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  • 1.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lidström, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lokförarutbildning i Sverige: simulatoranvändning och ERTMS2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report, which provides an overview of the compulsory basic training for train drivers in Sweden, highlights the occurrence of simulator-based training in education, along with the training efforts being made with regards to the future introduction of ERTMS/ETCS. The report also shows the possibilities and limitations of increased use of simulators in driver training and describes the most important governing documents for train drivers and train driver training. Furthermore, the Swedish Transport Agency curriculum for train driver licenses is presented along with the institutions engaged in basic education, training and examination of train driver’s. Also, the Swedish Transport Administration’s E-learning tool for ERTMS, the ERSA-simulator and company specific ERTMS education at SJ and Green Cargo are described. Moreover, Swedish train companies’ and educators’ current use and future needs of simulators for train driver training were examined. Examples from other domains where simulators are used in a training context are also presented.

  • 2.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Anund, Anna (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Seoane, Fernando
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Association of drivers’ sleepiness with heart rate variability: A pilot study with drivers on real roads2018In: IFMBE Proceedings, Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 65, 149-152 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle crashes lead to huge economic and social consequences, and one non-negligible cause of accident is driver sleepiness. Driver sleepiness analysis based on the monitoring of vehicle acceleration, steering and deviation from the road or physiological and behavioral monitoring of the driver, e.g., monitoring of yawning, head pose, eye blinks and eye closures, electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram and electrocardiogram (ECG), have been used as a part of sleepiness alert systems.

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a potential method for monitoring of driver sleepiness. Despite previous positive reports from the use of HRV for sleepiness detection, results are often inconsistent between studies. In this work, we have re-evaluated the feasibility of using HRV for detecting drivers’ sleepiness during real road driving. A database consists of ECG measurements from 10 drivers, driving during morning, afternoon and night sessions on real road were used. Drivers have reported their average sleepiness level by using the Karolinska sleepiness scale once every five minutes. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of HRV indexes to distinguish between alert, first signs of sleepiness and severe sleepiness states. The results suggest that individual subjects show different reactions to sleepiness, which produces an individual change in HRV indicators. The results motivate future work for more personalized approaches in sleepiness detection.

  • 3.
    Adell, Emeli
    et al.
    Trivector Traffic.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector Traffic.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Cyclists' use of mobile IT in Sweden: usage and self-reported behavioural compensation2014In: 3rd International Cycling Safety Conference (ICSC2014), 18-19 November, Gothenburg, Sweden: proceedings, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of mobile phones while cycling has raised safety concerns. In this paper two studies of mobile phone use by cyclists are presented.

    The first study was designed to characterize mobile phone use by cyclists in Sweden, while the second studied how mobile phone use affected cyclist behaviour and compensation strategies. Mobile phone use was observed in about 20 percent of all urban bicycle trips. The usage varied with cyclist age with the highest usage among young cyclists. Of those using phones, 90% of the cyclists observed used head-phones.

    In parallel, standardized, interviews 15% of cyclists under 15 years old stated that they always used mobile phones while cycling. Listening to music in headphones was the most fre-quent self-reported activity. To converse using hand-held phones was also rather common, and was the only mobile phone usage reported by women above 50 years old.

    In the second study twenty-two young cyclists (age 16-25 years) completed a route in real traffic five times while listening to music, receiving and making calls, receiving and sending text messages, searching for information on the internet and while cycling normally without using the phone. The route and the types of tasks were controlled, but the cyclists could choose rather freely when, where and how to carry out the tasks. When the cyclist returned to the starting point, a short interview was conducted. During the interviews cyclists reported their experiences and the compensation strategies they used while cycling.

  • 4.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dangerous use of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving: A toolbox of counter-measures2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile phone and similar devices while driving has been a topic of discussion and research for several years. It is now an established fact that driving performance is deteriorated due to distraction but no clear conclusions can yet be drawn concerning influence on crash rates. Better studies on this relationship is needed. Most countries in Europe and many countries elsewhere have introduced different types of bans for handheld devices. Sweden has, however, no such bans. VTI was commissioned by the Swedish Government to outline possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving as alternatives to banning. This task was a result of a previous VTI-state-of-the-art review of research on mobile phone and other communication device usage while driving. One of the findings in the review was that bans on handheld phones did not appear to reduce the number of crashes.

    Eighteen different countermeasures in three main areas were suggested. (1) Technical solutions such as countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. (2) Education and information, describing different ways to increase knowledge and understanding among stakeholders and different driver categories. (3) Different possibilities for how society, industry and organisations can influence the behaviour of individuals, via policies, rules, recommendations and incentives. Our conclusion is that a combination of different countermeasures is needed – where education and information to the drivers are combined with support and incentives for a safe usage of different communication devices.

