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  • 1.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Johansson, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Etablering av konkurrerande snabbtågstrafik på Västra stambanan: översyn ur marknadens synvinkel2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As of October 2010 the railway market is liberalised. As a result, other operators than SJ could apply for track capacity also for long-distance passenger services, and the timetable for 2012 was the first timetable that was affected by the liberalisation. The Swedish railway network has, by definition, capacity restrains. The Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) allocates capacity among those railway traffic operators that has applied for track capacity in the annual capacity allocation process. In the capacity allocation process for the 2014 timetable, four operators applied for capacity for long-distance high-speed train traffic between Gothenburg and Stockholm. In several cases the operators applied for the same train paths, which put Trafikverket’s applying of the process, the use of coordination and prioritization criteria, to the test for the first time since the liberalisation. VTI has interviewed the three largest of the above operators to receive information about how they experienced the capacity allocation process leading to the timetable for 2014 and to get their views on the possible obstacles that may exist for establishing a new operator on the railway market. The study was commissioned by the Swedish Transport Agency as a basis for their market surveillance in the area. The operators that are challenging SJ perceive that the capacity allocation process does not meet the requirement for competitive neutrality and non-discrimination. Both operators see the need for a more transparent process, with priority criteria that provide a more predictable outcome and which is carried out by the help of computerized tools so that the process can be implemented more efficiently and provide a more effective outcome. They argue that the construction of a timetable is so complex that it is difficult to, as now being done, manually make the most effective adjustments in the timetable necessary due to competing applications. The challenging operators therefore call for a review of the process to assess in which areas it can be improved.

  • 2.
    Alexandersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm school of economics.
    Hultén, Staffan
    Stockholm school of economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    The liberalization of railway passenger transport in Sweden: outstanding regulatory challenges2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe Sweden’s recent reforms to open the railway passenger markets to entry, and to addresses four critical issues for the success of the reforms; the allocation of infrastructure capacity, the provision of maintenance and terminal facilities, the access to rolling stock and the provision of information and ticketing to travelers. The analysis shows that the legislation and regulatory tools that are needed to handle these challenges to a large extent remain to be developed.

  • 3.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Spatial planning and electric vehicles. A qualitative case study of horizontal and vertical organisational interplay in southern Sweden2017In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electric-powered vehicles (EV) is experiencing a boom in some countries. Much research has been conducted on the technology per se; however, there is a research gap regarding institutional spatial planning practice concerning EVs. Here, an empirical analysis was made of planners’ interpretations of opportunities and obstacles to integration of EVs in southern Sweden. The results revealed a lack of interplay between local and regional administrations and showed that the agenda is run by individual bureaucrats rather than being based on official strategies. Moreover, there appears to be a lack of horizontal interplay within some organisations, while new arenas are being formed by actors within and outside government. The reason for formation of such external EV networks may be a single actor not being able to push the issue forward alone, due to a fragmented organisation, or a lack of clear external task formulation at central government level.

  • 4.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jacobsen, Jens Kr. Steem
    University of Stavanger.
    Tourism development strategy or just brown signage?: Comparing road administration policies and designation procedures for official tourism routes in two Scandinavian countries2014In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 36, p. 342-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comparative study maps and explores planning and designation of official tourism, routes in two countries with quite similar planning traditions, responding to a deficiency in research, on tourism route planning and development.

    Based on personal semi-structured interviews with, public road planners and managers in Norway and Sweden, the paper illuminates establishment and, management of official tourism routes, with an emphasis on overall strategies, funding, and, stakeholder involvement.

    Results show that public road administration route planning procedures in, the two countries are quite different. In Norway, a top-down principle is basically employed, concerning initiatives and designation of routes.

    In Sweden, the principle is one of muddling through, giving street-level planners more opportunities for individual influence on route planning. Funding for, road stretches included in the Norwegian national route programme is earmarked, whereas Swedish, routes are financed from ordinary appropriations to the regional road administrations.

    In Norway, regular follow-up studies such as road user surveys are conducted. In Sweden, a dearth of, documentation of tourist interests and route assessments seemingly makes route development, susceptible in relation to regional road administrations' economic priorities.

  • 5.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ökad cykling: professionella utmaningar och hinder i den lokala transportplaneringen2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to highlight reasons why not policy objective of an increased proportion of cycling is achieved in practical planning at the municipal level, and contribute to knowledge about how this “implementation gap” can be reduced. The report is based on research on the implementation of policy to increase cycling in four swedish municipalities. The results show that the implementation gap is partly a consequence of pathdependency. The target of increased cycling is handled within an implementation structure, organizationknowledge- action, where professional groups are characterized by knowledge and skills aiming at optimizing the flow of traffic. This approach serves as a model for operational set of problems and solutions in planning for increased cycling. The substantial work has consisted of building a functional cycling network, improving lane design and other cycling infrastructure measures. Mobility for cycling has increased over the years, but the effects in the form of an increased share of cycling have not materialized. Lack of goal-achievement has not led to a reconsideration of exciting approaches and methods. Officials are instead oriented toward maintaining professional boundaries regarding competencies and choice of action. Concretely this means that accessibility conditions for cycling are not ensured, which further endangers the effects of mobility measures, and other measures of a complementary nature. To change this situation the traffic professions have to develop. The report outline three possible approaches to how this can be done: the development of planning support on accessibility conditions for cycling by national authorities with the role of assisting municipalities in their planning, greater focus and systematics around the investigation of local problems for increased cycling, which the selection of actions should be based on; greater governance in order to establish cross-sectoral work in planning.

