i kommuner och regioner som arbetar med transportplanering.

  • 3.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    et al.
    WSP.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Engelbrektsson, Elina
    WSP.
    Dahl, Emmy
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    WSP.
    Yazar, Mine
    Södertörns högskola.
    Jämställdhet i samrådsprocesser vid svenska vägprojekt: genusperspektiv på annonsering, deltagande och mötesinteraktion vid samråd med allmänheten2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on gender equality and transportation has to a small amount studied participation of women and men in public hearings concerning large infrastructure projects. Previous measures show that men dominate the hearings and that the average age among the participants is high. Public participation is a process that starts in the beginning of the planning of a road project and should run through the whole planning process.  Among the basic principles of public participation it is argued that public participation should be inclusive and equitable. The aim with the public hearings is also to take care of various arguments and ideas about the new road. The public hearings are often carried out as large information meetings or open house meetings.

    The aim of the current research project is to investigate how the hearings in Swedish road planning are practiced, who are attending the meetings and how do they express themselves at the meetings. The research project studied participation of women and men on totally 16 meetings arranged by the Swedish Road Administration during 2007 and 2008. The aim is also to increase gender equality in the public participation process. The project contains three different studies:

    1. An explorative study which shows that 26 per cent of the participants were women. The women who attended the meetings were more active than the men; they asked more questions in proportion to the number of attending women. Both women and men said they were confident with the information at the meetings. Counting the spoken time (of questions and answers) in seconds shows that men who talked at the meetings did longer speech turns and argued a lot more for their opinions.
    2. A separate study was created to investigate the announcements to the meetings. The announcement study showed that most of the announcements were created from a template that was rather technically oriented.
    3. In an intervention study that finished the project, the researchers interacted and changed the form of the announcements to a more dialogically oriented approach. Thus a few more women attended the meetings (32 per cent). Also, more middle aged and older people attended the meetings in the intervention study.
  • 4.
    Hallin, Jon
    et al.
    Tyréns.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    KTH/WSP.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. K2 - The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport.
    Transportplanering i förändring: En handbok om jämställdhetskonsekvensbedömning i transportplaneringen2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efterfrågan på att belysa sociala konsekvenser i samband med trans­portplaneringen växer allt mer i Sverige (Trafikverket, 2014). Ett exempel är tunnelbaneutbyggnaden i Stockholm där sociala konsekvensbeskriv­ningar varit en del av processen vid sidan av järnvägsplan och miljökon­sekvensbeskrivning (MKB). Två andra exempel är miljöbedömningarna för Stockholm stads nya översiktsplan och för Regional Utvecklingsplan för Stockholmsregionen (RUFS) som görs i form av hållbarhetsbedöm­ningar där utgångspunkten är social hållbarhet. Göteborgs stad har också arbetat fram ett verktyg för social konsekvensanalys som används i många av kommunens stadsutvecklingsprojekt.

    Den sociala miljön består av många aspekter, exempelvis jämlikhet, och det är en relevant fråga varför handboken fokuserar på en delaspekt av jämlikhet, det vill säga mellan kvinnor och män, och inte tar ett hel­hetsgrepp. Svaret är inte att jämlikheten mellan män och kvinnor är vik­tigare än den mellan andra grupper. Anledningen är att det redan finns etablerade verktyg för exempelvis barnkonsekvensanalyser. Tillgänglig­hetskrav för personer med funktionsnedsättning och äldre är också väl etablerade. Däremot saknas ett etablerat verktyg för att analysera hur en förändring påverkar kvinnor och män. Vår uppfattning är också att me­toden för social konsekvensbeskrivning är en processorienterad paraply­metod, likt MKB, under vilken det ingår flera aspekter som vart och ett är att betrakta som ett expertområde med specifika analysmetoder. Jäm­ställdhet är ett sådant expertområde och JKB är den analysmetod som i dagsläget saknas i transportplaneringen.

  • 5.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    The ‘I’ in sustainable planning: Constructions of users within municipal planning for sustainable mobility2019In: Integrating Gender into Transport Planning: From One to Many Tracks / [ed] Christina Lindkvist ScholtenTanja Joelsson, Palgrave Macmillan , 2019, p. 177-197Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An important quest for a feminist transport agenda is that policy and practice reflect a diverse set of experiences. This chapter explores how professionals understand sustainable mobility and how their understandings are linked to gendered relations. The analysis shows that professionals use their own experiences of travelling as a source of knowledge. Their understandings of sustainable mobility are built on their own middle-class and family-oriented experiences. Sustainable mobility is thus constructed as something desirable but difficult for families to choose since car offers a flexibility that cycling and public transport don’t. This understanding excludes users who lack resources such as car. The chapter concludes with a suggestion for expanding professionals’ knowledge bases, which can support a future feminist transport agenda.