  • 5.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Förares användning av kommunikationsutrustning under färd: Del 1: Enkätstudie. Del 2: Användning enligt objektiv mätning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Av resultaten från denna enkät är något av det mest tydliga att saker som funnits i en bil en längre tid, exempelvis att ställa in radio, använda navigationsutrustning och prata i telefon, görs i betydligt högre utsträckning än nyare saker som att skicka meddelanden, surfa på internet eller spela spel. Överlag tycks det vara låg acceptans för de nyare företeelserna och en stor andel av urvalet tycker att det är felaktigt eller olämpligt att hålla på med dessa aktiviteter. Att prata i telefon med handsfree tycks uppfattas av många som säkrare och mer lämpligt än att inte använda det. Detta avspeglas även i inställning till införandet av förbud, där en relativt stor andel accepterar att det ska vara lagligt att använda handsfreefunktioner men att annan användning av kommunikationsutrustning borde förbjudas.

    I den andra delen genomfördes en mätning av mobilanvändning under färd genom installerande tav en mobilapp. Den genomförda undersökningen är den första av sitt slag åtminstone i Sverige, så att den, trots vissa brister och begränsningar, kan leverera information som hittills har varit okänt. I detta del diskuteras resultaten, även i förhållande till enkätsvaren, följt av en reflektion över metoden och möjliga förbättringar, som är önskvärda inför en fortsättningsstudie.

  • 6.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Jansson, Sabina
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Local changes in the wake electroencephalogram precedes lane departures2017In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this exploratory study is to investigate if lane departures are associated with local sleep, measured via source-localized electroencephalography (EEG) theta power in the 5-9 Hz frequency range. Thirty participants drove in an advanced driving simulator, resulting in 135 lane departures at high levels of self-reported sleepiness. These lane departures were compared to matching non-departures at the same sleepiness level within the same individual. There was no correspondence between lane departures and global theta activity. However, at the local level an increased risk for lane departures was associated with increased theta content in brain regions related to motor function.

  • 7.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL. Linköping University.
    Changes in glance behaviour when using a visual eco-driving system: A field study2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 58, 414-423 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While in-vehicle eco-driving support systems have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save fuel, they may also distract drivers, especially if the system makes use of a visual interface. The objective of this study is to investigate the visual behaviour of drivers interacting with such a system, implemented on a five-inch screen mounted above the middle console. Ten drivers participated in a real-world, on-road driving study where they drove a route nine times (2 pre-baseline drives, 5 treatment drives, 2 post-baseline drives). The route was 96 km long and consisted of rural roads, urban roads and a dual-lane motorway.

    The results show that drivers look at the system for 5–8% of the time, depending on road type, with a glance duration of about 0.6 s, and with 0.05% long glances (>2s) per kilometre. These figures are comparable to what was found for glances to the speedometer in this study. Glance behaviour away from the windscreen is slightly increased in treatment as compared to pre- and post-baseline, mirror glances decreased in treatment and post-baseline compared to pre-baseline, and speedometer glances increased compared to pre-baseline. The eco-driving support system provided continuous information interspersed with additional advice pop-ups (announced by a beep) and feedback pop-ups (no auditory cue). About 20% of sound initiated advice pop-ups were disregarded, and the remaining cases were usually looked at within the first two seconds. About 40% of the feedback pop-ups were disregarded. The amount of glances to the system immediately before the onset of a pop-up was clearly higher for feedback than for advice.

  • 8.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Albert
    Linköpings Universitet.
    A gaze-based driver distraction warning system and its effect on visual behaviour2013In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 14, no 2, 965-973 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver distraction is a contributing factor to many crashes; therefore, a real-time distraction warning system should have the potential to mitigate or circumvent many of these crashes. The objective of this paper is to investigate the usefulness of a real-time distraction detection algorithm called AttenD. The evaluation is based on data from an extended field study comprising seven drivers who drove on an average of 4351 ± 2181 km in a naturalistic setting.

    Visual behavior was investigated both on a global scale and on a local scale in the surroundings of each warning. An increase in the percentage of glances at the rear-view mirror and a decrease in the amount of glances at the center console were found. The results also show that visual time sharing decreased in duration from 9.94 to 9.20 s due to the warnings, that the time from fully attentive to warning decreased from 3.20 to 3.03 s, and that the time from warning to full attentiveness decreased from 6.02 to 5.46 s. The limited number of participants does not allow any generalizable conclusions, but a trend toward improved visual behavior could be observed. This is a promising start for further improvements of the algorithm and the warning strategy.

