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  • 1.
    Abate, Megersa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Does fuel price affect trucking industry’s network characteristics?: evidence from Denmark2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The 2000s were dominated by rising fuel prices and economic recession. Both had an impact on the structure of the trucking industry and how freight was moved. This paper examines how fuel prices shaped trucking industry’s network characteristics such as the average length of haul, average load, and capacity utilization. In particular, we show the effect of fuel price on average length of haul using 29 quarterly independent surveys from the Danish heavy goods vehicle (HGV) trip diary from 2004 to 2011. The results show that the average length of haul is sensitive to changes in fuel price: a DKK 1 (0.18$) increase in diesel price/liter leads to a 4 percent decrease in the average length of haul in the 2004-2007 period. This implies that firms improve transport efficiency by reducing the number of kilometers needed to transport a tonne of cargo as a short run response to fuel price increases. This result, however, is not confirmed for the years following the 2008 financial crisis. It also depends on where in the distribution of the average length of haul one looks.

  • 2.
    Abate, Megersa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Economic effects of air transport market liberalization in Africa2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 92, p. 326-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the aviation industry is increasingly becoming important for Africa's economic development and integration, the ability of airlines to access foreign markets remains hindered by restrictive regulatory policies. Attempts have been made to fully liberalize the intra-African air transport market. Except for general assertions about the merits/demerits of liberalization, our empirical understanding of the welfare effects of such polices in Africa remains rudimentary. This study empirically measures the economic effects of air transport liberalization, mainly on two supply side variables: fare and service quality, measured as departure frequency. The empirical models evaluate how air fares and departure frequency respond to measures of openness in air services agreements, while controlling for other determinants. The results show up to 40% increase in departure frequency in routes that experienced some type of liberalization compared to those governed by restrictive bilateral air service agreements. Furthermore, there is a relatively larger increase in departure frequency in routes which experienced partial liberalization compared to fully liberalized ones. This can be explained by the diminishing marginal effect of progressive liberalization on departure frequency. While the effect of liberalization is substantial in improving service quality, there is no evidence of its fare reducing effect.

  • 3.
    Abate, Megersa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Economic effects of air transport market liberalization in Africa2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the aviation industry is increasingly becoming important for Africa's economic development and integration, the ability of airlines to access foreign markets remains hindered by restrictive regulatory policies. Attempts have been made to fully liberalize the intra-African air transport market. Except for general assertions about the merits/demerits of liberalization, our empirical understanding of the welfare effects of such polices in Africa remains rudimentary. This study empirically measures the economic effects of air transport liberalization, mainly on two supply side variables: fare and service quality, measured as departure frequency. The results show up to 40 % increase in departure frequency in routes that experienced some type of liberalization compared to those governed by restrictive bilateral air service agreements. While the effect of liberalization is substantial in improving service quality, there is no evidence of its fare reducing effect.

  • 4.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Analysis of discrete multi-unit, common value auctions: a study of three sealed-bid mechanisms2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a discrete bidding model for both quantities and pricing. It has a two-unit demand environment where subjects bid for contracts with an unknown redemption value, common to all bidders. Prior to bidding, the bidders receive private signals of information on the (common) value. The value and the signals are drawn from a known discrete affiliated joint distribution. The relevant task for the paper is to compare the equilibrium strategies and the seller’s revenue of three auction formats. We find that, of the three auctionformats below with two players, the discriminatory auction always gives the largest revenue to the seller; both the uniform and the Vickrey auction have zero revenue equilibrium strategies that put them further down in the revenue ranking. In equilibrium, bidders bid the same amount on both items in the discriminatory auction; a phenomenon not noted in either of the other auction formats.

  • 5.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Kostnader för störningar i infrastrukturen: metodik och fallstudier på väg och järnväg2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the methodology that can be used in calculations of the cost to society when disruptions in the infrastructure occurs, specifically for traffic on road and rail. The principles and values that are recommended to be used in social cost-benefit analyses (CBA) in the Swedish transport sector are proposed by the ASEK-group (a working-group addressing issues on the application of CBA in the transport sector), and decided by the Swedish Transport Administration. They will be taken as given on the cost side of the CBA in this study, there will not be a benefit side since the interest for this study lies expressively on the cost side. This study is thus not a normative analysis, the aim is instead to study and apply methodologies for valuing (in monetary terms) the consequences of already occurred disturbances. The various ASEK-values require information about several aspect of the trips when calculating the value of travel time and transport time, as well as when calculating the delays and the value of travel time savings in congestion. Even though the ASEK-values are recommended by the Swedish Transport Administration, they are also questioned, especially for freight transport. This is also addressed in the report.

  • 6.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Luftfartens samhällsekonomiska marginalkostnader: delstudie inom SAMKOST2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a literature review on the marginal social costs of aviation, and is a sub-project to VTI’s project about updating the knowledge of the external costs of traffic (SAMKOST). The report discusses which impacts of aviation are external, and which are already internalized. It is not entirely clear which impacts that should be considered as the relevant marginal costs for aviation. For example, both congestion and accidents are seen as internalized since they are already taken care of through the air traffic control service, a service that all aircraft must use in Swedish airspace by law. Similar arguments applies to the infrastructure. The large external effect is aviation’s environmental impact. It is separated into three different categories; the impact of noise, air quality and the impact on the climate.

  • 7.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Multi-unit common value auctions: a laboratory experiment with three sealed-bid mechanisms2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses a discrete common value environment with independent (one-dimensional) private signals, where the seller offers two identical units and the buyers have (flat) demand for both. Each session is conducted with2, 3 or 4 buyers. Three auction formats are used: the discriminatory, uniformand Vickrey auctions which are all subjected to a variation in the number of bidders and to repeating bid rounds on each subject. The main findings are that there are no significant differences between the uniform and the discriminatory auction in collecting revenue, while the Vickrey auction comes out as inferior. More bidders in the auction result in a greater revenue and level out the performance across the mechanisms. Demand reduction is visible in the experiment, but it is not as prominent as anticipated. Moreover, subjects come closer to equilibrium play over time. Finally, the winner’s curse is less severe than what is reported for inexperienced bidders in other studies.