  • 6.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hur skall glesbygdens kollektivtrafikförsörjning förbättras?: Rapportsammanställning från ett seminarium vid VTI 1983-05-171983Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference traffic safety on two continents: Malmö, Sweden, September 20-22, 1999. Part 3: National road safety - Safety of roads1999Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference traffic safety on two continents: Malmö, Sweden, September 20-22, 1999. Part 6: Road safety policy and programmes - road safety audits & costs1999Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tio år efter oljekrisen: Har vår beredskap och våra kunskper ökat till följd av genomförda forskningsinsatser? Rapport från ett seminarium 1983-12-14--15 arrangerat av VTI och Transportforskningsdelegationen1984Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportforum 2002: sammanställning av konferensföredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 9-10 januari 20022002Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportforum 2003: rapportsammanställning av föredrag i Linköping 8-9 januari 20032003Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Från nedanstående sessioner finns redovisning i konferensrapporten:  

    Session 3 Godstransporter och samhälle  Session 4 Sjöfart. Fartyg  Session 5 Planering för hög produktivitet  Session 6 En flygmarknad i förändring  Session 8 Behovsdriven FoU - grunden för svensk bilindustris världsledande  ställning på säkerhetsområdet  Session 9 Samhällsplanera - med fokus på kollektivtrafiken  Session 10 Marginalkostnadsprissättning. Långsiktig planering  Session 11 Metoder och modeller i transportanalys  Session 12 Jämställt transportsystem  Session 13 Kunders värderingar.  Transportlösningar  Session 14 På väg mot bättre vägar och gator?  Vinterväghållning  Session 15 Återvinning eller deponering av tjärhaltiga beläggningsmaterial?  Session 16 Hot, visioner och styrmedel.  Tyst och vackert  Session 17 Utvärdering av ITS  Session 18 STRADA - Nationellt informationssystem om olyckor och skadade inom  vägtransportsystemet  Session 19 Förarutbildning  Del 1: Den grundläggande förarutbildningen och trafiksäkerhetsmålen  Del 2: Pedagogiska strategier och metoder i förarutbildningen  Session 20 Personlig integritet i trafiken  Session 21 Förorenad mark i infrastrukturen - risker, problem och lösningar  Session 22 Mobility Management  Session 23 Trafikverken i förändring  Session 24 Transportpolitik. Regionförstoring  Session 25 Järnväg.  I avregleringens spår  Session 26 Logistiksystem  Den kundorienterade järnvägen  Intermodalitet  Session 27 Sjöfarten och den mänskliga faktorn  Miljö och säkerhet inom sjöfarten  Session 28 Trafik för en attraktiv stad - TRAST  Session 29 Teknik och miljö  Flyget och miljön  Session 30 Parkering, mobilitet, ekonomi och miljö - ett område i behov av  samordnad kunskapsgenerering  Session 31 Försök med automatisk hastighetsövervakning (AH)  Session 32 Kostnadseffektiva åtgärdskombinationer och  åtgärdssekvenser  Session 33 Metoder och modeller i transportanalys  Session 34 Trafiksimulering  Session 35 Snålare motorer och fordon  Session 36 Planering  Kollektivtrafik  Session 37 Banunderhåll och grusväghållning  Komfort, sårbarhet och upphandling  Underhållets inverkan på trafik och trafikanter  Session 38 Vägteknik  Session 39 Erfarenheter från region-MaTs (Miljöanpassat transportsystem)  Emissionsdata & Modeller  Utan egen bil?  Session 40 Möjligheter med väginformatik  Dynamiska trafikmodeller för trafikledning - Nu färdiga för implementering i  verksamheten  Session 41 Ledarskap för överlevnad!  Session 42 Trafiksäkerhetsåtgärder i tätort  Session 43 Den moderna spårvägens egenskaper och potential  Session 45 På jakt efter den tid som kommer - utmaningar för  vägtransportsystemet år 2025  Session 46 Fotgängaren - bortglömd som trafikant och social aktör?

  • 12.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: del 1. Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 2000-01-12-13 beträffande: inledning - den transportpolitiska beslutsprocessen - inriktningsplaneringen och utvecklingen av de transportpolitiska målen - på väg mot hållbar utveckling? - hållbara transporter i Europa. Europa MaTs - "de elva punkterna för ökad trafiksäkerhet m.m." - trafiksäkerhet-allmänt - fler resenärer via incitamentavtal2000Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: del 2. Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 2000-01-12-13 beträffande: EU-projektet ALT-MAT, redovisning av resultat - trafik och miljöprojekt KFB - bilismen i ett kulturellt perspektiv - tema nedbrytning av väg - tema upphandling - tema vägyta-trafikeffekter - tema infrastrukturens sårbarhet - jämförelse mellan olika lösningar - hälsoeffekter och attityder - olika åtgärder i vägtrafiken-möjligheter och effekter - väginformatik-nya perspektiv och aktuella insatser2000Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: del 3. Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 2000-01-12-13 beträffande: kapacitet - järnvägens yttre och inre miljö - tågplusguiden serviceinfo - nya tågkoncept - järnvägsteknik - nya järnvägar - forskningsinriktningen för luftfarten och ett par exempel - är ekologiskt hållbar luftfart och ekoflygplan ekonomiskt möjligt? - miljö och säkerhet - stora och snabba fartyg i skärgården och till havs - IT och sjötransporter - kollektivtrafik och miljö - särskild kollektivtrafik - utveckling och samverkan mellan trafikslagen i interregional kollektivtrafik - taxesystem - trafikering2000Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: del 4. Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 2000-01-12-13 beträffande: planeringsverktyg - implementeringsprocesser - dynamiska trafikmodeller och system för vägtrafikledning - kulturhistoriska perspektiv på infrastrukturen - trafikteknik - trafiksimulering - tema winter maintenance in Europe - cykeltrafik2000Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: del 5. Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1999-01-13--14 beträffande: transportpolitik och samhällsekonomi - kollektivtrafik och samhällsbetalda resor1999Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bergman, Ramona
    et al.
    SGI.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    SGI.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet.
    Effects of Security actions2010In: Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 12, EGU2010-7880, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today’s performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today.