  • 9.
    Al-Madani, Hashim
    et al.
    Dept. of Civil & Arch. Eng., University of Bahrain.
    Al-Janahi, Abdul Rahman
    Dept. of Civil & Arch. Eng., University of Bahrain.
    Differences in traffic signs' recognition between drivers of different nations2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:2, 21- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drivers encounter tens of signs in their daily trips. While many signs are well recognized by the drivers, many others are not. This study examines drivers' identification of 28 warning and regulatory signs. The identification rate was standardized as per sign exposure rate. Differences between nationalities are then tested. Questionnaires including these signs were distributed to 9000 drivers in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates. Over 4850 responded back (54%). The questionnaire illustrated the tested signs in color along with four selection choices. In order to have just comparisons between the drivers of the various nationalities, their educational background is controlled. Three best-identified signs by the drivers included those indicating slippery road, closed to motor vehicles and road narrows from both sides. The three least identified are those indicating not waiting, turn left ahead and turn left. The findings also showed the existence of functional problems in many regulatory signs. In fact, only one third of the signs are equally understood by Arab, Asian and Westerner drivers. The drivers poorly identified most of the signs included in this group. Furthermore, both Arab and Asian drivers identified another one third of the signs significantly less than Westerners. The signs in this group are generally well identified by the drivers. Regulatory signs indicating symbolic pictures caused greater comprehension difficulties to the drivers in this group. Finally, two thirds of the signs are poorly identified by Arab drivers compared with westerners. Warning signs are over-represented in this group.

  • 10.
    Al-Yousifi, Adel
    University of Sunderland, Kuwait.
    Better signs for better road safety2001In: Proceedings of the conference Road Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Pretoria, South Africa, 20-22 September 2000 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 15A, 46-55 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effectiveness of traffic signs, as described in the Vienna Convention, in sending information, warnings, and orders to drivers to create a safe driving environment. This study assumes traffic signs affects the driver's mind and consequently driving behaviour. Confusing traffic signs therefore increases traffic accidents and traffic disturbances. This paper hypothesises that: 1) Some symbols and signs are ambiguous and not easily understood; 2) Some symbols give a meaning different from design intentions; 3) Some symbols give more than one meaning; and 4) Some signs give drivers the impression they are allowed to take actions that are dangerous. The methodology used is based on field research, interviews, and surveys. Traffic signs and their usage were observed, documented, and photographed in 23 countries around the world. Drivers and other interested parties were interviewed. The survey included questions about sixteen traffic signs, which need review and reconsideration. The surveys were conducted at random to 6,000 drivers in England, France, Iran, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Ukraine. Then the survey forms were numbered and entered into the computer using SPSS statistical analysis. The results of this basic statistical analysis validate the assumptions, e.g., that perceptions and understandings of some traffic signs are very low (29.07% in the case of A,7a sign), and that the ambiguity of such signs can give drivers wrong and dangerous information. This confirms the need to review and change certain signs in the context of the technological, geographical, social, and psychological developments of mankind, and to standardise traffic signs in view of increasing globalisation.

  • 11.
    Amantini, Aladino (ed)
    et al.
    Kite.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lai, Frank
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Shinar, David
    BGU.
    Hasewinkel, Håkan
    Chalmers.
    Kircher, Albert
    Chalmers.
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Chalmers.
    Kecklund, Lena
    MTOP.
    Initial plan of dissemination and use of results2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document contains the initial plan for using and disseminating knowledge and foreground developed within the ITERATE Project.

    The Deliverable contains five main Chapters and an Appendix.

    The first Chapter describes the purpose of the document, its structure, and introduces the other sections. Chapter 2 and 3 define the dissemination strategy of the ITERATE project and provide a classification of dissemination activities. For each type of dissemination action, the corresponding implementation approach is proposed. Then, for each type of dissemination activity, the actions already performed and those planned are described in some details. The dissemination materials already produced by the project and their usage are briefly described. Materials and products already completed, as well as planned, are described, even though a dedicated Deliverable is foreseen in the future that will contain copies of the actual products provided for dissemination purposes. The Exploitation plan is discussed in the last Chapter of the Deliverable. The two different natures and typology of partners , i.e., academic and industrial/consultancy, are considered. In particular, for each partner, a market and competition analysis is performed and the objectives and guidelines for subsequent exploitation of the results is preliminarily discussed. Finally, the appendix contains, for completeness, the Dissemination and Exploitation Questionnaire utilised to collect information among partners.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sommarström, Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Läsbarhet av vägskyltar i form av LED-skylt: färgkombination och fontstorlekens betydelse för läsbarheten2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The readability of road signs was studied and in particular the LED format. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of color combination, font size and light conditions on readability. 101 students participated in the study, where 32 were men and 69 were women. Their age ranged from 18–66 years. The choice of subjects were driven by the study's purpose, i.e. for this study it was not of interest to study the differences between gender, age or eyesight. A statistical analysis was carried out to study how readability distances varied as a result of the combination of colors, font size and light conditions. Furthermore, illuminance was measured when the data collection occasions was conducted. Distances were examined both in daylight and in darkness. The results of the study show that the color combination of the LED-sign affects its readability. Signs with white text on blue, brown or green background could be read correctly at a greater distance than the signs with black text on white or orange background. The font size is also important for the readability and every increase in font size produces a significant difference in the distance that the sign can be read. The sign with the largest font size (300 mm) was read correctly from the longest distance. The signs were read even at greater distances in daylight than in darkness. The readability of the sign with the smallest font size 200 mm does not change significantly during the daylight compared to darkness conditions. These conclusive results demonstrate that all the variables studied are important for readability. It should be added that participants stood still during the trial when they scanned/read the signs and had free sight to the LED-sign.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Renner, Linda
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Andersson Hultgren, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Almqvist, Sverker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trafiksäkerhetspåverkan vid omkörning av 30-metersfordon2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road Administration considers permitting longer and heavier trucks on Swedish roads, provided that they do not affect traffic safety. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of truck length, particularly accident risk associated with overtaking. Interviewed drivers of 30 meter trucks had not experienced the problems predicted by drivers of ordinary trucks concerning narrow roundabouts and intersections, but mentioned the importance of a supportive truck company, working environment and truck equipment. A simulator study investigated car drivers overtaking trucks 30 m and 18.75 m long on a 2+1 road where two lanes merges to one. The headway time gap was 0.2 sec. (sign.) shorter after overtaking the 30 meter truck in situations where the back was in the same relative position as of the 18.75 meter truck. A field study analysed video-recorded overtakings of a 30 meter and a 24 meter timber truck on a 2+1 road and a two-lane road. No significant differences were found between headway time gaps when overtaking the two trucks, regardless of road type. The latter result should be interpreted with great caution because of unevenly distributed data collected during specific conditions. The conclusions are that longer trucks may have a small negative effect on overtaking situations, and that further field studies are required.