  • 8.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Multi-unit common value auctions: an experimental comparison between the static and the dynamic uniform auction2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is still an open question whether the dynamic or the static format should be used in multi-unit settings, in a uniform price auction. The present study conducts an economic experiment in a common value environment, where it is found that it is more a question of whether the auctioneer wants to facilitate price discovery, and thereby lessen the otherwise pervasive overbidding, or if only the revenue is important. The experiment in the present paper provides evidence that the static format gives a significantly greater revenue than the dynamic auction, in both small and large group sizes. But a higher revenue comes at a cost; half of the auctions in the static format yield negative profits to the bidders, the winner’s curse is more severely widespread in the static auction, and only a minority of the bidders use the equilibrium bidding strategy.

  • 9.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Multi-unit common value auctions: theory and experiments2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on auctions that involve more than one identical item for sale was,almost non-existing in the 90’s, but has since then been getting increasing attention. External incentives for this research have come from the US spectrum, sales, the European 3G mobile-phone auctions,  and Internet auctions. The policy relevance and the huge amount of money involved in many of them have helped the theory and experimental research advance. But in auctions where values are equal across bidders, common value auctions, that is, when the value depends on some outside parameter, equal to all bidders, the research is still embryonic.

    This thesis contributes to the topic with three studies. The first uses a Bayesian game to model a simple multi-unit common value auction, the task being to compare equilibrium strategies and the seller’s revenue from three auction formats; the discriminatory, the uniform and the Vickrey auction. The second study conducts an economic laboratory experiment on basis of the first study. The third study comprises an experiment on the multi-unit common value uniform auction and compares the dynamic and the static environments of this format.

    The most salient result in both experiments is that subjects overbid. They are victims of the winner’s curse and bid above the expected value, thus earning a negative profit. There is some learning, but most bidders continue to earn a negative profit also in later rounds. The competitive effect when participating in an auction seems to be stronger than the rationality concerns. In the first experiment, subjects in the Vickrey auction do somewhat better in small groups than subjects in the other auction types and, in the second experiment, subjects in the dynamic auction format perform much better than subjects in the static auction format; but still, they overbid.

    Due to this overbidding, the theoretical (but not the behavioral) prediction that the dynamic auction should render more revenue than the static fails inthe second experiment. Nonetheless, the higher revenue of the static auction comes at a cost; half of the auctions yield negative profits to the bidders, and the winner’s curse is more severely widespread in this format. Besides, only a minority of the bidders use the equilibrium bidding strategy.The bottom line is that the choice between the open and sealed-bid formats may be more important than the choice of price mechanism, especially in common value settings.

    List of papers
    1. Analysis of discrete multi-unit, common value auctions: a study of three sealed-bid mechanisms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of discrete multi-unit, common value auctions: a study of three sealed-bid mechanisms
    2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a discrete bidding model for both quantities and pricing. It has a two-unit demand environment where subjects bid for contracts with an unknown redemption value, common to all bidders. Prior to bidding, the bidders receive private signals of information on the (common) value. The value and the signals are drawn from a known discrete affiliated joint distribution. The relevant task for the paper is to compare the equilibrium strategies and the seller’s revenue of three auction formats. We find that, of the three auctionformats below with two players, the discriminatory auction always gives the largest revenue to the seller; both the uniform and the Vickrey auction have zero revenue equilibrium strategies that put them further down in the revenue ranking. In equilibrium, bidders bid the same amount on both items in the discriminatory auction; a phenomenon not noted in either of the other auction formats.

    Publisher
    p. 27
    Keywords
    Economics
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    SAB, Qa Economics and finance
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5313 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2016-02-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Multi-unit common value auctions: a laboratory experiment with three sealed-bid mechanisms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-unit common value auctions: a laboratory experiment with three sealed-bid mechanisms
    2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses a discrete common value environment with independent (one-dimensional) private signals, where the seller offers two identical units and the buyers have (flat) demand for both. Each session is conducted with2, 3 or 4 buyers. Three auction formats are used: the discriminatory, uniformand Vickrey auctions which are all subjected to a variation in the number of bidders and to repeating bid rounds on each subject. The main findings are that there are no significant differences between the uniform and the discriminatory auction in collecting revenue, while the Vickrey auction comes out as inferior. More bidders in the auction result in a greater revenue and level out the performance across the mechanisms. Demand reduction is visible in the experiment, but it is not as prominent as anticipated. Moreover, subjects come closer to equilibrium play over time. Finally, the winner’s curse is less severe than what is reported for inexperienced bidders in other studies.

    Publisher
    p. 35
    Keywords
    Economics, Ekonomi
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    SAB, Qa Economics and finance
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5314 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2014-06-10Bibliographically approved
    3. Multi-unit common value auctions: an experimental comparison between the static and the dynamic uniform auction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-unit common value auctions: an experimental comparison between the static and the dynamic uniform auction
    2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is still an open question whether the dynamic or the static format should be used in multi-unit settings, in a uniform price auction. The present study conducts an economic experiment in a common value environment, where it is found that it is more a question of whether the auctioneer wants to facilitate price discovery, and thereby lessen the otherwise pervasive overbidding, or if only the revenue is important. The experiment in the present paper provides evidence that the static format gives a significantly greater revenue than the dynamic auction, in both small and large group sizes. But a higher revenue comes at a cost; half of the auctions in the static format yield negative profits to the bidders, the winner’s curse is more severely widespread in the static auction, and only a minority of the bidders use the equilibrium bidding strategy.

    Publisher
    p. 35
    Keywords
    Economics, Ekonomi
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    SAB, Qa Economics and finance
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-5315 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2014-06-10Bibliographically approved
  • 10.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Optimal taxation of intermediate goods in the presence of externalities: A survey towards the transport sector2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The paper surveys the literature on optimal taxation with emphasis on intermediate goods, or, more specific, freight (road) transport. There are two models frequently used, first, the one emanated from Diamond & Mirrlees' (1971) paper, where the production efficiency lemma made it clear that intermediate goods was not to be taxed. And, second, the Ramsey-Boiteux model where a cost-of-service regulation imposes a budget constraint for the regulated firm. In the latter model, in contrast to the first, freight transports (intermediate goods) are to be taxed in the Ramsey tradition, and thus trades the production efficiency lemma against a budget restriction. The paper also discusses welfare effects due to environmental tax reforms, with emphasis to what has become to known as the double dividend hypothesis. Finally, administrative costs in the context of optimal taxation is touched upon, a subject that is to a large degree repressed in optimal tax theory.

