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  • 1.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lärarperspektiv på riskutbildningen för motorcyklister2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade it has become increasingly popular to ride a motorcycle in Sweden. A mandatory risk education for competence A and A1 was introduced from the 1st of November 2009. Since the education is new, few evaluations have been conducted so far.

    This study evaluates the risk education for motorcyclists based on the perspective of driving instructors. The goal was to compile the instructors' comments and experiences with respect to the new risk training. An additional objective was to examine the driving instructors' perceived effects of the education on their students' driving behavior. Six semi-structured interviews with driving instructors and an observational study of the education at various driving schools were conducted. In addition, a participant observation study was performed during a further education of 15 driving instructors. The results show that the instructors experience a great need for the new risk training and that the implementation of the training itself has been good. Students have been referring to the risk training, which according to the instructors indicate that the students have embraced the essence of the training. As a result, the students drive more carefully now and think twice in certain situations according to the instructors. This was considered a desirable result.

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  • 2.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Simulatorbaserad utbildning i ERTMS: utvärdering av utbildning och träning för lokförare i VTI:s tågsimulator2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the VTI train simulator with regard to simulator-based training and education in the ERTMS (European Rail Traffic Management System) system for train drivers, compared to the ERSA simulator. The purpose was also to study two different ways of combining theoretical education with practical training in a simulator. In the future, the major railway routes in Sweden will be equipped with ERTMS. This will require considerable training for Sweden’s approximately 3,500 train drivers in future need of ERTMS education. It is unrealistic to think that these should be trained on real tracks. Therefore, there is a need for a more realistic ERTMS simulator compared to the European Rail Software Applications (ERSA) simulator that Trafikverket provides. The study was conducted as a between group design with two measurements. Three different groups were compared under different conditions. Theoretical education in ERTMS combined with training in the ERSA simulator (group 0), theoretical education in ERTMS ending with training in the VTI-simulator (group 1) and theoretical education in ERTMS partly alternated with training in the VTI-simulator (group 2).

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  • 3.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nordbakke, Susanne
    TØI, Oslo.
    Developments in driver’s licence holding among young people: potential explanations, implications and trends2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review examines the factors that influence the development in the driver’s licence rate among young people in different age groups, socioeconomic groups and geographical contexts, as well as the impact on the welfare of young people of holding or not holding a driver’s licence. The review also includes research on trends, prognoses and evaluations of developments in driver’s licence holding, and knowledge on any links between changes in driver licensing and falling car usage among young people. The review shows that several factors appear to explain and influence the driver licensing trend among young people, while, at the same time, there is a great difference in driver’s licence holding among different groups. More research is needed to investigate the extent to which the declining driver licensing rates is a general trend and/or opposite trends between different groups of young people, and with different welfare impacts.

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  • 4.
    Berg, Hans-Yngve
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kan en insiktsskapande utbildning minska olycksrisken hos unga och nyblivna bilförare: en kurs i tre steg i Örebro län1998Report (Other academic)
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  • 5.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thulin, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utvärdering av obligatorisk introduktionsutbildning och kursplan B inom svensk körkortsutbildning: delstudie 1: övningens struktur, innehåll och omfattning2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    A mandatory introduction course for all student drivers and their driving instructors came into effect on January 1, 2006 in Sweden. A new curriculum for a category B driving license came into effect on March 1, 2006. The aim of this study is to evaluate the overall effects of how the driving practice is managed concerning the structure of driving practice, what surroundings they are performed in, how much time is given to various driving exercises and what elements are practiced. Yet another aim is to discern the effects after the introduction course and the new curriculum have been implemented. Questionnaires were sent out in 2005, 2007 and 2008 to new license holders for category B (age 18-24). The results show that the student drivers took more theory lessons at a professional driving school in 2007 than in 2005. The increase can be traced to those having had an introduction course. Student drivers who attended the introduction course in 2008 spent less time studying theory than those who did not attend such a course. The introduction course helped the driving instructors to relate to theory during practice to a higher extent and to plan the driving practice better compared to the driving instructors who had not attended the introduction course. Disturbing activities such as car stereos, use of cell phones etc. increased each year during private practice, with largest occurrence among those who had had an introduction course 2008. The numbers of practice lessons, both private and at a traffic school, during difficult conditions such as darkness, wet roads and rain increased each year. Lessons during private practice on aspects such as speed adaptation and risk assessment as well as cooperation with other road users, increased during the years at the traffic schools. A larger proportion of the student drivers 2007 and 2008 compared with 2005 perceived themselves as better car drivers than car drivers in general with regard to avoiding critical situations, reacting quickly, making safe assessments and driving in wet road conditions. The conclusions on the basis of this study are that the introduction course had a small effect on the structure of the driving practice in 2007. The effects of the introduction course on the contents and the scope of the driver education were not, however, as clear. The study also shows that the new curriculum seems to have contributed to certain changes when comparisons are made between the years. Finally, the report points out the need for more knowledge in order to evaluate the overall effects of the driving education.