    The project includes several aspects such as:

    • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality
    • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis
    • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures
    • in which way do one learn from past accidents
    • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases
    • etc

    There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient “tools” in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of authority the investigation of the security work will be done with authorities on both regional and local scale. At the moment the investigation process are in progress and preliminary results will be presented.

  • 18.
    Bergström, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hur kommunerna i Stockholms län arbetar med cykeltrafikfrågor: en enkätstudie2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under hösten 2001, påbörjade Vägverket Region Stockholm arbetet med att ta fram ett regionalt cykelprogram. Programarbetet utgår från Vägverkets nationella strategi för ökad och säker cykeltrafik. Det regionala programmet ska visa Vägverket Region Stockholms mål, strategier och åtgärder inom cykeltrafikområdet under åren 2002-2006. VTI arbetar på uppdrag av Vägverket Region Stockholm med att kartlägga och sammanställa fakta om cykeltrafiken i regionen. Brister behöver identifieras för att Vägverket ska kunna välja lämpliga insatser och sätta upp rimliga mål för cykeltrafikområdet inom regionen. Den här enkätstudien ingår som en del i VTI:s arbete med att bygga upp nödvändig kunskapsbas. Enkäten syftade till att få en uppfattning om det cykeltrafikrelaterade arbetet i kommunerna i Stockholms län, som underlag för Vägverkets framtagande av ett regionalt cykelprogram. I enkäten har kommunerna även givits tillfälle att lämna synpunkter på vilken roll de vill att Vägverket ska ta i det fortsatta arbetet med att få en ökad och säker cykeltrafik i länet.

  • 19.
    Bergström, Tomas
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Lunds Universitet.
    Lost in Translation Forever: Implementation of sustainable mobility in an era of governance and New Public Management2007In: 11th World Conference on Transport Research., Berkely: University of California , 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of implementation theory in an era of “governance” and new management ideas, often labeled New Public Management. The paper gives a presentation of some general concerns raised by the IMplementation Paths for ACTion towards sustainable mobility (IMPACT) program, that is how measures aiming at sustainable solutions could be implemented within the transport sector. Implementation is in focus but is dealt with from three different aspects in the initial stages of the program. First, and this is the main focus of this paper, the developments within implementation research are analyzed. What has happened since the early 1970’s in theory and practice that leads us to reconsider the ways we understand implementation in theory but also the advice we could offer to decision makers? Secondly, in another paper the special context of transport is discussed. What, if anything, is different about implementing policies etc in the transport sector? Lastly, the implications of implementation of sustainability as such are discussed in yet another paper. What special difficulties are involved if the “thing” to be implemented is such a notoriously vague concept?

  • 20.
    Bergström, Tomas
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Lunds Universitet.
    Gudmundsson, Henrik
    Lunds Universitet.
    Reinterpreting Implementation: Sustainable transport as a paradigmatic case2008In: Proceedings from TransportMistra's Final Scientific Conference, TransportMistra , 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementation is a fairly old concept but as relevant as ever. We have witnessed a general change of the public sector in the direction of governance, networks, contracting out, Public-Private Partnerships etc. This brings to the fore the following question: What has happened since the early 1970’s in theory and practice that might lead us to reconsider the ways we understand implementation in theory but also the advice we could offer to decision makers? To narrow down this broad question we choose to focus on the transport sector and more specifically on sustainable transport. We argue that sustainable transport is a particularly good case to discuss possible changes in implementation patterns.

  • 21.
    Dahl, Emmy
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Tema teknik och social förändring, Linköpings universitet.
    Genusdimensioner i svensk kommunal planering och krishantering: en forskningsöversikt2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research review of gender dimensions within research of municipal planning is to learn from previous studies as a new field of research is being established, namely gender and climate mitigation and adaptation. The research review has shown that women are often depicted as a homogenous group with common interests within the different areas that are included in the study: housing, civil rights to participate and influence political decisions, safety. planning and planning practices, risk and crisis management. The result from the research review encourages further research that broadens the picture of both the multiple lives of women and men and likewise illustrates multiple family forms. This research can challenge the notion of men and women as homogeneous groups. Studies of the construction and reconstruction of gender as a social and cultural category may further develop this field. An intersectional perspective on urban planning may also visualize how gender, ethnicity, family, sexuality, age and class intersect and contribute to various forms of exclusion.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Rogerson, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector.
    Wahl, Charlotte
    Sweco.
    Ullberg, Martin
    Sweco.
    Adell, Emelie
    Trivector.
    Intressent- och behovsanalys för resvaneundersökningar: resultat från intervjuer och enkätundersökning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, national travel surveys are regularly carried out by Transport Analysis, a governmental agency. However, in the last decade travel survey studies have suffered with problems such as high rate of non-response, coverage, costs and reporting burden. Therefore, this project is underway aimed at investigating and proposing new methods for data collection on people’s mobility. The project is divided into five deliverables (work packages – WP), of which this report is the second one (WP2). The purpose is to carry out an analysis of stakeholders’ needs regarding future requirements of travel surveys. This includes identifying the questions that travel surveys can answer.