  • 11.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Optimal taxation of intermediate goods in the presence of externalities: A survey towards the transport sector2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The paper surveys the literature on optimal taxation with emphasis on intermediate goods, or, more specific, freight (road) transport. There are two models frequently used, first, the one emanated from Diamond & Mirrlees' (1971) paper, where the production efficiency lemma made it clear that intermediate goods was not to be taxed. And, second, the Ramsey-Boiteux model where a cost-of-service regulation imposes a budget constraint for the regulated firm. In the latter model, in contrast to the first, freight transports (intermediate goods) are to be taxed in the Ramsey tradition, and thus trades the production efficiency lemma against a budget restriction. The paper also discusses welfare effects due to environmental tax reforms, with emphasis to what has become to known as the double dividend hypothesis. Finally, administrative costs in the context of optimal taxation is touched upon, a subject that is to a large degree repressed in optimal tax theory.

  • 12.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Revenues in discrete multi-unit, common value auctions: a study of three sealed-bid mechanisms2009In: Portuguese economic journal, ISSN 1617-9838, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 21p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose in this paper a discrete bidding model, both on quantities and in pricing. It has a two-unit demand environment where subjects bid for contracts with an unknown redemption value, common to all bidders. Prior to bidding, the bidders receive private signals of information on the (common) value. Both the value and the signals are drawn from a known discrete affiliated joint distribution. The relevant task for the paper is to compare equilibrium strategies and the seller's revenue between the three auction formats. We find that, among the three auction formats below with two players, the Vickrey auction always gives the most revenue to the seller, where the discriminatory auction becomes second and the uniform auction last. We also find that, in equilibrium, bidders bid the same amount on both items in the discriminatory auction; a phenomenon we do not notice in either of the other two auction formats. There, different amount of demand reduction is encountered.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Perception of own death risk: a reassessment of road-traffic mortality risk2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines individuals' perception of their own road-mortality risk. Swedish data on respondents' subjective risk beliefs is used and compared with objective risk estimates. The objective risk is defined as the risk of the respondent's own age and gender group, and it is found that low and high risk groups over- and underassess their risk levels, respectively. This study replicates the analysis used by Andersson and Lundborg (2007) and the pattern of over- and underassessment found confirms their findings. As in their study, risk beliefs are updated in line with the Bayesian learning model, a relationship not statistically significant in this study, though. Regarding results of individual characteristics and risk beliefs in both studies, whereas, e.g., gender effects are robust, other results suggest a weak relationship between the perception of own road-mortality risk and individual characteristics.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Private and public WTP for safety: a validity test2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To elicit an affected population's preferences for, e.g., better health or environment stated preference (SP) methods are often used. SP methods are based on hypothetical market settings which necessitates validity tests of the results. This study describes a validity test on the basis of theoretical predictions and empirical findings for private and public safety measures. According to the test, public willingness to pay (WTP) should exceed private WTP.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Hammitt, James
    Center for Risk Analysis, Harvard University, USA.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Sundström, Kristian
    SLU.
    Willingness to pay for car safety: sensitivity to time framing2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stated preference (SP) surveys attempt to obtain monetary values for non-market goods that reflect individuals "true" preferences. Numerous empirical studies suggest that monetary values from SP studies are sensitive to survey design and so may not reflect respondents' true preferences. This study examines the effect of time framing on respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) for car safety. We explore how WTP per unit risk reduction depends on the time period over which respondents pay and face reduced risk. Using data from a Swedish contingent valuation survey, we find that WTP is sensitive to time framing; estimates based on an annual scenario are about 30 to 70 percent higher than estimates from a monthly scenario.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Toulouse.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro Universitet.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Institute of Transport Economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Economic Analysis and Investment Priorities in Sweden's Transport Sector2018In: Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, ISSN 2194-5888, E-ISSN 2152-2812, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 120-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beginning as a planning tool within Sweden's national road administration some 50 years ago, benefit-cost analysis (BCA) has come to be a pillar of the national transport policy because of subsequent strategic choices made by the national parliament. These choices made it necessary to widen the analysis of costs to include also externalities and a foregone conclusion was that efficient investment priorities should be made based on BCA. But no one asked whether the political decision makers or the BCA models were up to that task. This paper reviews the institutional framework and practice of BCA in Sweden for transport infrastructure investment, and considers design issues that have been and still are debated, such as whether the discount rate should include a risk term and how to account for the marginal cost of public funds. A main concern with BCA results is the underestimation of construction costs, making transport sector projects look better than they are. Several ex post analyses have established that a higher NPV ratio increases the probability of being included in the investment program proposal prepared by the agency. The requirement to let projects undergo BCA seems to make planners trim project proposals by trying to reduce investment costs without significantly reducing benefits. This relationship is weaker among profitable projects. Moreover, there is no correlation between rate of return and the probability of being included in the final program, which is established on political grounds.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Property prices and exposure to multiple noise sources: hedonic regression with road and railway noise2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effect of road and railway noise on property prices. It uses the hedonic regression technique on a Swedish data set that contains information about both road and railway noise for each property, and finds that road noise has a larger negative impact on the property prices than railway noise. This is in line with the evidence from the acoustical literature which has shown that individuals are more disturbed by road than railway noise, but contradicts recent results from a hedonic study on data of the United Kingdom.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics LERNA.
    Jonsson, Lina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Property Prices and Exposure to Multiple Noise Sources: Hedonic Regression with Road and Railway Noise2010In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 73-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effect of road and railway noise on property prices. It uses the hedonic regression technique on a Swedish data set that contains information about both road and railway noise for each property, and finds that road noise has a larger negative impact on the property prices than railway noise. This is in line with the evidence from the acoustical literature which has shown that individuals are more disturbed by road than railway noise, but contradicts recent results from a hedonic study on data of the United Kingdom.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Benevolence and the value of road safety2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses the contingent valuation method to elicit individuals' preferences for their own and others' safety in road-traffic. Whereas one group is asked about a private safety device for themselves, other groups are asked about safety devices for their children, household, relatives and the public. Support is found for the hypothesis that individuals are not purely selfish when it comes the safety of others.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Efterfrågan på tystnad: skattning av betalningsviljan för icke-marginella förändringar av vägtrafikbuller2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efterfrågan på tystnad från vägbullerexponering skattas i detta projekt baserat på båda stegen i en så kallad hedonisk modell. Vi använder data från sju olika kommuner runt om i Sverige. Baserat på efterfrågekurvan kan vi räkna ut betalningsviljor för icke-marginella förändringar i bullerexponering från vägtrafik. Dessa resultat har stor användning i samhällsekonomiska kalkyler inom transportsektorn. Våra skattningsresultat visar att betalningsviljan för en bullerreducering från 66 till 65 dB är 2211 kronor per individ och år och 477 kronor per individ och år för en bullerreducering från 56 till 55 dB. Resultaten visar ingen betalningsvilja för bullerreduceringar under 52,8 dB. För en bullerreducering från 66 dB till 52,8 dB och alla lägre bullernivåer är betalningsviljan 15 225 kronor. Denna summa är även kostnaden för att utsättas för 66 dB vägbuller per individ och år.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics LERNA Université Toulouse 1.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Traffic noise effects of property prices: hedonic estimates based on multiple noise indicators2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Valuation of traffic noise abatement based on hedonic pricing models of the property market has traditionally measured the noise as the equivalent, or another average, level. What is not captured in such a noise indicator is the maximum noise level of a vehicle passage. In this study, we incorporate the maximum noise level in the hedonic model letting the property price depend on both the equivalent noise level and the maximum noise level. Hedonic models for both rail and road noise are estimated. Data consists of characteristics of sold properties, property-specific noise calculation, and geographical variables.