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  • 6.
    Broth, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Jakob, Cromdal
    Linköping University.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Starting out as a driver: Progression in instructed pedal work2017In: Memory practices and learning: Interactional, institutional and sociocultural perspectives / [ed] Mäkitalo, Åsa; Linell, Per; Säljö, Roger, IPA Publisher , 2017, p. 113-142Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Cederfeldt, Lotta
    Gatukontoret, Malmö.
    Road Safety School: How we Work with Schools and Traffic in Malmö, Sweden2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990’s, the Streets and Parks Department in Malmö has been supporting local schools with their road safety education. The site http://www.malmo.se/trafiksakraskolan (Road Safety School) offers activities, courses and competitions. The Department has also developed materials for all grades from pre-school through to high school. The materials are continuously updated. Schools can also borrow other materials and/or participate in activities that can be implemented into theme days. Teacher's guidance at staff meetings is also offered.Among other things, reflectors are distributed to all children in the first four grades. There are also school projects which inspire children to walk or cycle to school by cooperating with the schools. Additionally we are providing information to parents and organizing fun activities for the children. A survey conducted by the Streets and Parks Department, shows that teachers work with road safety education in various ways. They are pleased with both the initiatives from the Street and Parks Departments and also the provided materials. They see it as an educational tool and find it useful even though it is not used in the same way. Teachers know that students like the materials and the received feedback from parents is positive.

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  • 8.
    Coning, Tiesie de
    CSIR Transportek, South Africa.
    Road safety education curriculum for South African schools2001In: Proceedings of the conference Road Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Pretoria, South Africa, 20-22 September 2000 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 15A, p. 285-297Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research world-wide indicates that in countries where road safety educationis compulsory, the accident rate is relatively low and in countries whereroad safety education is partly compulsory or where there is no road safetyeducation at all the accident rate is relatively high. Road safety educationthus forms the focus in the accomplishment of traffic safety and is acontributing factor in the reduction of the death toll. A comprehensive studywas done from 1997 to 1999 in order to develop a core curriculum for roadsafety education. This paper is an attempt to spell out the value thereof.The curriculum was developed accordingly to four parallel research processes,namely: 1) Various curriculum models were studied in order to identify amodel that will form the basis of the road safety education process; 2) Thedifferent age and developmental phases as well as accompanying limitations ofthe target group were identified and specific road safety themes aimed atovercoming these limitations were selected; 3) A comparative study betweenthe curricula of 14 countries in Southern Africa and overseas were made andcommon road safety themes that feature prominent in the various curriculawere identified; and 4) Questionnaires were sent out to teachers regardingthe level of road safety education presently in schools and to parentsregarding the young road user's exposure to different traffic situations aswell as general road safety education. The above-mentioned processes wereintegrated in order to develop the core curriculum for road safety educationin South Africa. This curriculum is based on the principles of co-operation,critical thinking and social responsibility, and should empower all youngroad users to participate safely in all aspects of society. This could bestbe achieved by a national curriculum, which prides general road safetyeducation as a platform for lifelong learning and contributes to thereduction of accidents, deaths, injuries and the accompanying pain andsuffering.

  • 9.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The TRAINER project: development of a new cost-effective Pan-European driver training methodology and how to evaluate it2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:2, p. 12-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the TRAINER project is to develop a new cost-effective Pan-European driver training methodology, based on computer based interactive multimedia and simulator technology, which will pay significant attention not only to gain experience of driving and handling the car, but also to the enhancement of risk awareness of learner drivers. For this purpose three different simulation tools will be developed. Each set will consist of a multimedia info-box and a low-cost-medium-cost driving simulator. A number of scenarios for application in the different simulation environments will be developed, which address the most important needs of learner drivers. They have been structured in accordance with the four hierarchical levels of the GADGET-matrix: Level 4 - Goals for life and skills for living, Level 3 - Goals and context of driving, Level 2 - Mastering traffic situations, Level 1 - Vehicle maneuvering. In order to be able to assess the TRAINER tools impact on traffic safety, not only a set of driver performance pilots needs to be performed but also another set of pilots. In these pilots driver behavior in a critical scenario should be measured. However, the drivers' behavior is not only influenced by his/her driving performance skills, but also on the hazard perceptual abilities of the driver. Hence, based on the assumption that driving skills is controlled for by the driver performance pilots, the results from the traffic safety impact pilots will address the question on whether or not increased hazard perception has been achieved by use of the TRAINER tools.