  • 6.
    Henriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Friberg, Emma
    Östergötlands museum.
    Kusmin, Elin
    Östergötlands museum.
    Otterbeck, Emelie
    "Om nåt skulle hända": Ett gestaltningsprojekt om ungas upplevelser av otrygghet i utemiljöer2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2016 producerade Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI) tillsammans med Östergötlands museum en vandringsutställning om ungas upplevelser av otrygghet. Projektet finansierades av Boverket inom utlysningen ”stöd till utvecklingsprojekt för jämställda offentliga miljöer i städer och tätorter”.  

    Projektet utgår från problematiken att ungdomars upplevelser av otrygghet sällan kommer till uttryck i stadsplaneringen. Inte heller i forskningen om upplevelser av våld och otrygghet i det offentliga rummet uppmärksammas ungdomar i särskilt hög grad. Samtidigt förflyttar sig ungdomar som grupp mer än andra grupper och vistas i högre grad utomhus. De är också utomhus på andra tidpunkter än vuxna, på kvällen och natten. Vidare är ungdomar, oavsett kön, mer utsatta för våld utomhus än andra grupper. Det är därför att utveckla nya verktyg för att belysa ungdomars erfarenheter av otrygghet i utomhusmiljöer.

    Underlaget för utställningen utgjordes av gruppintervjuer med ett fyrtiotal ungdomar (killar, tjejer och transpersoner) mellan 13 och 20 år. Den feministiska metoden minnesarbete användes för att underlätta samtal om trygghet, otrygghet och rädsla. Metoden går ut på att deltagarna i en grupp skriver individuella minnen på ett på förhand bestämt tema. Minnena tolkas sedan kollektivt i gruppen.

    Intervjuerna tolkades och bearbetades av projektgruppen. Utifrån tolkningsprocessen gestaltades ungdomarnas erfarenheter dels fotografiskt och dels i text. Fyra fiktiva karaktärer togs fram och i utställningen får besökaren följa dem hem. Milo, David, Jo och Semira har alla olika erfarenheter och upplever olika moment i staden och hemresan som otrygga. Vidare togs en pedagogisk handledning fram. Den pedagogiska handledningen innehåller förslag på övningar som fördjupar utställningens teman. Den fungerar som ett stöd för skolor som hyr utställningen och kan användas av lärare i undervisningen. Pedagoger från Östergötlands museum kan vidare leda lektioner som bygger på handledningen om skolan så önskar.

    Projektet avslutades med en fyra veckor lång turné där ungdomar i olika åldrar fick ta del av utställningen och arbeta med den pedagogiskt. Turnén utvärderades med genomgående goda resultat.

    Projektet bidrar avslutningsvis till att stärka planeringen av jämställda miljöer på två sätt. För det första ger utställningen insikter om hur unga människor upplever trygghet i utemiljöer. För det andra är utställningen ett verktyg som gör det möjligt att praktiskt arbeta med frågorna pedagogiskt i skolmiljöer, eller i stadsplaneringssammanhang med planerare och andra aktörer.

  • 7.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Analys av integreringen av jämställdhet i regional transportplanering i Dalarna: Regional systemanalys Dalarna och Länsplan för regional transportinfrastruktur Dalarna 2018–20292019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study, which is reported in this publication, was to analyse the integration of the transport policy’s equality objective in the regional transport planning in Dalarna. The project was carried out based on qualitative content analysis of the two documents "Regional system analysis Dalarna - basis for transport infrastructure planning" and "County plan for regional transport infrastructure Dalarna 2018–2029" and interviews with eight key persons who participated in the work processes in developing the two documents. The documents show a good picture of the transport infrastructure in the region, but a quite general picture of the population – there is some statistics but no distribution between different population groups. The researchers suggest that the knowledge that exists about the transport infrastructure and the population regionally, should be used more systematically to analyse different groups (such as women and men, older and younger) as transport users, their power of the transport system and their opportunities to influence their own mobility. It appears from the interviews that both gender equality and diversity mainstreaming are perceived as difficult in regional transport planning and that more knowledge and experience are needed. It is pointed out that there is some knowledge but that there are no structures for how it can be incorporated into the planning process. Some statements indicate that pioneering work is ongoing. Gender equality and diversity are described by some as "new" elements in regional transport infrastructure planning, compared to issues such as accessibility, growth and the environment. Interviewees said they lacked developed routines for integrating gender equality and diversity into their work processes. Regarding gender equality a clearer focus is required – for example, to integrate gender-disaggregated statistics at regional level and analyses of the region linked to the target formulations at national level (the transport policy and the national gender equality goals). An example of a method could be gender equality impact assessment (GIA), but also a broader social impact assessment (SIA) where different groups are included based on the Discrimination Act.