    We use the hedonic approach to estimate the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for maximum noise abatement where we model the effect as the maximum noise level subtracted with the equivalent noise level. Furthermore, we control for the equivalent noise level in the estimations. The estimated results show that including the maximum noise level in the model has influence on the property prices, but only for rail and not for road. This means that for road we cannot reject the hypothesis that WTP for noise abatement is based on the equivalent noise level only. For rail, on the other hand, we estimate the marginal WTP for the maximum noise level and it turns out to be substantial. Also, the marginal WTP for the equivalent noise levels seems to be unaffected by the inclusion of the maximum noise level in the model. More research of this novel topic is requested though.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Treich, Nicolas
    Toulouse School of Economics.
    The value of a statistical life2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper on the value of a statistical life (VSL) has been prepared for the Handbook in Transport Economics, edited by André de Palma, Robin Lindsey, Emile Quinet and Roger Vickerman. The paper's first objective is to survey some classical theoretical and empirical findings in the VSL literature; but it also attempts to clarify some of these issues often raised by the application of the WTP approach to study of mortality risks.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Charging the polluters: a pricing model for road and railway noise2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study outlines a method to estimate the short run marginal cost (SRMC) for road and railway noise. It is based on standardized calculation methods for total noise levels and monetary cost estimates from well established evaluation methods. Here official calculation methods and monetary values are used for Sweden, but the estimation method for the SRMC outlined can be directly applied using other standardized noise calculation methods and monetary values. This implies that the current knowledge regarding the calculation of total noise levels and the evaluation of the social cost of noise can be extended to estimate the marginal effect as well. This is an important finding since it enables policy makers to price noise externalities in an appropriate way. Several sensitivity tests run for the SRMC show that: (i) increasing the total traffic on the infrastructure has only a minor influence, (ii) estimates are quite sensitive to the number of exposed individuals, and (iii) to the monetary values used. Hence, benefits transfer, i.e. using monetary values elicited based on road noise for railway noise, should be done with caution or not at all. Results also show that the use of quiet technology can have a significant effect on the SRMC. The fact that this model is able to differentiate not only modes of transport, but also vehicles and even technologies is an important finding. It is essential that the noise charges give the operators the right incentives to choose their optimal allocation.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Marginal cost pricing of noise in railway infrastructure2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to mitigate negative effects from traffic it has been decided that infrastructure charges in the European Union (EU) should be based on short run marginal costs. The Swedish Parliament has legislated that operators in the Swedish railway infrastructure must pay charges based on short run marginal social costs in order to mitigate externalities in railway infrastructure. Internalization of the social cost of noise is of particular interest, since it is the only environmental problem perceived as more troublesome today than in the early 1990s. Inclusion of a noise component in rail infrastructure charges raises two issues: (i) the monetary evaluation of noise abatement, since noise is a non-market good, and (ii) the estimation of the effect on the noise level that one extra train will create. Regarding the latter, we are interested in the marginal noise, since infrastructure charges based on the short-run marginal cost principle should be based on the effect from the marginal train, not the noise level itself. Using already existing knowledge, this study shows that it is possible to implement a noise component in the rail infrastructure charges. The values that are used today to estimate the social cost of noise exposure in cost benefit analysis can also be used to calculate the marginal cost. We recommend, however, that further research be carried out in order to get more robust estimates based on railway traffic. We also show that the existing noise estimation models can easily be modified to estimate the marginal noise. Noise infrastructure charges give the operators incentives to reduce their noise emissions. We believe that this kind of charge can be used to reduce overall emission levels to an optimal social level, but that it is important for the charge to be based on monetary estimates for rail-traffic and not road-traffic.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Noise charges in railway infrastructure: a pricing schedule based on the marginal cost principle2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to mitigate the negative effects of transportation and to achieve a competitive transport sector, infrastructure charges in the European Union shall be based on short-run marginal costs. This paper shows that railway-noise charges can be estimated using already obtained knowledge of monetary and acoustical noise evaluation. Most European countries have standardised calculation methods for total noise level, which can be used to estimate the marginal acoustical effect. Based on a Swedish case study (with a relatively high number of exposed individuals), railway-noise charges are estimated at 0.026, 0.099 and 0.89 e/km for commuter, high-speed and freight trains, respectively.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Enviroment and traffic analysis.
    Noise charges in road traffic: a pricing schedule based on the marginal cost principle2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One way of mitigating the negative effects of noise from road traffic is to include the external cost of noise in a road charging system. This study shows how standardized calculation methods for road traffic noise can be used together with monetary estimates of the social cost of noise exposure to calculate charges based on the social marginal cost. Using Swedish data on traffic volume and individuals exposed to road noise, together with official Swedish monetary values for noise exposure, we estimate road-noise charges for light (cars) and heavy (trucks) vehicles.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Fixed effects estimation of marginal railway infrastructure costs in Sweden2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New railway legislation in Sweden has increased the need for transparent access charges on the Swedish railway network. We estimate cost functions for infrastructure operation, maintenance and renewal in the Swedish national railway network, using unobserved effects models and calculate marginal costs for railway infrastructure wear and tear. We find evidence of unobserved fixed effects at a track section level for infrastructure operation and maintenance costs. The estimated weighted average marginal infrastructure operation cost is SEK 0.12 per train kilometre and the estimated marginal maintenance cost is SEK 0.0073 per gross tonne kilometre. Altogether, the results indicate that the current charge for railway infrastructure wear and tear in Sweden is below marginal cost.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginal cost of railway infrastructure wear and tear for freight and passenger trains in Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse maintenance cost data for Swedish railway infrastructure in relation to traffic volumes and network characteristics, and separate the cost impact from passenger and freight trains. Lines with mixed passenger and freight traffic, and dedicated freight lines are analysed separately using both log-linear and Box-Cox regression models. We find that for mixed lines, the Box-Cox specification is preferred, while a log-linear model is chosen in the case of dedicated freight lines. The cost elasticity with respect to output is found to be higher for passenger trains than for freight trains. From a marginal cost pricing perspective, freight trains are currently over-charged, while passenger trains are under-charged.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginal railway infrastructure costs in a dynamic context2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, dynamic aspects of railway infrastructure operation and maintenance costs in Sweden are explored. Econometric cost functions are estimated to check the robustness of previous marginal cost estimates by introducing lags and leads of both dependent and independent variables. We find support for a forward-looking behaviour within the Swedish National Rail Administration (Banverket) as both infrastructure operation and maintenance costs are reduced prior to a major renewal. There are also indications of both lagged traffic and costs affecting the cost structure, but these results are more uncertain due to limitations in data.