  • 10.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vogel, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The Test of Visual Perceptual Skills (non-motor) Upper Level is Not a Valid Predictor for the Outcome of Driver Education2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 72-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce the monetary and personal costs of driver training for persons with cerebral palsy, it is of interest to find a predictor that is able to select potential license holders. Previous research has shown that such a predictor could be one that assesses visual perception. In the present study, the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills (non-motor) Upper Level, was validated for predicting the outcome of driver education. It was found that using the test for this purpose could not be recommended. The findings of the present study were not in accordance with the results of other studies on the predictive value of perceptual tests regarding the ability to drive, owing to the use of different methods. Future studies should focus on cross-validation of perceptual tests for different types of independent variables, such as driving license or not, accident involvement and driving ability.

  • 11.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlberg, Anders
    Linköpings universitet.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av fortbildning för yrkeskompetensbevis: Delkurs 1: Sparsam körning2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate periodic training for professional drivers, part 1 Eco-driving. The main objectives were: How has the training been conducted? Have the requirements of the regulations been met? and has the training program provided the participants with enough understanding of the subject? The study included two qualitative studies and one quantitative study. The qualitative studies used naturalistic observations and interviews. Seven vocational training courses were observed with the aid of an observation guide. The observer did not participate in the teaching. Interviews were conducted with instructors on the observed courses but also other actors who have a good knowledge of the training. The quantitative study consisted of a survey that 799 people (90 percent men) answered. Respondents were on average 44 years old. Most of those who participated in the survey were driving a truck.

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  • 12.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Mäns och kvinnors möjligheter att genomföra förarprov för körkort med godkänt resultat2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows that there is an inequality in the practical riding test of the motorcycle since men are more likely to pass the test than women. The most obvious difference in test scores is that women perform worse on slow speed maneuvers than men. One reason for this can be because of women's shorter height and lower body weight. When the speed increases, this is not as important and this is also supported by the fact that women manage the braking test and tests at high speed as well as or better than men. This suggests that the prospects for short women and men are not the same as others who are taller when it comes to their ability to carry out a maneuver at a slow speed. One important reason for this is the lack of low seat height motorcycles which can be used during the practical riding test.

    The results from the practical driving test for category B (cars) show no differences in the approval rate between men and women, which is interpreted to mean that men and women have equal chances to pass this test. If we look at how they are trained then we can see that women choose to take more professional help, while men rely more on private training. As for the theoretical test for motorcycles, men and women do equally well whereas for category B, women get better results than men. This is also in line with other studies showing that women usually get better grades at school than men.

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  • 13.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av en ny obligatorisk riskutbildning för motorcyklister2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On 1 November 2009 a new risk education program for all students learning to ride a motorbike was introduced in order to enhance their perception of risk. The training is both theoretical and practical. The aim of the study is to evaluate if motorcyclists' perception of risk changed as a consequence of the new training program. The study used a internet survey and two different groups were compared: motorcyclist learner drivers who had completed their training before the implementation of the new program and those who had completed their training after the 1st of November 2009. In the study 1,472 people participated (before study=541; after study=931). The mean age was 30 years and the proportion of women was 20 procent. The results showed relatively small changes in the motorcyclists' attitudes, norms and intentions before and after the new training program. However, the difference was mainly in the "right" direction which indicated a greater understanding of risk. Some negative changes were also observed but most frequently amongst the youngest age group (16-20 years old). These negative changes were related to their perception of speeding, alcohol, fatigue and of their own ability to drive a motorbike if compared with other motorcyclists. In conclusion, the results suggest that further research in this area is needed which looks at the effect of training but also the content and how training is being conducted with regard to methods used and how specific groups are being targeted. Implications of the current findings for the development of educational programs for motorcyclists are discussed.