  • 8.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    How to Integrate Gender Equality in the Future of “Smart” Mobility: A Matter for a Changing Planning Practice2019In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Verlag , 2019, p. 393-412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable transport is one of the key challenges of the UN and EU to ensure to meet society’s economic, social and environmental needs whilst minimising undesirable impacts. Sustainability planning may require changing the way we solve transportation problems. From the perspectives of the sustainability, we may assume that the emphasis should move in direction to changing the practice: but exactly what practice and who’s practices are to be changed? One way is to investigate gendered mobilities. The main differences in mobility patterns between women and men at a general level, are found in modal choice and travel distance. Women’s practices tend to be related to the most sustainable means of transport, while men’s practices are related to more un-sustainable transport. Relying on studies on transport planning including focus groups, interviews and workshops in Sweden, this paper ties the concepts of gender equality, to contemporary planning and sustainable “smart” mobility, and investigates in what way knowledge about gender equality is elaborated in regional planning practice. It appeared from the interviews that both gender equality and diversity were perceived as difficult in regional transport planning and that more knowledge and experience were needed. It was pointed out that there existed some knowledge but that there were no structures for how it could be incorporated into the planning process. Noticeable are conflicting practices, while policy on gender equality are attached to the planning there are still beliefs that transport planning can be gender neutral and free from social impacts. The smart mobility approach promises improvements of mobility and access opportunities for all.

  • 9.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    WSP.
    Genusperspektiv på utveckling av kollektivtrafik: hållbar jämställdhet vid planering av framtidens kollektivtrafik i Malmö2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research project focuses on gender equality and sustainability in planning of public transport. It consists of four parts:

    1. Mapping the current status in the organisation - focus groups with planning staff and content analysis of texts and images produced within the project concerning future public transport in the city of Malmö
    2. Seminars and workshops
    3. Study of the practice of public consultations and the participation of citizens in the planning process
    4. Evaluation and compilation of results and effects.

    The point of departure for the evaluation of the results is the four national objectives for gender equality formulated by the Swedish Government and Parliament, which Malmö City has chosen to include in their own policy. The objectives have not hitherto been properly developed and operationalized in the local context of transport planning in Malmö. The following local adaptions are suggested:

    1. Equal distribution of power and influence. There would be equal distribution of power and influence between women and men in decision making and implementation processes in the public transport planning in Malmö
    2. Economic equality. Public transport in Malmö would contribute to equitable opportunities for women and men to education and paid work which gives economic independence
    3. Equal distribution of unpaid care and household work. Public transport in Malmö would contribute to the establishment of equal distribution between men and women regarding the responsibility for unpaid housework and the ability to give and receive care
    4. Security. Increased security by minimising the risk and eliminating the fear of being subjected to gender-related violence and crime in connection with travel by public transport
  • 10.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    WSP.
    How to apply gender equality goals in transport and infrastructure planning2019In: Integrating Gender into Transport Planning: From One to Many Tracks / [ed] Christina Lindkvist Scholten, Tanja Joelsson, Palgrave Macmillan , 2019, p. 89-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Working systematically on gender mainstreaming in transport infrastructure entails implementing a gender perspective in all stages of decision-making, planning and execution. In light of the sustainability goals introduced through the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, this chapter presents a model of how to address gender mainstreaming in transport planning in a more systematic way. Previous research has addressed the gender-equality goals in Sweden; now, we suggest how to explore the model in an international context. Our research is influenced by the fields of social impact assessment (SIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA), which we have combined into a model for integrating gender equality into transport planning. We call it gender impact assessment (GIA). The model has been developed over ten years of research into how gender-equality goals are implemented in transport planning. The model is objectives-led, goal-oriented, and adapted to planning practice.

    We argue that an objectives-led approach to GIA could further develop transport planning with regard to gender mainstreaming. First, this approach to GIA could improve the outcomes of transport planning and second, this model of GIA would provide an assessment of whether or not various strategic actions are moving in the desired direction. This means that transport planners would be able to evaluate the fulfilment of the 2030 Agenda goals or national gender-equality goals. Third, GIA would establish assessment criteria to be used for testing the effects on gender equality of strategic actions of transport plans. Fourth and finally, this approach to GIA also highlights potential goal conflicts.