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginal railway renewal costs: a survival data approach2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, renewal costs for railway tracks are investigated using survival analysis. The purpose is to derive the effect from increased traffic volumes on rail renewal cycle lengths and to calculate associated marginal costs. A flow sample of censored data containing almost 1 500 observations on the Swedish main railway network is used. We specify Weibull accelerated failure time regression models, and estimate deterioration elasticities for total tonnage as well as for passenger and freight tonnages separately. Marginal costs are calculated as a change in present values of renewal costs from premature renewal following increased traffic volumes.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Rail cost allocation for Europe: Annex 1A. Marginal cost of railway infrastructure wear and tear for freight and passenger trains in Sweden2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse maintenance cost data for Swedish railway infrastructure in relation to traffic volumes and other characteristics, and separate the cost impact from passenger and freight trains. Lines with mixed passenger and freight traffic, and dedicated freight lines are analysed separately using both log-linear and Box-Cox regression models. We find that for mixed lines, the Box-Cox specification is preferred, while a log-linear model is chosen in the case of dedicated freight lines. The cost elasticity with respect to output is found to be higher for passenger trains than for freight trains. From a marginal cost pricing perspective, freight trains are currently paying too much, while passenger trains should be charged more. An adjusted pricing scheme based on these results would still lead to higher revenues than today if total demand is unaffected.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Marginal railway track renewal costs: a survival data approach2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, renewal costs for railway tracks are investigated using survival analysis. The purpose is to derive the effect from increased traffic volumes on rail renewal cycle lengths and to calculate associated marginal costs. A flow sample of censored data containing almost 1 300 observations on the Swedish main railway network is used. We specify Weibull accelerated failure time regression models, and estimate deterioration elasticities for total tonnage as well as for passenger and freight tonnages separately. Marginal costs are calculated as a change in present values of renewal costs from premature renewal following increased traffic volumes. The marginal cost for aggregate freight and passenger trains is estimated to approximately SEK 0.002 per gross ton kilometre.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nyström, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Odolinski, Kristofer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Wieweg, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Strategi för utveckling av en samhällsekonomisk analysmodell för drift, underhåll och reinvestering av väg- och järnvägsinfrastruktur2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to make structured decisions about the optimal funding for operation, maintenance and renewal of roads and railways is currently limited. This creates significant risks that the funds are used in an inefficient manner. It is therefore important that the Swedish Transport Administration develops a transparent model for decision support in this field. VTI has undertaken a review of the state of knowledge in various areas required to bring about an economic analysis of operation, maintenance and renewal. The review shows that there are good prospects to produce a decision basis within a relatively short time. This makes it possible to answer at least some of the issues formulated. The review indicates that there are great opportunities to move forward both in road and railway areas. Five specific projects have been suggested, of which three are short term and two are long term. The aim in the long run is to make transparent and structured decisions on funding needed from an economic perspective on various road and railway sections.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Smith, Andrew
    Institute for Transport Studies, University of L eeds, UK .
    Wikberg, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Wheat, Phillip
    Institute for Transport Studies, University of L eeds, UK .
    Estimating the marginal cost of railway track renewals using corner solution models2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic theory advocates marginal cost pricing for efficient utilisation of transport infrastructure. A growing body of literature has emerged on the issue of rail marginal infrastructure wear and tear costs, but the majority of the work is focused on costs for infrastructure maintenance. Railway track renewals are a substantial part of an infrastructure manager’s budget, but in disaggregated statistical analyses they cause problems for traditional regression models since there is a piling up of values of the dependent variable at zero. Previous econometric work has sought to circumvent the problem by aggregation in some way. In this paper we instead apply corner solution models to disaggregate (tracksection) data, including the zero observations. We derive track renewal cost elasticities with respect to traffic volumes and in turn marginal renewal costs using Swedish railway renewal data over the period 1999 to 2009. This paper is the first attempt in the literature to apply corner solution models, and in particular the two-part model, to disaggregate renewal cost data in railways. It is also the first paper that we are aware of to report usage elasticities specifically for renewal costs and therefore adds important new evidence to the previous literature where there is a paucity of studies on renewals and considerable uncertainty over the effects of rail traffic on renewal costs.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Matts
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics, TEK.
    Thörn, Helena Braun
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Gomér, Ylva
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    The effect of minimum parking requirements on the housing stock2016In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 49, p. 206-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cost of parking is in many cities subsidized and instead channelled through higher housing prices, wages, taxes, etc. The effects on other markets are principally well known, but the work on the area is limited. In this paper, we study how parking norms affect the size of the housing stock. Our analysis is based on a model of the rental, asset- and construction markets, the results are quality-assured by interviews with market actors. Prices and profits are affected when constructors are forced, through parking norms, to build more parking spaces than the customers demand. Parking norms reduce the housing stock by 1.2% and increase rents by 2.4% (SEK 300) in our example suburb.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Roland
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Explaining regional changes in employment2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Anderstig, Christer
    et al.
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Berglund, Svante
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH.
    Andersson, Matts
    WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Congestion charges and labour market imperfections: “wider economic benefits” or “losses”?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of distortive taxation and agglomeration benefits in the labour market means that there are benefits and losses not captured by standard cost-benefit analyses of transport policy measures. Recent theoretical analyses have raised concerns that the labour market effects of congestion charges may constitute considerable losses in the form of reduced aggregate labour income, over and above what is captured by the consumer surplus in the standard analysis of congestion charges – possibly to the extent that congestion charges may reduce aggregate social welfare, contrary to conventional wisdom in transport economics. The sign and size of these effects are an empirical question, however. We investigate this issue by estimating the labour income effects of the Stockholm congestion charges, using an estimated relationship between workplace accessibility and labour income. Results show positive effects on labour income, meaning that the “wider economic benefits” of this system are in fact benefits, not losses. It turns out to be crucial that the model accounts for value-of-time heterogeneity in the income/accessibility relationship and in the calculation of generalized travel costs.