    Telephone interviews have been conducted with 20 stakeholder representatives and internet-based questionnaires were sent to 142 respondents (response 81 persons, response rate 57 percent). The stakeholders’ representatives were classified into three types of organizations: public sector, research organizations and other actors. Based on their own experience, an analysis has been conducted regarding what is requested from the national travel survey. The analysis show that key aspects of today’s and tomorrow’s travel survey users include (i) mode choice, (ii) trip purpose, (iii) how travel behavior changes over time, and (iv) how different groups travel. To be able to answer these questions, both individual and travel information are required.

  • 23. Flam, Harry
    et al.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH.
    Mörth, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    SNS Konjunkturrådsrapport 2016. Vart är vi på väg?: Systemfel i transportpolitiken2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    State of preparedness for climate change adaptation in operations and maintenance of transport infrastructure in eight Swedish municipalities2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed the preparedness for climate change adaptation (CCA) of transport infrastructure in eight municipalities in Sweden. The study focused on municipal officials’ role in organizing and implementing CCA measures. The interviews were done in 2011. Many respondents confused CCA with climate change mitigation. Three of the municipalities had performed vulnerability analyses but apart from that, well-documented decision support in long-term adaptation was largely lacking. Adaptation measures were often based on day-to-day problems and recently experienced weather incidents. Strategic work with long-term CCA seemed to be largely lacking. The placing of the responsibility for CCA in the municipal organization was often unclear. Six of the respondents found there were no actual hindrances to their work with CCA and no conflicts with other municipal aims. However, several responses indicated budgetary competition with environmental aims or other societal strivings. The planning and implementation of CCA measures seemed to be highly dependent on individual officials, their engagement, their passivity/activity regarding this issue, their defined responsibility and the boundaries for their current position in the municipality organization. 

  • 25.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Solving procurement problems in public transport: examining multi-principal roles in relation to effective control mechanisms2010In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 124-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the EU’s increasing role in regulating public transport procurement, few studies have considered this aspect when analysing procurement problems of public transport. This paper examines how the institutional relationships between different actors, including international governmental bodies, in public transport effects the possibility of exerting control over a county public transport authority (PTA) in a multi-principal setting. The analysis is carried out using empirical material from an infringement process including a Swedish PTA and the EU. The conclusions have clear policy implications for the procedural order when exerting control over the PTA in cases of procurement problems. It is for example shown, that the implementation process would be much more efficient if the regulations allowed the EU to impose sanctions directly towards the local authorities without having to involve the national government when the procurement laws are violated.

  • 26.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    The tactics behind public transport procurements: an integrated actor approach2011In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 13p. 197-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In striving for a “successful” public transport system, functional procurement operations are needed. The “Scandinavian model” has gained popularity in Europe, prompting considerable research into relationships between government and private transport operators. To understand the Scandinavian model, one must also identify the roles governmental actors and institutions play when interacting in procurement processes. This article aims to provide an understanding of the interrelationships between the actors involved in planning a public transport procurement process. Method: The method used is case study method and in specific process tracing. The empirical data consist of public documents and interviews concerning the work with a public transport procurement, located to a Swedish county. Results: The article demonstrates power relationships between the actors and identifies how resources are deployed to maximize influence while minimizing dependence on other actors. It also shows that there is a dominant coalition that employs strategies within the rules of the game to regulate the process of exchange. Conclusion: The article conclude that the procurement entity is the dominant organisation and that the actors working within it form a dominant coalition. The procurement entity, however, is dependent on political and financial resources from the principals to achieve its agenda.

  • 27.
    Hansson, Lisa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Longva, Frode
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo .
    Contracting accountability in network governance structures2014In: Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management/Emerald, ISSN 1176-6093, E-ISSN 1758-7654, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 92-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how accountability is expressed in contractual arrangements found in network governance structures that provide public transport services and to raise discussion of how to understand contracting accountability in network governance contexts. Design/methodology/approach - The paper is rooted in two research traditions: contracting studies and studies of accountability in government/governance contexts. Content analysis is used in examining contracts from two cases. These contracts are of five types: contracts between public organizations, contracts within a public organization, contracts between public organizations and private firms, and contracts between political parties within a municipality and contracts within a network. Various contracting approaches are identified within these types. Findings - The paper concludes that the contractsà functions differ between the cases. The first case did not have an overall contract that defined the network, relying on different two-party contracts instead. In the other case, an incentive-based contract was used to link the organizations. From an accountability perspective, the latter contracting structure clarifies the roles and responsibilities of the actors and increases the possibility of accountability to citizens. Originality/value - The paper brings new insights to the field of contracting and accountability by focusing on the role of contracts in network governance structures, taking account of various accountability relationships. It also contributes new theoretical categories usable when analysing contracting accountability in a network context.