  • 11.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    WSP.
    Dahl, Emmy
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    WSP.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Engelbrektsson, Elina
    WSP.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Bilagedelen: Genusperspektiv på utveckling av kollektivtrafik: hållbar jämställdhet vid planering av framtidens kollektivtrafik i Malmö2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Består av 1) Hållbar jämställdhet i framtidens kollektivtrafik. Lägesrapport 1a: Rapportering från fokusgrupperna, av Lena Levin, Emmy Dahl och Malin Henriksson. 2) Hållbar jämställdhet i framtidens kollektivtrafik. Lägesrapport 1b: Resultat av innehålls- och bildanalys, av Charlotta Faith-Ell och Susanna Nilsson. 3) Hållbar jämställdhet i framtidens kollektivtrafik. Dokumentation från workshop 11 februari 2010, av Susanna Nilsson, Lena Levin, Charlotta Faith-Ell, Emmy Dahl och Malin Henriksson.4) Hållbar jämställdhet i framtidens kollektivtrafik. Observationer och utvärdering av dialogmöten i Malmö stad, av Jonna Nyberg, Elina Engelbrektsson, Susanna Gustafsson, Lena Levin och Charlotta Faith-Ell. 5) Jämställd stadsplanering i Malmö - hur gör vi nu då? slutseminarium & workshop 26 november 2010, dokumentation: Lena Levin, Elina Engelbrektsson, Charlotta Faith-Ell och Lennart Skoglund.

  • 12.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Review of average sized male and female occupant models in European regulatory safety assessment tests and European laws: Gaps and bridging suggestions2019In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 127, p. 156-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two parts to the aim of this study. The first part comprised reviewing how men and women are represented in regulatory tests conducted to assess adult occupant safety in vehicles in Europe. This part also contains an overview of some differences between females and males that may influence dynamic responses in a crash. Based on the results of the review an outline for how to better represent the adult population in regulatory tests has been suggested. The second part was to reflect on these issues from a specific critical legal perspective, that is from a Gender Legal Studies point of view, focusing on the European legal framework that governs the tests of adult occupant safety in vehicles in Europe. Since the beginning of the 1970s legal scholars have shown in several areas of law that there is a gap between superior legislation and practice, but also between gender equality as a superior legal principle and subordinate legal rules that govern safety requirements. The same pattern can be discerned in the area of Transportation Law.

    The results of the review of the ECE regulations shows that the average sized male represents the adult population and that the average sized female has been excluded from regulations assessing the protection of adult vehicle occupants. The fundamental values, on which the Union is founded, including the overarching goals of the Union, seem to be rendered invisible in the laws and critically impact the safety of women in everyday life. According to the gender system theory, the interests and priorities of men are continuing to shape the law. Consequently, the law neglecting the safety of women on roads has implications on the development of society. The lack of legal provisions that demand female crash test dummies representing the female part of the population, means that there is no incentive for car manufacturers, authorities or other stakeholders to develop test methods and female crash test dummies in ways that promote political objectives expressed in legal form, i.e., the legal values expressed in general provisions and principles stated in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, such as gender equality between women and men as well as non-discrimination This study highlights the undeniable gap between the legal framework and legal requirements with regard to occupant safety for the whole adult population. It would be attainable to bridge this particular gender gap by providing equal representation for the female part of the population with regard to vehicle safety, as that males benefit from.

  • 13.
    Sato, Fusako
    et al.
    Japan Automobile Research Institute.
    Brolin, Karin
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Svensson, Mats
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Towards occupant protections for both men and women2020In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Springer Verlag , 2020, Vol. 975, p. 603-615Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The susceptibility of female occupants to Whiplash Associated Disorders (WADs) has been the focus over the past decades. To improve occupant protections, it is required to understand how gender differences affect the WAD injury mechanisms. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the whole spinal alignment on the cervical vertebral kinematics and ligament elongation during a rear impact by analysing rear impact reconstruction simulations. The simulations demonstrated a potential impact of gender differences in whole spinal alignment on cervical vertebral kinematics and ligament elongations. It seems that the average female spinal alignment may expose women to larger deformation of the cervical soft tissues considered related to WAD, due to greater cervical vertebral kinematics, compared to the average male spinal alignment. The findings highlight the importance of the whole spinal alignment when developing female models to evaluate WAD countermeasures, and may thus improve occupant protection for women as well as men.

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