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  • 14.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Effekten av de nya reglerna för AM-behörighet (moped klass I): en för- och efterstudie2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Class I moped license (AM) to drive a Class I moped (“EU moped”), that included a practical and theoretical course, was introduced on 1 October 2009. The aim of this study was perform a before and after study in order to assess the effects of this new driver training course. The survey was based on two theories: the theory of planned behaviour and the prototype willingness model. A further aim of this study was to describe the way in which young people regard risks and the factors that affect their actions. The participants in this study were 15-–24 years of age; 901 in the before study and 946 in the after study. The results indicated fairly small differences before and after the new regulation. The attitude towards driving at a speed of 65 km/h in an urban area showed that people in the after study were less inclined to believe that their friends would drive at a speed of 65 km/h in an urban area, and that they did not feel as safe at a speed of 65 km/h as at 45 km/h. The significant differences noted for statements linked to the alcohol scenario were that mopedists in the follow-up study were less concerned about being stopped by the police or having a traffic accident. From a traffic safety viewpoint, the results were less favourable in this case. Overall, the new AM training programme was well received – the young people considered it positive, and ment that they had learned a lot. What they had learned consisted primarily of traffic rules and regulations. The results from the prototype willingness model showed that respondents who wanted to speed or drink and drive were more likely than others to consider that such persons were cool, confident and clever. A model which was based on the two theories was tested. The results indicated that the model explained 52 per cent of their willingness to exceed speed limits and 19 per cent of their readiness to ride home from the party.

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  • 15.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    En utvärdering av den obligatoriska riskutbildningen för motorcyklister2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On 1 November 2009 a compulsory risk education program for all students learning to ride a motorbike was introduced, in order to enhance their perception of risk. The education consists of two parts: Part 1 is theoretical and part 2 practical. The year after the introduction a study was conducted by VTI with the aim of evaluating if motorcyclists’ perception of risk has changed as a consequence of risk education. The purpose of the present study is to replicate the previous one that was carried out after the new rules were introduced to see if the education has become more effective and to see if there are still some shortcomings. Unlike the study published in 2011, which only consisted of a survey, the latter study also included observations and interviews with professionals.

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  • 16.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Körkort med villkor automatväxellåda: finns det skäl och möjligheter att underlätta körkortsprocessen?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the present study is to investigate whether there are reasons for making it easier for driver trainers, both during their education and when taking the test, to use a car with automatic transmission. The study aims to answer two questions: 1) Can learning to drive become easier with an automatic transmission and at the same time provide the same training in traffic safety as when driving a car with a manual transmission? 2) Can a shorter driver training time due to automatic transmission have a negative impact, or can a reduced focus on handling the car increase the focus on other factors related to traffic safety? Several methods have been used to achieve the purpose of this study.

    Firstly, a literature review presents studies that examined the importance of automatic transmission during driver training and when taking the test. The same overview also includes a statistical accident analysis that compares automated cars with cars using a manual transmission. Thereafter, an interview study is presented, involving four traffic instructors and a survey of 34 traffic instructors on their view of training to drive with a car which have an automatic transmission. Finally, a survey was conducted including 949 people aged 18 to 25 who had just received drivers licence.

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  • 17.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    NTF.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Den svenska förarutbildningen: dagsläge och framtidsutsikter2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to provide a deep and broad understanding of current practice of driver training. Based on the results of four in-depth studies, the project attempts to identify the need for improvement. Furthermore, and in order to improve driver training some essential actions will be presented. Several methods have been used to achieve this aim. The report starts with a literature review looking at various aspects which can influence young driver trainer’s ability to drive safely but also literature looking at deficiencies and needs for change. The following chapter presents accident statistics which includes current data on young drivers’ accident involvement and how this has changed in recent years. That is followed by a summary of statistics on driving license tests and retests. The project also includes an interview study in which eleven professionals were interviewed (politicians, government officials, researchers and representatives of driving schools and race tracks). The purpose of this study was to discuss their views on the current driver training in Sweden but also their own suggestions for change. Two surveys were then carried out. The first was aimed at new drivers of different ages about their driver training and the other was aimed at driving instructors. The general conclusion of this study is that the general discussion of driver training focuses too much on time and cost rather than quality which does not favour traffic safety. The recommendation is therefore that there is a need for a more fundamental change of driver training. To realise this, some of the teaching methods used need to be improved. These methods can then be applied to “risk education” and to the more general driver training. Other areas which are in need for improvement focus on; private practice and a closer contact with driving schools, enhancing the quality of compulsory training and introduce more parts, more frequent quality assurance of driving schools and increased supervision and collaboration between stakeholders, a development of driving licence testing and a better consensus between the objectives, content/process and driving test, a clearer division of responsibilities regarding research and development and a better coordination of the various elements of driver training. Finally, there is a need to highlight best practice which can only be done if evaluation becomes common practice.