  • 28.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    Environmental Policy Integration: Organisational Obstacles2003In: Journal of Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies, ISSN 1602-2297, E-ISSN 1602-2297, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this article is on organisations, and the question it deals with is how the Danish Ministry of Transport has handled the requirement of integrating environmental concerns into its transport policy. Answering that question has necessitated a study focusing on organisational aspects of the ministry and its interaction with the Ministry of Environment. Neo-institutional theory is applied. Methodologically, historical analyses and case studies of concrete processes are carried through. The article concludes that several organisational barriers exist to integrating environmental concerns into transport policy. Hence, an understanding in the Ministry of Transport after which transport policy mainly deals with satisfying the demand for transport, sub-sectorizing of the ministry, and barriers found in the interplay between the Ministries of Transport and Environment. Organisational potentials are also found. The article shows that it is necessary to extend the debate about the integration principle, so that it also covers how sector ministries – which the integration principle makes into important actors – are enabled to contribute to changes in sector policies.

  • 29.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    Hvilken rolle spiller viden i dansk hastighedspolitik: et case-studie2014In: Trafik & Veje, ISSN 1903-7384, Vol. August, p. 8-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    En ting er anvendelse viden – noget andet om viden også har indflydelse. En cirka 10 år gammel case om øgede hastighedsgrænser på danske motorveje anvendes som case. Viden om konsekvensen af at øge hastighedsgrænsen blev flittigt anvendt i embedsværket såvel som i den politiske debat. Den pågældende viden påvirkede også embedsværkets udformning af lovforslaget. Anderledes med politikerne, som i casen fastholdt deres positioner uanset den foreliggende viden. De brugte viden som et argument, men ikke til at afklare hvad der er rigtig og hvad der er forkert. Den samme viden spillede forskellige roller. Hvilken rolle viden spiller i politiske processer er komplekst, men kan bl.a. forklares med karakteristika ved den pågældende viden, ved brugerne og ved den kontekst, som viden indgår i.

  • 30.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Transportøkonomisk institutt.
    Kan Samferdselsdepartementet sikre miljøet?2004In: Samferdsel, ISSN 0332-8988, Vol. 44, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    I mange ar har det vært god latin at de enkelte sektordepartement har et ansvar for å ivareta miljøhensyn innenfor sitt område. Dette er et resultat av Brundtlandkommisjonen, som med sin rapport i 1987 satte prinsippet om integrasjon av miljøhensyn i sektorpolitikken på dagsordenen. I Brundtlandrapporten presenteres dette prinsippet som et sentralt element i en strategi for bærekraftig utvikling.

    Spørsmålet er om et sektordepartement, som for eksempel Samferdselsdepartementet, er i stand til å ivareta miljøhensyn i sitt arbeid. Dette er et spørsmål som ikke diskuteres særlig ofte, verken av forskere eller politikere.

  • 31.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    Kan Trafikministeriet klare miljøet?: om integration af miljøhensyn i trafikpolitik og institutionelle potentialer og barrierer2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 32. Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Organisation skapar förutsättningar för hållbar mobilitet2008In: TransportMistra Årsrapport 2007Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Institute of transport economics, Norway.
    Success factors for local traffic noise abatement2006In: Nordic Road and Transport Research, ISSN 1101-5179, E-ISSN 2000-186X, no 3, p. 24-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road noise nuisance is a huge problem in Nordic municipalities. It seems difficult to meet national targets for noise abatement. One reason is lack of municipal attention. This study of municipal noise abatement policy shows that road traffic noise abatement in general does not seem to be institutionalised, neither in the municipal organisation nor in the near surroundings. We point out important conditions for making municipalities more active in implementing road noise abatement measures in existing dwelling areas.

  • 34.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    The DSB, Corporatization and Coordination2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with reforms of the organisation of transport in Denmark. More specifically, I centre on corporatization, although tendering as well as decentralization to regions and municipalities are also important elements in a coherent picture of interorganisational NPM reforms in the sector. Corporatization goes hand in hand with the division of large organisations into smaller ones. The aim of the paper is to discuss two questions:

    • How coordination is achived
    • If coordination today is more difficult than in the previous situation

    The empirical part of the paper concern changed conditions for coordination as it looks from the point of view of persons of central important in the DSB and the Ministry of Transport.

  • 35.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    The integration of environmental concerns into transport policy2004In: Policy integration in practice: The Integration of Land Use Planning, Transport And Environmental Policy-making in Denmark, England and Germany / [ed] Dominic Stead; H Geerlings; E. J Meijers, Delft: Delft University Press, 2004, p. 35-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    The roles of knowledge in transport policy2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    Videns anvendelse og indflydelse i dansk hastighedspolitik2013In: Artikler fra Trafikdage på Aalborg Universitet, 2013, p. 13-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hastighed er af afgørende betydning for trafiksikkerhed, og høj hastighed er anerkendt som en væsentlig udfordring for at reducere antal dræbte og tilskadekomne på vejene. Forskning i trafiksikkerhed handler ofte om hastighed, men anvender sjældent et politologisk perspektiv. I dette paper anvendes imidlertid et sådant perspektiv i et studie af formel videns anvendelse og indflydelse i danske, nationale politiske beslutninger om vejhastighed. En case-studie metode er anvendt og Folketingets beslutning i 2003 om at øge hastighedsgrænsen på motorvejene og en beslutning fra 2004 om at indføre klip i kørekortet ved bl.a. visse overskridelser af hastighedsgrænserne er analyseret. Empirien består i begge cases af dokumenter fra lovgivningsprocessen, andre offentligt tilgængelige rapporter og notater, nyhedsartikler, sagsakter fra involverede ministerier og kvalitative interviews.