  • 14.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys .
    Landscape heritage objects' effect on driving: a combined driving simulator and questionnaire study.2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 62, 168-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the literature, landscape (panoramas, heritage objects e.g. landmarks) affects people in various ways. Data are primarily developed by asking people (interviews, photo sessions, focus groups) about their preferences, but to a lesser degree by measuring how the body reacts to such objects. Personal experience while driving a car through a landscape is even more rare.

    In this paper we study how different types of objects in the landscape affect drivers during their drive. A high-fidelity moving-base driving simulator was used to measure choice of speed and lateral position in combination with stress (heart rate measure) and eye tracking. The data were supplemented with questionnaires. Eighteen test drivers (8 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 37 were recruited. The test drivers were exposed to different new and old types of landscape objects such as 19th century church, wind turbine, 17th century milestone and bus stop, placed at different distances from the road driven.

    The findings are in some respect contradictory, but it was concluded that that 33% of the test drivers felt stressed during the drive. All test drivers said that they had felt calm at times during the drive but the reason for this was only to a minor degree connected with old and modern objects. The open landscape was experienced as conducive to acceleration. No significant differences could be observed concerning the test drivers' gaze between old or modern objects, but a significant difference was observed between the test drivers' gaze between road stretches with faraway objects and stretches without objects.

  • 15.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Experiencing moose and landscape while driving: a simulator and questionnaire study2014In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 41, 91-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal vehicle collisions (AVC's) have large economic, medical and ecological consequences but have rarely been studied with respect to driver behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate different AVC-relevant landscape settings (vegetation cover), with and without game fencing and in combination with encountering moose. Twenty-five participants took part in an advanced driving simulator experiment. The results show that neither the presence of a game fence nor vegetation was found to affect driving speed, speed variability, lateral position or visual scanning in general. When a moose appeared at the side of the road, the drivers reacted by slowing down earlier and reducing their speed more when no game fence was present. Furthermore, the speed reduction when a moose was present was significantly larger when the vegetation was sparse. Game fencing made drivers feel at ease whereas dense vegetation was experienced as more stressful.

  • 16.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Riktlinjer och observationsunderlag för att avgöra om en olycka har orsakats av att föraren somnat eller nästan somnat2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver sleepiness is one common reason for road crashes. The exact number of crashes is difficult to say. The aim of the present study is to identify criteria and protocols to use in field in order to learn more about driver sleepiness involvement in road crashes. The study has been done in collaboration with the police in Umeå. The police in Linköping and Gothenburg have also contributed during the development of the protocols. The study has three phases: review of earlier studies and experience from other countries, development of a protocol based on the most relevant criteria and finally a pilot test using the protocols at field directly at the road crashes. The result shows that attempts have been done all over the world. However, very few studies have been published or documented in scientific journals. It is more a question of practical experience at best having been documented in technical reports. The most used protocols are based on the work done by the Canadian police. They use two types of checklists; one at road directly at the crash site, one at the office in case the first analysis indicates suspicions that sleepiness has been involved. In the present study the protocol used directly at the crash site was used. The results show that the questions involved in the protocol were easily addressed to the involved drivers. The field study shows problems to motivate the police officers to take their time to use the protocol in field. The reason for this is unknown. One reason could be that this new routine needs time to be settled. The motivation among the police officers was seen to increase during the project. One explanation given was that they were more and more aware of the problem with sleepiness, thanks to the protocols. This will most truly make them more motivated over time.

  • 17.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Stakeholders’ opinions on a future in-vehicle alcohol detection system for prevention of drunk driving2015In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 16, no 4, 336-344 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as the outcome. Various countermeasures have therefore from time to time been taken by the authorities to prevent drunk driving. One of them has been the alcohol interlock. Up to now, interlocks have mainly been used by previously convicted drunk drivers and in the commercial road transport sector, but not in private cars.