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  • 18.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Förarprov för personbil: orsaker till den sjunkande godkännandegraden och förslag på åtgärder2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study had four objectives using both quantitative and qualitative methods: 1) to gather knowledge by means of a literature review of research, documented good examples, and proposals concerning ways of handling problems associated with retesting; 2) to examine, through two interview studies and one survey study, the reasons for the declining passing rate among those seeking class B driving licences; 3) to determine whether any specific groups of licence applicants have exhibited lower passing rates; and 4) to propose, based on the results, remedial measures to address the preparation and training of licence applicants before testing. In general, the results show that licence applicants who fail the tests many times lack the ability to assess their own abilities since they believe that they are well prepared. Even if the test then is harder than anticipated they do not feel that they had made any major mistakes, instead it is the examiner who was too strict. Therefore, they often scheduled their retests immediately after their unsuccessful attempts, meaning that some are unable to practice much or at all before the retest. Based on the results of this study, a number of remedial measures are suggested that could reduce the proportion of retests in the future.

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  • 19.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wallen Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    En utvärdering av den utökade riskutbildningen för B-körkort: delstudie 42010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On 1 July 1999 the mandatory skid training for learner drivers was replaced by a new expanded risk education program. The aim was to put emphasis on teaching pupils’ risk awareness instead of how to handle critical situations. The purpose of this report is to present the results from an evaluation conducted before and after the implementation of the new training program. The study used a postal survey and the target group was learner drivers aged 18 to 24 years. Results are based on 1,403 people. The results show that participants in the after study believed that they learnt more about drink/drug driving and fatigue than the participants in the before study. They also believed that they learnt less about driving on slippery road surfaces, ABS brakes and traction control.

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  • 20. Gregersen, Nils Petter
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av miljöinslagen i körkortsutbildningen: en studie av effekter på körbeteende och bränsleförbrukning2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to measure the effects of the education in environmental friendly driving that is included in the Swedish driver education for license class B on fuel consumption and a selection of driving behaviour that are typical for environmental friendly driving among drivers with license since half a year. Comparisons were made between a group of 25 drivers who estimated that they had much  education in environmental friendly driving and a group of 25 drivers who estimated that they had  little or none such education. Those with much education in environmental friendly driving had participated more in both driving lessons and theory lessons at driving schools than those with little education. The drivers drove an instrumented car along a pre-defined road of 30 km where 12 parts were used to collect data about fuel consumption and a selection of different driving behaviour.  The results show that education in environmental friendly driving during driver licensing has had an effect on fuel consumption. The group with much education used 8.7 percent less fuel than the group with little education. However, an expert/educator in environmental friendly driving who was driving the same roads had a much lower fuel consumption. This can probably be explained by the more complex driving behaviour, such as driving in mixed traffic with zero consumption and to minimize declutching and braking to the advantage of engine braking, requiring a higher mental load of novice drivers. 

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  • 21.
    Henriksson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Loukopoulos, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys.
    Utvärdering av kurser för förare av sportmotorcyklar: kursdeltagarnas behållning och effekten på försäkringsrapporterade skador2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    VTI has evaluated further training courses offered by the Swedish Motorcyclists Association (SMC) to riders of super-sport motorcycles. This was done through two substudies. In the first study, a series of telephone interviews were performed with persons who participated in the courses in 2007. The aim with this qualitative part of the study was to identify what respondents recalled from their participation in the courses, what they learned from them, and how the aims of the course have been interpreted.

    The second study included a follow-up of insurance reported claims during the period 2007-2009. Two groups were compared: those who participated in SMC further training course and those who did not participate in any such course.

    From the interview study, it was found that the course structure, i.e. practical exercises interleaved with discussions, received largely positive comments. Riding a motorcycle on public roads was seen as significantly different to riding on a designated track or course, which is why not all aspects of the further training course were viewed as relevant for speeds and circumstances that arise in normal traffic conditions. Some suggestions for improvement dealt with greater individual feedback, use of video cameras, and distribution of printed course material in advance.

    According to the follow-up study of insurance reported claims, no significant difference existed between those who completed the course/courses and those who have not passed SMC further training course. Any traffic safety effect of the SMC's courses for sport motorcycle riders was thus not possible to detect by the available data material.

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  • 22.
    Holt, Charles
    et al.
    University of Virginia.
    Myers, Erica
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Markus, Wråke
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute.
    Burtraw, Dallas
    Resources for the Future.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Teaching Opportunity Cost in an Emissions Permit Experiment2010In: International Review of Economic Education, ISSN 1477-3880, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 34-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an individual choice experiment that can be used to teach students how to correctly account for opportunity costs in production decisions. Students play the role of producers that require a fuel input and an emissions permit for production. Given fixed market prices, they make production quantity decisions based on their costs. Permits have a constant price throughout the experiment.