    I begge cases analyseres brugen af et bestemt viden-dokument. Viden-dokumenterne anvendes i det lovforberedende arbejde og i det ene tilfælde citeres dokumentet flittigt under Folketingets behandling. Anderledes med dokumenternes indflydelse på beslutningerne. Det ene dokument influerer formentlig embedsmændende arbejde med lovforslaget, mens ingen af dokumenterne ser ud til at have indflydelse på den politiske behandling af lovforslagene. Viden-dokumenterne ændrer næppe nogle politikeres synspunkter. Viden-dokumenterne spiller i den ene case roller, vi betegner som ’viden som instrument’ og ’viden som argument’ og i den anden case en rolle vi betegner ’viden som rationalisering’. En udbredt konsensus om trafiksikkerhed som central værdi i hastighedspolitikken bidrager til forklare de observerede viden-roller.

  • 38.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    et al.
    Transportøkonomisk institutt.
    Assum, Terje
    Transportøkonomisk institutt.
    Muligheder og barrierer for trafiksikkerhedsarbejdet i Sverige2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    I Sverige og Norden for øvrig finnes visjoner, målsettinger og planer for å redusere antall drepte og alvorlig skadde i veitrafikken. Likevel er det vanskelig å nå de kortsiktige målene. Hvilke hindringer og muligheter finnes for å redusere antallet trafikkdrepte vesentlig? En analyse av Vägverket og dets viktigste samarbeidspartnere viser barrierer og muligheter for TS-arbeid i Sverige. De viktigste barrierene er: Begrenset engasjement for trafikksikkerhet i politiet, ingen tro på 2007-målet. Trafikksikkerhet er ikke prioritert i Vägverkets regioner og heller ikke i kommuner og län. Den viktigste muligheten er engasjerte politikere.

  • 39.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    et al.
    Institute of Transport Economics.
    Gudmundsson, Henrik
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester: Do markets, hierarchies or networks fail?2008In: Proceedings from the Annual Transport Conference at Aalborg University, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    “Sustainable transport” has become a headline for transport planning and policy making around the world. While there are many different definitions of what Sustainable Transport means, it commonly includes efforts to improve the environmental performance of transport systems, and to promote alternative modes of transport to private cars, such as public transport. In this paper we focus only on the potential of bus transport services in cities for attracting travellers from cars. It is a basic assumption behind this paper that the ability of public bus transport to attract travellers from cars depends on how the bus sector is organised. By organisation we adopt an institutional point of view and consider basic modes of governance. Basic modes of governance include the forms “market”, “hierarchy” and “network” (Powell 1990). So-called New Public Management (NPM) reforms have changed the modes of governance of bus transport in several countries, including Denmark and the United Kingdom. Our focus is on how New Public Mangement Reforms have changed the mix of governance modes and thus may have influenced the ability of urban bus transport to attract travellers from cars. We focus on a particular case: Public bus transport in England, exemplified by Greater Manchester. England represents a situation where - compared to continental Europe including Denmark - the NPM reforms have been particularly radical. In no other European country the market forces has achieved a role as dominant as in England (outside London). We therefore assume that it is relevant to investigate the influence from the NPM reforms in this case, in order to discuss how the change in governance modes more generally enable or constrain the delivery of more sustainable transport patterns.

  • 40.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    et al.
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    Larsen, Lotte
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    Dansk hastighedspolitik: fire case-studier om konsensus og viden i politiske beslutningsprocesser2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Vi vil besvare to spørgsmål. Det første spørgsmål er hvorvidt der hersker konsensus blandt de politiske partier om forskellige aspekter af dansk hastighedspolitik. Hastighedspolitikkens tilknytning til et alment udbred tønske om bedre trafiksikkerhed kunne på den ene side indikere, at hastighedspolitik var et område præget af konsensus. Omvendt kunne uenigheder på området tænkes at dominere, fordi restriktioner på individers adfærd varierer stærkt mellem de forskellige politiske ideologier. Det andet spørgsmål er hvilken rolle viden om sammenhængen mellem hastighed og trafiksikkerhed spiller i nationale politiske processer om hastighedspolitik. Spørgsmålet om videns rolle i politiske beslutninger er særligt interessant i en tid, hvor såkaldt evidensbaseret politik efterlyses.

  • 41.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    et al.
    Transportøkonomisk institutt.
    Ravlum, Inger-Anne
    Transportøkonomisk institutt.
    Styring i transportpolitikken - et forstudie: Kan Norge lære af Sverige og Danmark?2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    et al.
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    Siren, Anu Kristiina
    DTU - Technical University of Denmark.
    Enighed om Danmarks hastighedspolitik?2013In: Transporthorisonter / [ed] Carsten Broder Hansen, Technical University of Denmark, Transport , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [da]

    Er der partipolitisk konsensus i dansk hastighedspolitik? Dette spørgsmål er særdeles relevant, da fart som ulykkes- og skadesfaktor ifølge Færdselssikkerhedskommissionen er den største udfordring i dansk trafiksikkerhedsarbejde. EU-Kommissionen har tilsvarende peget på høj hastighed og hastighed, der ikke er afstemt efter forholdene, som en af de vigtigste årsager til ulykker. Vejhastighed og restriktioner kunne måske associeres med forskellige politiske ideologier, således at f.eks. en liberal politisk tilgang vil tendere mod ingen eller høje hastighedsgrænser på vejene og begrænset kontrol. Ved at interviewe en trafikpolitiker fra hvert af Folketingets partier afdækkes, i hvilket omfang hastighedspolitikken er præget af enighed eller uenighed mellem de politiske partier. Svaret spiller formentlig en væsentlig rolle for, hvordan de politiske processer forløber, og hvordan viden anvendes i politikdannelsen.