  • 38.
    Arvidsson, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Does private information affect the insurance risk?: evidence from the automobile insurance market2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We empirically investigate the effect of policyholders’ private information of risky traffic behavior on automobile insurance coverage and ex post risk. We combine our insurance company’s information with private information data that is not accessible to the insurance company. We show that being unable to reject the null of zero correlation is not necessarily consistent with symmetric information in the automobile insurance market. Our results are twofold: In contrast to much of the previous work we find a positive significant correlation for three groups of policyholders, consistent with the adverse selection prediction. We furthermore find that private information about risky traffic behavior increases ex post risk while it both increases and decreases the demand for extensive insurance. This supports our hypothesis that adverse and propitious is present simultaneously in this market.

  • 39.
    Arvidsson, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Predictors of customer loyalty in automobile insurance: the role of private information in risky driving behavior and claim history2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Contract relevant information asymmetries are known to cause inefficiencies in markets. The information asymmetry is largest in the beginning of the customer insurer relationship but reduces over time; the longer a policyholder stays with the insurer the more the insurer learns about the policyholder’s risk. Two important characteristics of the market studied here imply that the information asymmetry may not be reduced for all policyholders. First, insurers do not have access to traffic violations, which are predictors of risk since policyholders with traffic violations are more likely to report a claim. Second, the insurers do not share information, such as previous claims, which means that the policyholder can flee a poor claim record by switching insurer. Hence, there may be a selection of high risk customers who switch insurer more often, such that the information asymmetry in this group is never reduced. To test this, we compare information asymmetries in two groups of policyholders; new customers who stay with the insurer for a period or less (short term), and long-term customers who stay with the insurer for several periods (loyal). The results indicate that departing policyholders are disproportionately high risks that constitute an adverse selection of risks, while loyal policyholders constitute a propitious (favorable) selection of risks.

    Older version: http://swopec.hhs.se/vtiwps/abs/vtiwps2011_002.htm

  • 40.
    Arvidsson, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Propitious selection in the vehicle insurance market2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining Contract Theory and vehicle positioning techniques, insurance companies can replace some of the proxies for risk by actual traffic behavior when pricing the premium. A mechanism design model is used to illustrate that Usage Based Insurance (UBI) can separate risks in terms of driving behavior. This makes it possible to reward safe driving habits since the pricing scheme better reflects the accident risk. The conclusion is that UBI provides an actuarially fair premium for the insuree. It is further an efficient instrument to separate risks for the insurer since it reduces the information asymmetries highlighted in this paper.

  • 41.
    Arvidsson, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Borlänge.
    Traffic violations and insurance data: a note on the role of age, gender, annual mileage and vehicle brand2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Risky driving behavior is regarded as being one of the best predictors of traffic accidents. Traffic violations certainly signal risky driving behavior, but the analysis of the linkage of traffic violations, individual and vehicle characteristics and annual mileage has so far been hampered by the difficulty of gaining access to appropriate disaggregate data. The contribution of this paper is that it sets out and explores a rich data set in order to study traffic violations, including both accident involved and accident-free individuals. The data set comprises all insurance policies from Sweden’s largest automobile insurance company covering several years, in total 9.3 million observations, as well as information on fines and convictions for traffic violations. This implies that the methodological issues associated with self-reported violations and only accident involved individuals are disused. The first purpose is to establish the role of age and gender in traffic violations. The second purpose is to make a first attempt to establish whether vehicle owners of status brands are more likely to commit traffic violations. The results support previous findings as well as confirm the association between owners of status brands and traffic violations. The main conclusion is that insurance data provides a viable option when studying behavior, but it also raises new methodological issues.