    In one treatment, students have to purchase both a fuel input and an emissions permit for each production unit. In a second treatment, they receive permits for free and any unused permits are sold on their behalf at the permit price. If students correctly incorporate opportunity costs, they will have the same supply function in both treatments. This experiment motivates classroom discussion of opportunity costs and emission permit allocation under cap and trade schemes. The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) provides a relevant example for classroom discussion, as industry earned significant 'windfall profits' from free allocation of emissions permits in the early phases of the program.

  • 23.
    Loukopoulos, Peter
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Utvärdering av kurser för förare av sportmotorcyklar: kursdeltagarnas behållning2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Accident rates concerning riders of so-called super-sport motorcycles have been negative in recent years. As part of a strategy for increasing the safety of this group of motorists, the Swedish Motorcyclists Association (SMC) has conducted courses for motorcycle riders since 2004. These courses consist of four steps, with each step requiring one day of training and education. An incentive for participation is a reduced insurance premium. VTI has evaluated SMC's training programme through a series of telephone interviews with 29 persons who participated in the programme during the period July-September 2007. The interviews were semi-structured in nature; participants had the opportunity to add their own spontaneous comments. The aim was to identify what respondents recalled from their participation in the training programme, what lessons they drew, and how the aims of the programme had been interpreted.

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  • 24.
    Merwe, EL van der
    Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education, South Africa.
    The empowerment of teachers in OBE through traffic safety education2001In: Proceedings of the conference Road Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Pretoria, South Africa, 20-22 September / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 15A, p. 77-79Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The traffic situation in South Africa is not satisfactory at all, judgingfrom recent statistics. One way to improve the situation would be to raiseknowledge among school children. It is a known fact that attitudes cannot bechanged by legislation, but through constant intensive education. However,education and legislation should go hand in hand. But how could theapproximate 3 892 480 learners in the foundation grades in South Africa bereached with the relevant knowledge, those children who are most vulnerablein traffic, but also those who are inaccessible due to distances andremoteness of many schools? And how can teachers, who have not specificallybeen trained in Traffic Safety Education , be supplied with the basicbackground knowledge? Questions like this led to several workshops with 900teachers involved.

  • 25.
    Nyberg, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Övningskörningen och det praktiska körkortsprovet: en undersökning om 18-24-åringar2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The study shows that a driving licence tuition system should be produced which would ensure that all those who obtain a driving licence have practised all items included as test items in the driving test. This can (apart from the awaited changes in the introductory tuition, new curriculum B and enhanced skid training) mean changing the existing driving test. One reason for this is that analyses of tuition patterns and driving test results show that those who have a larger proportion of their tuition covering certain items (for example, hard braking during private tuition and overtaking on 70 km/h roads and 90 km/h roads during driving school lessons) have a greater chance of not passing instead of passing the driving test. Another reason is that several of the items which the greatest proportion of those who have recently passed the test have never practised, either privately or with a driving school, also belong to the items that are included only to a small extent in the driving test. Examples of this are the items efficient braking, overtaking and driving in a roadwork's area. This should indicate that learner drivers and/or lay instructors, and also driving instructors/driving schools, in some way are aware of this fact, for which reason they conduct less tuition covering these items. The study was carried out with three aims; to describe how people aged 18-24 who have recently got their driving licence (category B driving licence) went through their driving instruction; to investigate, whether it can be explained why certain 18-24-year-olds passed the category B driving licence test, or did not pass it, respectively; and to describe what deficiencies of competence there are with 18-24-yearolds who did not pass the category B driving licence test.

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  • 26.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Förändringar inom den svenska förarutbildningen: delstudie 3: processutvärdering av kursplan B2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On March 1, 2006, a new Swedish national curriculum for private car (class B) driving license was introduced. A more general and easily comprehensible curriculum is expected to increase creativity, engagement and a wish for renewal among the actors who take part in the education processes for obtaining driving license. In the new curriculum there is also a greater focus on the student's self-knowledge. The design of the new curriculum is based to the so called Goals for Driver Education matrix, GDE. The GDE matrix defines which competences a driver should be in command of in order to be a safe driver. The matrix even points out that driving a car is a process where the driver interacts both with the traffic environment and the vehicle. At the same time driving a car also implies interaction between the driver's capabilities and motives. The aim of the present study is to investigate if there have been changes in driver education in Sweden through e.g. a new and modified focus since the new curriculum was introduced. The study consists of four sub-studies, each of which consists of an initial investigation and a follow-up ("before and after study"). The first sub-study concerns the curriculum itself, in which a content analysis is performed both concerning the old and the new curriculum. The second sub-study focuses on content analysis of education plans (i.e. approved plans of the education in the driving schools). The third sub-study consists of observations of theoretical and practical driving lessons in four driving schools. The fourth sub-study consists of interviews with individuals that recently received their driving license. Each of the sub-studies has been analysed with the help of the GDE matrix.