  • 43.
    Hedström, Ragnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Johansson, Thomas
    TJ Kommunikation.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Spårburen kollektivtrafik i Linköping: förslag till en implementeringsmodell2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The new Master Plan for the City of Linköping and the included Transport Strategy discuss a high quality public transport network in the city, the so-called LinkLink. High quality public transport is seen as an important part of the city and municipal development in general with respect to land development, transportation and land use. The study "Railbound public transport in Linköping" is based on the current planned development of public transport Linköping. The aim is to improve knowledge and decision support for the municipality's continued planning work where tramways have arised as an future option.

    The study is based on European best practice in public transport, with focus on tramways, and taking into account the conditions that apply to light rail implementation in Sweden, and on the current planning situation in Linköping relevant to city public transport. The report describes a stepwise process model that can also function as a check-list for the municipality. The process model is based on research of modern tramway system in Sweden and internationally, and on interviews with officials and politicians in the Swedish towns and regions where the expansion of existing or new tramway systems are currently discussed.

    The process model is divided into successive steps to be taken in order to implement a future tramway system. The realisation of the process model´s different steps also means that the knowledge and decision data are sufficient for the municipality to decide on the future direction and if / when the next step in the implementation process should be taken.

  • 44.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Integrating transport and land-use planning?: How steering cultures in local authorities affect implementation of integrated public transport and land-use planning2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 74, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown integrated planning to be important for achieving aims concerning more environmentally friendly transport operations, but less good at explaining prerequisites of implementation. This paper analyses how management and working practises in local authorities, here understood as steering cultures, affect implementation of integrated land-use and public transport planning approaches. The analysis builds on case studies of planning in two Swedish municipalities. These have developed two antithetical steering cultures, namely one that can be described as deliberative and one that can be described as sectorised. The paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of these steering cultures. The findings show the deliberative model to facilitate integration through advanced mechanisms of consensus and co-ordination between policy-makers and officials. The sectorised model has no such mechanisms, but this need not result in poor prospects of integrated planning. It is important for integrated planning approaches, whatever the steering culture, to be in line with the institutionalised norms and objectives by which planning practices are governed. Integration therefore needs a normative component, so as to ensure implementation. The important normative component in this context can be construed as discourses and rationales concerning transport and the urban development of which public transport forms part.

  • 45.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Miljövänligare transporter?: Mål- och intressekonflikter i kommunala och regionala besluts- och planeringsprocesser2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to analyse how conflicting objectives and interests affect the possibilities for creating more environmentally friendly transport systems at the local and regional level in Sweden. The issues are addressed through an analysis of the decision-making and planning processes at two local authorities – Örebro and Borlänge – and one region, Skåne. These three examples together show how a local authority’s economic motives need to be managed and regulated in order to facilitate an increased rate of conversion to more environmentally friendly transport systems. There are at least two ways to achieve this. The first is to change the legislation and regulations governing local authority decision-making and planning. It would, for example, be possible to regulate retail development through new legislation; apart from ensuring cooperation between local authorities, it would influence the power relationships between companies and local authorities, which at present allow businesses to play authorities off against one another. Revised legislation could restrict the ‘planning monopoly’ held by local authorities. Such restrictions are a highly controversial issue, and attract very little political support. Another way to tackle the problem would therefore be to work within the framework of existing legislation and to use the local authorities’ economic motives to put in place more environmentally friendly social planning. The example of public transport regulation, regional cooperation, and social planning in Skåne shows that this can be one possible way forward in order to enhance decision-making and planning as seen from an environmental perspective.

  • 46.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Kundorientering av myndigheter: hur kunskap om medborgarna och näringslivet skapas i Vägverket2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New demands for dialogue with users are being made in transport planning. Transport planners no longer just build roads. Nowadays they also must listen to the users, and the wishes of the users have an impact on the design and maintenance of the road transport system. But how can we know what the users really want? The aim of this report is to analyze the methods which transport planners use to create knowledge about the users and their needs. This is done by means of a case study of how transport planners at the Swedish Road Administration concretely handle these questions. The results of interviews show that planners experience problems when using the institutionalized so-called "customer capture methods" that the head office has created. Some examples of these institutionalized methods are for instance market surveys, national measurements of the satisfaction of the users with the work of the Swedish Transport Administration - so-called Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI). The planners for example feel that they cannot use these methods for solving problems of representativeness. The interviews with the planners at the Swedish Transport Administration show how they wrestle with the question of who are representative of the users and what they want. The results show that the planners' practices analytically can be understood as something that produces knowledge, representativity and the identities and needs of the users. The planners to a great extent base their analyses on personal experiences. The planners do realize the interpretive aspects of the planning, but at the same time the descriptive, interpretative and valuating aspects of the knowledge production tend to be hidden in central policy documents and systems of operational planning.