    Older version: http://swopec.hhs.se/vtiwps/abs/vtiwps2011_003.htm

  • 42.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportforum 2001: sammanställning av konferensföredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 10-11 januari 20012001Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportforum 2002: sammanställning av konferensföredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 9-10 januari 20022002Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportforum 2003: rapportsammanställning av föredrag i Linköping 8-9 januari 20032003Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Från nedanstående sessioner finns redovisning i konferensrapporten:  

    Session 3 Godstransporter och samhälle  Session 4 Sjöfart. Fartyg  Session 5 Planering för hög produktivitet  Session 6 En flygmarknad i förändring  Session 8 Behovsdriven FoU - grunden för svensk bilindustris världsledande  ställning på säkerhetsområdet  Session 9 Samhällsplanera - med fokus på kollektivtrafiken  Session 10 Marginalkostnadsprissättning. Långsiktig planering  Session 11 Metoder och modeller i transportanalys  Session 12 Jämställt transportsystem  Session 13 Kunders värderingar.  Transportlösningar  Session 14 På väg mot bättre vägar och gator?  Vinterväghållning  Session 15 Återvinning eller deponering av tjärhaltiga beläggningsmaterial?  Session 16 Hot, visioner och styrmedel.  Tyst och vackert  Session 17 Utvärdering av ITS  Session 18 STRADA - Nationellt informationssystem om olyckor och skadade inom  vägtransportsystemet  Session 19 Förarutbildning  Del 1: Den grundläggande förarutbildningen och trafiksäkerhetsmålen  Del 2: Pedagogiska strategier och metoder i förarutbildningen  Session 20 Personlig integritet i trafiken  Session 21 Förorenad mark i infrastrukturen - risker, problem och lösningar  Session 22 Mobility Management  Session 23 Trafikverken i förändring  Session 24 Transportpolitik. Regionförstoring  Session 25 Järnväg.  I avregleringens spår  Session 26 Logistiksystem  Den kundorienterade järnvägen  Intermodalitet  Session 27 Sjöfarten och den mänskliga faktorn  Miljö och säkerhet inom sjöfarten  Session 28 Trafik för en attraktiv stad - TRAST  Session 29 Teknik och miljö  Flyget och miljön  Session 30 Parkering, mobilitet, ekonomi och miljö - ett område i behov av  samordnad kunskapsgenerering  Session 31 Försök med automatisk hastighetsövervakning (AH)  Session 32 Kostnadseffektiva åtgärdskombinationer och  åtgärdssekvenser  Session 33 Metoder och modeller i transportanalys  Session 34 Trafiksimulering  Session 35 Snålare motorer och fordon  Session 36 Planering  Kollektivtrafik  Session 37 Banunderhåll och grusväghållning  Komfort, sårbarhet och upphandling  Underhållets inverkan på trafik och trafikanter  Session 38 Vägteknik  Session 39 Erfarenheter från region-MaTs (Miljöanpassat transportsystem)  Emissionsdata & Modeller  Utan egen bil?  Session 40 Möjligheter med väginformatik  Dynamiska trafikmodeller för trafikledning - Nu färdiga för implementering i  verksamheten  Session 41 Ledarskap för överlevnad!  Session 42 Trafiksäkerhetsåtgärder i tätort  Session 43 Den moderna spårvägens egenskaper och potential  Session 45 På jakt efter den tid som kommer - utmaningar för  vägtransportsystemet år 2025  Session 46 Fotgängaren - bortglömd som trafikant och social aktör?

  • 45.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    VTI:s och KFB:s forskardagar: del 5. Rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1999-01-13--14 beträffande: transportpolitik och samhällsekonomi - kollektivtrafik och samhällsbetalda resor1999Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Asplund, Disa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. Örebro University School of Business.
    Avoiding path dependence of distributional weights: Lessons from climate change economic assessment2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     In some cost benefit analysis (CBA) applications, such as those used for the valuation of climate change damage, distributional weights are used to account for diminishing utility of marginal income. This is usually done by means of intra-temporal distributional weights, which are combined with discounting to account for inter-temporal equity and efficiency. Here, I show that this approach might introduce some inconsistencies in terms of path dependence. In short, this inconsistency means that regional economic growth is double counted. This is because income weighting is performed both through the discount rate and through the distributional weights such that growth shows up twice in the weighting process. Using the PAGE2002 model, it is found that the inconsistency problem in the original model erases the influence of distributional weights on the social cost of carbon dioxide (SCCO2) compared to a standard CBA approach. The alternative approaches proposed here yield about 20 %–40 % higher values of SCCO2 than the old approach. While this has been briefly commented on in previous work, it has not yet been more thoroughly analyzed nor communicated to the broader community of climate policy and economic analysts who are not deeply interested in the specifications of the climate impact assessment models.

  • 47.
    Asplund, Disa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Cost-Benefit Analysis of climate policy and long term public investments2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This compilation dissertation consists of four essays with the common theme of welfare analysis of long-term public investments. The first two essays focus on analysis of climate change mitigation, i.e., the social cost of carbon dioxide. The third essay focuses on cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of transport investment projects, while the last essay takes a broader perspective on welfare analysis.

    List of papers
    1. Avoiding path dependence of distributional weights: Lessons from climate change economic assessment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Avoiding path dependence of distributional weights: Lessons from climate change economic assessment
    2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     In some cost benefit analysis (CBA) applications, such as those used for the valuation of climate change damage, distributional weights are used to account for diminishing utility of marginal income. This is usually done by means of intra-temporal distributional weights, which are combined with discounting to account for inter-temporal equity and efficiency. Here, I show that this approach might introduce some inconsistencies in terms of path dependence. In short, this inconsistency means that regional economic growth is double counted. This is because income weighting is performed both through the discount rate and through the distributional weights such that growth shows up twice in the weighting process. Using the PAGE2002 model, it is found that the inconsistency problem in the original model erases the influence of distributional weights on the social cost of carbon dioxide (SCCO2) compared to a standard CBA approach. The alternative approaches proposed here yield about 20 %–40 % higher values of SCCO2 than the old approach. While this has been briefly commented on in previous work, it has not yet been more thoroughly analyzed nor communicated to the broader community of climate policy and economic analysts who are not deeply interested in the specifications of the climate impact assessment models.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Örebro: , 2012. p. 20
    Series
    CTS Working Paper
    Keywords
    Economics, Climate change, Cost benefit analysis, Distribution (gen)
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    SAB, Qb Managerial economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10840 (URN)
    Note