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  • 27.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vidareutbildning för äldre bilförare: en översikt2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In the future the number of the older people, and older car drivers, will increase markedly. It is of great importance that older people have the possibility to retain their idenpendent mobility for as long as possible. However, old people have an increased risk to get severely injured or killed in a traffic accident because they are frailer due to their age. Getting older may also mean for example impaired hearing, eyesight and ability to react, something that might create problems for older car drivers in complex traffic situations. Degrading ablities often develop slowly and changes can be diffcult to embrace. Thus, mobility demands could be in conflict with traffic safety. Extensive experience can to some extent compensate high performance and refresher courses might be the way to both sustained mobility and traffic safety. The aim of this study was to make a survey of existing refresher courses for older car drivers in Sweden: Which further education possibilities do exist and which teaching material is used? Are the needs recognized? How is the education managed? What does it include and how is it organized? Who are the teachers? Who are the participants? How do the experiences look like and how is the education evaluated? How extensive is the education? What are the plans for the future? Telephone interviews have been performed with eleven experts, active in motor organizations and organizations of retired people. Furthermore, a survey of the course material, used according to the interviewees, has been performed. The most frequent refresher course according to the interviewees is called "65+". The purpose of the course 65+ is to give a better insight into which impact getting older has on car driving and by which means it is possible to continue to drive safely for as long as possible. The refresher course materials used are based on research results, accident statistics and the knowledge of traffic expertise. 65+ is designed in cooperation with a motor club, a traffic safety association and retired people's associations. The results of this study show that the design and performance of the refresher course is made locally, often in cooperation with an educational association. The course content and execution often depend on the individual leader's commitment, knowledge and interest, locally within an organization. Despite the course 65+, the organizations have mentioned a course called 'Older and wiser', which has its focus on influencing the public opinion concerning the elderly, their mobility and traffic safety. 'Correct and sensible in traffic' is another refresher course that includes advice and regulations to avoid traffic accidents. This latter material is, however, directed towards all road user groups and not only for older car drivers. There is, further, the book 'Confident Senior' (Swedish Road Administration), but this material has not been mentioned by the interviewees.

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  • 28.
    Nygaard, Birger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    International traffic safety course 1987: Redovisning och analys av deltagarnas synpunkter och validering av kursen1987Report (Other academic)
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  • 29.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Refresher courses for older drivers: a literature study2012In: TRANSED 2012: 13th international conference on mobility and transport for elderly and disabled persons, New Delhi: Svayam , 2012, , p. 12p. 1-12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a literature survey on refresher courses for older drivers, which was conducted in a project commissioned by the Norwegian Road Administration. The aim was to determine if there is any scientific evidence that refresher courses are an effective intervention for older drivers in terms of sustained safe mobility. The current literature study covering the period 1999 to 2009 provides some evidence that refresher courses can be an effective means to promote both mobility and safety for older drivers. Most studies were conducted in the US and Canada. Courses were grouped in to general and traffic specific education (theoretical) and training (practical). General education can include e.g. knowledge about aging and performance while general training can be e.g. cognitive training programs. Traffic specific education includes e.g. knowledge of new traffic rules while traffic specific training can be closed track driving with an instructor. Most courses were theoretical and consisted of a mix of general knowledge on aging and traffic specific knowledge on handling critical situations and often promoting a cautious driving style. A wide range of methods were used ranging from traditional classroom teaching to coaching by driving instructors. Simulator based training was seldom used even if a general interest is often expressed by participants. Both learning theories and evaluation methods should be further developed, not the least with respect recent neuropsychological research on aging and cognition.