    Objective and Method: New technology has today reached a level where broader implementation might be possible. To our knowledge, however, little is known about different stakeholders' opinions of a broader implementation of such systems. In order to increase that knowledge, we conducted a focus group study to collect in-depth thoughts from different stakeholders on this topic. Eight focus groups representing a broad societal span were recruited and conducted for the purpose.

    Results and Conclusions: The results show that most stakeholders thought that an integrated system for alcohol detection in vehicles might be beneficial in lowering the number of drunk driving crashes. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution to the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system.

    Concerns were raised about the risk of increased sleepy driving and driving just under the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit. The results also indicate that stakeholders preferred a system that provides information on the BAC up to the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit; for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Acceptance of the system depended on the reliability of the system, on its ability to perform fast sampling, and on the analytical process, as well as the system's more or less inconspicuous placement and user-friendliness. The stakeholders thought that drivers would probably not voluntarily demand the system. So if broad implementation was desired, it would have to be made compulsory by legislation. As an incentive to increase demand, lower taxes and insurance premiums were suggested.

  • 18.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Strand, Lennart
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Porathe, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Utveckling och prövning av ny skolskjutsskylt2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with boarding and alighting bus passengers are exposed to risks caused by other traffic. Children are especially vulnerable when traveling to and from school, and there are strong reasons for urging the vehicles passing a stationary school transport to reduce their speed significantly. Based on the experience of a previous project it was decided to propose the imposition of a limit of 30 km/h when there is a stationary school transport throughout the country on roads with speed limits of 70 km/h and less. In connection with a change of the traffic regulations it is important to create a school bus sign that is respected by all road users. The purpose of this study is to develop and test a school bus sign that has a high degree of conspicuity, and can be detected and read from an adequate distance. Most important, it has to be understood and respected. The study results will provide a basis for a set of requirements on a sign that should make drivers reduce their speed to 30 km/h when passing a stationary school bus. The study includes both workshops and focus groups with various stakeholders, one indoor and one outdoor lab experiment, and a field test. The results from the sub-studies lead to a recommendation to use a VMS-type sign that includes motion, which is more conspicuous than signs with a static symbol. It is expected that the final version of a digital sign will have a similar or better conspicuity and legibility than the traditional bus sign, which should increase compliance. Furthermore, it is likely that compliance with the new speed regulation will be improved when drivers not only are informed about the potential hazard source - children - but when they, too, are informed about the appropriate action - a speed reduction to 30 km/h.

  • 19.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL. Linköpings Universitet.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    The severity of driver fatigue in terms of line crossing: a pilot study comparing day- and night time driving in simulator2017In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 9, no 2, 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The overall aim of this study is to compare day-time driving with night-time driving looking at line crossings during self-reported sleepiness and long blinks. The hypothesis is that high levels of self-reported sleepiness (KSS 9) and long blink duration (>0.15 s) will be less associated with critical events during the day-time compared to night-time.

    Method: The study is based on data from a driving simulator experiment with 16 participants driving 150 km on a typical Swedish motorway scenario twice: once during daytime and once during night time. In total data from 6 segments of 4 km each equally distributed along the drive was averaged and included in the analysis. A Mixed Model Anova was used to test the effects on KSS, Blink Duration and Line Crossings with factors for Session (Day/Night) and Road segment (1–6), and participant as random. In addition, a logistic regression was used to identify when there is a risk for line crossings. Finally, the proportion of line crossings in relation to high KSS values and long blink durations was tested with Fisher’s exact test.

    Results: The results show no differences in the percentage of Line Crossings to the left during high levels of Karolinska Sleepiness Scale during daytime (33%) compare to night-time (40%). However, there was a significant difference between day and night time line crossings while the driver had long duration blinks (4% during daytime and 35% during night-time). Despite these results the most promising predictor of line crossings in each segment of 4 km/h was KSS with an Odds Ratio of 5.4 with a reference value at Karolinska Sleepiness Scale level 5.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis that high levels of KSS will result in more frequent line crossings at night time compared to day time. However, the result supports the hypothesis that long blink durations are associated with more line crossings when they appear during night time than during daytime. © 2017, The Author(s).

  • 20.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Hallvig, David
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm.
    Observer Rated Sleepiness and Real Road Driving: An Explorative Study2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 5, e64782- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore if observer rated sleepiness (ORS) is a feasible method for quantification of driver sleepiness in field studies. Two measures of ORS were used:

    1. one for behavioural signs based on facial expression, body gestures and body movements labelled B-ORS, and
    2. one based on driving performance e.g. if swerving and other indicators of impaired driving occurs, labelled D-ORS

    A limited number of observers sitting in the back of an experimental vehicle on a motorway about 2 hours repeatedly 3 times per day (before lunch, after lunch, at night) observed 24 participant's sleepiness level with help of the two observer scales. At the same time the participant reported subjective sleepiness (KSS), EOG was recorded (for calculation of blink duration) and several driving measure were taken and synchronized with the reporting.