  • 47.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Samordning av trafik- och bebyggelseplanering: förutsättningar för hållbar mobilitet2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The way buildings are positioned relative to the design of traffic systems influences the public?s travel patterns and their choice of transport mode. It is therefore important that building layout and traffic are coordinated in order to create sustainable mobility. Sustainable mobility is an umbrella term for measures that reduce the number and length of car journeys and the need to travel at all. The aim of this study is to shed light on the conditions under which local authorities coordinate building development and traffic issues with respect to sustainable mobility. This investigation is based upon a pair of case studies, and examines the handling of building and traffic issues during the planning of two residential areas, one in Lund and one in Trelleborg. The results show that where coordination has worked, three factors have combined to create what may be termed a strategic decision-making and planning process. The three factors can be summarized as (i) long-term visions for the town?s development, (ii) long- and short-term actions, and (iii) public support for the long-term vision. It is important that coordination is made a tool for the implementation of the long-term vision. Politicians and officials must be in agreement if real influence is to be brought to bear on long- and short-term actions. Swedish local authorities should therefore develop mechanisms to enhance mutual understanding between politicians and officials on the basic principles of sustainable mobility. Public support of long-term visions and goals is also important. Without public support it becomes hard to make the occasionally difficult political decisions that affect the public?s travel behaviour.

  • 48.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Civil servants’ education and the representativeness of the bureaucracy in environmental policy-making2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We model and test the representativeness of environmental policy-making, as implied by cost-benefit analysis (CBA) results, in governmental agencies assuming that individual civil servants maximize their personal utility. Education may also influence civil servants’ behavior. The biologists in our sample have the highest valuation of environmental quality. We suspect that their training does not teach them about societal welfare maximization and that they consequently do not adjust their policy recommendation to CBA results, while the economists, who learn about welfare economics, do. The empirical results indicate that the economists adjust their private valuation of the environment by a factor giving a sufficient weight to the CBA results to make their average choice a cost-efficient one. Even the economists in our sample chose on average a policy that is costlier than the cost-efficient one yet clearly less expensive than the policy chosen by the biologists and social scientists.

  • 49.
    Jussila Hammes, Johanna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    The impact of education on environmental policy decision-making2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Civil servants in governmental agencies regularly both propose environmental policies for the elected politicians and make own decisions. In making these decisions they may be influenced by legal norms, agency policy and culture, professional norms acquired through education as well as personal political preferences. This study tests how students in late stages of professional training in economics, biology and social sciences handle information in order to make a stylized choice of a national nutrient limit for lake water, or choose a program at a municipal level to lower the nutrient level in a local lake. The purpose is to test whether professional norms acquired during academic education and/or the presence of an international standard influences decision-making. We examine three hypotheses. Firstly, students’ political attitudes affect their choice of major, i.e. biology, economics or social sciences, and thereby indirectly their decisions. We find that the distribution of the political values among disciplines is compatible with the hypothesis, which therefore is not rejected. Secondly, a student’s major influences the kind of information they use and consequently the policy choice they will recommend. In plain words we expected biology students to go for environmentally more ambitious (lower) nutrient limits and economics students to prefer economically efficient (higher) levels. The central result is that while economics majors are more likely than biology or social science majors to choose a cost-efficient nutrient limit, the mean and median values of the nutrient levels chosen by the three groups do not differ from one another in a statistically significant way. Economists thus have a higher standard deviation in their answers than the other majors. The third hypothesis is that the presence of an internationally approved standard level for the nutrient content will significantly influence the choice of national nutrient limit. We find that biology students are influenced to set a lower nutrient limit when presented with the standard than otherwise, thereby rejecting the null hypothesis for this group. For students in economics and social sciences, no significant effect is found. Our results have implications for the feasibility of micromanagement in government agencies as recruiting economists to environmental agencies may not be sufficient to ensure economically efficient decisions. The findings also should sound a warning about the skills learned by economics majors at the two largest universities in Sweden: while some students seem familiar with the concepts of optimality and cost efficiency and able to use them, this applies to far from all of them.

  • 50.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Transportstyrelsens arbete med konsekvensutredningar: metodik för samhällsekonomisk analys med beräkningshandledning i bilaga2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport is an area where the public sector plays an important role for the design and the functioning of the system. In Sweden the overriding goal for transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and businesses throughout the country. When making changes to the system there is a need for information on the advantages and disadvantages of different policy options so that the decisions are based on balanced evidence. To meet these ends, the methodology of cost-benefit analysis is applied as a decision support tool, especially regarding decision related to infrastructure investment. The Swedish Transport Administration and the Swedish Transport Agency have the main responsibility for the design and functioning of the transport system in Sweden. The former is responsible for the infrastructure while the latter is more concerned with the management of traffic and the design of rules and regulations. The Swedish Transport Agency also exercises supervision. In 2012 the Swedish Transport Agency commissioned VTI to develop a first version of a calculation handbook to be used in the impact assessments performed by the Agency, together with a plan for education on how to perform this type of assessment. Our proposition is presented in this report. Based on a number of case studies of impact assessment recently performed at the Agency we have assessed what kind of information that needs to be included in their impact assessments. We have also investigated which methods are used internationally, and by the Swedish Transport Administration, to perform this type of analysis. Using this information we present a draft for a calculation handbook based on the experience and material used at the Swedish Transport Administration. We also present an education plan. However, since there is a difference between issues related to investments in infrastructure and management issues, we also suggest a plan for development of the calculation handbook and its use within the Agency.

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