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  • 30.
    Spencer, Graham
    et al.
    GSC Partners, Australia.
    Montero, Kerry
    RMIT University, Australia.
    Creating Sustainable Community Partnerships to Promote Road Safety in Schools: Case Study: Fit to Drive (F2D)2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an innovative, transferable and sustainable community partnership approach to the prevention and reduction of road crashes amongst young drivers. The Fit to Drive (f2d) model is a community intervention strategy, led by university undergraduates to empower young people to be safer road users. The continued over-representation of young drivers in casualty crashes in Victoria, Australia, has resulted in the development of Government legislation and road safety education interventions that focus specifically on young drivers and road users. This paper explores the collaborative ability and potential of the f2d “community” (local school groups, local government, and community road safety groups) to support multi stakeholder (e.g. Police, Road Rescue Emergency Services) and Victorian Government road safety initiatives. The Fit to Drive (f2d) program is aimed at personal safety, behavior change and risk minimisation rather than driving skills. Initial findings and experience indicate that the undergraduate peer led approach combined with targeted community partnerships is an effective local community road safety response and community capacity building model (Verity 2007). This paper explores the development of the f2d community networks and the steps taken to involve local school groups, local government and universities in the development of a coordinated, partnership approach to road safety education. The paper describes the theoretical basis for the program and the key features of the half day year 11 f2d workshop, including the central role of the selected and trained university students as road safety role models and educators. The Fit to Drive (f2d) model offers a potentially valuable example for other communities to adopt and develop according to local conditions and within the context of the United Nations’ “Decade of Road Safety Action”.

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  • 31.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Utvärdering av miljöinslagen i introduktionsutbildningen för privat övningskörning: en kvalitativ studie av innehåll och effekter2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a qualitative analysis of the introductory courses was carried out. Observations and interviews with teachers at the course were made during 18 different training sessions. In addition to this, 32 instructors and 34 pupils were interviewed over the phone. The purpose of this study was to observe how the course affected their understanding of the problem as well as their attitudes and behaviour.

    The results showed that the time devoted to the environmental parts of the introductory courses varied a great deal, from 3 to 35 minutes (out of three hours). However, to only count minutes will not present the whole picture, the commitment of the instructor and the pedagogical approach are of more importance. Analysis of the course material revealed that the content of the courses varied a great deal. The instructors and the pupils were contacted some months later and most of them remembered that environmental issues related to driving was discussed on the introduction course.

    The part which they remembered mostly was the one about eco-driving, but also the environmental effects of starting a cold engine and standing still with the motor running, as well as maintenance of the cars. They remembered less regarding the environmental issues not directly linked to practicing driving, which can be seen as a sign that these issues were less frequently discussed during the course. Both instructors and pupils were positive about environmental issues being in the course. The majority wanted to drive in an environmentally friendly way, whether this depended on the introduction course or something else is difficult to say. It could not be concluded if their driving behavior had changed to drive in an eco-friendlier way.

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  • 32.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wallen Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hellsten, Helena
    Helsäker Konsult AB.
    Simonsson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Känsla och förnuft: utvärdering av utbildningsprogram för alkohol- och trafikinformation i gymnasieskolor2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate how different educational programmes affect young people's attitude to drink driving. The question was if they would be more influenced by an emotional message than by one based on facts or if a combination of both emotion and facts needed? A further aim was to explore young people's attitudes to alcohol and traffic in general, and describe what predicts their intentions to drink and drive, travel with somebody who has been drinking alcohol and prevent somebody from drinking and driving. The evaluation was conducted in the form of a before and after study comparing four different groups: three groups who took part in the educational program and one control group. The sample consisted of 1 178 students aged 15 to 20 years (mean age 16.5 yrs) from six different senior high schools (75% response rate).

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  • 33.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lindström, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Simulatorbaserad träning för utryckningsförare: En förstudie2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the pre-study was to investigate the conditions for simulator-based training of emergency driving and to initiate user-centered development of simulators for emergency driving. With the help of a close cooperation with emergency vehicle operators and the Traffic Safety Unit, the project aims to identify the need to be able to safely train emergency driving and to investigate how training of emergency driving in driving simulators can prevent incidents and accidents.

    An existing emergency scenario developed by VTI has been used to, together with staff from various emergency actors, identify wishes and requirements for different types of use. This R&D-oriented study has been supplemented with the development of simulator methodology. All results will form the basis for the development of simulation tools for training of emergency driving.

    The risks experienced by emergency drivers are strongly linked to the interaction with other road users, but also to their own knowledge of speeds, road conditions and darkness. The results point to the need for training emergency drivers in; how to make themselves visible and to show their intentions, understanding the effects of speed choices, road condition and darkness, on-road overtaking, red light driving, and also the need for training of surrounding traffic on how to behave, preferably during driver's license training.

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