    Based on mixed model Anova and correlation analysis the result showed that observer ratings of sleepiness based on drivers' impaired performance and behavioural signs are sensitive to extend the general pattern of time awake, circadian phase and time of driving. The detailed analysis of the subjective sleepiness and ORS showed weak correspondence on an individual level. Only 16% of the changes in KSS were predicted by the observer. The correlation between the observer ratings based on performance (D-ORS) and behavioural signs (B-ORS) are high (r =. 588), and the B-ORS shows a moderately strong association (r =. 360) with blink duration. Both ORS measures show an association (r>0.45) with KSS, whereas the association with driving performance is weak.

    The results show that the ORS-method detects the expected general variations in sleepy driving in field studies, however, sudden changes in driver sleepiness on a detailed level as 5 minutes is usually not detected; this holds true both when taking into account driving behaviour or driver behavioural signs.

  • 21.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers2016In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers.

    The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation). The hypothesis tested was that split shifts contribute to sleepiness during afternoon, which can increase the safety risks. The overall results supported this hypothesis. In total, five of the 18 drivers reached levels of severe sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ≥8) with an average increase in KSS of 1.94 when driving in the afternoon after working a morning shift compared with being off duty in the morning. This increase corresponded to differences observed between shift workers starting and ending a night shift. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task showed significantly increased response time with split shift working (afternoon: 0.337. s; split shift 0.347. s), as did the EEG-based Karolinska Drowsiness Score mean/max. Blink duration also increased, although the difference was not significant. One driver fell asleep during the drive. In addition, 12 of the 18 bus drivers reported that in their daily work they have to fight to stay awake while driving at least 2-4 times per month. While there were strong individual differences, the study clearly showed that shift-working bus drivers struggle to stay awake and thus countermeasures are needed in order to guarantee safe driving with split shift schedules.

  • 22.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University.
    Leeuwen, Wessel van
    Stockholm University.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University.
    Countermeasures for fatigue in transportation: a review of existing methods for drivers on road, rail, sea and in aviation2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim with this study was to gather knowledge about countermeasures for driver fatigue (including sleepiness) in road, rail, sea and air transportation. The knowledge has been used as an input for evaluating advantages and disadvantages with different countermeasures and to estimate their potential to be used regardless mode of transportation. The method used was a literature review and a workshop with experts from all transportation modes. At the workshop the effectiveness of countermeasures for a single mode, but also regardless mode were discussed and a ranking was done. The report discuss the potential of fighting fatigue among drivers for specific mode of transport but also from a more generic point of view, considering scheduling, model prediction of fatigue risk, legislation, a just culture, technical solutions, infrastructure, education, self-administered alertness interventions and fatigue risk management (FRM). The overall judgement was that a just culture, education, possibility to nap and schedules taking the humans limitations into consideration as the most effective countermeasures to fight fatigue, regardless mode of transportation.

  • 23.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Filtness, Ashleigh
    Queensland University of Technology (QUT).
    Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers2016In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 54, no 4, 337-346 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality.

    The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes.

  • 24.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Radun, Igor
    University of Helsinki.
    Söderström, Beatrice
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    Bussförares arbetstider kopplat till trötthet2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus drivers often have irregular working hours and their work involve high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe fatigue and the purpose of this study is to highlight how the working hours affect sleep, stress, fatigue and driving performance. The project includes four studies: questionnaire, sleep diaries and actigraphy, analyze of rosters and an experiment on real road with bus drivers. The hypotheses were that early morning shift, split shifts, long working hours and short hours of rest between shifts contribute to sleepiness, stress, fatigue and impaired driving performance, which together can result in increased safety. The overall results support these hypotheses. Generally, sleepiness and fatigue while driving are perceived as problems because drivers connect those factors with impaired driving performance, which increases the risk of incidents and accidents. In total 45 percent of all drivers had trouble at least twice a month to stay awake while driving and 19 percent had over the past decade been involved in an incident due fatigue. The experiment with split shift driving support these findings. The report concludes with a list of suggestions.

  • 25.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Institutet för psykosocial medicin, Karolinska institutet.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Trötthet i fokus2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims with the study have been to improve the knowledge about where fatigue related accidents occur but also to generate hypotheses about what causes drivers to experience fatigue. The focus has been on hypotheses about what information a driver needs to:

    • recognise the feeling of being fatigued
    • stop driving when fatigued
    • Improve the understanding of the danger of driving when fatigued

    The study includes both an accident analysis and discussion within focus groups. Three discussions have been performed: one with long distance commuters, one with young drivers and one with professional drivers. The knowledge received and hypotheses developed from this work has resulted in a questionnaire. The aim with the questionnaire is to test if it is possible to generalise the hypothesis. The questionnaire has been tested within the project.