    Revised 2016

    Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Temporal Aspects of the Social Cost of Greenhouse Gases
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal Aspects of the Social Cost of Greenhouse Gases
    2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the temporal aspects of the social cost of greenhouse gases (GHGs). I am particularly interested in the interaction between time of emissions, discounting, and type of GHG (where different GHGs have different atmospheric lifetimes). I show graphically how the social costs of GHGs depend on different parameter values and how the global damage potential for methane and sulfur hexafluoride evolves over time. I find that that the calculation period ultimately should be modeled to be consistent with the discount rate and that the “global-warming potential” concept is unsuitable for calculating of the social cost of GHGs other than carbon dioxide.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Örebro: , 2012. p. 14
    Series
    CTS Working Paper ; 2012:3
    Keywords
    Greenhouse gas, Cost benefit analysis, Emission, Cost, Time, Calculation
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    SAB, Qa Economics and finance
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10839 (URN)
    Note

    Revised 2016

    Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Does uncertainty make cost-benefit analyses pointless?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does uncertainty make cost-benefit analyses pointless?
    2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is widely used in public decision making on infrastructure investments. However, the demand forecasts, cost estimates, benefit valuations and effect assessments that are conducted as part of CBAs are all subject to various degrees of uncertainty. The question is to what extent CBAs, given such uncertainties, are still useful as a way to prioritize between infrastructure investments, or put differently, how robust the policy conclusions of CBA are with respect to uncertainties. Using simulations based on real data on national infrastructure plans in Sweden and Norway, we study how investment selection and total realized benefits change when decisions are based on CBA assessments subject to several different types of uncertainty. Our results indicate that realized benefits and investment selection are surprisingly insensitive to all studied types of uncertainty, even for high levels of uncertainty. The two types of uncertainty that affect results the most are uncertainties about investment cost and transport demand. Reducing uncertainty can still be worthwhile, however, because of the huge amounts of money at stake: a 10% reduction in general uncertainty can increase the realized benefits of a national infrastructure investment plan by nearly 100 million euro (assuming that decisions are based on the CBAs). We conclude that, despite the many types of uncertainties, CBA is able to fairly consistently separate the wheat from the chaff and hence contribute to substantially improved infrastructure decisions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stockholm: , 2016. p. 18
    Keywords
    Cost benefit analysis, Transport infrastructure, Investment, Decision process
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    SAB, Qa Economics and finance
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10841 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
    4. Household production and the Elasticity of Marginal Utility of Consumption
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Household production and the Elasticity of Marginal Utility of Consumption
    2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chetty (2006) developed a new method of estimating the Elasticity of Marginal Utility of Consumption (EMUC) from observed work time responses to wage changes and derived an upper bound of 2 for this parameter. Here I show that the omission of household production in Chetty’s model may lead to bias, and perform a numerical sensitivity analysis of Chetty’s results in this respect. I develop a new model that includes household production from which I derive new, unbiased EMUC formulas. I offer empirical estimates based on current evidence of the included parameters, suggesting a lower bound for EMUC of about 0.9.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stockholm: , 2016. p. 38
    Series
    CTS Working Paper ; 2016:10
    Keywords
    Economics, Household, Production, Mathematical model
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    SAB, Qa Economics and finance
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10842 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
  • 48.
    Asplund, Disa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Does uncertainty make cost-benefit analyses pointless?2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is widely used in public decision making on infrastructure investments. However, the demand forecasts, cost estimates, benefit valuations and effect assessments that are conducted as part of CBAs are all subject to various degrees of uncertainty. The question is to what extent CBAs, given such uncertainties, are still useful as a way to prioritize between infrastructure investments, or put differently, how robust the policy conclusions of CBA are with respect to uncertainties. Using simulations based on real data on national infrastructure plans in Sweden and Norway, we study how investment selection and total realized benefits change when decisions are based on CBA assessments subject to several different types of uncertainty. Our results indicate that realized benefits and investment selection are surprisingly insensitive to all studied types of uncertainty, even for high levels of uncertainty. The two types of uncertainty that affect results the most are uncertainties about investment cost and transport demand. Reducing uncertainty can still be worthwhile, however, because of the huge amounts of money at stake: a 10% reduction in general uncertainty can increase the realized benefits of a national infrastructure investment plan by nearly 100 million euro (assuming that decisions are based on the CBAs). We conclude that, despite the many types of uncertainties, CBA is able to fairly consistently separate the wheat from the chaff and hence contribute to substantially improved infrastructure decisions.

  • 49.
    Asplund, Disa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Household production and the Elasticity of Marginal Utility of Consumption2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chetty (2006) developed a new method of estimating the Elasticity of Marginal Utility of Consumption (EMUC) from observed work time responses to wage changes and derived an upper bound of 2 for this parameter. Here I show that the omission of household production in Chetty’s model may lead to bias, and perform a numerical sensitivity analysis of Chetty’s results in this respect. I develop a new model that includes household production from which I derive new, unbiased EMUC formulas. I offer empirical estimates based on current evidence of the included parameters, suggesting a lower bound for EMUC of about 0.9.

  • 50.
    Asplund, Disa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. Örebro Universitet.
    Household Production and the Elasticity of Marginal Utility of Consumption2017In: The B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, E-ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 17, no 4, article id 20160265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The popular approach to estimating the elasticity of marginal utility of consumption (EMUC) (Chetty 2006, "A New Method of Estimating Risk Aversion." American Economic Review 96 (5):1821-1834. doi:10.1257/aer.96.5.1821. http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/aer.96.5.1821) is here extended by including household production. It is shown that this generalization of the model is important as omission of household production may lead to bias, as demonstrated in a numerical sensitivity analysis. An extended model with household production is used to derive new EMUC formulas. Empirical estimates based on current evidence of the included parameters suggest a lower bound for EMUC of about 0.9.

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