  • 26.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lahti, Eva
    Volvo Car Cooperation.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    The effect of low-frequency road noise on driver sleepiness and performance2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4, e0123835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this moving base driving simulator study with 19 drivers participating in a random order day and night time, was to evaluate the effect of low-frequency road noise on driver sleepiness and performance, including both long-term and short-term effects.

    It is a well-known fact today that driver sleepiness is a contributory factor in crashes. Factors considered as sleepiness contributor are mostly related to time of the day, hours being awake and hours slept. Factors contributing to active and passive fatigue are mostly focusing on the level of cognitive load. Less is known what role external factors, e.g. type of road, sound/noise, vibrations etc., have on the ability to stay awake both under conditions of sleepiness and under active or passive fatigue.

    The results support to some extent the hypothesis that road-induced interior vehicle sound affects driving performance and driver sleepiness. Increased low-frequency noise helps to reduce speed during both day- and night time driving, but also contributes to increase the number of lane crossings during night time.

  • 27.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Trötthet vid ratten: kunskapsläget 20102010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue or sleepiness associated with driving is a problem that generates crashes and injuries in traffic. Driver sleepiness can mainly be traced to the fact that drivers have not slept enough, have been awake for too long or that driving takes place at a time of day when we are most predisposed to sleep. Populations at particular risk are young drivers, professional drivers, shift workers and drivers with sleep disorders. This study intends to provide an overall picture of the state of knowledge on sleepiness/fatigue and driving, but also to suggest what should be considered to determine if a crash is due to sleepiness.

  • 28.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Svensson, Helena
    Vectura.
    Nya hastighetsgränser i Sverige: hur upplever bilisterna detta?2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is one of several sub-projects under the mission "New speed limits - Follow-up 2008-2011". The report aims to highlight the drivers' view of the national speed limit changes that have been made under Phase I, concerning speed limits on the Swedish national road network. The evaluation includes both increases as decreases in the speed limits. The method used is roadside interview, where police stopped passing drivers for control of driving licenses and blood alcohol level. After the control the drivers were interviewed about their views on the new speed limits. The results show that the drivers were aware of Swedish Road Administration's (SRA) work with the new speed limits' and more than half of the drivers responded that safety is increased when the speed limit is lowered, but there were also many who believed that safety remains unchanged. Despite the short time since the change, the majority of the drivers seem to accept the new speed limits. The drivers did not believe that a lower speed limit will decrease the accessibility. There are no clear differences between men's and women's perceptions, in addition to that women more than men believe it is good that the SRA reduced the speed limits. Regarding differences in responses between the perceptions of different age groups it can be noted that younger more than older people believe that the public will adjust its speed to the new speed limits better than the old ones.

  • 29.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Söderström, Beatrice
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    Utvärdering av effekten av förstärkt information vid övergångsställe (FIVÖ)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förstärkt information vid övergångsställe, så kallade FIVÖ-system, är effektivt i termer av att öka fotgängares upplevelse av säkerhet och trygghet vid passage av övergångsstället. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att utvärdera effektiviteten av FIVÖ-systemen samt att fånga fotgängares, cyklisters och förbipasserande trafikanters uppfattning om de klassiska FIVÖ-systemen.

    Studien omfattar en första genomgång av olyckor vid övergångsställen, hastighetsmätningar vid ett urval av platser samt intervjuer med fotgängare, cyklister och bilister som passerar FIVÖ-system. Resultaten visar att flest olyckor vid övergångsställen sker i tättbebyggt område i anslutning till korsningar på vägar där hastighetsbegränsningen är 50 kilometer i timmen. Detta speglar framför allt att det är där det finns övergångsställen. För urvalet av mätplatser visar resultaten av hastighetsmätningarna en signifikant lägre hastighet (~ 2,2 km/h) då FIVÖ-systemet var aktivt jämfört med då det inte finns ett system. Vidare visar resultaten att såväl fotgängare som cyklister upplever att systemen bidrar till att de är säkrare, känner sig trygga och att förbipasserande i större utsträckning stannar och släpper dem före. Bilisterna upplever att systemet bidrar till att de lättare kan upptäcka fotgängare och cyklister vid övergångsstället. Det finns dock en del utvecklingspotential avseende synbarheten. Såväl bilister som fotgängare och cyklister anser att de ljus som används vid testade FIVÖ-system kan förbättras och förstärkas.

  • 30.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Skylt vid skolskjutshållplatser i Linköping: en utvärdering av barns, bussförares och förbipasserandes uppfattningar2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Linköping municipality has in autumn 2010 and spring 2011 made an inventory of bus stop sites for school children within the municipality. At those locations where no bus stop sign existed, a new type of sign was set up to mark the school bus stop site.

    This evaluation aims to highlight the positive and negative aspects of experience and perception of the new sign. The evaluation has taken place by means of in-depth interviews with a sample of children in the schools in Nykil, Vreta Kloster and Ljungsbro. In addition, questionnaires were sent to bus drivers driving in those areas, and telephone interviews were done with private motorists passing the designated stop sites.

    The results indicate that the sign can contribute to an increased sense of security and safety among children, it increases the possibility for bus drivers to know where the children are to be picked up and it contributes to the passing vehicles in terms of knowing that they can expect children in the vicinity of the sign. There is, however, reason to look at why not all children are picked up at their dedicated bus stop and to consider how information on the new signs can be designed.

  • 31.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Chalkia, Eleni
    Centre of Research and Technology Hellas/Hellenic Institute of Transport, Thessaloniki, Greece .
    Watch Out! Something Precious is Moving2011In: Infrastructure and Safety in a Collaborative World: Road Traffic Safety / [ed] E. Bekiaris, M. Wiethoff och E. Gaitanidou, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg , 2011, 1, 233-242 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One critical situation when a driver needs to have a high degree of awareness, to avoid critical situations or crashes, is when passing a school bus, stopped for boarding or de-boarding of children. With the help of an experiment in VTI’s moving base driving simulator, a scenario, using in-vehicle information before the bus was reached, was tested. The aim was to enhance drivers’ perception, in order to reduce the speed of vehicles passing by the stopped bus. Both alert and sleep deprived drivers were tested.

    The results showed a significant speed reduction thanks to the information given beforehand. Sleep deprivation did not seem to have an impact on speed reduction. This suggests that the warning signals are seen and followed, regardless the drivers’ state of alertness. Thus, it seems likely that this type of information may be useful as an Intelligent Transport System (ITS), to provide driver support about upcoming hazards. One step towards further research in this direction is performed within the EU project SAFEWAY2SCHOOL, the main objectives of which are presented at the end of this chapter.

  • 32.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceeding of road safety and traffic environment in Europe in Gothenburg, Sweden, september 26-28, 19901990Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the Conference International forum on road safety research: Bangkok, Thailand, October 25-27, 1995. - Monitoring and predicting road safety trends in South East Asian countries - Influencing road user attitudes and data needs for traffic safety1996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road safety in Europe and Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). Lille, France, September 26-28, 1994: Information and control systems, concrete and structures, highway operations1995Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road safety in Europe and Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). Lille, France, September 26-28, 1994: Road safety, simulators and simulation, road safety education and training, age and road safety, concrete and bituminous binders, Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP)1995Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road safety in Europe and Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). Prague, the Czech Republic, September 20-22, 1995: International comparisons, safety data and models, methods for estimation safety1996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road safety in Europe and Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). Prague, the Czech Republic, September 20-22, 1995: Road and roadside design, hazardous situations1996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road safety in Europe and Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). Prague, the Czech Republic, September 20-22, 1995: Road safety management, enforcement in urban areas1996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road safety in Europe and Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). Prague, the Czech Republic, September 20-22, 1995: Traffic engineering and work zones, high risks and road user groups1996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the Conference Road safety in Europe: Bergisch Gladbach, Germany, September 21-23, 1998. - Drugs, alcohol and medication as threats to road safety1998Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the Conference Road safety in Europe: Bergisch Gladbach, Germany, September 21-23, 1998.  -Influencing driver's values, attitudes, knowledge and skills1998Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road safety in Europe: Birmingham, United Kingdom, September 9-11, 1996. - Road safety education and driver training - Road safety in Central and Eastern European Countries1996Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Road Safety on Three Continents in Pretoria, South Africa, 20-22 September 20002001Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the Conference Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) and traffic safety on two continents. Hague, Netherlands, September 22-24, 1993: Methodology and traffic safety models, vulnerable road users, alcohol and driving: Why we have seen changes and what is next?, education driver and road safety teaching1994Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the Conference Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) and traffic safety on two continents. Hague, Netherlands, September 22-24, 1993: Opening, international trends in road safety, roadway and roadside design for enhanced safety1994Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001.2001Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The international conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents in Moscow,19-–21 September 2001, was organised jointly by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), the State Scientific and Research Institute of Motor Transport in Moscow (NIIAT), U.S. Transportation Research Board (TRB), the South African Council for Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa, and Forum of European Road Safety Research Institutes (FERSI). The Moscow conference was the 12th in this conference series. Conference sessions covered a number of road traffic safety issues:

    - Advanced road safety technology

    - Road safety audits

    - Policy and programmes

    - Traffic engineering

    - Vulnerable and old road users

    - Alcohol, drugs and enforcement

    - Human performance and education

    - Behaviour and attention

    - Data and models

    - Cost and environment

    - Speed and speed management

  • 47.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Traffic safety on two continents: Lisbon, Portugal, September 22-24, 1997. - High risk drivers1998Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference Traffic safety on two continents: Lisbon, Portugal, September 22-24, 1997. - Speed and fatigue drivers1998Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference traffic safety on two continents: Malmö, Sweden, September 20-22, 1999. Part 2: Driver behaviour - high risk drivers1999Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Asp, Kenneth
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Proceedings of the conference traffic safety on two continents: Malmö, Sweden, September 20-22, 1999. Part 5: Vulnerable road users1999Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
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